GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF DELTAIC SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF THE RIVER MAHANADI

A PROJECT REPORT Submitted by

Harekrushna Behera(100301cel025) Rajesh Muduli (100301cel060) Mrutyunjaya Nayak(100301cel027) Pradeep Kumar Majhi(100301cel026) Bishwambhar Jal(100301cel030) Jananjaya Jena(100301cel061)
In partial fulfillment of the award of the degree Of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY In
CIVIL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

CENTURION UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY&MANAGEMENT:: ODISHA NOVEMBER 2013

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING CENTURION INSTITUTE FOR TECHNOLOGY & MANAGEMENT BHUBANESWAR-752050
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that this project report GEOTECHNICAL ASSESSMENT OF DELTAIC SOUTHERN BOUNDARY OF DELTA is the bonafide work of Harekrushna Behera, Rajesh Muduli, Mrutyunjaya Nayak, Pradeep Kumar Majhi , Bishwambhar Jal , Jananjaya Jena who carried out the project work under my supervision. This is to further certify to the best of my knowledge that this project has not been carried out earlier in this institute and the university.

Signature MAHASAKTI MAHAMAYA
Assistant professor Dept.of Civil Engineering

Signature SIBA PRASAD MISHRA
Assistant Professor Dept.of Civil Engineering

my supervision. This is to further certify to the best of my knowledge that this project has not been carried out earlier in this institute and the university.

SIGNATURE (Prof.R.K.PANIGRAHI) HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT Professor of Civil Engineering

DEPARTMENT SEAL

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to express my profound and sincere gratitude to Asst Prof.Mahasakti Mahamaya & Sibaprasad Mishra Department of Civil Engineering, CUTM, Jatni, who guided me into the intricacies of this project non-chalantly with matchless magnanimity.

We thank Dr. Ramakanta Panigrahi, Head of the Dept. of Civil Engineering, CUTM, Jatni and DEAN, SOET JITM for extending their support during Course of this investigation. We would be failing in my duty if I don’t acknowledge the co-operation rendered during various stages of image interpretation by our entire teacher.

We are highly grateful to guides & teachers who evinced keen interest and invaluable support in the progress and successful completion of my project work.

We are indebted to guides & teachers for their constant encouragement, co-operation and help. Words of gratitude are not enough to describe the accommodation and fortitude which they have shown throughout my endeavor.

Harekrushna Behera Rajesh Muduli Mrutyunjaya Nayak

(100301cel025) (100301cel060) (100301cel027)

Pradeep Kumar Majhi (100301cel026) Bishwambhar Jal Jananjaya Jena (100301cel030) (100301cel061)

CONTENTS

CHAPTER NO.

TITLE LIST OF TABLE LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT

PAGE NO.

CHAPTER-1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 INTRODUCTION UNIQUENESS OF THE STUDY AIM OF THE STUDY CHARACTERICTICS OF SOIL PROPERTIES OF SOIL OBJECTIVE BENEFITS OF SOIL TEST 1 2 2 3 4 4 4

CHAPTER-2 2.1 FORMULATION OF PROJEC 2.2 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL OF THE DELTA 2.2.1Drainage channels 2.2.2 Flood plains 2.2.3Drainage pattern 2.3 WORKS CHAPTER-3 3.1 METHODOLOGY8 3.2 SPESIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL 3.3 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL BY SIEVE TEST 3.4 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE OF SOIL SAMPLE13-15 3.5 LIQUID LIMIT OF THE SOIL SAMPLE CHAPTER-4 4.1 PLASTIC LIMIT OF SOIL 4.2 COMPACTION PROPERTIES OF SOI CHAPTER-5 5.1 RESULTS 5.1.1Specific gravity of soil 32-33 21-23 24-31 8-9 10-12 5 5-6

7

16-20

CHAPTER NO.1.2SUMMARY 5. TITLE PAGE NO.2 Plastic limit of soil 5. 5.3 Liquid limit of soil 5.4 FUTURE WORK 34 34 35 REFERENCES 36-37 .5 Grain size distribution of soil 5.1.3CONCLUSION 5.1.4 Compaction properties 5.1.

8-Nathapur LIQUID LIMIT OF THE SOIL SAMPLE 3.3-Barimula 4.5-Nuagaon 4.1.8-Nathapur COMPACTION PROPERTIES OF SOIL 4.2.4-Kant 3.Saradeipur village.3.2.5.7-Jatni 4.4.7-Jatni 3.3.5.5.2-Madhipur 4.5.1-Saradeipur village 4.8.6.3.5.1.2-Madhipur 3.5-Nuagaon 4.1-Saradeipur village 3.7.3-Barimula 4.LIST OF TABLES TABLES TITLE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL PAGE NO.Nathapur 4.Left side of the river GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL BY SIEVE TEST 3.4-Kant 4.2.7-Jatni 3.8.5.3.1-Saradeipur village 4.Panchagaon 8 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 21 21 21 22 22 22 22 23 24 25 25 26 27 27 28 29 .7.3-Barimula 3.2-Madhipur 4.3.1.2.5.2.6.4-Kant 4.2.Right side of the river 3.2.2-Madhipur 3.Jatni 4.3-Barimula 3.3.6-Panchagaon 4. 3.5-Nuagaon 3.6-Panchagaon 3.5.6-Panchagaon 3.3.8-Nathapur PLASTIC LIMIT OF SOIL 4.2. 3.2.5-Nuagaon 3.4-Kant 3.3.5.2.3.2.2.

2.2.4. 2 3 5 Fig-3.2.4.1 TAKING SOIL SAMPLE AREA Fig-2.3.1 PHOTOS OF GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK 15 Fig-3.1 PHOTOS OF COMPACTION TEST IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK 20 23 31 .LIST OF FIGURE FIGURE TITLE Fig-1.1 PHOTOS OF PLASTIC LIMIT TEST IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK Fig-4.2.1 LEFT OF DAYA RIVER EMBACKMENT INSIDE DELTA Fig-2.5.1.1 PHOTOS OF LIQUID LIMIT TEST IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK Fig-4.1GEOMORPHIC FEATURE OF MAHANADI RIVER DELTA Fig-1.1 PHOTOS OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK 9 PAGE NO.2 DRAINAGE CHANNEL6 Fig-3.

