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JANUARY 1, 2013 11 COMMENTS Types of protection:

Protection schemes can be divided into two major groupings: Unit schemes Non-unit schemes 1) Unit Type Protection

Unit type schemes protect a specific area of the system, i.e., a transformer, transmission line, generator or bus bar. The unit protection schemes is based on Kerchief’s current law – the sum of the currents entering an area of the system must be zero. Any deviation from this must indicate an abnormal current path. In

these schemes, the effects of any disturbance or operating condition outside the area of interest are totally ignored and the protection must be designed to be stable above the maximum possible fault current that could flow through the protected area. 2) Non unit type protection

The non-unit schemes, while also intended to protect specific areas, have no fixed boundaries. As well as protecting their own designated areas, the protective zones can overlap into other areas. While this can be very beneficial for backup purposes, there can be a tendency for too great an area to be isolated if a fault is detected by different non unit schemes. The most simple of these schemes measures current and incorporates an inverse time characteristic into the protection operation to allow protection nearer to the fault to operate first. The non unit type protection system includes following schemes: (A) Time graded over current protection (B) Current graded over current protection (C) Distance or Impedance Protection (A) Over current protection This is the simplest of the ways to protect a line and therefore widely used. It owes its application from the fact that in the event of fault the current would increase to a value several times greater than maximum load current. It has a limitation that it can be applied only to simple and non costly equipments. (B) Earth fault protection The general practice is to employ a set of two or three over current relays and a separate over current relay for single line to ground fault. Separate earth fault relay provided makes earth fault protection faster and more sensitive. Earth fault current is always less than phase fault current in magnitude. Therefore, relay connected for earth fault protection is different from those for phase to phase fault protection. Various types of Line Faults:


Type of Fault

Operation of Relay

ground faults. the time delay is provided (in case of inverse relays). Hence fast fault clearance is always desirable on short circuits. For feeder protection. The protection should be co-ordinate with neighboring over current protection. Over current relays can be used to protect practically any power system elements. transmission lines. there would be more than one over current relay to protect different sections of the feeder. current and a combination of both time and current are three ways to discriminate adjacent over current relays. Primary Requirement of Over Current Protection: The protection should not operate for starting currents. generators. i. permissible over current. Short circuits can be Phase faults Earth faults Winding faults Short-circuit currents are generally several times (5 to 20) full load current. To achieve this. transformers. Over Current Relay gives Protection against: Over current includes short-circuit protection.1 2 3 Phase to Ground fault (Earth Fault) Phase to Phase fault Not with Ground Double phase to Ground fault Earth Fault Relay Related Phase Over current relays Related Phase Over current relays and Earth Fault relays Over current Relay: A relay that operates or picks up when it’s current exceeds a predetermined value (setting value) is called Over Current Relay. These over current relays need to coordinate with each other such that the relay nearest fault operates first. or motors. Use time. . Over current protection protects electrical power systems against excessive currents which are caused by short circuits. current surges. etc. Over current relay is a basic element of over current protection.e.

.Purpose of over current Protection Detect abnormal conditions Isolate faulty part of the system Speed Fast operation to minimize damage and danger Discrimination Isolate only the faulty section Dependability / reliability Security / stability Cost of protection / against cost of potential hazards Over Current Relay Ratings: In order for an over current protective device to operate properly. If the interrupting rating is not properly. the overload protection protects against the situation where overload current causes overheating of the protected equipment. Current limiting can be considered as another over current protective device rating. Selected. which are resulting from short circuits. ground faults and overload conditions. a serious hazard for equipment and personnel will exist. although not all over current protective devices are required to have this characteristic Voltage Rating: The voltage rating of the over current protective device must be at least equal to or greater than the circuit voltage. While. over current protective device ratings must be properly selected. Ampere Rating: The ampere rating of a over current protecting device normally should not exceed the current carrying capacity of the conductors As a general rule. These ratings include voltage. the ampere rating of a over current protecting device is selected at 125% of the continuous load current Difference Between Over current Protection & Over Load Protection: Over current protection protects against excessive currents or currents beyond the acceptable current ratings. The over current protective device rating can be higher than the system voltage but never lower. ampere and interrupting rating.

Its operation criterion is only current magnitude (without time delay). There is no intentional time delay. 1 Coordination of definite-current relays is based on the fact that the fault current varies with the position of the fault because of the difference in the impedance between the fault and the source The relay located furthest from the source operate for a low current value The operating currents are progressively increased for the other relays when moving towards the source. however. Operates in a definite time when current exceeds its Pick-up value. for motor loads. (A) Instantaneous Over Current Relay (Define Current): Definite current relay operate instantaneously when the current reaches a predetermined value. Operating time is constant.. etc. the over current relay cannot serve as overload protection Overload relays usually have a longer time setting than the over current relays.The over current protection is a bigger concept So that the overload protection can be considered as a subset of over current protection. The over current relay can be used as overload (thermal) protection when protects the resistive loads. . Type of Over Current Relay: (A) Instantaneous Over Current (Define Current) Relay (B) Define Time Over Current Relay (C) Inverse Time Over Current Relay (IDMT Relay) Moderately Inverse Very Inverse Time Extremely Inverse (D) Directional over Current Relay.

