Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

Dimensional analysis and hydraulic modeling.

1. In a 1/50 model of a spillway, the discharge was measured to be 0.3 . The corresponding prototype discharge in is (A) 2.0 (B) 15.0 6. A river reach of 2.0km long with maximum flood discharge of 10000m3 /s is to be physically modeled in the laboratory where maximum available discharge is 0.20 . For a geometrically similar model based on equality of Froude number, the length of the river reach (m) in the model is (A) 26.4 (B) 25.0 (C) 20.5 (D) 18.0 Group-I contains dimensionless parameters and Group- II contains the ratios. Group-I Group –II P. Mach Number 1. Ratio of inertial force and gravitational force Q. Reynolds Number 2. Ratio of fluid velocity and velocity of sound R. Weber Number 3. Ratio of inertial force and viscous force S. Froude Number 4. Ratio of inertial force and surface tension force The correct match of dimensionless parameters in Group- I with ratios in Group-II is: (A) P-3, Q-2, R-4, S-1 (B) P-3, Q-4, R-2, S-1 (C) P-2, Q-3, R-4, S-1 (D) P-1, Q-3, R-2, S-4 8. A 1:10 scale model of sub marine moving for below the surface of water is tested in a water tunnel. If the speed of prototype is 8m/sec. determine the corresponding velocity of water in tunnel. Also determine the ratio of drag for the model and prototype. Kinematic viscosity of sea water is , and that of water is . = 1027kg/ , =1000kg/ Ans: 0.774

(C) 106.0 (D) 5303.0 2. A laboratory model of a river is built to a geometric scale of 1:00. The fluid used in the model is oil of mass density 900 kg/m3. The highest flood in the river is 10,000 m3/s. The corresponding discharge in the model shall be (a) 0.95 m3/s. (b) 0.100 m3/s. 3 (c) 0.105 m /s.(d) 10.5 m3/s. The height of a hydraulic jump in the stilling pool of 1.25 scale model was observed to be 10 cm. The corresponding prototype height of the jump is (a) not determinable from the data given (b) 2.5 m c) 0.5 m (d) 0.1 m 4. The flow of glycerin (kinematic viscosity v = 5 ×10-4 m2/s) in an open channel is to be modeled in a laboratory flume using water (v=10-6m2/s) as the flowing fluid. If both gravity and viscosity are important, what should be the length scale (i.e. ratio of prototype to model dimensions) for maintaining dynamic similarity ? (a) 1 (b) 22 (c) 63 (d) 500 A 1: 50scale model of a spillway is to be tested in the laboratory. The discharge in the prototype is 1000 M3/s. The discharge to be maintained in the model test is (a) 0.057 m3/s (b) 0.08m2/s (c) 0.57 m3/s (d) 5.7 m3/s





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Sub: Water Resources Engineering
9. A single pipe of length =1500m and diameter 60cm connects two reservoirs having difference of 20m in water level. The pipe is to be replaced by two pipes of same length and equal diameter d to convey 25% more discharge under same head loss. So the dia is? D= 0.5m

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics
16. A model is built of a flow phenomenon which is governed by the action of gravity and surface tension force. Show that the length scale ratio which will ensure complete similarity between model and the prototype is √

10. A 1350 scale model of spillway is to be tested in laboratory. The discharge in prototype is 1000 . What is the discharge in model? Ans: 5.64

17. Water flows through value having 0.8m diameter at a rate 85 . It is to be tested in a geometrically similar model of 10cm diameter with water as working fluid. Determine the required flow rate in the model. (Clue: Reynolds model law) Ans: 18. A large hydraulic turbine is to generate 300Kw at 1000rpm under a head of 40m. For initial testing a 1:4 scale model of the turbine operates under a hand of 10m. Find the power generated by the model? 19. A spillway model of 1:10 scale is constructed to study the flow characteristics for a prototype dam of width 10m and to carry water at a flow rate of 60 . Determine the required model width and flow rate. What operating time for the model corresponds to a 24hr period in prototype? Ans: 0.19 , 7.6hr

11. The height of hydraulic jump in a stilling pool of 1:25 scale model was observed to be 10cm. the corresponding prototype height of jump is Ans: 2.5m 12. Water at flows at 4m/s in a 150mm pipe. At what velocity must oil at C flow in a 75mm pipe for the two flows to be dynamically similar? Take v for water at as and that for oil at C as Ans: 20.96m/s 13. A 1/6 model automobile is tested in a wind tunnel with same air properties as the prototype. The prototype automobile runs on the roads of velocity of 60 km/hr. for dynamically similar conditions, the drag measured on the model are 500N. determine the drag of the prototype and the power required to overcome the drag Ans: 500N,8.33KN 14. A hydraulic jump occurring in a stilling basin is to be studied in a 1:36 scale model. The prototype jump has an intial velocity of 10m/s, an entrance Froude number of 6.0 and power loss of 2kw per meter width of basin. Determine a) The corresponding model velocity b) Model Froude number c) power loss per meter width of the model Ans: a=1.67m/s, b= 6.0, c=0.26w 15. A model of a reservoir having a free water surface within it is drained in 3 minutes by opening a fluice gate. The geometrical scale of the model is . How long would it take to empty the prototype Ans: 30min

20. A 1:30 scale model of a submarine is to be tested in a wind tunnel for its drag when it is operating at 15Km/h in ocean. The kinematic viscosity of air is 1.51 and for water 1.02 . What is the velocity of air in wind tunnel that should be maintained for kinematic similarity? a) 1500m/s b) 2000m/s c) 1850.5m/s d) 2500.5m/s

21. Which one of the following statements is not correct? a) Models are always smaller than the prototypes b) Dynamic similarity between a model and a prototype can be verified by equating Reynolds number in a viscous flow. c) Mach number achieves significance when the velocity of fluid approaches or exceeds the sonic velocity. d) Distorted models are always exaggerated on a vertical scale.


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Sub: Water Resources Engineering

Topic : Fluid Mechanics & Hydraulics

22. A river model is constructed to a horizontal scale of 1:1000 and a vertical scale of 1:100. A model discharge of 0.1 would correspond to a discharge in the prototype, of what magnitude? a) b) c) d)

23. For a homologous model of a pump built to a scale ratio of 1:2, fluid and speed being the same in model and prototype, the ratio of model power to prototype power is a) b) c) d)

24. Distorted models are needed for: 1. Rivers 2. Dams across wide rivers 3. Harbours a) 1 and 2 only b) 2 and 3 only c) 1 and 3 only d) 1, 2 and 3


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