The primal focussed area of study is the extension of Mahanadi delta towards its south and its impact on the largest brackish water lake of asia. sand dunes near the meandered channels also confirm about the delta propagation and abandonment of the old Channels. mud flats. Since the length of the Daya embankment is 60kms only 15 km have been considered in this study. the Centurion University of Technology and Management (CUTM). Due to sedimentation the vegetation. plastic limit and the coefficients of uniformity. Further a detailed study of the landform. sand dunes and abandoned ridges advocates about the enlargement of the delta. The sedimentation processes in the branched rivers of Mahanadi is continuously developing by raising its land form.The northern sector of the Chilika Lagoon and the flood plains of the rivers Daya and Bhargovi is our focussed area which has been little studied by previous workers where as a number of researchers have worked on the extention of the northern quarter of the tri-delta of Mahanadi River Delta development: The step by step delta-building processes of the existing set of rivers continued throughout the Quaternary period (2. characteristic vegetation. the soil. This condition aggravates the drainage congestion of the rivers Daya-Bhargovi system. is almost matured today for the reaches parallel to the coast today. ana-branching. liquid limit. Present study: It has been noticed that the southerly deltaic boundary of Mahanadi delta is the right embankment of Daya River.5mtr of the bed of Chilika lagoon.ABSTRACT The intention of this study is to have cram on the geological formation of a River Basin of the river Mahanadi and it’s development in its deltaic regionwith geographic time scale. branching patern within the uplands of the river Daya and the river Bhargovi (Doab) alongwith their meandearing character is taken for study. the flora and fauna of the area in the vicinity of the southern embankment has been changed. The shifts in the distributaries along with base level variations from time to time have been well marked in the delta. Formation of lobes.588 million years ago) and all the rivers that have cut across the Eastern Ghats trend to flow in the south-easterly direction. Reasons for development: In the delta building process. The head reach of the Daya and Bhargovi river are quite wide to receive and accommodate their flood share of the River Mahanadi (about 4% each) where as in the lower reaches they are shrunk. land form and monsoonal precipitation had controlled the sedimentation pattern in the Lower Deltaic Plains of River Mahanadi. Existence of swamps. The balance of retained flood deposits it sediment in the flood plain areas of the western shore of the lagoon which helps in enlargement of the delta. grain size analysis. The presence of abandoned deltaic elements like the palaeo-deltaic lobes within the delta suggests more than one major stage of deltabuilding activity. which can receive only a fraction of flood volume. Since the soil characteristics demarcate a delta and a non delta region it is thought to take soil samples from both side of the river and test its characteristics such as specific gravity. the river Bhargovi a southerly branch of the river Mahanadi. In the south east corner of the delta the process is very active today as the bed level at the confluence point of the river Daya is at lower level of 1.(from 36km to 85km downstream). the Chilika lagoon. the laboratory has given us scope to investigate about our study. . Tectonic depressions. This has urged myself and my friends to investigate about the issue and have the characteristic studies by taking help of our organization. The Civil Department of our organization. But it is found that last two centuries the flood plain of the river is encroached by different floods.

Present-day delta system is not older than than 7. The current deltas of some rivers are built on the remains of numerous deltas stretching back millions of years. The capacity and the comepetance of the river channel also determine the amount of sediment it can carry and the volume it fails to carry.CHAPTER-1 1. These volume are used for development of delta building. swamps. 10km upstream of the Cuttacki city. To the south of the delta lays the Eastern Ghats hills and at corner the largest brackish water lake of Asia. is a river and the sediment it transports. During 7000 years B. the pattern of the distributaries in the delta has changed which is seen today. 18◦51’ N. Coarse sandy particles are deposited first. lakes. Khordha and Ganjam of coastal districts of Odisha It is a tri delta constituting the rivers Baitarani.000 years ago. all the water is guided out to the ocean by the active distributaries.1 INTRODUCTION Deltas are geologically young landforms. The areas between the channels receive sediment of the distribytary branches.) is the third largest delta among the east flowing peninsular rivers in East Coast of India        It’s deltaic propagation covers about 300 km of coastal reach covering the districts Bhadrak. 21◦ 49’ N and Long. Brahamani and Mahanadi. and its continual formation. as sea levels have risen and fallen in response to glacial periods. Khurdha and Tangi blocks of Khurdha district.P. The important places lies in the southern flank are Bhunaeswar. Sediment is deposited in these channels when the flood flow is blocked on the way it traverses. and tidal flats (muddy or marshy areas that are covered and uncovered by the rising and falling tides). Cuttack. 85◦ 00’ E 87◦ 25’ E. The key to the creation of a delta. The southern length of the delta is 60km. Yet their surface can change rapidly and significantly. deltas have formed and have been covered over. A delta is often a patchwork of marshes. when sea levels stopped rising after the last ice age. the Chilika Lagoon. producing low ridges or embankments along the banks of the distributaries which are called as natural levees.(Mishra and Jena 2012) 1 . Over Earth's history. Kendrapara. The noted points about mahanadi delta are as follows: • The Mahanadi delta (Lat. Puri. Jagatsinghpur. During the normal flow of the main river in a delta.. The delta Head is at Naraj. The lagoon act as a balancing reservoir for two southerly distributaries of River Daya and the river Bhargovi contributing 61% of fresh water flow to the lagoon. Jatani.

salinity variance and polution. (Mahalik N K. Khurdha and Puri of odisha state which is thicky populated having highest population density 799 and 488 per sqkm respectively.3 Aim of study.1. change of course of some branches. The geomorphological changes that has ocured with time scale has been studied by different authors from time to time. The extension of Mahanadi delta towards its south and its impact on the largest brackish water lagoon of Asia. The radar sat imagery of the delta in the southern flange of Daya river shows propagation of the delta to its south 1. Chilika lagoon lying in the southern corner of the delta covering 1165sqkm has been highlighted as the ecowonder for its flora. In this paper studies have been made to find additional room for the southern propagation and extension of the delta of the river Mahanadi to southwest and encroachment of northern coast of the brackish water lagoon Chilika. silting up of few channels with age indicates the area is going to face a revolution and change in life style of its inhabitants. The changes have altered their lifestyle and sources of livelihood of the people of the area today. biodiversity. Formation of new distributaries. fauna. 1996).1 2 . fishery resources and winged guest avifauna. (Subramanyan V et al 2008). But no investigation have yet been done about enlargement of the southern region of the delta. The delta-building activity has been studied in details towards the north from Chandbali to Paradip. Geomorphologic changes in the land forms of the Doab along with change in the land form of the Today the lagoon is a deep concern for the society and the stake holders due to dimunation of its area.2 Uniqueness of the study: The southern part of Mahanadi delta covers two districts. Fig-1.3.

