edited by

with new photography by ANNA R. REssMAN


Library of Congress Control Number: 2012946464 ISBN-10: 1-885923-92-9 ISBN-13: 978-1-885923-92-9 © 2012 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved. Published 2012. Printed in the United States of America. The Oriental Institute, Chicago This volume has been published in conjunction with the exhibition Between Heaven and Earth: Birds in Ancient Egypt October 15, 2012–July 28, 2013. Oriental Institute Museum Publications 35 Series Editors Leslie Schramer and Thomas G. Urban with the assistance of Rebecca Cain Lauren Lutz and Tate Paulette assisted with the production of this volume. Published by The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 1155 East 58th Street Chicago, Illinois, 60637 USA

Illustration Credits Front cover: “Birds in an Acacia Tree.” Tempera on paper by Nina de Garis Davies, 1932. Catalog No. 11. Back cover: Head of an owl. Limestone and pigment. Late Period to early Ptolemaic period, 664–150 bc Catalog No. 22 Catalog Nos. 1–2, 5–15, 17–18, 20–27, 29–40: Photos by Anna R. Ressman; Catalog Nos. 3, 16, 19: Copyright the Art Institute of Chicago; Catalog No. 4: A114917d_12A, photo by John Weinstein. Reproduced with the permission of The Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, all rights reserved; Catalog No. 28: Copyright the Brooklyn Museum, New York Printed by Four Colour Print Group, Loves Park, Illinois The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Service — Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI Z39.48-1984. ∞

contrary to what Plutarch stated in the following passage of his Moralia: “‘Hermes.” 4 the Egyptians did not “write the first of their letters with an ibis. A number of studies have been devoted to the problem of the order in which the letters appear in the Egyptian alphabet.1. In each pair. “various birds are said to be ‘upon’ various trees or plants” with which they are paired.” 6. Hence the Egyptians write the first of their letters with an ibis. who ascribed to him the invention of letters. the bird and plant names always begin with the same letter.15 Note that the mosquito (ḫlms) was included among birds. is well established. “various birds are said to ‘go away’ to various places. often referred to as the “Lord of the divine words” 1 and identified with Hermes by the Greeks.6 Smith and Tait.” standing for the letter h. This practice dates back as early as the fourth century bc and was probably adopted for mnemonic reasons. Moreover. who called him “father of letters” in his Phaedrus . letter names could also be placed at the beginning of a line as a way of classifying different sections of the text by using letters instead of numbers. P. which was indeed an “inarticulate and voiceless” consonant for a Greek. for instance. 2 This function is also attested. although in my opinion they err in giving precedence among the letters to one that is inarticulate and voiceless. for instance. in line 2.” both beginning with the letter h . Saqqara 27 is in fact one of the few papyri.” and thought that “it may give some indication of the regular order in which the Egyptians remembered their consonants. For example. followed by Buchberger. one finds the sentence šm n⸗f bnw r Bb[l] “the Benu-bird went off to Baby[lon]”11 in which. In the first list (lines 2–7).http://oi. such as h . namely.’ said Hermeias.” In line 10. to include letter names or words listed in alphabetical order and thanks to which the sequence of letters in the Egyptian alphabet can be established. 5 In fact. the bird that belongs to Hermes. bIRDs IN ThE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AND COPTIC ALPhAbETs 6. the word bnw “heron” is paired with Bb[l] “Baby[lon]. they designated each letter of the alphabet by a bird name beginning with the letter in question. Letters whose position is not yet well attested or which have been omitted in some lists are given in parentheses.13 The alphabetical lists found in the above-mentioned papyri follow the same model with only minor divergences consisting of the presence or absence of certain sounds or dealing with the position of some letters in two different lineages of tradition.12 In some of these papyri. the god who first invented writing in Egypt. named the first letter of their alphabet hb “ibis. whose reconstruction is based on the combination of the data of the lists known to this day. 9 is a school text consisting of two alphabetical lists with bird names.) Saqqara 27 (fourth–third century bc ). and writing. BIRDS IN THE ANCIENT EGYpTIAN AND COpTIC ALpHABETS FRaNÇOIS GaUDaRD* I t is a well-known fact that Thoth.14 Although the position of several letters. presumably because it is also a flying creature.”8 The text about which Smith and Tait came to such conclusions.” but they gave it the name of hb “ibis. ranging from the Late Period to Roman times. papyrus (hereafter P. remains tentative. was traditionally the god of scribes. at least partially.” both names beginning with the letter b. ‘was.uchicago.7 first suggested the existence of “a tradition that identified the consonants of the Egyptian language by the names of birds. wisdom. by Plato. according to the same pattern. such as P. Berlin 8278 and its fragments. 65 . the identification of some birds still poses problems and in some cases variant writings of the same bird name are attested.”10 in which the word hb “ibis” is paired with hbyn “ebony-tree. In the second list (lines 9–14). 3 The common depiction of this god in the form of an ibis would explain why the Egyptians. we are told. the first phrase of the list reads as follows: [r] pꜣ hb ḥr pꜣ hbyn “the ibis (was) upon the ebony-tree. the alphabetical list presented in table 6.

