Introduction.

• • • • •

Qualifications Organization Evaluation Schedule for tests Scores and Grading Parameters

1. The Science of Motion
• • • • • • •

(Lectures 1 & 2) ectors E!uations of "otion #e$ton%s La$s &hat causes acceleration' (orces and acceleration )ction and *eaction (ree+,od- diagrams

2. Energy and Momentum
• • •

(Lectures . + /) Energ- and &or0 "omentum 1onservation La$s

• • • • • •

1enter of "ass 2he (os,ur- (lo3 2he Grand 4ete Pro5ectile "otion O3timal Launch )ngles 1ollisions

3. Bodies in Motion: Human Limitations
• • •

(Lectures 6 + 1.) Levers7 the 8od- as "achine "uscle (i,ers "uscle Strength

• • • • • • • •

2he La$ of "uscles Po$er out3ut "uscle EfficiencEnerg- 1ontent of (ood Strength of "aterials (atigue *es3onse time Scaling la$s

4.
• • • •

otationa! Motion
(Lectures 19 + 1:) "oment of ;nertia 2or!ue 2he 3h-sical 3endulum7 a model for -our legs )ngular "omentum

". #!uid $ynamics
• • • • •

(Lectures 1< + 16) Lift and the 8ernoulli Princi3le *e-nolds #um,er =rag 1oefficient and Po$er *e!uirements 2he "agnus Effect7 &h- a curve,all curves Lift in sailing> ro$ing> and s$imming

%. Beating the Limits I: Training
(#ova ideo> Lectures 2? & 21) • Endurance training • Strength training • Periodization • S3lit training

• •

Pl-ometrics 2raining for S3eed

&. Beating the Limits II: Techno!ogy
• •

(Lectures 22 & 2.) )erod-namics #e$ materials7 energ- transfer from ,ats> ra!uets> and clu,s

Appendices

Ph-sics of S3orts
Simulation Collection
Version 1.0 for Windows & Mac John Di Bartolo, Brooklyn Polytechnic University

Physics of Sports is a collection of com3uter simulations that illustrate the role 3la-ed ,- 3h-sics 3rinci3les in man3o3ular s3orts@ Each simulation models a 3articular s3ort $ith the student given full control over the relevant varia,les> creating a highl- interactive tool to 3erform in+de3th studies@ &ith a high+degree of 3h-sical accuracand versatilit- ,uilt into each simulation> students can eA3lore the ans$er to such !uestions as7 ho$ is the velocit- of a ,atted ,all influenced ,- the mass of the ,at and the contact 3oint along the ,at> ho$ does ,od- configuration affect the rotation of a 3latform diver> $hat is the most forgiving angle at $hich to shoot a ,as0et,all> or ho$ does to3+s3in or ,ac0+ s3in affect the $a- a ,all ,ounces' =evelo3ed $ith the goal of ca3turing student interest> the 3rogram contains 12 stand+alone simulations that model 3h-sics 3rinci3les from a variet- of s3orts7 • Basketball • Baseball • Gymnastics • Diving • Biking • Downhill Skiing • Race Car Driving • Weight Lifting • High J m! • Hammer "hrow Each simulation contains four com3onents7 (1) the experiment screen $here in3ut 3arameters are varied and the resulting motion is animated using colorful gra3hics> (2) the analysis screen $here results are dis3la-ed and can ,e eAamined $ith the aid of gra3hs that are generated
By precisely specifying changes in the diver’s body configuration, students observe ho the resulting changes in the diver’s moment of inertia determine rotation and entry into the ater!

Students e"plore factors that affect the velocity of a batted ball # including pitch speed, bat speed, ball mass, contact point on bat, moment of inertia of bat, and coefficient of restitution!

Students study ho such variables as pedal speed, front gear radius, rear gear radius, and incline angle influence the speed of a bike and the force and po er that must be delivered to the pedal!

then determine those that allo for the greatest margin of error on the part of the shooter! 'nalysis screen accompanying basketball simulation sho n at left! Based upon inputs made on the e"periment screen... net tor$ue. a plot is generated summari(ing outcomes for all shot% angle & launch%speed combinations! .ased u3on s3ecific in3ut 3arameters> (. and moment of inertia influence the gymnast’s angular velocity! Students take practice shots to find multiple shot%angles & launch%speeds that result in a basket.e used as an instructor lead demonstration in front of By e"perimenting ith unlimited variations in body configuration for a gymnast s inging on a bar.) a theory screen that details the 3h-sics 3rinci3les and e!uations governing the s3ort> and (9) a hints screen that 3rovides guidance $ith 3erforming the investigation@ Physics of Sports ma. students e"plore ho changing the center of mass.

e these motions as the.ehind to $in the race in the last 2? m@ "easurements have .come from .all> the long 5um3> the rise and dun0 of a .een made of the racer%s velocities vs@ time@ 2he distance+time and velocit-+time curves of Le$is vs@ the others demonstrate ho$ the races are run .the time interval@ =is3lacement has a magnitude and a direction@ =is3lacement is a vector@ ∆' is a vector in the A direction% ∆'( ') *'+.n class> .is the slo3e of the curve@ .the dis3lacement divided .nternational units for our calculations (metersEsecond) 1 mEs D 2@.air> $e $ill go .n .the various racers@ 2he measured velocit.do is the science of d-namics@ &e $ill learn this after the 0inematics@ &elocity% 2he average velocit.e on earth if there $ere no effects of air (resistance or lift)@ Since s3orts are much influenced .all> the rising fast . $ill use a little arro$ on to3 of the character@C ∆t D t2+t1@ v D ∆'-∆t $here $e $ill use the .curves sho$ that Le$is reaches to3 s3eed later .stud.. miEhr • .all and the 0nuc0le .n a dis3lacement+time curve> the velocit.all@ 2he 3h-sics of $h.things move the $a.n 1?? m races 1arl Le$is $ould usuall.ed ..of an o.eginning and end 3oints@ B8old t-3e signifies a vector@ .ase.this science@ )t first> $e $ill descri.ase.ut holds his high s3eed@ Others seem to reach to3 s3eed earlier .as0et.all> the air effects are $hat causes some of the most interesting effects of the curve .the effects of the air@ .all 3la-er are all descri.5ect is determined .$ould .the motions of o..and acceleration@ 2he flight of a 3itched or struc0 ..the.The Science of Motion: 'inematics and (e)ton*s La)s Last u3dated on "arch 1<> 1666 #ntro$ ction% 2he science of motion is called 0inematics@ .le to hold their s3eed and actuall.5ects on earth> $e must learn the conce3ts of dis3lacement> velocit.ut are una. $here '+ and ') are the ..e-ond the sim3lest vacuum 3h-sics and a33l.n order for us to s-stematicall.slo$ do$n in the latter half of the race@ .

f -ou are s$imming $ith a velocit.ed@C &hat does this mean' =oes it ma0e sense' S3orts $riters usuall.across the river@ 2@ (or the o.e heading directl.server $ill see that the s$immer has ta0en F? seconds to cross .that the athlete has great acceleration@ )n athlete $ith great acceleration can change direction or s3eed !uic0l-@ .G the s$immer%s velocit.across a river is -our velocitaffected .e floating on the river 2@ ) 3erson standing on the shore@ ..server 1 or 2 de3ends on the !uestion .ac0 tr-ing to cover Largent $ould find himself left in the dust as Largent $ould ma0e his !uic0 moves to get free to catch a 3ass@ .elusive@ 2hough he couldn%t .n our ne$ language> the change of either direction or s3eed is 5ust the change in velocit-@ ..the current' 2his de3ends on -our 3oint of vie$@ 2a0e t$o o..Bas measured in the $aterC@ 2he o.f the current $ere flo$ing at 9 mEs> the s$immer $ill have .a defender $ith sheer s3eed> a defensive .tained .the current for F? seconds@ .of the current of the river@ 2his is an im3ortant 3oint for our future consideration@ &hether -ou ta0e the 3osition of o.the o.are slo$ .ut the.ccelerate$ /otion% .e carried do$nriver .server on shore> the s$immer%s velocit.een carried 2?? m do$nstream@ 2he sim3ler descri3tion is o.e floating on the river Band moving $ith the currentC the s$immer al$a-s has a velocit.e said of some athletes> that the.lo$ .mean that a quick athlete is one $ho can change his direction or his speed ver.t used to .magine $hat -ou $ould see from each 3oint of vie$@ 1@ (or the 3erson in the inner tu.serve@ .is the vector sum of the current%s velocit.of 2 mEs directl.n the language of 3h-sics $e $ould sa.are !uic0@ BSteve Largent> the great 3ass receiver $as so descri.eH 2he s$immer al$a-s has the same velocit.f -ou $ant to 0no$ the s$immer%s 3erformance> then the inner tu.server in the inner tu..servers@ 1@ ) 3erson in an inner tu.ut the s$immer $ill also .of 2mEs for all velocities of the river%s current@ (or the s$immer aimed across the river> the s$immer $ould ta0e F? seconds to cross a 1?? m $ide river and $ould a33ear to al$a-s .e $ould ."he a$$ition of velocities% .nde3endent of the velocit.!uic0l-@ 2his ma0es the athlete ver..e the right 3lace from $hich to o.eing as0ed@ .