grass and upto 15cm upper layer soil is thrown out of site. A soil evaluation begins with a simple soil probe or hand auger. small bushes. Beyond the southern deltaic range Lateritic soil with patches of black cotton soil of EGB Hills range is found.The sights designated are cleared from debrises. plastic limit and the coefficients of uniformity which has been done in the laboratory of CUTM. Panchagaon and Jatani. The procedure and the results obtained are given in the graph. Then the lateritic zone of the Eastern Ghats hills starts which stretches from Bhubaneswar near Sisupalgarh of Bhubaneswar to Tangi in the upper reach even the Rambha Hills range in the lower reach. test and compare its characteristics such as specific gravity. Madhipur.It has been noticed that the deltaic boundary of Mahanadi delta is the right embankment of Daya river. grain size analysis. Road cuts and other open excavations expose soil profiles and serve as a window to the soil. Procedure of taking samples Fig-1. Nuagaon. Barimul. Similarly from the right flank of River daya the palces for sampling chosen are Nathapur. kanti in the Left bank of Daya river.4 CHARACTERSTICS OF SOIL The southern boundary of the river Mahanadi ends by its right embankment. the alluvial plains end there. Horizons begin to differentiate as materials are added to the upper part of the profile and other materials move to deeper zones.1 The sights have been inspected by us and selected to take samples are Sardeipur.4. liquid limit. The vertical section exposing the texture changes in the different layers of soils termed a soil profile. to retrieve samples of soil at different depths. But it is found that last two centuries the flood plain of the river is encroached by different volume of floods.(Mishra and Jena 2013) But due to extension of the delta this characteristics have changed with time. These 3 . giving these layers a darker color than the lower ones. 1. Organic matter from decomposed plant leaves and roots tends to accumulate in the uppermost horizons. Since the soil characteristics demarcate a delta and a non delta region it is thought to take soil samples from both side of the river.

Know different types of soil We know the Specific gravity of soil. and hence. Soaked or Un-soaked soil. Gain experience with a range of methodologies for measuring soil properties and assessing soil quality. These lower layers are referred to as subsoil. Become familiar with different soil types and varying soil properties. Plastic limit. and its sustainability.7 BENEFITS OF SOIL TEST     Know the properties and assessing soil quality. Analysis of soil conditions on soil quality. terrain conditions. The characteristics of subsoil greatly influence most land-use activities. Use the analysis of soil conditions to assess the impact of varying management strategies on soil quality. iron and aluminum oxides. sustainability properties 1. gypsum or calcium carbonate accumulated from the horizons above. Shear strength. The soil test is      Specific gravity of soil Grain size distribution of soil Liquid limit of soil Plastic limit of soil Compaction properties (standard proctor test) 1. 2. 1. Observe the relationship between soil conditions. 4. Shrinkage limit. and past management practices. 3.horizons are generally referred to as the topsoil. Particle size of soil.5 PROPERTIES OF SOIL The soils from the different sample points at Cove Creek are characterized by measuring a Number of soil properties 1.6 OBJECTIVE Predicting deltaic boundary in its southern sector of the river Mahanadi by soil testing method. The next layers contain less organic matter and are composed of silicate clays. Permeability of soil. 4 . Compaction properties. Roots can’t penetrate impermeable subsoil and water can’t move through it. Liquid limit.

The purpose of this paper is to describe the venous geomorphic features of the Mahanadi delta and to bring out the successive stages in the evolution of the delta.1 Below the delta head.1Drainage channels Also present in the delta are channels that carry the waters that accumulate in the flood plain either due to rain or to excess spill from the active distributaries channels during floods. and aeolian origin Left of Daya river embankment inside delta as on 18. 1). They occupy the lowest contours of the flood plain and flow down slope to the sea. 3). and the Kuakhai system. 2. The study was based on the interpretation of topographic maps. 2. Several such important drainage channels are present in the flood plain 5 . the main Mahanadi channel divides into the Mahanadi on the north and the Kathjodi on the south. Along the sea margin. These deltas have been receiving wide attention in respect of their morphology. and river-borne sediments have been deposited.2. evolution. marine-marginal sector (Fig. These two further divide downstream into many branches. The main river Mahanadi branches into many distributaries channels.2013 Fig-2.2 GEOMORPHOLOGICAL OF THE DELTA The Mahanadi deltaic plain is divisible into two major regions: the upper.CHAPTER-2 2. The marine influences are non-existent in this part of the delta.1 FORMULATION OF PROJECT Major deltas in India lie along its east coast (Fig. both fluvial and marine agencies have operated together to form a variety of geomorphic features along the coast. The various geomorphic features of this plain are of marine. forming the broad. fluvio-marine. The fluvial sector occupies more than the western half of the delta plain. the Mahanadi system. The marine-marginal sector is a geomorphic belt running parallel and adjacent to the present-day shoreline. as well as on field investigations. aerial photographs. lying between 85°40' to 86°45'E and 19°40' to 200 35'N.2. and satellite Imageries. The Mahanadi delta in Orissa State is one of the east coast deltas. fluvial sector' and the lower. the Kathjodi-Debi system. and is primarily composed of sediments deposited by the river systems within the delta. and applied aspects. flat. which make up four active distributaries systems from north to south: the Birupa system. These channels are termed here as 'drainage channels'. alluvial plain.9.

after a straight southerly course. The important drainage channels are: the Gobari between the Birupa and the Mahanadi. The ill-drained areas are the lowest area in between present-day active distributaries channels. which are occupied by swamps and lakes. close to the coast before they debouch into the sea (Fig. The distributaries channels fan out from the delta head to northeast. The Bhargabi flows south and then takes a right angled turn clockwise.2. clockwise or anticlockwise. Hence there is difficulty in natural drainage of these areas. The Kushbhadra.2 Flood plains The area between the two distributaries channels is the low-lying flood plain.2. The bends in the Mahanadi and the Debi are thought to be due to the effects of long shore currents and ancient beach ridges. but they carry very little sediment load. the Kadua between the Prachi and the Kushbhadra.3Drainage pattern The drainage pattern 111 the Mahanadi delta is radial and parallel. whereas the bends in the Bhargabi and the Kushbhadra are due to the positive topography of coastal sands between Puri and Konark 6 .the Dhanua between the Kushbhadra and the Bhargabi. The axial zone is occupied by a drainage channel. 3). east. which is mostly fine-grained material. south. Fig-2. and southwest.2 2. The flood plains have ill-drained areas in their central parts. It has a minimum elevation along the axial zone and a very low gradient towards the sea. deflects eastward and meets the sea parallel to the shore. 2. draining into Chilika Lake. southeast. The main Mahanadi and Debi channels turn at right angles anticlockwise and run parallel to the coast. Most of the rivers take significant right-angled turns..2. the Hansua between the Mahanadi and the Kathjodi-Debi.

