Dosis

Tim Farmasetika Dasar Fakultas Farmasi UNPAD 2013
created by @anggapk

Tujuan Pembelajaran
Mahasiswa/i mampu:
1. Menjelaskan definisi dosis

2. Menjelaskan jenis-jenis dosis
3. Menjelaskan dosis pada kondisi tertentu

4. Menghitung dosis berdasarkan rumusnya

created by @anggapk

Dosis/Takaran
• Ukuran/konsentrasi obat yang diharapkan dapat mempunyai efek kerja/daya terapi pada orang dewasa • Jumlah yang pasti dari suatu obat yang digunakan pada satu kali kesempatan

created by @anggapk

anak dan bayi. Dosis maksimal (TM) Dosis maksimum dewasa untuk pemakaian oral.Jenis Dosis 1. tapi tidak mengikat 2. subkutan dan rektal created by @anggapk . Dosis lazim/usual dose Dosis yang umumnya digunakan untuk dewasa.

LD50 5. Dosis kombinasi (TM Berganda) created by @anggapk .…lanjutan 3. Dosis kuratif 6. Dosis toksik 4. Dosis letalis.

Berat Badan 3. Umur 2. Terapi dengan obat yang diberikan bersamaan 9.Faktor Penentuan Dosis 1. Body Surface Area (BSA) 4. Jenis Kelamin 5. Toleransi Obat 7. Waktu Pemakaian 8. Bentuk Sediaan & Cara Pemakaian created by @anggapk . Status Patologi 6.

Dokter Apoteker Terapi Perawat Pasien created by @anggapk .

Error Preventive created by @anggapk .

created by @anggapk .

setengah padat Ukuran sendok • • • Sendok teh/cth (5ml) Sendok makan/C (15ml) Sendok bubur/Cp (10ml) created by @anggapk . cairan. kapsul.Pengukuran obat-dosis tepat Pembungkusan Serbuk.

ampul Angka romawi : X. miligram Cairan : cc. L. botol/cawan penguap (g) created by @anggapk Timbangan Penimbangan .Pengukuran obat-dosis tepat Ukuran yang dipakai − − − − • • • • − − − Padatan : gram. pulv. gtt. M Timbangan kasar (menimbang > 1 kg) Timbangan besar (timbangan gram. syrup. mL. Fl (fles). > 1 g) Timbangan kecil (>50 mg) Timbangan halus/timbangan mg (< 50 mg) Untuk setengah padat : perkamen dilapisi parafin Untuk zat-zat kental : perkamen/cawan penguap Cairan : gelas ukur (cc). L (BJ) Tube.

created by @anggapk .

• Note that four of these ages are related to the paediatric age group. The younger the child. the greater the rate of change. This reflects that the child is a continually changing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic environment.Dosing in Children • There are seven distinct age groups that are associated with different drug and hence dosing requirements. Dosage: the determination and regulation of the size. as with some anticancer or specialized drugs. • Body Surface Area (BSA) calculation may be used when an establish dosage has not been determined by the drug company. frequency. • Dosing in children under 6 months of age is very complicated a specialist advice is usually needed. and number of doses created by @anggapk .

73 m2) • Rumus Fried (bayi ≤ 1 tahun.Perhitungan TM untuk Anak-anak • Rumus Young (anak ≤ 8 tahun) tahun.n= dalam bulan) created by @anggapk . orang dewasa : 20 tahun) • Rumus Dilling (anak > 8 tahun) • Rumus Talbot (Berdasarkan luas permukaan tubuh) (Lpb orang dewasa = 1.

antibakteri n = umur anak sekarang untuk obat sensitif (opiat) n = umur yang sudah lewat created by @anggapk .cont • Rumus Clark (berdasarkan berat badan dalam pon) • Rumus Evans anak-anak n = umur yang akan datang untuk obat antiinfeksi...

Using nomograms : Read SA from a nomogram created by @anggapk .Patients: 6 months–12 years • Use surface area (SA) approach (Talbot) 1.

. Without nomograms SA(m2): 4W(kg) + 7 W (kg) + 90 created by @anggapk .cont 2..

7) relates better to surface area than to weight alone.…cont 3. an adjusted body weight can be used as follows: • This equation is derived from the fact that weight to the power of 0. Using a calculator: • In the absence of an estimate of surface area. created by @anggapk .7 (wt0.