!!le 2he 3ictures and anal-sis come from the 3ac0age I&orld in "otionI 2he red s3ot mar0s the a33le center at time intervals of 1E.for this 5ourne-' EAamine a dis3lacement+time curve for a falling .? second@ .t starts $ith zero velocit.3ointing do$n$ards@ .and ends u3 $ith velocit. D ∆ vE∆t )cceleration is the slo3e of the velocit-+time curve@ 0alling bo$ies% )n o.od-@ 1onvert this to a velocit-+time curve and then to an acceleration time curve@ 1ewton2s falling .=efinition@ )cceleration > .5ect falling to the floor from a height of one meter ta0es a.out ?@F seconds@ .s this accelerated motion' &hat is the average velocit.

t> the slo3e of the v+t curve is the acceleration@ 2he slo3e is negative> so .cissa) is the time and the vertical aAis (ordinate) is the dis3lacement@ (rom direct measurements of dis3lacement vs@ time $e can derive the follo$ing7 2he velocit.tained from the dis3lacement vs@ time data@ v D ∆yE∆t@ #ote that the velocit.n outer s3ace> a released .(almost) $ith time@ Since v D .is changing linearl.all $ould not accelerate@ .vs@ time o.2he dis3lacement+time data@ 2he horizontal aAis (a. is a negative (3oints do$n$ard)@ 2he acceleration comes from the earth%s gravit-@ .

all ta0es a.2he acceleration vs@ time data derived from the .out ?@F seconds to reach the 3late@ =uring this time> does the . is a. D ∆vE∆t@ 2he value of .out +1?mEs2@ &hen a ma5or league 3itcher 3itches> the .all fall to$ard the ground' EA3lain@ .

all is travelling a..E.) ma5or league 3itch@ 2he red dots are s3aced a3art .an.all is struc0@ vavg D 1/ m E (1.aren%t cali.elo$> don%t 3a.attention to the values on the aAesJ the.out 1.?second@ 2he angle of the camera distorts the image@ .n the gra3hs .?) s D 91@F mEs D 6F@F mEhr@ .all tossed u3$ards and continuallaccelerated do$n$ards@ .1E.efore deliver-@C 2here are a.atters hit> the vs@ t gra3h gives a nice 3ara.rated@ Loo0 at the sha3e of the curves of the vertical dis3lacement> vertical velocit-> and vertical acceleration@ =is3lacement vs time7 8et$een the times of the 3itcher%s release and the .t%s :?% or 1/ m from the mound to the 3late@ B2he .ola 5ust li0e the .out 1@F mEclic0 as did the hand 5ust . clic0s from release until the .

allHH .5ust li0e the dro33ed .all is aimed slightlu3$ards@@@even for a 6F m3h fast .vs@ time7 2he velocit.elocit.all $ith constant acceleration@ #ote that v.do$n$ard increases linearl.starts out 3ositiveJ the .

are vectors@ 0 is the net forceJ the vector sum of all the forces@ Comment. $here 0 and .and acceleration and ho$ these are related to one another@ #o$ the !uestion $e $ill tac0le is $h.accelerations occur@ .all@ &e have studied the descri3tion of motion in terms of dis3lacement> velocit. you must find the vector sum of the forces.)cceleration vs time7 2he acceleration remains constant 5ust li0e in the dro33ed .ntuitivel.5ect $ill remain at rest or $ith constant s3eed in straight line motion unless a force is im3ressed u3on it@ 2@ 0 D m. If there are several forces acting on a point.some motive force to accelerate o.$e com3rehend that $e must a33l.5ects on Earth@ 1ewton2s Laws of /otion% 1@ )n o.5ects or ourselves@ Ko$ever> the force h-3othesis is sometimes counter+intuitive@ #e$ton discovered the la$s relating acceleration and force@ 8. If you impress two . It is the net force which compels the mass to undergo acceleration.so doing> he discovered the la$s governing the 3er3etual motion of the 3lanets as $ell as the more 3rosaic motions of the o.

At first glance it might seem that if action and reaction are equal.@ (or ever. of course'( the ground pushes on you to push you into the air.5ect' m * ) + A * . then it#s impossi"le to have a net force and hence an acceleration. $he forces are equal and opposite. kg / lti!le 0orces4 "he 0ree Bo$y Diagram% .nternational S-stem of units> $e have (orce7 ne$tons (#)@ 1 #e$ton D ?@22 3ounds "ass7 0ilogram (0g)@ (&e don%t have a common unit of mass in 8ritish units) Some e'am!le calc lations with only one force% ) mass of 2 0g rests on a horizontal frictionless ta. $he point is that the action and reaction act on different "odies.diagram> the o. %hen you push against the ground. "ut they do not "oth act on the same o"!ect.diagram@ ) free+.5ect -ou must resolve them into a single vector some+++or net force+++.served to have an acceleration of / mEs2@ &hat is the mass of the o.action there is an e!ual and o33osite reaction@ unning or !umping depends on thrusting against the ground. the ground is accelerated away from you &though not very much.all' ..n the .a 3oint> $hether it is an atom or a galaA-@ 2hen the eAternal forces are dra$n as vectors originating at the 3oint@ 2his ma0es it eas. the mass will have no acceleration.5ust a ..to add u3 all of the vectors> com3onent .5ect $ith a net force of 2F # 3ulling on it is o. .eing acted on is re3resented .od..od.5ect .f there are multi3le forces acting on an o.oo0+0ee3ing tool to hel3 -ou 0ee3 trac0 of all of the various forces@ .le@ ) force of 1? # 3ushes on this mass@ (ind the acceleration@ ) * mA. * / m+s. in the same direction as the force.asicall.equal forces which are in opposite directions on a point mass.all $ith a mass of 9 0g attached to a string@ Lou 3ull u3$ards on the string $ith a force of 1?? #@ &hat is the acceleration of the .efore a33l-ing 0 D m..a sim3le eAam3le7 1onsider a ./ + 0 kg * 1.od. )n o. It is the reaction force of the ground on your "ody that accelerates you for sprinting or vertical !umping.diagram is . A * ) + m * .+ . 3nits of 0orce an$ /ass% .n a free+.com3onent> and arrive at the net force@ Let%s tr. @ ) useful tool to hel3 accom3lish this is the free+.

all to go from the mound to the 3late' 9@ ) s$immer $anting to safel.le of thro$ing a 3itch at 9? mEs and -ou thre$ the . 8eaman%s long 5um3 (26% 2@FI) .uzzing a .ase.an land o..) mEs@ .e 3ositive then $e have 1?? # + 9? # D :? #@ Since this is 3ositive $e 0no$ that the net force is u3@ #o$ a33l.all' Give the ans$er for .f -ou $ere ca3a.of 1.that he had great acceleration' Great s3eed'@ EA3lain -our ans$er in terms of the 3erformance curve Bvelocit-+time curveC@ :@ .) 2 hr>1? m c) 1 $ee0 6@ 1onvert FF "PK to a) 0mEhr .server measure for the 3itched .all to have a velocit.ut the $ater is smooth and not tur. cases7 .and ho$ long does it ta0e' F@ (rom the descri3tion of 1arl Le$is% 1?? m dash> $ould -ou sa.$ould a ground o.all ta0e to travel to the 3late' .) 8o.@ Lou are .all $hile on a train going F? mEs@ &hat velocit.cross a rather $ide river must decide ho$ to aim himself in his s$im@ 2he river is flo$ing $ith a rather high velocit.of s$imming the shortest distance' the shortest time' or in .all stadium in -our 5et fighter@ (l-ing at 1?? mEs in the direction from the 3itcher%s mound to home3late> -our radar detects a 3itched .@/ s .e 1?? m $ide $ith a current flo$ing at F mE@ 2he s$immer can s$im Bin still $aterC 2 mEsec@ &hat is the shortest time for the 5ourne.all at 9? mEs from a 3itcher%s mound to the 3late> a distance of 1/ m> ho$ long $ould the .? mEs@ Ko$ long $ill it ta0e for the 3itched .(irst> ma0e a free .0net D m.le distance for the 5ourne.f -ou thre$ the .f Le$is ta0es 9 seconds to reach his to3 s3eed of 11 mEs> $hat is his average acceleration' <@ EA3ress the follo$ing lengths in meters7 a) 8o.all thro$n the same direction as the train%s velocit-> the o33osite direction> and transverse to the train%s velocit-@ 2@ .and ho$ far does he go Bas measured .ulent at all@ Ko$ should he aim himself to ma0e the 3assage' Should he choose the strateg.Silvester%s discus thro$ (229% FI)@ /@ EA3ress in seconds7 a) / m G 1. 7 ) D ( E m D :? E 9 D 1F mEs2 5 estions% 1@ .od.serverC and ho$ long does it ta0e' &hat is the shortest 3ossi.diagram7 #o$ find the net forceJ if $e ta0e u3 to .. Seagren%s 3ole vault (1/% F@<FI) c) 4a.et$een these' Let the river .

tain the 3osition at t D ?@F s and at 1@F s@ Plot the data from this ta. 14./9 -ards@ (ind her average velocit. 21.1?@ ) $oman finishes a marathon in 2 hr and 2? m@ 2he marathon distance is 2: mi G . 15. 26. 27. time(s) 0 1 2 3 x(m) 0 1 4 9 . 31.8 time (s) 0 1 2 3 4 2. 29.et$een the finishes@ .6@ ) small (1??? 0g) car is sitting on a frictionless surface@ Lou eAert a force of F?? # on the car@ &hat is the acceleration of the car' .for the entire race and for each of the 1E9 miles' .at ?@F and 1@F seconds@ 24.5ect moving in accordance $ith the follo$ing data7 12. 13.of <@.of 1?? miEhr .7 21. 17.le and ma0e a smooth curve through the 3oints@ (ind the instantaneous velocit. 19.3er one second interval and the overall average velocitfor an o. 32.) the 3itch has a velocitof /? miEhr@ . x (m) 0 2.efore runner 8 ho$ far from the start line $ill 8 catch u3 to )' Ko$ long after ) starts $ill this ha33en' "a0e a dis3lacement+time gra3h to 3rove the solution to this 3ro. seconds .f runner ) starts .is al$a-s 3ositive .F@ 2he !uarter+mile s3lits for a miler are ?7F6> 17F<> . 18.7?.9@ 1onstruct a gra3h of 3osition versus time having the 3ro3ert. 20.is never zeroJ c) the velocit.<@ Mse the velocities in !uestion 1F@ . mEs $hile runner 8 re!uires less time at an average velocit.@ Mse the data .6 72. 33. 22.9 172. 16.f -ou a33l.elo$ to o.in mEs@ 11@ =etermine the velocit.lem@ . 28.that7 a) the velocitis al$a-s negativeJ .) the velocit.a rather small force li0e 2 #> can -ou move the car' &ith $hat acceleration' .of <@9 mEs@ =etermine the time for each runner and the time interval . 25./@ ) 3itch travels 1< m from the 3itcher to the 3late@ 1alculate the time re!uired to reach the 3late if a) the 3itch has a velocit. 30.:@ *unner ) com3letes 1F?? m at an average velocit.> and 97?2 (minutes7seconds)@ &hat is the average velocit.

ac0$ards on the ground $ith one foot $hile the other foot is moving for$ard@ (orces al$a-s come in 3airs called action+reaction 3airs@ So> $hen $e 3ush .oard onto the road$aand comes to a halt in F m@ &hat is the acceleration (magnitude and direction) of the s0ater' &hat is the force for a <? 0g s0ater' &here does the force come from' 91@ ) c-clist is 3ushing .e defined as a 3ush or a 3ull@ &hen running or $al0ing $e use the energ.ac0$ards on the ground> the ground also 3ushes for$ard on us@ .oarder initiall.9?@ ) s0ate.diagram and name the forces@ Measurement in sport – the long and the short of it 8oA .in our leg muscles to 3ush .cruising at 19 mEs falls off the .od. N 6hysics in s!ort4 0orces on an athlete ) force can .ac0$ards against the ground (via the $heels) $ith a force of 2F # $hile going at a constant velocit-@ &hat is the net force on the c-clist' &hat are all the forces acting on the c-clist' "a0e a free .