From the review of literature the “Geomorphology and Evolution of the Mahanadi Delta.2. Also include information about characteristics such as geologic origin. and management history. India” of N K Mahalik et al 2004 elucidates the Geomorphology changes with geographical time scale. liquid limit.3 WORKS Visited the site and contacted EE Irrigation. Collected the soil samples from the area as per norm. particle size distribution. Purl to have detail knowledge of the delta. plastic limit. color. Describe the soil at your sample point as exhaustively as possible based on the various tests and measurements carried out. 7 . Sieve analysis. compaction properties of the data has been done for the 8 soil samples and the also graphs and photos are done.

8 Barimula in (g) 40 60 108 96 2. Specific gravity Average specific gravity Saradeipur Village in (g) 60 80 101 13 2. TABLE 3.2.5 Kanti in (g) 55 75 111 101 2 8 .Right side of the river Sl Observation area no 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weight of density bottle Weight of density bottle + dry soil Weight of density bottle + dry soil + water at temperature Weight of bottle + water at temp. degree of saturation etc. Soils having heavy substances may have values above 3.1. So the specific gravity at 27c =KxSp. Right side of the river Saradeipur Village Madhipur Barimula Kanti Left side of the river Nuagaon Panchgaon Jatni Nathapur 3.soil containing organic matter and porous particles may have specific gravity value below 2.0.65 to 2. The tests are  Specific gravity of soil  Grain size distribution of soil by sieve test  Liquid limit of soil  Plastic limit of soil  Compaction properties of soil The soil samples are taken in the two side of the river side village.85. The specific gravity of the soil particle lie within the range of 2.5 2.5 Madhipur (g) 30 50 99 86 2.1METHODOLOGY Soil testing is mainly required to provide the deltaic boundary in its southern sector of the river Mahanadi. unless or otherwise specified specific gravity values report shall be based on water at 27degree Celsius.2SPESIFIC GRAVITY OF SOIL Specific gravity G is defined as the ratio of the weight of an equal volume of distilled water at that temperature both weights taken in air. gravity at Txc.0. The knowledge of specific gravity is needed in calculation of soil properties like void ratio .CHAPTER-3 3.

TABLE 3.2.8 Panchagaon in (g) 37 57 106 93 2.2 2.-3. 5 Specific gravity 6 Average specific gravity Nuagaon in (g) 55 75 112 101 2.2.5 PHOTO’S OF SPECIFIC GRAVITY IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK FIG.8 Jatni in (g) 30 50 78 63 4 Nathapur in (g) 55 75 113 101 2.Left side of the river Sl Observation area no 1 Weight of density bottle 2 Weight of density bottle + dry soil 3 Weight of density bottle + dry soil + water at temperature 4 Weight of bottle + water at temp.1 9 .2.

150mic.7 4.5 8 2.5 96.2.75. 600 mic.3GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SOIL BY SIEVE TEST The grain size analysis is widely used in classification of soil .4 87 41.75mm IS sieve.36 mm 1. Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.3 20. The complete sieve analysis can be divided in two parts-the coarse analysis and fine analysis.75 mm 2.75mm sieve) is subjected to fine analysis.3 50. Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.6 93.2 3.1 11. 10. information obtained from grain size analysis can be used to predict soil eater movement although permeability test are more generally used.0mm.5 5. & 4.7 100 % finer 97.6 79. & 75micron is sieves.1 0 Table 3.1.3 14.6 10. the sieves are used for fine sieve analysis are : 2mm . 425mic.9 39. The set of sieves are used for coarse sieve analysis: IS: 100.3 58.3 16.8 21.2 3.madhipur.75 mm 2.3. 300mic. 212mic.5 74.36 mm 1.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan 397 94 114 57 33 52 46 146 61 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 39. 20.1 100 % finer 60.7 39.Saradeipur village.3 2. RIGHT SIDE OF THE RIVER Table 3.3 3.5 mm sieve) is termed as the gravel fraction and is kept for the coarse analysis.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan 23 22 35 2 24 453 165 215 37 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 2.5 5.6 2. air field etc. The data obtained from grain size distribution curves is used in the design of filters for earth dams and to determine suitability of soil for road construction. The portion retained on it(+4.2 4.3 69.2 74.7 95.5 3.7 25.7 0 10 .4 49.5 25.7 9.4 60.3. An oven dried sample of soil is separated I two fractions by sieving it through a 4. the grain size analysis is an attempt to determine the relative proportions of different grain sizes which make up a given soil mass.9 6.7 6.4 13 45.5 33.3 2.7 66. while the portion passing through it (-4. 63.8 30.3.5 92 89. 1.

5 0 Table 3.0 53.3 4.8 4.3 45.9 49.6 10 43.1 2.7 3.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan 111 120 105 185 195 160 41 38 45 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 11.2 0 Table 3.36 mm 1.7 55.3-Barimula Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.9 0 LEFT SIDE OF THE RIVER Table 3.6 5.6 9.7 47.3 8.4 14.3 8.9 71.Panchagaon Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.75 mm 2.75 mm 2.6 18.8 4.6 53.11 % finer 76.6 95.8 77.2 7.9 .6 7..6 16.9 100 % finer 73.4 97.5 52.1 84.8 95.5 33.1 12 23.Table 3.8 5.2 26.3.5 4.3.4 67 54.7 46.4 4.8 21.7 9.6 12.36 mm 1.1 35.0 87.75 mm 2.75 mm 2.3 2.3 87.0 22. Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan 453 86 110 69 58 78 48 56 42 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 45.5 100 % finer 88.4 50.3.4-Kanti.7 46.3.8 90.36 mm 1.2 22.0 12.5 44.7 62.2 100 % finer 54.4 56.4 8.5 71. Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.6 9.2 78.4 9.4 33.9 11 64.6 4.1 11.9 28.5-Nuagaon.8 66.6.7 38 15.4 33.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan 262 74 100 59 57 232 93 94 29 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 26.3 8.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 236 94 123 80 87 221 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 23.9 6.1 19.1 91.1 10.5 5.6 23.9 76.1 28.36 mm 1.2 5.8 85.2 23.4 12.9 66.3 45.