(C) Inverse Time Over current Relays (IDMT Relay): . It is not suitable for long distance transmission lines where rapid fault clearance is necessary for stability. Application: Definite time over current relay is used as: Back up protection of distance relay of transmission line with time delay. Main protection to outgoing feeders and bus couplers with adjustable time delay setting. Relay have difficulties in distinguishing between Fault currents at one point or another when fault impedances between these points are small. Back up protection to differential relay of power transformer with time delay. two conditions must be satisfied for operation (tripping). Constant tripping time independent of in feed variation and fault location. It is difficult to co-ordinate and requires changes with the addition of load. current must exceed the setting value and the fault must be continuous at least a time equal to time setting of the relay. Easy to coordinate. It has pick-up and time dial settings. desired time delay can be set with the help of an intentional time delay mechanism. Drawback of Relay: The continuity in the supply cannot be maintained at the load end in the event of fault. Time lag is provided which is not desirable in on short circuits. thus poor discrimination. Modern relays may contain more than one stage of protection each stage includes each own current and time setting.1s or less Application: This type is applied to the outgoing feeders (B) Definite Time Over current Relays: In this type.It operates in 0. 2 For Operation of Definite Time Over Current Relay operating time is constant Its operation is independent of the magnitude of current above the pick-up value.

There are standard inverse. high current will operate over current relay faster than lower ones.4 to 0. Inverse Time relays are also referred to as Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) relay 3 The operating time of an over current relay can be moved up (made slower) by adjusting the ‘time dial setting’.5 and the slowest is 10. for values between 10 and 20 characteristics tend towards definite time characteristics. Widely used for the protection of distribution lines. So.5% of the nominal operating time as specified in the relevant norms. especially applicable where the fault magnitude is mainly dependent on the system generating capacity at the time of fault (2) Very Inverse Time Over current Relay: Gives more inverse characteristics than that of IDMT. It gives inverse time current characteristics at lower values of fault current and definite time characteristics at higher values An inverse characteristic is obtained if the value of plug setting multiplier is below 10. operating time is inversely changed with current. Operating time depends on the magnitude of current.In this type of relays. The relay operation time is inversely proportional to the fault current. Discrimination by both ‘Time’ and ‘Current’. used when Fault Current is dependent on generation of Fault not fault location Relatively small change in time per unit of change of current. .5 seconds. Operates when current exceeds its pick-up value. The uncertainty of the operating time and the necessary operating time may require a grading margin of 0. The lowest time dial setting (fastest operating time) is generally 0. 4 (1) Normal Inverse Time Over current Relay: The accuracy of the operating time may range from 5 to 7. Based on the inverseness it has three different types. Application: Most frequently used in utility and industrial circuits. very inverse and extremely inverse types.

pumps.4 seconds when over current relays with very inverse characteristics are used. (D) Directional Over current Relays . Suitable for the protection of machines against overheating. Particular suitable for grading and coordinates with fuses and re closes For the protection of alternators. Application: Suitable for protection of distribution feeders with peak currents on switching in (refrigerators.Used where there is a reduction in fault current. etc. Used when Fault current is dependent on fault location Used when Fault current independent of normal changes in generating capacity. The operating time of a time over current relay with an extremely inverse time-current characteristic is approximately inversely proportional to the square of the current The use of extremely inverse over current relays makes it possible to use a short time delay in spite of high switching-in currents. Used when Fault Current independent of normal changes in generating capacity. Used when Fault Current is dependent on fault location. (3) Extremely Inverse Time Over current Relay: It has more inverse characteristics than that of IDMT and very inverse over current relay. (4) Long Time Inverse over current Relay: The main application of long time over current relays is as backup earth fault protection. transformers. water heaters and so on). Very inverse over current relays are particularly suitable if the short-circuit current drops rapidly with the distance from the substation. Suitable if there is a substantial reduction of fault current as the fault distance from the power source increases. Particularly effective with ground faults because of their steep characteristics. as the distance from source increases. Expensive cables. The grading margin may be reduced to a value in the range from 0.3 to 0.