5ect the greatest 3ossi.ecomes less@ 2his force is 0no$n as sli$ing friction@ 2he friction .giving the o.5ect in ne$tons@ .ounding is higher on a s3ring.5ect> the s3eed and direction of the $ind> and the force of gravit-@ )n athlete strives to 3erfect a thro$ing techni!ue .ut firm enough to give athletes the .force (action) there is an e!ual force (reaction)> $hich acts in the o33osite direction@ )ction+reaction 3airs of forces associated $ith an athlete are due to gravit-> friction $ith the ground and air resistance@ Gro n$ reaction force an$ shock absorbency *unners move across a surface ..calculating the coefficient of friction@ 2his is the frictional force in ne$tons divided .et$een t$o surfaces .le s3eed at the moment of release@ Other factors such as the angle of release and the height of release also affect the distance travelled .move is called static friction@ Once the t$o surfaces are on the move it is easier to 0ee3 them moving and the value of the frictional force .. some of the forceJ so can running shoes $ith elastic foam la-ers in the soles@ )n elastic 3la-ing surface such as grass feels s3ring.est surface for athletics is one that is a..surface> slo$ing the runner do$n@ 2he .e com3ared .sor.ed) ..a series of long strides@ Each time a foot lands> the ground eAerts a force on it> $hich is then distri.t can .sor.t$o surfaces against each other@ (riction $or0s in a direction o33osite to the direction of motion@ 2he size of the frictional force de3ends on the force 3ushing the t$o surfaces together and their roughness@ Pla-ing surfaces and the soles of running shoes must 3rovide sufficient friction to ensure that runners do not sli3@ Ko$ever> too much friction .to run on and 3roduces fe$er in5uries than more rigid surfaces such as concrete@ 8ut the time s3ent re.ent enough to limit in5uries .Sir .et$een surfaces and shoes can lead to an0le and 0nee in5uries@ /eas ring friction 2he friction .the o.efore the.e calculated for .le damage can occur to the runner%s an0les and 0nees unless the force is reduced@ Elastic 3la-ing surfaces can a.the runner%s .the $eight of the o.e affected ..several factors@ )t the launch stage> the s3eed> angle and height of ta0e+off $ill all influence the outcome@ =uring the flight stage other factors come into 3lasuch as the sha3e of the o.oth sliding and static friction@ *unning trac0s used for international com3etitions must have a minimum coefficient of sliding friction of ?@F under $et conditions ($hen the surface is most sli33er-)@ 2his standard has .est chance of achieving o3timum results@ 0rictional forces 2he force of friction a33lies $hen -ou move an.5ect@ J m!ing .een set to hel3 3revent athletes from sli33ing undul-@ 6hysics in fiel$ athletics (ield athletics consists of four thro$ing events (discus> 5avelin> shot and hammer) and four 5um3ing events (high 5um3> 3ole vault> long 5um3 and tri3le 5um3)@ )ll thro$s and 5um3s can .saac #e$ton first 3ro3osed this idea in the 1:??s@ Ke said that for ever.od-@ 1onsidera.e divided into four stages7 the a33roach> the launch> the flight and the im3act@ 2he success of a thro$ or a 5um3 $ill ..uted (a.et$een surfaces can ..sor.

e one that allo$s the 5um3er to 0ee3 their centre of mass as lo$ as is consistent $ith clearing the .of 3h-sical s-stems> sometimes the slavish use of the d-namical la$s lead to rather difficult or im3ossi.n high 5um3ing> a techni!ue 0no$n as the (os.flo3> introduced in the 16:?s> led to a dramatic increase in the $orld record@ .uted@ .od.using the conce3ts of energ.)nother factor to consider in 5um3ing events is the athlete%s centre of mass (or centre of gravit-)@ 2his is the 3oint around $hich the total mass of the athlete is evenl.0ee3ing it as lo$ as 3ossi..lems@ 2his is the overall theme of this olume@ .ecause more energ.ar and t$isting in mid+air> so that the front of the .?> 2??? (or stud.and momentum+++along $ith their conservation la$s+++$e can greatl.man3ro.ar@ 2his allo$s the athlete to achieve a higher 5um3 using less energ-> .est 5um3ing techni!ue $ill .ts eAact 3osition varies from 3erson to 3erson de3ending on .faces u3$ards@ 2he techni!ue shifts the athlete%s centre of mass to the underside of the .as it 3asses over the high 5um3 .t involves lea3ing head+first at the .le@ Energy and Momentum last u3dated on )3ril .is needed to raise the centre of mass higher@ .od.ur.sim3lif.ar> there.uild> and it shifts as -ou move@ 2he .distri.le calculations@ 8.

to accelerate a mass> m u3 to velocit.e stored in the arch is onl.$hich can .ination of the achilles tendon and the arch stores :? 4 of energ.to the arro$> the tendons are elastic and can store energ-@ ) tightened muscle can also store energ.out 2? 4@ (or a <?0g athlete> this onl.ounce height of h D energ-Emg D :?E<?? D ?@?/: m $hich isn%t much for vertical 5um3ing .od.v@ 2o o.of 0inematics $e 0no$ that under uniform acceleratin> v2 D 2aA (rom #e$ton $e have that a D (Em so v2 D 2((Em)A D (2Em)(A D (2Em)O&or0@ so Work ( +-) m v)% 2he $or0 on the mass has gone into the 0inetic energ.and this gives a .Relation of work to 7inetic 8nergy% 1onsider the $or0 necessar.stored in food> the energ.stored in a s3ring@ 8lastic 8nergy store$ in the foot an$ ankle% 4ust as a dra$n .out 9? 4@ 2he com.ut that the amount of energ.is small@ EA3eriments $ith the human foot arch sho$ that this s-stem is fairl.tain the acceleration> $e must 3ush on the mass $ith a force@ 2he mass accelerates over time and distance u3 to v@ &or0 D (A@ (rom our stud.of the mass@ 9ther kin$s of 6otential 8nergy% 2here are other sorts of 3otential energ..elasticall-@ 2he amount of stretch in a tendon is small so the total amount of energ.od-@ 2he tendons are elasticJ the achilles tendon can store a.fat> the electrical energ.stored in .adds to their 5um3 a height of7 mgh D 2? 4> h D 2?E<?? D ?@?2/ m 2he achilles tendon is one of the thic0est tendons in the .from the dra$ and then delivers this energ.a.o$ stores the energ.atteries and elastic energ.esides gravitational@ Some eAam3les are7 the chemical energ.elastic .ut is significant in running@ .in .

of 1?mEs@ Ke 3lants the 3ole $hich .a.n a s3rint> at 1? mEs> the runner $ould advance 2@: m in one ste3 during this hang time@ B2his is an u33er limit for a 3erfectl.ing the PE of the runner@ 2he 3ole then eAtends flinging the vaulter .sence of frictional forces> the sum of the 0inetic and 3otential energies is al$a-s the same@ 2his is the conservation of energy% 2he 3ole vault event 3rovides an eAcellent eAam3le@ ) vaulter a33roaches the 3it $ith a velocit. m 3er ste3 $ith shorter ste3s at the start and .ones@ 7inetic an$ gravitational !otential energy% 2his 3lot sho$s the 0inetic> gravitational 3otential> and total energ.e found at ()Qs on muscles> tendons> and .out right> a $orld class s3rinter ta0es 99 ste3s for the 1?? m dash or an average of 2@.sor.elastic foot@C 2his is a.ig ones in the .#ote that the hang time for this 5um3 is t D 2s!rt(2hEg) D 2s!rt(2(?@?/:E1?)) D ?@2: seconds@ .odof the race@ Some detailed information regarding the 3erformance of muscles and tendons can .n the a.of the a33le dro33ed in olume 1@ #ote that the total energ.remains constant as the a33le falls@ Conservation of 8nergy "heorem% .ends elasticall.

ut the momentum is al$a-s conserved@ .u3$ards@ Ko$ high can the vaulter rise from the conversion of PE to PE' )t the .elastic com3ared to the .oo 3oles of -ore and so im3roved the vaulting height considera.ove the original 1" $hich alread.sor.is reduced> .eginning> the vaulter has zero gravitational 3otential energ.ove the trac0@ 2he conversion of PE to PE onl..remains the same@ .ingC 3rocesses@ 2he car.(since mass is resistance to acceleration)> and it also increases $ith velocit-@ 2his resistance to change in motion is called momentum> !@ ! D mv (units7 0g+mEs) #e$tonRs 2nd la$ can .out : m so $here did $e go $rong' &e had assumed that the PE $hile the vaulter is still on the trac0 is ? .f t$o .e thought of as change in momentumEtime interval D force ∆!E∆t D 0 D m∆vE∆t D ma@ .on fi.to the 3ole or to other inelastic Benerg.viousl.the conservation of energ-@ So@@@ 1E2 mv2 D mgh@ h D 1E2 v2Eg D 1E2 O 1?2E1? D F m@ 8ut the 3ole vault record is a..n the inelastic case> the 0inetic energ.sence of 0> the ∆! D ? or ! D constant@ 2he net momentum of a s-stem of masses in isolation $ill remain constant@ 8lastic an$ inelastic collisions% (or elastic collisions> the 0inetic energ.l-@ Linear /oment m &hen a mass is in motion> it has inertia and tends to 0ee3 the motion in a straight line (#e$ton%s 1st La$)@ 2his tendenc.a.ut this is measured from the 1" of the vaulter@ 2he F m height is the height a.energ.at these t$o 3oints must .ove the trac0@ So the vaulter should rise to a height of Q: m a.er 3ole is ver.ut he has maAimized the gravitational 3otential energ-@ 8ut the values of the energ.$as Q1 m a.n the a.ut lots of 0inetic energ-@ )t the to3 of the vault> his velocit.de3ends on not losing an.am.is zero .e numericalle!ual> .to maintain straight+line motion increases $ith mass> o.