150 mic 75 mic pan 58 69 32 5.5 64.2 100 % finer 72.9 2.6 73.3 37.2 7.75 mm 2.36 mm 1.1 30.5 44.5 93.5 1.5 8.3 69.3.8.1 3.3 76.2 51.0 9.0 9.5 15.0 98.3.5 0 12 .1 6.5 1.2 0 Table 3.4 97.3 14.9 6.0 9.5 36.7.5 4.9 62.8 6.75 mm 2.8 23.5 47 37.0 26.6 17. Sieve size 4.36 mm 1.Jatni.0 28.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan Retain soil in (g) 280 93 142 125 96 173 25 44 22 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 28.4 4.3 90.8 100 10.5 12.2 89.Nathapur Sieve size Retain soil in (g) 4.0 95.4 9.00 mm 600 mic 425 mic 300 mic 150 mic 75 mic pan 445 85 99 63 73 150 40 30 15 % of retain soil in Cum % (g) 44.0 91.5 3.0 62.6 2.5 8.9 96.7 48.9 3.8 2.5 53.2 0 Table 3.5 100 % finer 55.5 4.

4 GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE OF RIGHT SIDE OF THE RIVER Madhipur 120 100 80 % FINER 60 40 20 0 1 SIEVE SIZE 10 %finer % FINER 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 SIEVE SIZE 10 Series1 Barimula Kanti 120 100 80 % FINER 60 40 20 0 1 SIEVE SIZE 10 %finer % FINER 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 Saradeipur village %finer 10 SIEVE SIZE 13 .3.

GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION CURVE OF LEFT SIDE OF THE RIVER 100 90 80 70 % finer 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 Sieve size 10 Series1 % FINER Panchagaon Nathapur 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 SIEVE SIZE 10 %finer Nuagaon 80 70 60 % FINER 40 30 20 10 0 1 SIEVE SIZE 10 10 0 1 %finer % FINER 50 40 30 20 60 50 Nathapur %finer 10 SIEVE SIZE 14 .

4.3.1 15 .PHOTOS OF GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION TEST IN LABROTORY AND FIELD Fig.

of water Wt. Empty container Wt.3.17 25 16 110 166 144 2 36 55.69 22 12 110 166 146 20 36 55.5. From the result of liquid limit the compression index may be estimated. the soil can be considered as soft.1-Saradeipur village Container no. Empty container Wt.2-Madhipur Container no.8 36 14 190 251 239 12 49 24. Liquid limit is significant to know the stress history and general properties of the soil met with construction. At this limit the soil possess low shear strength. formed by standard tool into the sample of soil taken in the standard cup .closer for 10 mm on being given 25 blows in a standard manner.5 35 10 110 178 164 14 54 25. of container + soil Wt. The soil is brittle and stiffer. of container + dry soil Wt. If the moisture content is lesser than liquid limits. of container + dry soil Wt. of water Wt. The compression index value will help us in settlement analysis.5 21 9 120 182 171 11 51 21. the soil can be considered as soft if the moisture content is lesser than liquid limit.48 31 15 140 164 157 7 17 41. of blows TABLE 3. of container + soil Wt. If the natural moisture content of soil is closer to liquid limit.92 29 11 110 176 159 17 49 34.5. of dry soil Moisture content No. of blows 13 120 159 152 7 32 21. of dry soil Moisture content (%) No.55 17 16 . RIGHT SIDE OF THE RIVER TABLE 3.5 LIQUID LIMIT OF THE SOIL SAMPLE The liquid limit is the moisture content at which the groove.

of water Wt.5.47 15 21 120 169 156 9 38 23.07 18 RIGHT SIDE OF THE RIVER TABLE 3. of container + dry soil Wt.5.31 18 1 110 162 154 8 44 18. of container + dry soil Wt.39 28 13 3 120 186 171 15 51 29. of container + soil Wt.72 23 8 150 222 207 15 57 26.18 21 20 120 179 162 17 42 40. of container + dry soil Wt.6-Panchagaon Container no. of dry soil Moisture content(%) No.5-Nuagaon Container no. of container + soil Wt. of water Wt.24 29 7 140 202 195 7 55 12. Empty container Wt. of blows TABLE 3. of water Wt.4 28 23 140 204 188 16 48 33.18 34 2 120 171 161 10 41 24. Empty container Wt. of blows 17 110 166 159 7 49 14.TABLE 3. Empty container Wt. Empty container Wt. of dry soil Moisture content(%) No.4-Kanti Container no.5.3-Barimula Container no.28 33 18 110 162 155 7 45 15. of container + soil Wt. of water Wt.5.66 15 17 .3 21 24 120 171 156 15 36 41. of dry soil Moisture content(%) No. of blows 5 190 223 229 4 39 10. of dry soil Moisture content(%) No.68 31 22 120 176 165 11 45 24.55 30 19 140 263 244 19 54 35.41 21 4 140 219 196 23 56 41. of container + soil Wt. of blows TABLE 3. of container + dry soil Wt.25 31 6 140 195 189 6 49 12.

of blows TABLE 3.8-Nathapur Container no. of container + dry soil Wt.07 34 27 120 156 148 8 28 28. of container + soil Wt. of blows 25 140 182 175 7 35 20. of container + dry soil Wt. of container + soil Wt. of water Wt. of water Wt.61 35 30 140 229 217 12 27 44.85 21 29 140 175 166 9 26 34.73 12 GRAPH OF LIQUID LIMIT OF SOIL RIGHT SIDE OF THE RIVER Madhipur 60 55 50 45 WATER CONTENT 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 NO.0 38 26 110 158 149 9 39 23. of dry soil Moisture content(%) No.5.7-Jatni Container no.TABLE 3. Empty container Wt. OF BLOWS WATER CONTENT 60 55 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 NO.44 26 31 110 166 146 20 36 55.5. OF BLOWS Saradeipur village 18 .5 20 32 140 195 174 21 34 61. of dry soil Moisture content(%) No. Empty container Wt.57 29 28 110 160 145 15 35 42.