Dosing in Pregnancy Pregnancy Drug effects created by @anggapk .

smoking.…cont 1. Avoid all drugs if possible.g. caffeine) Avoid drugs in the first trimester Choose drugs of proven safety or least toxicity Use short courses and the smallest doses created by @anggapk . 3. including social drugs (e. 4. alcohol. 2.

Berkurangnya sekresi getah lambung sehingga kecepatan disolusi sediaan tablet & kapsul menurun. menurunnya aliran darah ke mesenterik created by @anggapk .Dosing in Geriatric Pada umumnya kecepatan absorbsi obat lebih lambat pada lansia dari pada dewasa muda karena faktor-faktor berikut: 1.I. juga kadar ionisasi obat 2. Perubahan kecepatan pengosongan lambung. Dapat memperlambat transpor aktif obat 3. motilitas usus. Perubahan mukosa G.

dapat diketahui dosisnya. Bila sudah diketahui berat 1 sendok.Membuat Serbuk Percobaan Cara: Semua zat dicampur (1/3-½ dari seluruh campuran dalam resep). apakah melebihi DM atau tidak. created by @anggapk . sehingga bisa diketahui berat rata-rata 1 sendok. kemudian ditimbang 3 sendok rata dari serbuk percobaan.

kurang dari DM 1000 Dosis maksimum sekali dan sehari tidak dilampaui.30 -------------------. lalu ditimbang 3 sendok teh rata (misal 1 sendok teh rata = 4 gram) Seluruh campuran beratnya = 96 gram Seluruh campuran ada = 96/4 = 24 sendok teh 1 sendok teh mengandung Papaverini HCl = 1/24 x 2 g = 83.30 mg Dosis sekali = 83. maka campuran serbuk dapat dibuat dan diserahkan kepada pasien. Anwar Caranya : Seluruh serbuk ditimbang.1 Pro. Anisi 10 Kaolin 7 Mds. 3. kecuali papaverini HCl.dd.Cont’ Contoh : R/ Natrii Subcarbonas 70 Papaverini HCl 2 sekali 250 mg (papaverine HCl) Magnesii Carbonas 7 sehari 1 gram Elaeosacch. created by @anggapk .30/250 -------------------kurang dari DM Dosis sehari = 3 x 83. Tn.cth.

1 tablet.Contoh kasus 1 •How many milligrams of a drug are in two tablets if one tablet contains 5 mg of the drug? State the problem as a proportion: 5 mg : 1 tablet :: X : 2 tablets Remember the product of the means equals the product of the extremes: 1 tablet × X = 5 mg × 2 tablets Solve for X. and cancel units that appear in both the numerator and denominator: created by @anggapk . Divide each side of the equation by the known value.

but the only drug on hand is in tablets that contain 0.05 mg = 0.025 mg each..025 mg × X Solve for X by dividing each side of the equation by 0. Carefully check the decimal placement.Contoh kasus 2 •A patient is scheduled to receive 0.025 mg and canceling units that appear in both the numerator and denominator. How many tablets should you give? State the problem as a proportion: 0.05 mg : X The product of the means equals the product of the extremes: 1 tablet × 0.05 mg levothyroxine P.025 mg : 1 tablet :: 0.O. created by @anggapk .

Cross-multiply the fractions: 5. created by @anggapk . How many milliliters of the drug should you give? 1. Set up the second fraction with the desired dose and the unknown number of milliliters: 3. The label reads 250 mg/5 ml. Set up the first fraction with the known solution strength: 2. and the bottle contains 100 ml.Contoh kasus 3 •Your patient is receiving 500 mg of cefaclor in an oral suspension. Solve for X by dividing both sides of the equation by 250 mg and canceling units that appear in both the numerator and denominator You'll need to administer 10 ml of cefaclor to the patient. Put these numbers into a proportion: 4.

Set up the second fraction with the unknown amount desired—X—in the appropriate position: 4. 2. Set up the first fraction with the amount desired over the amount you have: 3.Contoh kasus 4 A drug order calls for 60 mEq potassium chloride liquid as a one-time dose. Cross-multiply the fractions: 6. 20 mEq of the solution on hand equals 1 tbs. You'll see that 15 ml equals 1 tbs. Solve for X by dividing each side of the equation by 20 mEq and canceling units that appear in both the numerator and denominator: X = 3 tbs created by @anggapk . therefore. but the only solution on hand contains 20 mEq/15 ml. How many tablespoons should you give the patient? 1. Put these fractions into a proportion: 5. Convert the milliliters to tablespoons by using a conversion table.