at> eA3erimentall-> find the .to calculate the results of diverse collisions $ith an.ilit.o.at rest> moving -our hand to -our right side $ould shift -ou a little to the left so that -our 1" remains in the same 3lace relative to the 3latform@ Ko$ever> no$ the 1" $ill no longer .all> 0arate .e at -our navel@ .ig end of the .alance 3oint@ 2he 1" of a 3erson standing Iat attentionI is in the center of the .e 3artiall.tennis rac0et moving at :? m3h could 3roduce a .5ect $ill go off $ith the same velocit.$ould 3roduce even .5ect@ (or a long uniform stic0> the geometric center of the stic0 is the 3osition of the 1"@ (or a .at> the 1" is more to$ard the .5ects> the struc0 o.ase.alance 3oint so that half the $eight is to one side of the .all .f -ou $ere to lie on a frictionless surface $ith -our hands .e changed@ ..all> stri0ing a volle-.all> 0ic0ing a .5ect $hich has finite dimensions is the $eighted geometric center of the mass of the o.tain 2S the velocit.of the stri0ing mass@ Stri0ing a stationar.all has the 1" at the center and is unchanging@ 1" of -our .inelastic ( e.all tac0le@ .5ects collide and stic0 together> the collision is com3letel.all)@ . a tac0le in foot.n all cases> momentum is conserved@ 2he mathematical eA3ression of the t$o la$s give us the a.s3orts collisions $ill .all $ith a com3letel.od.5ect stri0ing a smaller mass> the struc0 mass can o.tennis .elastic strings of a heav.-our side> and .F:T of their height (measured from the ground)> $hich is near the navel@ ) s-mmetric o.g.at roughl.ut the 1" $ill move to$ards -our head@ .massive o.all $ith 12? m3h@ 2here is an am3lification effect@ Stri0ing a .oAing .f -ou raise -our hands s-mmetricall-> no L+* .as the stri0ing mass@ .od.elastic@ 2he elastic collision $ill give us limits as to $hat to eA3ect in a collision@ EAam3les of this are the tennis rac0et stri0ing a .od.n an elastic collision of a relativel.e initiall.at@ 2o find the 1"> of a .shift $ould ta0e 3lace .5ect li0e a .masses and an.n an elastic collision of e!ual mass o.lo$> .degree of elasticit-@ "an.can .igger velocities@ Effects of the 1enter of "ass B1"C@ 2he center of mass of an o.all arriving $ith a high velocit.lo$> foot.

the la$s of 3h-sics@ "4%s 1" must ta0e a 3ara.olic tra5ector-@ ) hammer thro$n in the air can have a rather com3licated motion $hich is not at all 3ara.ut his head ma.llusions of floating @@ non+3ara.od-@ ) 3rime eAam3le of a motion that 3roduces the illusion of floating the .to a dun0' =oes "4 def.olic 3ath@ Our e-es and .olic 3ath .5ect "MS2 ta0e a 3ara.calculations@ Ko$ then can "ichael 4ordan float through the air $hile he on his $a.li0e a .olic 3ath once it is launched' #o> even "4 must o.all@ .e' )n-one $hile 5um3ing can shift his 1" relative to his head .olic Bso it seemsC@ .o.allet 5um3 called the Grand 4etU@ 2he anal-sis of the Grand 4etU sho$s that the head sta-s at the same height for tenths of seconds@ 2his is accom3lished . 3age> "he Gran$ Jet:> $ill sho$ -ou the head height as a function of time for the movement@ .raising the legs during the 5um3 so that the 1" is raised relative to the head during the rising 3art and the 1" is lo$ered during the falling 3art@ ) s3ecial $e.the motion of the rest of the .rain can recognize a 3ara..e.f -ou measure the head%s 3osition as a function of time> it might do loo3sH ) careful measurement of the 1" motion $ould sho$ that the 1" of the hammer moves in a 3ara.olic tra5ector eAactl.the la$ of 3h-sics that ever.olic 3ath and understand that this is the natural motion on earth $ithout an.1" ta0es the 3ara.not@ Ko$ can this ..

3ass . meters over the .ar@ &hile the high 5um3 record is V2 m> the 1" is onl.est 3ractionersH Since the launch of the 5um3 elevates the 1"> the 5um3er can mani3ulate his 1" relative to his .that the 1" must do so@ 2he realization of this has hel3ed to 3roduce the $orld records in the high 5um3 and 3ole vault events@ &hen a 5um3er uses the IScissorsI techni!ue> the 1" travels a.tall> so that their 1" starts out closer to the .ur.raised a.ut the.le to $ra3 around the .(lo3I techni!ue> the 1" ma.fleAi.elo$ the .ar for a successful 5um3@ Msing the I(os.ar for the .don%t sa.ar .ar and are usuall.out ?@.Msing the 1" to set field event records@ 2he rules of the high 5um3 and 3ole vault events state that the com3etitor must clear the .out 1 m@ .odand achieve a higher legal 5um3@ &e shall see a video on this action@ 2he most successful high 5um3ers are ver.

$ent into high school in "edford Oregon> $hen m.of 1" at to3 1" relative to .le and !uic0 to get the eAtra elevation and to clear the .ar $ith the legs@ 0osb ry on the 0lo!4 Kere%s an eAcer3t from an online chat in $hich =ic0 (os.rollI or .ar> the athlete is a.es the origins of the flo37 9lym!ic 0an4 How $i$ yo come ! the i$ea of the . first learned to high 5um3 at the age of 1? or 11> . tried 5um3ing $ith the IscissorsI st-le@ .)n anal-sis of the high 5um3 of =$ight Stone height of athlete height of . $ould never get an-$here $ith that techni!ue@ Ke started me $ith the I.ur.descri.coach> =ean 8enson eA3lained that .le to gain a fe$ cm height over the .< Dick 0osb ry4 &hen .est 5um3ers are !uite fleAi. m 2he tall athlete has an advantage in that the 1" starts higher@ 8.? m 1@9? m ?@/<m +?@?.ar@ 2he .curling over the .0osb ry 0lo!.ar 1@6: m 2@.ar height of 1" at rest d.ell. used that st-le until .

ac0 in reaction to that@ )t the end of the com3etition> .us tri3 to the neAt meet to go . ?@:6 :@.est . $as reall. ..thlete 1arl Le$is $istance of = m! /@:1 m &' 1?@9F mEs .egan to lead $ith m. could still use the scissors@ So> . had im3roved m.straddle techni!ue@ Ko$ever> .shoulders $ent . <@.cleared F%+9I (the same as .curved a33roach> .$as going over head first li0e toda-%s (lo33ers@ C/ Consi$erations in the Long J m! . had 5um3ed $ith the scissors@ . had onl.hi3s u3 and m.egan to lift m.farther than the 1" landing s3ot@ )n anal-sis of a Le$is 4um3 .$ith that st-le> so> to$ard the end of the -ear> .ngle of takeoff 1F@6 degrees &y R2 t R22 t22 h ∆h .$anted> . .:I> from F%+9I to F%+1?I and even 3laced thirdH 2he neAt t$o -ears in high school> $ith m.n the long 5um3> the 1" at landing is lo$er than the 1" at ta0eoff to increase the hang time@ Even more im3ortantl-> the feet touch do$n and ma0e a mar0 $ell ahead of the 1" so that the legal 5um3 length is significantl.ac0 to the scissors@ =uring the com3etition> as the .lous.ar $as raised 2I each time> . eA3ressed m..frustration to coach and he said that if . reall.shoulder and eventuall. decided on the . ?@:1 ?@9: +?@2: mEs m s m s m m .

* D 2 2his comes from * D .le@ Range of a !ro=ectile when the lan$ing an$ la nch height are the same% 2he range of a 3ro5ectile is given .out the same time as the .ase.n the 0ic0ing game in foot.numericall.tained .all> the thro$ from the outfield to thro$ out the .stitute in the a.as0et.used to get a large hangtime to ena.D ? Blaunching horizontall-C@ (or a given o> -ou can verif..-7 oA oA O o- Eg@ O(hang time)> and noticing that hang+time is related to (landing) D hangtimeE2 O g D o-> $hich $e can solve for hangtime and su.ove e!uation@ #ote that * D ? $hen oA D ? Bshooting straight u3C or o.ounces on the field@ .o$> or something in .all arrives at the .all shots to find out@ .all@ 2his usuall.le@ (or events li0e shot 3ut> hammer thro$ $here the distance travelled in air determines the $inner> the launch angle of 9F degrees is universall.the length of the 0ic0@C "ra=ectories for the o!timal shooting in Basketball% Should one shoot a flat shot> the rain.all> the aim is to tac0le the receiver as far do$nfield as 3ossi.results in the .ase or home3late in the shortest time even if the .that the maAimum * is o.*% is the distance to the 1"@ t is the total hang time@ *%% and t%% are the range if Le$is $ere to land standing u3@ h is the elevation of the 1"@ ∆h is the difference .le the defenders to get do$nfield to reach the receiver at a.n other s3orts li0e .ase runners al$a-s uses a small angle in order to have a large A so that the .used@ .est do$nfield 3osition@ B) .all 0ic0ed $ith a smaller lauch angle $ill give the receiver lots of time to 3ic0 u3 .all .et$een' 1hec0 out this section of o3timizing ..launching $ith an angle of 9F degrees@ 2his is al$a-s true $hen air effects are negligi.le@ ) 0ic0 of larger than 9F degrees is usuall.loc0s and have a good return nullif.et$een the height of the 1" at landing and its height at ta0eoff@ 2he eAtra distance for the eAtra hang time 3lus the eAtended legs is considera.

