# MATH 121 - MIDTERM 1 Solutions

1)(10 pts) Find the truth tables of the following propositions: a) (p∧ ∼ q ) ⇒∼ r b) p ⇒ (r ⇒ q ) What can you say about these two propositions? p q r ∼ q ∼ r (p∧ ∼ q ) (p∧ ∼ q ) ⇒∼ r 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 Solution: a) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 p q r r ⇒ q p ⇒ (r ⇒ q ) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 b) 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 As we see from the truth tables, these two propositions are logically equivalent. 2)(14 pts) Simplify the following propositions without using truth tables: a) (p ⇒ q ) ∨ (∼ p ⇒ q ) b)(p ⇒ q ) ∧ (∼ p ⇒ q ) Solution: a) Using the deﬁnition of the conditionals and the associativity of the or operator, we obtain (p ⇒ q ) ∨ (∼ p ⇒ q ) = (∼ p ∨ q ) ∨ (p ∨ q ) = (∼ p ∨ p) ∨ (q ∨ q ) = 1 ∨ q = 1. b)Similarly, by using the distributivity of and over or we obtain (p ⇒ q ) ∨ (∼ p ⇒ q ) = (∼ p ∨ q ) ∧ (p ∨ q ) = (∼ p ∧ p) ∨ q = 0 ∨ q = q. 3)(15 pts) Write the following statement in mathematical language by using quantiﬁers and then negate it: “A function f is called diﬀerentiable at a point c with derivative L if for all positive , there exists some positive δ such that the absolute value of the diﬀerence of (f (x) − f (c))/(x − c) and L stays less than whenever the diﬀerence of x and c is less than δ .” Solution: f (c) = L if ∀ > 0, ∃δ > 0 s.t. f (x) − f (c) − L < , when |x − c| < δ. x−c

The negation would be like the following: f (c) = L if ∃ > 0 s.t ∀δ > 0, f (x) − f (c) − L ≥ , for some x : |x − c| < δ. x−c
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2 n 2 n 2 2 n=1 To prove it we ﬁrst note that. Then x + y = 2a ∈ R and xy = a2 + b2 ∈ R. Then x+y = 1 ∈ N. 2y = x2 (b) ∀x ∈ C. ∃y ∈ C. The negation: ∃x ∈ R. let y = a − bi ∈ C. ). + ) 2 n 2 n n=1 b) 1 1 1 1 ( − . ∃y ∈ Z. For x = 0 there is no solution to 2y = 0 because 2y > 0 ∀y ∈ R.2 4) (16 pts) Determine the truth value of the following statements and negate each statement: (a) ∀x ∈ R. 1 1 1 1 −1 3 ( − . + ). ∀y ∈ R. 2 n 2 n n=1 Solutions: a) Note that these are nested intervals with the biggest interval being (−1/2. ∈ N. ∀y ∈ Z. 6)(15 pts) Find the following sets with their proofs: a) ∞ 1 1 1 1 ( − . ∃y ∈ R. 2y = x2 . B and C : (A − B ) − C = A − (B ∪ C ). For x = a + bi ∈ C. x + y ∈ R and xy ∈ R (c) ∀x ∈ C. 2 n 2 n 2 2 ∞ ∞ . Solution: Using the fact that A − B = A ∩ B c we see that (A − B ) − C = (A ∩ B c ) ∩ C c = A ∩ (B c ∩ C c ) = A ∩ (B ∪ C )c = A − (B ∪ C ). x + y ∈ R and xy ∈ R d) True. let y = 0. x + y ∈ R or xy ∈ R (d) x+y ∀x ∈ N. ∈ N. x−y The negation: x+y ∃x ∈ N. b) True. For given x ∈ C. + ) ∈ ( . 3/2). ∀y ∈ C. x−y Solution: a)False. + ) = ( . ∃y ∈ R. ). ∀y ∈ R. Then xy = 0 ∈ R. x−y 5)(15 pts) Prove the following for any sets A. So we expect −1 3 1 1 1 1 ( − . The negation: ∃x ∈ C.For given x ∈ N let y = 0. The negation: ∃x ∈ C. x + y ∈ R or xy ∈ R c) True. ∀n ∈ N.

2 2 we expect ∞ 1 1 1 1 1 . + ) 2 n 2 n n=1 and this is a contradiction. 2 + N ) which of course means that ∞ 1 1 1 1 x∈ ( − .2+n ) = (− . )⊆ ( − . ) is in the union. 2 + n ). we ﬁrst note that 1 ∈ (1 −n . 0 1 2 3 2k 2k + 1 Collecting all the negative terms to the right hand side. which occurs when n → ∞. we expect the intersection to be the 1 1 1 1 smallest. + )⊆ 2 n 2 n n=1 The proof now follows from (3) and (4). + ) ⊆ ( . the result follows from (1) and (2). ∀n ∈ N. suppose x ∈ ∞ n=1 ( 2 − n . since these are nested intervals. we must have. + ). y = −1 into the expression. we get 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 0= − + − +···+ − . + )= 2 n 2 n 2 n=1 1 1 1 To prove this.3 This means that 1 1 1 1 −1 3 ( − . Prove that the number of subsets of A with odd number of elements is the same as the number of subsets of A with even number of elements. Solution: Use the binomial expansion of (x + y )2k+1 and let x = 1. we get 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 2k + 1 + +···+ = + +···+ 1 3 2k + 1 0 2 2k But the left hand side is the number of subsets of A with odd number of elements.2 + n ). So we can ﬁnd N ∈ N so that 1 N> . . 1 2 . + ) . ( − . 2 n 2 n 2 2 n=1 −1 3 1 1 1 1 ( . 2 2 2 (2) So. ∀ n ∈ N and so we get 2 2 n 2 n 1 2 ⊆ 1 1 1 1 ( − . b) Again. |x − 1/2| 1 1 which means either x > 1/2 + N or that But this means that |x − 1/2| > N 1 1 1 1 1 x < 1/2 − N which essentially means that x ∈ ( 2 − N . 2 2 2 n 2 n n=1 ∞ ∞ (1) 1 1 1 1 3 Since for n = 1 we have ( 1 −n . which means that 2 2 1 1 1 1 {1 } ⊆ ( − . and the right hand side is the number of subsets of A with even number of elements. + ) 2 n 2 n n=1 ∞ (3) 1 1 1 1 To prove the other side of the inclusion. So assume that x = 1/2. ). (4) 7)(15 pts)Suppose the set A has 2k +1 elements for some positive integer k . This means |x − 1/2| > 0. We want to show that x = 1/2. So we must have ∞ 1 1 1 1 ( − . Since 2 −n → 2 and 1 +n → 1 as n → ∞.