Contoh kasus 5 created by @anggapk .

Hamid Menurut FI ed.Contoh kasus 6 Contoh : R/ Atropini Sulfas 0.s m. Abd.5 mg Bellad.dtd.I Pro Tn. III (1979) : DM untuk Atropini Sulfas : Sekali = 1 mg Sehari = 3 mg Jadi : Persentase satu kali = Persentase satu hari = created by @anggapk .Pulv.t.f.dd. No X S.P. Extr. 15 mg Lactose q.

III (1979) : DM untuk Atropini Sulfas : Sekali = 1 mg Sehari = 3 mg DM Rumus 5 x 1 = 0.i.d.1%/sendok 0.s m. Extr. syr 60ml S.Contoh kasus 7 Contoh : R/ Atropini Sulfas 0. I cth Pro: Hamid (5 thn) Menurut FI ed.29 mg 5+12 Persentase satu kali 60ml/5ml=12 sendok 1 x 0.f.041 x 3 x 100 = 13.9%/sendok 0.041 x 100 = 14.5 mg Bellad.88 created by @anggapk .t.041 mg 12 0.5 = 0. 15 mg Lactose q.29 Persentase satu hari 0.

Contoh kasus 8 If the maintenance dose of a drug for 70 kg adult is 100 mg per day. what is the appropriate dose for a 15 kg child? Using surface area SA = 0.62 m2: Using weight created by @anggapk .

Christopher A and Belcher. Julia A. 2007. 2003.K. 1st Edition. created by @anggapk . Marissa R. Pickar. 2008. Philadephia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Christine. Dosage Calculations: An Incredibly Easy! Pocket Guide.. Pharmaceutical Compounding and Dispensing.. 3.. Chicago: Pharmaceutical Press. Dawn. Instant Clinical Pharmacology..Pustaka 1. 2007. Blackwell Publishing Ltd UK. Frazer. Greenawalt. Antoon. Collins. 4. 2nd edition. et al. Dosage Calculations: A Ratio-Proportion Approach. Melody C. 2. Evan J. New York: Thomson. Begg. Gloria D. Langley.

concurrent.OTT Drug interaction: Both in vitro and in vivo physically and chemically interaction Any in vivo incompatibility in which clinical effects of one drug may be desirably or undesirably altered by the prior. created by @anggapk . or subsequent administration of the same or additional exogenous substances.

Pharmacology Physyical Interaction Chemical OTT Foods created by @anggapk .

1971. dispensing Of Medication: Formerly husa’s Pharmaceutical Dispensing. 7th edition.Pustaka Martin. Pennsylvania: Mack Publishing. Eric W. 113-175 created by @anggapk .

Terima Kasih The only source of knowledge is experience -Albert Einstein- created by @anggapk .

Jelaskan definisi dosis dan OTT? 2. Anak dengan berat 24 pon mendapat resep Cetirizine dengan Dosis lazim 100 mg.1ddPI PO. Hitung dosisnya? 4.Quiz 1. Hitung dosisnya? created by @anggapk . Sebutkan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi dosis? 3. Anak dengan berat 25 pon mendapat resep Isoniazid (DM sehari 10mg/kg) pemberian 40mg s.

f. Wiro Sudiro SIP: 0790098/DR. XII S . Made Sumade : Jl. Hayam Buruk Telp : 0888888888 29 september 11 CTM tab 1 Amoxicillin 500mg tab No. d I p Stesolid tab 2 mg No. 3 . d. t.d 1 paraf paraf Pro : Wong Fei Hung : 5 th : Jl. Lengeh Denpasar Umur Alamat created by @anggapk . Ayam Betutu Telp : 0999999999 29 september 08 6 dr. pulv d. Bahagia Sentosa Pro Alamat : Tn. i.U/077 Alamat : Jl.d 1 paraf Prednison 5mg tab 1 Acid Ascorbat 75 mg m. Ica Jessica SIP: 0000007/DR.5 dr. d.t.U/098 Alamat : Jl.d No XII S . 3 . V S .

7 8 created by @anggapk .