out 1: degrees@ Other 5um3ers have launch angles u3 to 22 degrees@ 2here is a 3h-sical reason for the correlation .having a larger A+ com3onent to his velocit-> $hich carries him to large *@ .for this is7 o.le on this $e.$hile running at to3 s3eed@ 1arl Le$is has a launch angle of a.fast and this seems to .using a monte carlo 3rogram $hich is availa.l@eAe into -our o$n &in .is this' 2he reason for this is that an athelete running on a run$a.o.tained@ Le$is is ver.s3ace $ith the successes mar0ed $ith green@ Kave fun@ 2o use this> do$nload the 3rogram .all $ith the accurate horizontal angle@ 2he game 0ee3s trac0 of the successes and gives -ou a scatter 3lot of the shots in angle+velocit.Com! ter game% Lou can further eA3lore the relation of launch velocit.f a long 5um3er achieves this vertical velocit.and launch angle@ 2he 3rogram $ill 3ut in a ?@FT random variation into the launch velocit.as0et.e correlated $ith less vertical velocit.as0et.cannot convert much of the horizontal running velocit.o.out 1? mEs so oA D 1? mEs .tained comes from the inde3endent vertical 5um3@ )ssume that an eAcellent vertical 5um3 reach is 1 m> the fall time is a.all> shot 3ut and hammer thro$> ..t%s assumed that -ou launch the .into vertical velocit-@ 2he long 5um3er cannot launch himself at his running velocit...@ 2he game 3ermits -ou to choose a height and range for the shot@ Lou can then choose the central launch velocit.@1 or &in 6F P1@ 2hen eAecute .$hile running at 1? mEs> the launch angle is atan(FE1?) D 2< degrees@ "ost long 5um3ers cannot achieve this amount of vertical launch velocit.and success in clean entr.out ?@F sec> then the launch velocit.$ith an angle of 9F degrees@ )lmost all of the vertical velocit.dou.and 1T random variation into the launch direction@ .le clic0ing on the icon in eA3lorer or file manager@ "he long = m!% ) launch angle of 9F degrees is used for .2? degrees@ &h.as0et .ut long 5um3ers> $ho are also tr-ing to achieve the greatest range> use a launch angle of a33roAimatel.hence the lo$ launch angle@ Ke ma0es u3 for the lac0 of 5um3ing height .et$een faster s3rinting s3eed and less the vertical launch velocit-@ 2he faster the runner> the less time the runner%s feet are in contact $ith the ground@ Since it ta0es time to accelerate u3$ards> the faster the runner> the less the vertical velocit.to the .D gt D 1?O?@F D F mEs 2he running s3eed is a.

ove ?@9 m' 2@ )t t D ? a .all sta.f a defender has a dela.f the foA could direct himself u3$ards> $hat is the height to $hich he could elevate' .of the 5um3er to get a longer measured 5um3' d) Ko$ high does the cm of the 5um3er reach at the highest 3oint' :@ . mEs@ a) &hat is the hang time for the 1" to get .oth 3la-ers 5um3 ?@/ m@) ..all in order for it to fall no more than 1I in its travel to the 3late' <@ ) high+5um3er has a height of 1@< m and has a vertical 5um3 height of 1 m@ Estimate the height this 5um3er can clear in the high 5um3 .ac0 to the original height' .$ithin the target region of if the .@.$ithin the target region if the tossed .) .n order to hit a good tennis serve -ou must hit the .of ?@2 second .as0et.out 9I high@ Ko$ long does a tennis .of 1? mEs@ She is a.all 3la-er leaves the ground to attem3t a 5um3shot@ .@ .all is 5ust at the 3ea0 of it%s arc' Ko$ long does the .od-' .to raise -our 1" $ithout 5um3ing' F@ ) long 5um3er a33roaches the ta0eoff .all sta.f the distance from the 3itcher%s mound to home3late is 1/ m> ho$ fast $ould a 3itcher have to thro$ the .) Ko$ far does the 5um3er go during this time' c) &hat is the strateg.using the Scissors method and the (os.le to maintain this s3eed and still ta0eoff $ith a vertical velocitof .efore 5um3ing> ho$ much lo$er than the offensive 3la-er $ill she .efore reaching the target region' 9@ &hat is the center of mass of 3erson' .from a standing crouched start@ Studies have sho$n that the foA launches himself $ith a 9F degree ta0eoff angle@ a) Ko$ much time does the mouse have to react once the foA has launched himself' .oard $ith a velocit.all $ithin a Itarget regionI $hich is a.e $hen the shooter reaches the 3ea0 of her 5um3' ()ssume .(lo3 method@ /@ ) red foA can 3ounce on a mouse from F m a$a.a.$a.needed to 5um3 ?@/ m' &hat is the %hang time% for this 5um3' Ko$ long does the 5um3er sta.+uestions 1@ &hat is the vertical launch velocit.f -ou are standing $hat is an eas.ur.s it al$a-s on the same s3ot on -our .all is tossed high and falls one meter .

all shoes and com3are it $ith the energ.all .f a tac0ler and .?@F cm at maAimum com3ression and that the soles are com3letel.5ect to the other@ "omentum is al$a-s conserved in a closed s-stem> .of the t$o $hen the tac0ler holds on the the carrier' &h-' &hat is the 0inetic energ.orts Biomechanics 8iomechanics V Ph-sics V "omentum Momentum "omentum is a vector descri.ounds ..(v)@ !(mv Conservation of /oment m .all $ill .n a closed s-stem> such as $hen t$o o.at hits the .5ects collide> the total momentum remains the same> though some ma.ac0@ 2his contraction and re.as0et.ound action is causes the release of heat energ-> and some momentum is lost> or transferred else$here@ /a'imi>ing /oment m .ing a I!uantit.all> the .e s!uished to a certain degree@ )fter fe$ milliseconds> it re.of motionI or in mathematical terms 3 (momentum) D mass (m) times velocit.ut most s3orting situations in the real $orld are not a closed s-stem@ (or eAam3le> $hen a .f the vaulter loses 2?T of his energ-> .of the t$o after the collision' &here did the energ.is stored in the soles of thic0+soled .transfer from one o.ecause of techni!ue> ho$ high can he raise his center of mass' 1?@Estimate ho$ much energ.elastic 3erformance> ho$ high $ill the vaulter raise his center of mass' .of 1? mEs@ a)&ith a 3erfectl.go' S.s3rinters and 5um3ers use thin+ soled trac0 shoes and don%t use these thic0+soled shoes' )ssume that the soles are com3ressed .ase.) .all+carrier have the same mass and a33roach head+on> each $ith a s3eed of 1? mEs> $hat is the velocit.6@ ) 3ole vaulter a33roaches the 3it $ith a velocit.stored in the arch and achilles tendon@ =oes this eA3lain $h.elastic@ )lso assume a <?+0g athlete@ 11@ .

nertia@ 8.increase either of these elements@ ..5ect to changing its angular s3eed@ ) good eAam3le of angular momentum in action is $ith figure s0aters@ ) figure s0ater starts a s3in .nertia is the angular counter3art to mass + it is the measure of the resistance of an o.n s3ort> eAam3les include using a heavier .nertia and )ngular elocit-@ "oment of .3ulling in his arms to lessen his "oment of .eAtends her arms to increase angular momentum and decrease angular velocit-@ Bodies in Motion: Limitations to Human -erformance Last u3dated on "a.at or rac!uet and increasing running s3eed or hand s3eed@ . its relation to S!ee$ an$ 6ower $elivery% 2he muscle can deliver the largest force at zero velocit.of the muscle contraction@ 2he muscle can contract $ith a certain muscle s3eed $hich is de3endent of the length of the muscle@ 2-3icall-> the muscle can contract at .)s momentum is the 3roduct of mass and the velocit-> -ou can increase momentum .the 1onservation of "omentum Princi3les> the angular s3eed must then increase@ 2o come out of the s3in> a s0ater sim3l.ng lar /oment m )ngular momentum is the 3roduct of "oment of .2F> 1666 / scle 0orce.

out 1?? r3m@ 1-clists> in training> can o.ers 3roducing # times the s3eed of contraction 3er fi.ad5ust the gears on the .?? r3m $ith no load $hich ma0es the maAimum 3o$er out3ut at a.er of fi.er $here # is the num.e 3edalling at the o3timum muscle s3eed inde3endent of the conditions Bhill> $indC@ .out 1E.served for macrosco3ic muscles Bgrou3s of these fi.ers 5oined together end+to+end@ 2he molecular motors must have traction to dra$ the muscle su.et$een 2 and 9 times the length of the muscle 3er second@ 8oth of these em3erical o..out 1E.the maAimum 3o$er 3roduction of c-clists at a.i0e so that he can .orn out .structures together for a contraction@ 2he efficienc.tain .servations results from the microsco3ic muscle contraction 3rocess@ 2here are molecular motor in the muscle $hich dra$ micro sections of the muscle together@ 2hese motors have a intrinisc maAimum s3eed@ 2his s3eed is a33roAimatel-7 @ 2he higher s3eeds o. maA s3eed@ ) c-clist can continuall.a muscle is P D ( O velocit-@ )t zero velocit-> no 3o$er is 3roduced and at the highest velocit-> (D? and no 3o$er is 3roduced@ (or the functional sha3e of the force+s3eed curve> the maAimum 3o$er should occur at a.of this traciton is highest for zero or lo$ s3eeds ..ersC is the result of the end+to end 5oing of the fi.. maAimum s3eed@ 2his is .ut deteorates $ith higher s3eed@ 2his sli33age of the molecular motors results in lo$er forces as the muscle contraction s3eed is increased@ 6ower% *ecall that the 3o$er 3roduced .

out 3ro3er useage@ Po$er is the time rate of $or0@ Po$er D $or0Etime .(igure sho$ing the forceE3o$er vs muscle s3eed@ 2he ordinate is in units of maAimum force and the a.language> $e sometimes use 3o$er and energ.interchangea.ordinate is in units of 3o$er scaled . maAimum velocit$ith a 3o$er of 1E1?@ 2he muscle can develo3 the highest forces $hen it is .e !uite strict a..cissa is in units of the maAimum s3eed for the muscle@ 2he secondar.n ever-da.l-@ Kere $e $ill .eing stretched@Bnegative velocit-C@ 6ower .maAimum force and maAimum velocit-@ Pea0 3o$er occurs at a.out 1E.