Barimula 45 40 35 WATER CONTENT 30 WATER CONTENT 25 20 15 10 5 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 NO. OF BLOWS LEFT SIDE OF THE RIVER Nathapur 45 40 WATER CONTENT 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 NO. OF BLOWS Nuagaon 45 40 WATER CONTENT 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 19 . OF BLOWS NO. OF BLOWS 5 10 15 20 25 30 Kanti 15 10 20 25 30 35 40 NO.

the moisture content corresponding to 25 blows as read from the represent liquid limit.it is usually expressed to the nearest whole number. PHOTO’S OF LIQUID LIMIT TEST IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK 1 20 .the curve obtained is called flow curve. OF BLOWS 35 40 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 15 Panchagaon 20 25 30 35 40 NO.Jatni 50 60 50 WATER CONTENT WATER CONTENT 40 30 20 10 10 15 20 25 30 NO. OF BLOWS A graph is drawn showing the relationship between water content (on y-axis) and number of blows (X-axis) on semi log graph.

Wt of container Wt of container + wet sample Wt.CHAPTER-4 4. and soil cement blocks in addition to its use as foundation for structure. Wt of container Wt of container + wet sample Wt. 4. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) 7 13 17 16 3 1 33 8 12 24 21 7 3 42 9 19 30 26 7 4 57 TABLE NO.2-Madhipur Container no. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) 4 11 16 14 3 2 66 5 12 21 18 6 3 50 6 12 24 21 9 3 33 TABLE NO. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) 1 12 16 15 3 1 33 2 12 21 18 6 3 50 3 12 19 15 3 4 75 21 . tiles. 4. TABLE NO.1. of dry sample Wt.1. 4.1 PLASTIC LIMIT OF SOIL Soil is used for making bricks.1-Saradeipur village Container no.1.3-Barimula Container no. of container + dry sample Wt. Wt of container(g) Wt of container + wet sample Wt. of container + dry sample Wt. of container + dry sample Wt. of dry sample Wt. of dry sample Wt.

TABLE NO.1. 4. of container + dry sample Wt. of container + dry sample Wt.1.4-Kanti Container no. 4.1.7-jatani Container no. of dry sample Wt. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) 10 11 17 15 4 2 50 L5 12 19 17 5 2 40 L6 14 24 21 7 3 42 11 14 20 18 4 2 50 12 11 19 16 5 3 60 L10 19 26 23 4 3 75 L11 11 22 20 9 2 22 22 L12 11 24 21 10 3 30 . 4. Wt of container Wt of container + wet sample Wt. Wt of container Wt of container + wet sample Wt. 4.6-Panchagaon Container no. of container + dry 15 sample Wt. of dry sample 3 Wt. of dry sample Wt. of dry sample Wt. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) 5 9 15 13 4 2 50 6 12 22 19 7 3 42 9 11 23 18 7 5 71 TABLE NO.5-Nuagaon Container no. Wt of container Wt of container + wet sample Wt. of container + dry sample Wt.1. L4 Wt of container 12 Wt of container + wet 17 sample Wt. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) TABLE NO. of water in soil 2 Moisture content in 66 (%) TABLE NO.

of container + dry sample Wt.1.1 23 .8-Nathapur Container no. Wt of container Wt of container + wet sample Wt. liquidity index. and consistency index of the soil. toughness index.1.TABLE NO. of dry sample Wt. 4. of water in soil Moisture content in (%) L7 12 19 16 4 3 75 L8 14 21 18 4 3 75 L9 14 26 21 7 5 71 The objects of the test are to determine the plastic limit of soil sample and then to calculate plasticity index of soil. PHOTO’S OF PLASTIC LIMIT TEST IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK Fig-4.

The in situ density of natural soil is needed for the determination of bearing capacity of soil.65 3 1.62 5 1.60 7 35 39 42 44 41 47 42 31 37 40 41 38 45 39 3 12 19 15.1 24 . for the purpose of stability analysis of slopes.2.63 2 1.4.61 Water content Container no.8 3 13 28 18. of container +soil(g) Wt.61 6 1. Wt. of container +dry soil(g) Mass of water(g) Mass of container Mass of dry soil(g) Moisture content in % 1 2 4183 3 4355 4 4562 5 4734 6 4906 7 4827 2324 1859 2324 2031 2324 2238 2324 2410 2324 2582 2324 2503 1.64 4 1.4 3 12 27 22. in the case like embankment and pavement construction.2 COMPACTION PROPERTIES OF SOIL The object of the experiment is to determine the relationship between water content and dry density of soil using standard proctor test or modified proctor test. for the determination of pressures on underlying strata for the calculation of settlement and the design of underground structures. 4. TABLE NO. Density 4048 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold 2324 Mass of 1724 compacted soil Dry density 1. It is very quality control test.1-Saradeipur village Determination 1 no.7 3 12 26 19. The test also covers the determination of relationship between penetration resistance and water content for the compacted soil.5 2 14 31 21.7 2 12 25 16 2 11 29 16. and then to determine the optimum water content and the corresponding maximum dry density for a soil. where compaction is required.

3 30.8 31.4 31.8 Mass of 12 container(g) Mass of dry 20.59 3 48.58 7 36.2 12 31.9 content in % TABLE NO. Density 3994 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold 2324 Mass of 1670 compacted soil Dry density 1.7 1. 4.2-Madhipur Determination 1 no.7 37. of 34.7 1.8 13 24. of 32.9 1.7 5.0 soil Moisture 13. 4.1 35.2.4 12 19.64 4 42.8 19.5 1.66 5 39.4 2 4051 3 4110 4 4152 5 4157 6 4229 7 4216 2 4044 3 4103 4 4175 5 4217 6 4222 7 4209 2324 1720 2324 1779 2324 1851 2324 1893 2324 1898 2324 1885 1.63 5 35.62 6 34.7 43.8 24.8 4.6 2324 1727 2324 1786 2324 1858 2324 1900 2324 1905 2324 1892 1.TABLE NO.2.0 container +dry soil(g) Mass of water 2.8 30. of 30.3 22.9 29.8 4.4 4.65 6 35 1.3 1.3 30.6 1.4 23.55 (g/cm3) Water content 1 Container no.3 2.6 11 13.6 25. Wt.4 4.6 8 33. Wt.7 18.60 4 27.57 2 49 1.58 3 27.8 16.7 26.3 12 18.57 Water content 2 Container no.7 14 17.3-Barimula Determination 1 no.8 container +soil(g) Wt.2 1. Density 3987 Mass of mold + compacted soil(g) Mass of mold 2324 Mass of 1663 compacted soil(g) Dry density 1.7 .64 7 35 1.4 43. of 33 container +soil Wt.