an over current relay may not be able to provide adequate protection. primary ground-fault protection on most transmission lines where distance relays are used for phase faults For ground back-up protection on most lines having pilot relaying for primary protection. The directionality of current flow can be identified using voltage as a reference of direction. Transformer Protection: used only when the cost of over current relays are not justified Extensively also at power-transformer locations for external-fault back-up protection. It is possible to use a set of two O/C relays for protection against inter-phase faults and a separate Over Current relay for ground faults. Inverse time and instantaneous over current phase and ground Over current relays used for motors above 1000kW.When the power system is not radial (source on one side of the line). Distribution Protection: Over Current relaying is very well suited to distribution system protection for the following reasons: It is basically simple and inexpensive Very often the relays do not need to be directional and hence no PT supply is required. Three conditions must be satisfied for its operation: current magnitude. This type of relay operates in on direction of current flow and blocks in the opposite direction. time delay and directionality. Connection of over current and Earth Fault Relay: . Line Protection: On some sub transmission lines where the cost of distance relaying cannot be justified. Application of Over Current Relay: Motor Protection: Used against overloads and short-circuits in stator windings of motor.

(2) 3 No O/C Relay+ 1 No E/F Relay for Over Current and Earth Fault Protection: The scheme of connection for 3 Nos Over current Relay 1 No Earth Fault Relay is shown in figure. A note of caution is necessary here. Only either C.T secondary star point of relay winding star point should be earthed. Even then with 3 Over current Relay. Thus only O/L relays in R and Y phases get the fault and operate. (3) 2 No O/C Relay + 1 No E/F Relay for Over Current and Earth Fault Protection: .(1) 3 Nos O/C Relay for Over Current and Earth Fault Protection: For 3-phase faults the over current relays in all the 3-phases act. windings which present large impedance. 6 Under normal operating conditions and three phase fault conditions the current in the 3-phase are equal and symmetrically displaced by 12 Deg. It is not sufficient if the neutral of the CTs and neutral of the relays are separately earthed.T. Hence the sum of these three currents is zero. For phase to phase faults the relays in only the affected phases operate. In case of phase to phase faults (say a short between R and Y phases) the current flows from R-phase up to the point of fault and return back through ‘Y’ phase. the sensitivity desired and obtainable with earth leakage over current relays cannot be obtained in as much as the high current setting will have to be necessarily adopted for the Over current Relay to avoid operation under maximum load condition. Earthing of both will short circuit the E/L relay and make it inoperative for faults. One important thing to be noted here is that the connection of the star points of both the C. A conductor should be run as stated earlier. For single line to ground faults only the relay in the faulty phase gets the fault current and operates. secondary’s and relay windings by a neutral conductor should be made. Only earth faults cause currents to flow through E/L relay.T. This may lead to failure of protection and sharp decrease in reduction of secondary currents by CTs. No current flow through the earth fault relay. 5 Over current relays generally have 50% to 200% setting while earth leakages over current relays have either 10% to 40% or 20% to 80% current settings. A scheme without the neutral conductor will be unable to ensure reliable relay operation in the event of single phase to earth faults because the secondary current in this case (without star-point interconnection) completes its circuit through relay and C.

The two over current relays in R&B phases will respond to phase faults. At least one relay will operate for fault involving two phase. 7 For fault involving ground reliance is placed on earth fault relay. With the protection scheme as shown in Figure complete protection against phase and ground fault is afforded Current Transformer Secondary Connections: For protection of various equipment of Extra High Voltage class. Bus Bar & Transformer: For Transmission Lines – Line side For Transformers – Transformer side For Bus bar – Bus side 8 Generator Protection: Generator Protection – Generator Side 9The above method has to be followed irrespective of polarity of CT’s on primary side. if ‘P1’ is towards bus then ‘S2’s are to be shorted and if ‘ P2’ is towards bus then ‘S1’s are to be shorted. the Star point on secondary’s of CT should be made as follows for ensuring correct directional sensitivity of the protection scheme Transmission Line . For example. in line protection. This is an economical version of 3-O/L and 1-E/L type of protection as one overcurrent relay is saved. Standard over Current & Earth Fault Protection: No Name of the Equipment Protection 1 11 KV Feeders .

(A) 2 No Over Current and one no Earth Fault IDMT relays (B) 2 No Instantaneous Over current (highest) and one no Instantaneous Earth fault relay 2 8 MVA Capacity OR Two Transformer in a Sub Station ( Irrespective of Capacity) HV side : 33 KV Breaker ( Individual or Group Control with 3 Over Current and One Earth Fault IDMT relaysLV Side: Individual 11 KV Breakers with 3 Over Current and One Earth Fault IDMT relays 3 8 MVA Power Transformer Differential relays OR REF relays on LV side 4 Only one PTR in a Sub Station (Less than 8 MVA) HV Side : HG fuseLV Side : 11 KV Breaker with 3 Over Current and one E/F IDMT relay About these ads Ads by a2zLyricsAd Options Rate this: Share this: Facebook12 Email Twitter3 LinkedIn Like this: 8 Votes FILED UNDER UNCATEGORIZED .