naly>ing the J m! Reach 2he 4um3 *each is a standard test used .2 m and this is done in one second> the 3o$er is P D $or0Etime D 2??? 4E1 sec D 2??? $atts@ .a M& foot.egin their u3$ard 5ourne-@ 2his ma0es the 3o$er average to . seconds and the leg thrust raises the .vertical 5um3 in $hich the athlete tries to touch a scale on the $all as high as 3ossi..in the ?@2 second interval $hen the .le@ &hat is measured is the height of the 5um3> .comes from the leg thrust> the 3o$er that must .all 3la-er@ 2he athlete remained in the air for ?@<: seconds $hich im3lies a 5um3 reach height of ?@<2 m@ 2he time from the s$ing of the arms until the feet leave the floor is a total of ?@.e F??? $atts $ith a maAimum 3o$er re!uired of a..out ?@1.out /?? $atts on the average)@ )s the athlete moves faster near the end of the 5um3> the 3o$er re!uirements are even higher@ "aA Po$er D 2O(average 3o$er) D 1F9?? $attsHH Bassuming a constant accelerationC . D :?:? $atts $hich is still !uite high@ 2he im3ortant 3o$er effects are 3ro. of the class mem.out 1?? 0g@ .$att D 5ouleEsec .3ro scouts to evaluate athletes@ 8asicall.od.higher@ .f most of the energ.od.the 4um3 *each is a stationar...out ?@..f the athlete lifts the 1?? 0g . seconds@ 2he final thrust of the legs ta0es a.f $e average the 3o$er over the com3lete c-cle of arm s$ing and torso thrust> the 3o$er re!uired is much less@ "aA Po$er D 2O1??O6@/O1@?2E?@.a.l.a height of 1@?2 m@ 2he mass of the athlete is a.3roduce 3o$er 3ro3ortionatel. m@ 2he com3lete 5um3 then has raised the 1" of the athlete ..ers ($hich $as a.ut $hat is inferred is the 3o$er out3ut@ &hat follo$s is an anal-sis of a 4um3 *each . D <<?? $atts@ 2his is a lot com3ared $ith the 3o$er eAhi.ited during the stair clim.e develo3ed is7 )verage Po$er D Energ-E(time of the leg thrust) D mghE(time of the leg thrust) P D 1??O6@/ O 1@?2E?@1.ell .out 1?>??? $atts $hich is a lotH Some of the 19? 0g linemen can 5um3 this high so that the.and arms .from the s!uat 3osition to a standing 3osition> a height of a.ar.

le@ 2he force 3roduced does not gro$ linearl-@ .> the force that can ..$eight2E.elo$7 .e 3roduced should var.les> the lift does #O2 dou.@ ( Q L2 and $eight Q L. ( Q $eight2E. or L Q $eight1E.tained in the snatch and the 5er0 in Ol-m3ic com3etition@ Brecords in 16/<C@ 2hese data sho$ $orld record $eight lifts as a function of the $eight of the athlete@ #ote that $hen the athlete%s $eight dou.f the force gro$s as the cross sectional area> this means that force varies as L 2@ Since the $eight of a 3erson varies as the volume or L..a muscle is de3endent on its mass@ *ecall the la$ of muscles7 (orce de3ends on cross sectional area@ 2he distance of the a33lication of force de3ends on the length@ Since $or0 D forceOlength> the $or0 that is 3ossi.le de3ends on the s3eed of the muscle movement@ ) high s3eed means a short time for the movement to -ield high 3o$er@ 2o su33ort that the measured relation of (Qcross sectional area of muscles that is measured in isolated muscles> $e eAamine the 3erformance of cham3ionshi3 $eight lifters@ &e eAamine the relation of sum of the $eights o. 2o sho$ this functional relation> $e can divide the lift $eight .@ 2his is sho$n ..le $ith a muscle de3ends on the volume or mass@ 2he 3o$er that is 3ossi.athlete%s $eight and then also .6ower from / scle /ass 2he 3o$er 3roduced .as $eight2E.

tained if the muscle is contracted at a.e estimated to . 2here is one com3licationJ the maAimum force that a muscle can eAert de3ends on the s3eed of the contraction@ 2he highest force can . does not fit@ 1learl.the same as $ater7 1??? 0gEm .$ell $hile the ( Q L. of the maAimum muscle s3eed@ 2a0ing these factors into account> the 3o$er 3er 3ound of muscle can .is a33roAimatel.e 3roduced $ith zero s3eed@ )t the maAimum s3eed> no force is 3roduced@ Studies have sho$n that the maAimum 3o$er is o.? to 1?? #Ecm2 "aAimum s3eed 2 to F lengths of the muscle 3er second@ "uscle densit..out 1E.e a horizontal line@ 2he h-3othesis that ( Q L2 fits 3rett.f the h-3othesis fits> the ratio should .from the literature7 • • • "aAimum force7 .ove factors@ S!ecific !ower of m scles4 ?@AA watts-7g% "his may vary by abo t BAC% How m ch m scle nee$e$ for the A%D) m = m! reach< .the la$ of muscles $or0s in actual s3orts 3erformance in a direct measurement@ 6ower Density of / scles One author asserts that the maAimum 3o$er that one 3ound of muscle can eAtract is 1E/ horse3o$er@ 1 horse3o$er D <F? $atts and 1 3ound has ?@9F 0g of mass@ 2he 1E/ KP 3er 3ound of muscle is a conservative estimate@ 2here is !uite a lot of variation in the muscle 3erformance@ Kere%s a summar.e Q1E9 KP for the average 3erformance of the a.

e accomodated .Let%s a33l.s this reall.out 1??S his length $ould .out 1E2 his or her $eight in muscles@C Scaling Law for = m!ing% ) grassho33er> a cat> a human and a horse can all 5um3 a.le@ .et$een the torso> arms> and legs@ B) to3 athlete $ill have a.the legs $ere thrusting $as 1F>9?? $atts@ 2he mass of muscle re!uired for this $ould .ho$ the scaling $or0s' &e can thin0 a.asis of S3iderman%s su3er+hero status7 he su33osedl.out F9 3ounds@ 2his much muscle can easil.OL> and de3th D cOL> $here L is the characteristic length that scales the 3erson@ (orce is 3ro3ortional to area or L2 since the force is 3ro3ortional to the cross sectional area of the muscle@ "ass is 3ro3ortional to volume or L.odthan 5ust the leg muscles@ 2he arm s$ing and torso thrust are im3ortant> so the average 3o$er is some$hat less than 1F>9?? $atts@ )ssume that the 3o$er is a./ 0g@ 2o a33reciate ho$ much this is> imagine a stac0 of stea0s that $eighs /9 3oundsH 1om3are this to the muscles in the !uadrace3s and gluteus maAimus@ 2here isn%t enough mass in 5ust those muscles@ .has the 3ro3ortionate strength and s3eed of a s3ider@ .e that a 5um3 is 3ro3ortional to the size of the 5um3er@ .of a small stature@ G-mnastics> diving> and ice+s0ating .ntuitivel-> $e thin0 that the scaling la$ for 5um3ing should .out 1?>??? $atts> then the re!uired amount of muscle is a.n athletic events $here acceleration is im3ortant the athletes are usuall.out 1 m@ .e e!uivalent to a human 5um3ing 2?? m u3H 2his is the ..t%s clear that the 5um3ing 3erformance re!uires using more muscles of the .out 1 m@ 2hat is> thecan raise their 1" . D 1EL 2he conclusion is that the smaller the 3erson (or animal)> the greater the acceleration that is 3ossi.ove> the 3o$er re!uired if onl.f this $ere true> then a grassho33er 5um3ing to a height of a.e 1F>9??E9?? D .this 0no$ledge to the 5um3 reach anal-zed earlier@ (or the 5um3 reach 3erformance anal-zed a. )cceleration D (Em (#e$ton%s 2nd La$) and so is 3ro3ortional to L 2EL..a.out ho$ size affects 5um3ing 3erformance using the La$ of "uscles@ Su33ose the characteristic size of a 3erson is height D aOL> $idth D .

at' 2he hi3s move rather slo$l.s3ecies $ith !uite different sizes have a.od-@ 2hese are the muscles in the torso and hi3s@ ) .at is thus Pavg D 29FE?@1.? oz .at .at around to hitting 3osition in a.of the F@1 oz .ut the ti3 of the $hi3 $ill attain su3er+sonic velocities@ Other eAam3les of this are the crac0 the $hi3 $ith a chain of 3eo3le or the sna33ing to$el in the loc0er room@ 2he general idea is that the 0inetic energ.out ?@1.of the .in the .out the same 5um3 height or ta0e off velocit-@ .efore the collision is7 P.of the larger mass Bmoving at small velocitiesC is .all re!uires a launch velocit.are eAam3les of events $here !uic0 ta0eoffs and s3ins favour those $ho can develo3 large accelerations> i.atting 3rocess@ 2o understand ho$ this occurs> $e should reflect u3on ho$ a $hi3 $or0s@ 2he driver of a horse+ dra$n rig $ill use modest forces and velocities .of 29 mEs $hen stri0ing a 9F mEs fast.e. D 1//9 $atts@ 2he 3ea0 3o$er $ill .at@ 2he 0inetic energ.ring the .e almost .atters have sho$n that the./?? $atts@ (rom our stud.all $ith a .then the 3ro3ortionate strength of a s3ider is the same as that of a man> so S3iderman $ould .e generated $ith the .ig !uestion is ho$ does the 3o$er generated .all is P.at velocit..of 9F mEs and a .of 3o$er densit.of muscles> the agonist muscles involved must have a mass of 6@F 0g@ Since each agonist must have an antagonist> the sum of the t$o must ..le for the acceleration@ v2 D 2aA> $here A is 3ro3ortional to L@ &e then have v2 is 3ro3ortional to (1EL O L) D 1@ 2his means that s3eed is inde3endent of size@ #ote that 5um3ing height is 3ro3ortional to ta0e+off s3eed@ 2he 5um3 reach is inde3endent of size for athletes@ Of course> it de3ends on strength> .all D 1E2Omv2 D 1E2O?@19O9F2 D 19< 4@ 2he 0inetic energ.those $ith small size@ =oes this mean that the smaller 3erson can 5um3 higher or $ould have larger velocit-' #O@ 2o o. seconds@ 2he average 3o$er to 3roduce the 0inetic energ.ig muscles of the .ut not on height@ 2his is $h.the hi3s get delivered to the .t also means that if the 3ro3ortion is ta0en 3ro3erl.e a.out 1/ Pg or .e 5ust a normal 4oe@ 8nergy an$ !ower of a homer n 2he shortest homerun .of the .tain velocit-> $e must accelerate over a 3eriod of time@ 2he smaller the 3erson> the smaller the distance (and time) availa.: 3ounds of muscle@ 2he muscle mass in the shoulders and arms are insufficient to generate the needed 3o$er@ 2he 3o$er must .at D 1E2O?@/FO292 D 29F 4@ Studies of .