6 4.1 33.60 3 1.9 4. Density 4034 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold 2324 Mass of compacted soil Dry density 1.4-Kanti Determination 1 no.6 35.2 3 12 21.5 2.5 41.1 TABLE NO.2 26. 4.1 5.6 12 20 23 4.2 51.06 23.4 12 13.66 4 1.5 12 17.8 22.9 4.8 26 .3 4.7 19 5 11 25.3 18.2 26.8 2.5 32 31. of container +soil Wt.58 Water content Container no.8 14 14. of container +dry soil Mass of water Mass of container Mass of dry soil Moisture content in % 1 2 4091 3 4150 4 4222 5 4264 6 4269 7 4256 2324 2324 2324 2324 2324 2324 1.59 2 1.7 36.2 14.1 13 17.5 12 19.9 14 18.2 45.2.5 19.container +dry soil Mass of water Mass of container Mass of dry soil Moisture content in % 2.60 7 36.6 15. Wt.56 37.5 36.4 13 32.4 13.65 5 1.6 11 24.64 6 1.6 11 19.2 12 18.7 28.6 4.1 18.9 22.3 4.1 31.7 16.06 32.4 5 12 31.

Density 4004 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold Mass of compacted soil Dry density Water content Container no.54 2 48.4 7.8 8 12 43.06 15.4 7.3 container +soil Wt.3 44.1 32 30.96 1. of container +dry soil Mass of water Mass of container Mass of dry soil Moisture content in % 2324 1680 2 4061 3 4120 4 4192 5 4234 6 4239 7 4226 2324 1737 2324 1796 2324 1868 2324 1910 2324 1915 2324 1902 1. of container +soil Wt.64 3 27.68 6 34.34 18.06 52.3 TABLE NO.63 2 49.9 12 32. Density 3998 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold 2324 Mass of 1674 compacted soil Dry density 1. of 32.3 1.5 55.TABLE NO.5 11 33.39 47.4 22.55 3 59.9 1.4 32.2.3 12.52 1 35.9 12 30.2 38.9 4.58 6 51.25 32.5 1.34 1.70 4 43 1.8 21 7.8 44.9 1.61 Water content 1 Container no.2.9 1.6-Jatni Determination 1 no.54 7 40.1 44.3 7.60 4 63. of 35. Wt.8 2. 4.3 25.4 11 41.9 1.8 25.4 container 2 4055 3 4114 4 4186 5 4228 6 4233 7 4220 2324 1731 2324 1790 2324 1862 2324 1904 2324 1909 2324 1896 1.5 14 19.7 33.3 .69 5 36.4 1.5-Nuagaon Determination 1 no.59 5 55.64 7 37. 4. Wt.8 1.5 17.6 13 34.

7 43.9 28 .2 5.6 4.4 30.6 11 17.70 4 1. Wt.4 330 30.2 12 18.4 48.7 11 24.1 12 31.2 4.8 13 17. of container +soil Wt.7 28.3 33 35 31.9 40.7 11 14.3 26.1 19.4 4.5 23 4.1 23.2 27.4 4.32 34.7-Nathapur Determination 1 no.4 19.3 12 32. of container +dry soil Mass of water Mass of container Mass of dry soil Moisture content in % 1 2 4071 3 4130 4 402 5 4244 6 4299 7 4309 8 4286 2324 1747 2324 1806 2324 1789 2324 1920 2324 1975 2324 1985 2324 1962 1.6 4.7 5.4 14.4 2.+dry soil Mass of water Mass of container Mass of dry soil Moisture content in % 2.3 16.2.7 12 19.64 2 1. TABLE NO.4 18.2 2.2 4.4 11 19.3 14 19. 4.66 7 1.4 26.62 8 34. Density 4014 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold 2324 Mass of 1690 compacted soil Dry density 1.5 12 20 22.4 35.62 Water content Container no.5 4.1 2.9 12 20.69 5 1.9 4.2 18.8 14 18.1 37.5 13 13.7 13.68 6 1.1 28.6 16.9 13 25.65 3 1.02 22.6 26.

1 12 30.6 1.55 3 28. of 31 container +dry soil Mass of water 2.8-Panchgaon Determination 1 no.52 Water content 1 Container no.59 1.5 13 12.51 0 Barimula 10 20 30 water content 29 .6 1.3 11 18.54 2 47. of 33.61 1.54 1.TABLE NO.8 4.55 1.53 1.63 1. Wt.4 4.62 1.66 1.4 22.8 18.65 1.7 container +soil Wt.4 GRAPH OF COMPACTION FACTOR TEST Panchgaon 1. 4.60 5 33.61 1.8 15.4 5.57 1.2 1.3 21.7 35.58 6 34.58 1.9 content in % 2 4061 3 4120 4 4192 5 4234 6 4211 2324 1737 2324 1796 2324 1868 2324 1910 2324 1887 1.64 dry density 1.6 42.61 4 40.52 1.59 0 10 20 30 water content dry density 1. Density 4004 Mass of mold + compacted soil Mass of mold 2324 Mass of 1680 compacted soil Dry density 1.8 4.7 17.7 12 23.3 2.8 25.56 1.9 1.2.6 1.8 29.7 Mass of 12 container Mass of dry 19 soil Moisture 12.2 13 17.5 1.3 30.

64 1.62 1.63 1.62 1.58 1.69 1.56 1.62 1.54 0 Saradeipur village dry densitys 10 20 30 water content Kanti 1.5 0 5 10 15 20 25 water content 1.66 1.72 1.58 1.65 1.64 1.67 1.52 1.57 0 10 20 30 water content 1.68 1.59 1.61 1.56 0 10 20 30 water cotent 1.56 1.7 1.62 1.71 1.58 1.6 0 Jatni dry density Series1 Series2 10 20 30 water content Nuagaon 1.68 1.64 1.58 1.67 1.64 1.6 1.62 1.64 dry density 1.6 dry density dry density 1.6 1.63 1.7 dry density 1.66 1.54 1.Madhipur 1.65 1.66 1.61 0 Nathapur 10 20 30 water content 30 .6 1.66 1.62 1.68 1.66 dry density 1.

2.1 31 .SOME PHOTO’S OF COMPACTION TEST IN LABROTORY & FIELD WORK Fig-4.