Parmar Jignesh Parmar has completed his B.IEC.About Jignesh. Can you tell me regarding diff protection scheme for transformer. He wants to Share his experience & knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics. He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Assistant Manager at Ahmedabad. He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English. Hindi. He is technical Author for "Electrical Mirror" and "Electrical India" Magazines. DG set regards .India.NEC. 11 Responses to Over Current Relay(Type-Application-Connection): Hemrajsinh D. Hemrajsinh Chudasama Reply J sridharan says: January 3.Thanks Jigneshbhai. 2013 at 3:47 am Dear Jignesh Parmar Thanks sir The information you are sharing is very useful.E(Electrical) from Gujarat University.IEEE codes. He has more than 11 years experience in Power Transmission-Power Distribution-Electrical energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects(Planning-Designing-coordination-Execution). Chudasama says: January 1. French languages. 2013 at 4:18 pm Very good present of the new year 2013. Gujarati. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel Sheets of Electrical Engineering as per IS.

J. 2013 at 9:54 pm Thanks sir The concept is very easy to understand.Sridharan Reply rakesh verma says: January 8. your information are very useful . 2013 at 11:50 am Thanks sir. Reply sagar b n says: January 24.Losses of System but by doing this we indirectly control voltage up to certain level. can i get information about voltage control through reactive power control Reply Jignesh. We can not make vast variation on Voltage by controlling Reactive Energy.Main Method of controlling voltage is to control Voltage drop or % Voltage Regulation of System. I will upload Note of How to control Reactive Power-size and Location of Capacitor in System in next month… Reply .Parmar says: January 25. 2013 at 3:13 pm The main aim of controlling reactive power is improve Power Quality. i fight interview essely.

keep uploading. 2013 at 9:52 am Dear jigneshbhai.partha sarothi sikder says: August 18. panel / apfcr panel / hvac panel / plumbing panel / fire fighting panel / uss / x-mer / vcb / that my question is arise what type of any similar project or area base statement can be find out this generallly caculation of electrical project would be done. It is a good information but i would like to say about how about the types of fiiting used in small area /commercial any fixed prospective view that i may be considered & what types of d. Can this guide for me.b/elect. your articles are really usefull and easy to understand.take care deepak goswami says: February 10. .. 2013 at 8:17 pm your blog is really god and very useful thank u sir . Thanks & regards Deepak Reply jitesh says: March 20. 2013 at 6:41 pm good Reply namita says: August 4. 2013 at 1:39 am hi jignesh.

yogesh murthy.E(Electrical) from Gujarat University. could u pl help me on coordination between instantaneous (50) and IDMT (51) characteristics of overcurrent relay? Reply yogesh murthy n says: August 16. He is member of Institution of Engineers (MIE). Membership No:M-1473586.n from mysore Reply Mahseh Mathpati says: August 17.037 hits About Jignesh Parmar: Jignesh Parmar has completed his B.refering to above article.Parmar Blog Stats 1.He has more than 12 years experience in .932. 2013 at 3:29 pm hi the information is very useful i will read and come back.India. Mahesh Mathpati from raichur Reply Leave a Reply Jignesh. thanks for sharing. 2013 at 7:53 am sir your information on relay is very useful so please provide me information on high voltage distribution systems.

He is Technical Blogger and Familiar with English. IEC.652 other followers Proud to be an IndiBlogger electricalnotes.Transmission -Distribution-Electrical Energy theft detection-Electrical Maintenance-Electrical Projects (Planning-Designing-Technical Review-coordination -Execution). Hindi. He wants to Share his experience & Knowledge and help technical enthusiasts to find suitable solutions and updating themselves on various Engineering Topics. "Industrial Electrix"(Australian Power Publications) Magazines.India. 85/100 Search for: Recent Posts Selection of 3P-TPN-4P MCB & Distribution Board Calculate IDMT over Current Relay Setting (50/51) Electrical Thumb Rules-(Part-8) Electrical Thumb Rules-(Part-7) Electrical Thumb Rules-(Part-6) Electrical Thumb Rules-(Part-5) Electrical Thumb Rules-(Part-4) .. BUY ELECTRICAL NOTES IN PDF BUY ELECTRICAL NOTES IN PDF Follow Blog via Email Enter your email address to follow this blog and receive notifications of new posts by email. Join 2. French languages. He is Freelancer Programmer of Advance Excel and design useful Excel base Electrical Programs as per IS. He is Presently associate with one of the leading business group as a Assistant Manager at Ahmedabad. "Lighting India".wordpress. He has published numbers of Technical Articles in "Electrical Mirror".c.IEEE codes. Gujarati.. NEC. "Electrical India".

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