' 1 Pilocalorie D 91/: 5oules 1 da.at lag .??? 0ilocalories 3er da-@ &hat is this com3ared to a 1?? $att light ..eing relativel.must .is in for$ard motion> then $hi33ing the arm for the 3itch@ Practice and timing are $a-s to achieve this $hi3+li0e action in hitting and thro$ing@ &hen -ou tr.er that -ou $ill al$a-s let the .at $ith a resultant high velocit-@ 2he 3rocess starts $ith the .e .3uts out a.e much larger to conserve energ-@ .. 4Es D 19.carr.O 91/: 4E0ilocalorie O 1 da-E/:9?? s D 19.??? 0ilocaloriesEda.od.can 3ut out is determine .??? 0ilocalories 3er da-> then the 3o$er out3ut must .rought around at the end@ .ul.is efficientl.is delivered to the .ehind@ )s the arms are stretched out> the .:? $atts $hile the .od.ehind the rest of the motion and it onl.t%s im3ortant that the $rist remains loose so that the energ.D 29O:?O:? sec D /:9?? sec 1 $att D 1 5ouleEsec .all and hand .od.ut the velocit.ut the 0inetic energ.at ..transferred to the smaller mass> .at is .stationar.ic limit Busing oA-genC@ (or E*L short .e 1??S higher for short time intervals@ "ost B<FT or moreC of the 3o$er out3ut is in $aste heat so that the maAimum 3o$er to actuall.comes u3 to s3eed at the last moment@ 8nergy content of foo$ 2he maAimum average 3o$er that a .ehind $hile the .ursts of 3o$er> the .all or the .$hat one eats@ )ssuming that an average+sized 3erson eats .ic muscles Bno oA-gen neededC@ 2his lasts for less than a minute@ .out 1?+F?S more $or0 $ith anaero.at .and the hi3s and torso move for$ard leaving the .of the 3itching motion sho$s the same 3rocess of leaving the .is large@ 2his energ.out mechanical $or0 is onl.this> remem. $atts 2he a.ove is the average 3o$er out3ut@ 2he 3ea0 3o$er can .n the hit> the massive hi3s and torso are moved $ith a small velocit.transferred@ 2he $hi3+li0e 3rocess is im3ortant for the 3itcher as $ell@ ) stud.odis 3um3ing out 1?/? $atts of heat@ 2his is the aero.

urn u3 the P-ruvic acid so that this does not 3oison -our muscles@ )t higher 3o$er levels> the eAcess P-ruvic acid is converted to lactic acid $hich causes the .all hitting@ 2he distance from the 3itcher to the .uild u3 lactic acid at the .atter must inter3ret the 3ath of the .le to oAidize the lactic acid@ .of P1 in the muscles@ Of course> this is all one needs for the 1??+2?? meter s3rints and for 5um3ing and 3ole vaulting@ Lou can hold -our ..eing ahead at the .0ee$ing the bo$y% Energ.from digested food is stored mainl.urn their P1 and .n a com3etition li0e a 1 mile race> the idea is to sta.a.ac0$ards@ .urning 3ain sensation in muscles@ &hen this ha33ens the muscles scream for -ou to sto3@ 2his lactic acid is meta.n ro$ing> the 3s-chological advantage of .for the .6 D ?@9: s@ ) . muscles $hich are called into 3la.$ithin the aero..olized $hen the eAcercise sto3s and the oA-gen is availa.out a 2? second su33l.uilds u3 to ever higher levels@ Part of ro$ing training is involves lactic acid tolerance@ Res!onse time &hat is the res3onse time associated $ith s3orts' EAam3le7 8ase.n the finishing 3art of the race> -ou can go all out and .of 3ain as the lactic acid .eginning of the race@ 2he finish is an agon.n this case> the athletes fre!uentl.atter is :?% D 1/ m@ ) ma5or league 3itch averages a.eginning of a race is im3ortant since the ro$ers face .in the muscles $ith the eAcess stored as fat@ 2he reserves stored in the muscles are used first for $or0@ 2he P1 BPhos3hocreatineC fuels t-3e .ring the .all> decide to s$ing> then .urn u3 -our P1 and 3roduce lots of lactic acid@ Later -ou can recover@ .out short 3eriods of intense eAcercise $ith no adverse conse!uences@ (or eAtended $or0> stored gl-cogen su33lies most of the energ-@ 2his 3rocess 3roduces the $aste 3roduct P-ruvic acid@ )t lo$er 3o$er levels> the oA-dation 3rocess can .6 mEsec@ 2he time of travel is distanceEs3eed D 1/E.reath and carr.ig forces@ Mnfortunatel-> there is onl.out 6? m3h D .ic limit Bnot 3roduce lactic acidC for the ma5or 3art of the race@ .at around to the hitting 3osition $ithin this ?@9: s@ .

ut $hat is the limit' ) measured res3onse time sho$s that it ta0es Q?@2F sec to res3ond to eAternal stimuli@ Ko$ can -ou ma0e -ourself !uic0er' Mse -our muscles closer to -our head@ .e im3roved@ Kence> short 3eo3le have a slight inherent advantage in res3onse time over tall 3eo3le@ 6ower 9 t! t in Rowing Ko$ does the s3eed of a cre$ shell de3end u3on the num.$ith the num.oat dissi3ates energ.the shell varies as v.out3ut of -our .this is feasi.at a rate $hich eAactl.functions $ell onl..viousl.out <FT of the energ.cancels the 3o$er out3ut of the ro$ers@ 2he ro$ers% total 3o$er and $eight increase linearl.goes to heat> and the human .od.er of ro$ers@ Cooling Since a.le so that -ou can get faster@ 8ut the ultimate limit set .O.if it is maintained $ithin a fe$ degrees of its average tem3erature> $e must assure that the ..od.oat inceases $ith the increase in the area of contact $ith the $ater@ 2he 3o$er dissi3ated .has ade!uate cooling@ 2his is not a .er of ro$ers' )n /+ 3erson shell is faster than a one+3erson scull @@@ .t turns out that the dominant time is the 3ro3agation time of the nerve im3ulse travelling from -our head to -our muscles@ 2he shorter the nerve length> the faster the res3onse@ 2here is a limitation in the s3eed of inter3retation of the event to decide to res3ond@ 2his is some$hat traina.the 3ro3agation time cannot .@ 2he outcome is that the s3eed> v> varies as n 1E6> $here n is the num.od.er of ro$ers@ 2he resistance of the .ut #O2 / times faster@ )ssum3tions7 • • • • &hen travelling at a constant s3eed the .le@@@.

od-> it is a sign of a failure of the cooling 3rocess and signals the limits to $hich -ou can 3ush -ourself@ S.for 3eo3le> 5ust as it is for automo.lem for endurance events@ One ver.im3ortant lesson in s3orts is that the cooling 3rocess is a.3ro.odies@ 2he eva3oration 3rocess is the most im3ortant 3art of the cooling s-stem@ .? miEhr) to cool their .have a good stream of $ind (2?+.at> .lem for one 5um3 or one s$ing $ith the .od.ile engines@ )n engine $ill function onl.ecause the.eads u3 on -our .for a short time if the cooling 3rocess is removed@ (or athletes in endurance s3orts> the heating of the .ut is a limiting 3ro.necessar.orts Biomechanics 8iomechanics V Ph-sics V )cceleration Acceleration Gravity )cceleration of an im3lement> $hile in flight> is al$a-s +6@/ metersEsecond s!uaredJ the act of gravit.on the im3lement@ Gravit.is the most severe limitation for continued 3erformance@ 1-lists can 3erform so $ell .solutel.is al$a-s acting verticall-J there is no horizontal .f -our s$eat .

.of a 3ro5ectile decreases .minus the initial velocit($v(vf*vi)@ Beating the Limits I: Training last u3dated on "a.6@/ mEs ever.the follo$ing formula> $here dvDchange in velocit..sence of aerod-namic forces@ )cceleration is the same regardless of the $eight of the im3lement@ 2herefore> the vertical velocit. or> the change in velocit.et$een the current value and the last value of the velocity.cceleration )cceleration (a) is defined .second@ Calc lating an$ /eas ring .is the difference .ones@ .is e!ual to the final velocit.and dtDchange in time@ a($v-$t 2he change velocit.deceleration in the a.1:> 1666 (or reference> 3lease refer to the note on muscles> tendons and .

n 3ractice in $eight lifting> this is also found to .@ "uscles are organized in a hierarch.t%s clear from la. Bslo$ t$itchC muscles@ ) lot of re3s $ith lo$ forces $ill develo3 these slo$ t$itch muscles .greater force@ 2o enervate )LL the muscle fi.@ EA3erience $ith the $eight lifting records is consonant $ith this la$@ Strength training% .ig force> -ou must increase the cross+section@ .@ 2his im3lies that the force that an athlete can 3roduce varies as mass2E. Bfast t$itchC muscles> $e must a33l.le to develo3 muscle mass@ 2he usual recommendation is that -ou should lift masses $hich $ill eAhaust -our muscle in a.out 1? re3s@ (or develo3ment of endurance> trainers $ill advise -ou to carr.orator.as l.le force from the muscle@ .ut not have an affect on the fast t$itch muscles@ 2o utilize the t-3e ..a muscle de3ends on the cross+sectional area and #O2 the length of the muscle@ 2o get a ...out high re3s BQ1??C of rather lo$ forces@ &e do have a dee3er understanding of this rule of thum.such that a small force O#LL uses the finer muscles in the lo$ end of the hierarch-@ 2hese are the t-3e .eA3eriments> that the force a33lied .e true@ *ecall the geometrical scaling la$ that the height> $idth and de3th of the athlete varies as a characteristic length > l@ 2his means area varies as l 2 and volume and mass var.f strength is the aim> ho$ can one increase the muscle area and mass' 2he common $isdom in the athletic $orld is that $e must do lo$ re3etitions of almost maAimum force to .e a.ers> $e must 3roduce the highest 3ossi.