CHAPTER-5 5.5 2 2.1.5 2.6 54. 5. plastic limit 44 49.22 2.8 2.3 Specific gravity 2.5 4 32 .1.8 2.1 RESULTS From the above observation we conclude 1-Specific gravity is highest at jatani where literate soil deposits are there 2-From water content no inference can be made 3-From plastic limit observation jatani soil sample is least plastic indication that delta extension is nearby jatani 4-Maximum dry density of the soil 5-From the experiment grain size analysis we found the uniformity coefficient & co-efficient of the curvature.2 Plastic limit of soil Area 1-Saradeipur village 2-Madhipur 3-Barimula 4-Kanti Avg.1Specific gravity of soil Soil sample 1-Saradeipur Village 2-Madhipur 3-Barimula 4-kanti 5-Nuagaon 6-Panchagaon 7-Nathapur 8-Jatni 5.6 52.

1.60 1.6 42.4 Compaction properties Area 1-Saradeipur village 2-madhipur 3-Barimula 4-Kanti 5-Nuagaon 6-Panchagaon 7-Nathapur 8-Jatni Maximum dry density 1.3 5.54 1.60 1.1.3 Liquid limit of soil Area 1-Saradeipur village 2-Madhipur 3-Barimula 4-Kanti 5-Nuagaon 6-Panchagaon 7-Nathapur 8-Jatni 5.60 1.62 1.3 73.58 Water Content 30 40 26 13 26 28 35 46 33 .5-Nuagaon 6-Panchagaon 7-Nathapur 8-Jatni 53.58 1.3 49.64 1.

giving rise to a broad deltaic plain. Winds have played supporting role in reworking the deltaic sediments.688 1.3 CONCLUSION The river Mahanadi. four stages have been recognized in the building of the Mahanadi delta through fluvial and many processes. The rivers and the coast line have changed their positions with time.5 Grain size distribution of soil Area 1-Saradeipur village Cu 53.141 0.05 6. Thus the radiating distributaries network of rivers of the delta has changed their coul-se during the growth of the delta. Based On the disposition of ancient channels and ancient beach ridges. debouches into the Bay of Bengal and has built up an actuate delta during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene period. and the strandline has receded progressively offshore due to the outbuilding of the delta. 34 .736 10.658 Cc 0. The sediments brought by the Mahanadi and its distributaries are distributed by revering and marine agents. creating new landforms and modifying the old. The processes that were operative in the delta in the past continue to operate with same vigour at present.166 0. 5.5.2 SUMMARY To know the all soil properties.390 ] 5. which drains a vast catchment area.518 1.66 3.1.25 0.71 4.512 2-Madhipur 3-Barimula 4-Kanti 5-Nuagaon 6-Panchagaon 7-Nathapur 8-Jatni 11.

4 FUTURE WORK       Shrinkage limit of soil Shear strength parameters of soil by direct shear test Consolidation test of soil CBR test of soaked and un-soaked soil specimen Permeability test of soil Van shear test of soil FIG-5.4.5.1 35 .

India”. II? R. Delhi Univ. M. (1979): Wave characteristics off Paradip port. Government of Odisha. Mem.GOO (2002): “Master Plan for drainage development in coastal belt of Orissa”. No: 5. Morphology and Evolution of Landforms. (1978): Morphology and evolution of lVIahanadi and Brahmani-Baitarani deltas. N. Tamil Nadu” Journal of the Geological Society of India. N. (1991): A brief review of Mahanadi delta and the deltaic sediments In Mahanadi basin. lIiforphology and Evolution? of Landforms. 1-11 VARADARjULU. East.REFERENCES BABu.1996) WR department. RATH. K. Geography. II? dian Jour. Geol. Utkal University SAMBASIVA RAO.D. (1984): Satellite imageries in geological mapping of Orissa and geomorphologic study of Mahanadi-Brahmani-Baitarani compound delta. (1991): Evolution of Mahanadi delta. K. 1.K. B C Purnima & Ashok Kumar Jain (1973)-soil mechanics and foundation Mahalik. 21-23.22. R.. India. C. Geol.: Quaternary deltas in India. Delhi. Vol. Geol. (1995): Subsurface geology and ground-water occurrence in the south-western sector of Mahanadi delta along the eastern coast of India. p.M. 18. . East. Symp.. Dr. Soc.erl? Geographer. 217-221.V. M. Geol. B.VAlDVANADHAN. 6. Dept. and HARIKRISHNA. 111 – 122 (March. No. of Geosciences. Das. In R. VAIDYANADHAN. Utkal University. MarineSci. No. K.. and VAIDVANADI-IAN.Jour. R. NAGESWARA RAO. et al. DAs.. (1978): Geomorphic evolution of the Mahanadi delta.ern Geograph. India..P. (1992): Evolution and el1'vim1l11? Ental aspects of Mahanadi deltas. 39.. (1991): Status of Quaternary delta studies in India. 241-249. ed.. Ramasamy S. 22. 22 MAHALIK. and SARMA.L.. and Maejima Wataru (1996): “Geomorphology and evolution of Mahanadi Delta. Unpubl. N. Delhi. P. C. MAHALlK. Ph.. June 68-72. Dept. VAIDVANADHAN.. Soc. Osaka City University. R.: Quaternary deltas in India.. Research Bull. N.. R. pp: 653-662 36 . No. Mem. S. ed. BHARALl. Article.K. MAHALlK. Delhi Univ. (2006):” Late Holocene Geomorphic Evolution of Cauvery Delta. Dept.31-49. Vol: 67. Soc. Symp.. Water resources Department. Thesis. Spatial Dimensions in Geography.

G. India.from geophysical studies”. and Jena J. 63-72p.V.G. B. Odisha. northeastern Continental margin of India . (India)” ISSN 0973-4570 V 37 . Vol. Mishra. Odisha. Nayak Satyabrata et al (2012): “Lava delta below 85 0 ridge. S. P. Number 2 (2012). S. (2013): “Characteristics of western catchment and their inflow contribution to the Chilika Lagoon. P. Reliance Industries limited. ISSN 0973-4570 Volume 5.Subrahmanyam. and Jena J. identification characterization and implication of hydrocarbon prospectively” Petroleum Business (E&P). et al (2008): “Morphology and tectonics of Mahanadi Basin. India” International Journal of Lakes and Rivers. India” Hydrology Journal (2011) Volume 19 pp-355-366. Author . pp. Singh.253. et al (2011): “Deep resistivity sounding studies for probing deep fresh aquifers in the coastal areas of Orissa. Mahanadi offshore basin. Marine Geology. 123-132. Mishra. S. (2012): “Effects of variable inflow from Northern major rivers into the Chilika Lagoon.

17 .