?T more in 5ust a fe$ $ee0s of training and $ith no noticea.ig contraction of the agonist> $e must train our nervous s-stem to eAcite the contraction of the muscle@ 2here is microsco3ic evidence that the densit.e a.le increase in muscle .uild muscles@ 2his eA3lains the general o.movement@ 8ut to o.to .servation that ne$ $eight lifters $ill .ul0@ .discussed the roles of agonist and the antagonist muscle@ Of course> $e must minimize the firing of the antagonists during an.as force increases@ 1e rological training% 2o 3roduce large forces> $e must also enhance the neurological s-stem@ &e have alread.of nerves going to muscles increases $ith training@ 2his can ha33en over 3eriods of $ee0s $hich is much shorter times than the time necessar.le to lift 2?+.(igure sho$ing the enervation of the muscles in the hierarch.tain a .

3eriod> the muscle fi.od.training of t-3e .to .ecome $ea0er@ OvereAcercise means that -ou $ould eAcercise $ith a 3eriod less than the healing time for -our muscles@ (or endurance training> there isn%t a $ell 0no$n recover..od-@ *esearch has sho$n us that the num.f -ou $ere to over eAcercise> -ou $ould $aste a$a..time as for the t-3e .3eriods@ 2he soreness eA3erienced .after the heav$or0out is li0el.uilding the .ul0 of the muscle occurs .t%s usuall.ers@ ..er .er and =O #O2 increase in training@ 2he increase in .er $ill again heal> $ith the scar tissue .t%s common $isdom that the rest 3eriod . muscles $ill ru3ture the muscle fi.ecause each muscle fi.lem $ith 5oint damage BarthritisC from all the $ear and tear of the training@ .thought that -ou could train ever.ers in a muscle grou3 are fiAed in num.et$een training sessions is essential for .igger@ "icrosco3ic evidence has .eing more .and 3roducing more force than 3reviousl-@ (igure sho$ing the muscle mass as a function of time $ith training and recover.er of muscle fi.ers $ith the conse!uent lea0age of the contents@ 2his results in a decrease of the muscle mass@ Ko$ever> in a one+t$o da.-our .all athletes the evening or da. muscles@ .and .ecomes .ul0."raining cycle% .e the result of the ru3ture of the muscle fi.da-@ 2he chief deterent to continual training is the 3ro.een found that the heav.

the muscle> -ou should have it stretched out@ "he backswing an$ !re!aration% )thletes should understand that to develo3 the largest accelerations or forces> the muscle must ./ scle Length an$ athletic movement% (orce is not the onl.l.the muscle> of course is the area under the curve@ 2his means that to get maAimum $or0 .e stretched .cissa is the muscle length in units of the rest length of the muscle@ #ote that the highest forces occur $hen the muscle is stretched longer than the rest length@ 2he $or0 done .elo$ sho$s this result@ 2he ordinate is force and the a.of s3orts@ Msuall.n ro$ing> the 3osition $ith fleAion at the hi3s $ill 3restretch the .n other s3orts> one can assume various 3ostures to o..t can also .efore the a33lication of the force@ 2his is the reason for such common s3orts movements as the coc0ing of the shoulder for thro$ing> and the .e done resulting in much faster deliveries@ Rowing an$ bicycling .larger amount of $or0 that can .ac0s$ing in golf or tennis@ 2he h-3erstretching in the muscle results in a considera..e stretched to a.tain more $or0 from the muscles@ .out 12?T of its rest length> $hich is $here the maAimum force is develo3ed@ 2he figure .ultimate goal eAce3t for a minorit.$e demand s3eedH &e $ant large acceleration over a long 3eriod of time to get s3eed@ v2 D 2)A D 2((Em)A 2he (orce that a muscle can develo3 de3ends u3on ho$ stretched the muscle is@ ) muscle can contract to F?T of its rest length@ .

ic-cling> the fleAion of the .into the fo$ard 3osition $ill similarlstretch the glutes to o.e o.tained is inde3endent of size@ )ssuming geometric scaling7 length varies as l> area varies as l 2 and mass varies as l.od.tain a 3o$erful thrust $ith the legs in the .is inde3endent of the size@ 2he follo$ing figure sho$s the running s3eed of mans3ecies as a function of mass@ % .)Ol D 1@ So the velocit.n .@ &e have v2 D 2((Em)A> $hich varies as (l2)E(l.eginning of the ro$ing motion@ ..em3hasize the use of the glutes and the !uads there.od3osition $ill shorten the !uads@@@ resulting in less $or0 from the !uads@ )n endurance c-list should strive to recruit different muscles for $or0 and rest@ 2he alternation of fleAed and straight 3osition $ill alternatel.giving a longer 3eriod of endurance $ith high 3erformance@ &hen $e use the 0inematical and d-namical la$ for s3eed> the maAimum s3eed that can .glutes to o.tain 3o$erful leg thrusts@ #ote that the fleAed .

Dea$ Weight an$ it2s relation to m scle mass for o!tim m !erformance% 2he figure .$hen the muscle mass e!uals the dead $eight mass@ Please note that the measured fractional muscle mass is a constant for man.een found that athletes and animals in the $ild have a muscle distri.ution $hich is close to this@ 2he highest acceleration is o.has a33roAimate e!ual masses of muscle and non+muscle tissue Bs0eleton> internal organs> head> .tained a33roAimatel.od.3lateaus $hen the .s3ecies@ .elo$ sho$s the acceleration 3otential as a function of mass Bas a fraction of the non+muscle mass (dead $eight)C@ #ote that the acceleration 3otential nearl.rain> fat> @@@C@ .t has .

? seconds of high effort@ )ero.etter enervation through neurological training@ 2he less mass> the less strain on the 5oints $hich can increase the longevit.ic threshold@ 2hat is> $hen the aero.the .lood and also an increase in the deliver.is sometimes called reaching the anaero.0ind of s3ort eAceeding .lood vesselsC for carr-ing food or oA-gen to the muscles and carr-ing a$a..le through .tain the highest acceleration over the longest length@ (leAi.for the the a.t%s .od-@ 2he result is a higher ca3acit.of the .est if $e can o.le aero..ic ca3acit.ic ca3acit.of an athlete%s career@ "raining to increase the aerobic !ower o t! t% .3ushing the envelo3e of the maAimum aero.is maAed out> .ig goal for an.ncreasing the maAimum sustaina.ic ca3acit.through training and stretching of the muscle 3airs is called for@ .ic 3o$er is a .$astes@ EAceeding the aero.Recommen$ation% .ic 3rocess of the .od-@ =oing so $ill increase the aero.igger efforts re!uire ta33ing into the t-3e .s-stem B.ilit.sor3tion of oA-gen . muscles@ ..ncreasing force $ithout increasing muscle mass is advantageous and is 3ossi.ic ca3acit.is enhanced .

e done .a higher heart rate@ &ithin the aero.ic threshold@ 2his can .le heart rate monitors li0e the Polar K* monitor $ith a $ireless transmission to a $rist monitor are relia.oth@ .egins to saturate and no longer increases as the 3o$er increases@ 2he dedicated athlete $ill do a lot of $or0 5ust at this anaero.s this 3ossi.f -ou can 3roduce more force $ithout an increase in mass> then this $ould hel3 .le' Les> in these $a-s7 • • • reduce the antagonist forces so the net force is .igger train -our .ic $indo$> the heart rate is linear@ )t the anaero.e monitored using a heart rate monitor@ Kigher 3o$er out3ut is trac0ed B$ith a little dela-C ..neurological training@ 2raining can increase the nerve net$or0 as $ell as the fre!uenc.ic threshold> the heart rate .ic threshold is desired for increasing aero.of the nerve eAcitiation to -ield a more forceful contraction of the muscles@ 2raining can also reduce the 3rotective stretch refleA@ .2echni!ues to increase aero.ecome !uite 3o3ular for training@ )t least 2? minutes of $or0 at the anaero.ic ca3acit.ic threshold@ Porta..ic ca3acit-@ Strategy for $evelo!ing E ickness an$ s!ee$% Ko$ can an athlete gain some advantage in acceleration and s3eed' &hat 0ind of training and conditioning gives greater acceleration@ .involve eAcercise at the anaero.od.to 3roduce more force $ith a given size of muscle@ 2his can .le and have .

e gained or lost@ .the e!uation7 0(mFa 2his la$ of 3h-sics can .changes form one t-3e to another@ 2here are several t-3es of energ- 7inetic energy Pinetic energ.orts Biomechanics 8iomechanics V Ph-sics V Energ- Energy Conservation of energy .ed .5ect -ou can use the a.e related to man...f -ou 0no$ the force and the mass of the o.S.orts Biomechanics 8iomechanics V Ph-sics V (orce Force #e$ton%s 2nd la$ is $here (orce (() e!uals mass (m) times acceleration (a)> as descri.s3orting situations@ .of motion> as descri.ove formula@ .5ect> and -ou 0no$ $hat the acceleration and mass of the o. S.ed .5ect> -ou can calculate the acceleration using7 a(0 .f -ou $ish to calculate the force a33lied to an o.is lost or gained> $hat -ou $ill find is that the energ.the follo$ing formula@ kinetic energy ( +-) mass ' velocityG) 6otential energy .n a closed s-stem> energ.cannot .is the energ.n most s3orting situations> although it $ill seem li0e energ.