w. p. but the only two texts in which it is attested. line number not given (for the reading. see Zauzich 2000b. see Zauzich 2000b. n P. pp. do not make a distinction between r and l (Quack. Saqqara 27. 2/2 (reading by Quack. Carlsberg 425. k. the “Sign Papyrus” and P. p. 147. pp.. e. pp. p. as. ee P. 203 n. Houlihan 1986. The ancient Egyptian alphabet (based on Quack 2003. Cairo 30705. p. see Quack 1993. G28) or to the hen (cf. pp. byn) or with the word bny “swallow”? o Also often referred to in the Egyptological literature as “phoenix” or “benu-bird. Saqqara 27. vol. p. kk The name of this bird. Coptic ϭⲁⲓⲙⲉ “hen domestic fowl”). see Smith and Tait 1983. e/6. 5. 30 n. personal communication). Berlin 15709 vo. f. 39. no. 30). for discussion. 13. ẖr⌈mrm⌉ might be a partially reduplicated form of ẖrm (reading by Quack. Given the correspondence with the old South Arabian alphabet. 30). attested both in damaged passages of P. Saqqara 27. Saqqara 27. However. line number not given (for the reading. 30 and 38). Berlin 15709 vo.http://oi. personal communication). Saqqara 27. 205 n. 10. cc Unpublished text. p. c P. 201 n. 52/6. z P. 7 (for the reading. Saqqara 27. p. ii This is the semi-vowel y. k P. pp. personal communication). see Zauzich 2000b. j P. 27. oo Designation of a swamp bird? Cf. 206 n. 13 read ẖrꜣ[?]). but Zauzich 2000b. see Smith and Tait 1983. 197). see Smith and Tait 1983. no.w in Erman and Grapow 1926–82. 200–01 n. it is uncertain whether the word kymy still refers to the black ibis (Plegadis falcinellus [see Houlihan 1986. i For discussion. see Smith and Tait 1983. 205 n. 155 (for the reading. but only one occurrence should be kept. 14]. Saqqara 27. 200 n. see Zauzich 2000b. jj The reading of this name. For discussion. p. hh For discussion. However. a reading ḳnw is not completely excluded [Quack. mm Unpublished text (reading by Quack. personal communication). h. ab. gg P. dd 66 . w For the possible identification of ḏn( e)ḏn(e) with the swan. 129. v Unpublished text. pp. ḫnms unidentified bird. rd Erman and Grapow 1926–82. Zauzich 2000b. personal communication).g. and Altenmüller 2010. p. no. namely. vol. 30). s. Bibliothèque nationale 215 vo. cf. p. a b Unpublished text (reading by Quack. 30. Spiegelberg 1914. s For discussion. 13 (for the reading. 202 n.. p. literally meaning “one which raises/wags (its) tail. see. m. see Smith and Tait 1983.. perhaps to be restored as gm-ḥs type of falcon (reading by Quack. see Smith and Tait 1983. an identification of the fy-st bird with the wagtail remains hypothetical. 202 n. read ḳsn. see Gardiner 1957. For discussion on the old South Arabian alphabet. bETWEEN hEAVEN AND EARTh: bIRDs IN ANCIENT EGYPT table 6. p. personal communication. see Vittmann 1996. 847. personal communication). 3. Bibliothèque nationale 215 vo. see Zauzich 2000b. 30 n. Zauzich 2000b. no. pp. For discussion. 30. l Smn ( w ) is most likely to be the Nile goose ( Chenalopex aegyptiaca ). am. 13–16. e In the present list. g For discussion on the use of the sign in Demotic. 2. h P. bb Unpublished text (reading by Quack. r In Demotic. e/1 (for the reading. see Quack 1993.. the word gm. 167 n. see Smith and Tait 1983. ab. For further discussion. p. “ibis”a type of herond unknown “dove”f unknown unidentified birdi “Nile goose” unknown type of heron unknown unidentified bird “dove” “hen” or “black ibis”r p o l n ẖ ḏ/ṯ p (ἰ)y ʿ g ḫ t/d ἰ/yii (f ) (ḏ) ḳ ee “vulture”s unidentified bird(s) “swan”w “quail”x — unidentified bird unidentified bird “mosquito” gg — — ʿʿnez/ʿneneaa/⌈ʿ⌉n⌈y⌉bb gm[. m P. see Spiegelberg 1914.. 3. 13). 13–16. y This is the glottal stop (like Hebrew ʾaleph or Arabic ʾalif). 201 n. 199 and 206. x+21. 26–27. 203 n. 470. u P. p. q See n. aj. and corrections in Quack 1994. pp. x+5 and of an unpublished text. as. 95–96) Letter Possible Hieroglyphic Equivalent Letter Name hb rt(?)c unknown mnw unknown wyh smn /smnw j k Translation Letter Possible Hieroglyphic Equivalent / / Letter Name nry ẖryt/ẖrm(?)u/ẖr⌈mrm⌉v ḏneḏne pʿry Translation h rb ḥ (m)e qg w s r b (t) š/ḫ (m)q k .. in P. no. above. p. pp. see Störk 1976. ff Unpublished text (reading by Quack. no. Are we dealing here with a variant writing of the word bnw “heron” (cf. for discussion.” reminds us of the name “wagtail” referring to small birds (genus Motacilla) with long tails which they wag frequently. see Smith and Tait 1983.t “black ibis. e/11 (for the reading. 7. no. q. 17. 520 read ẖr[. personal communication). f For discussion. p. 18. Bibliothèque nationale 215 vo. p. p. n. see Smith and Tait 1983. e. p. aa P. p. ḳnἰ. 34 and 129. 16) and P.. p. 30). p. p. see below. this first r is in fact an l.” For discussion. pp. personal communication]). d Cf.” presumably at the origin of the gm phonogram: . Wilson 1997. Carlsberg 425. the letter m occurs twice in parentheses in order to reflect its positions as attested in the two known lineages of tradition. pp. 30 n. see Quack 1993. p. 463/12.]y). 147. no. 7. 316–17. p. Wilson 1997. Berlin 23537a+15662+23537d. t P.uchicago. x For discussion. 167 and 170. personal communication) and P. 144. see Zauzich 2000b. p. p. Berlin 8278b. 2 (for the reading. Saqqara 27. see Zauzich 2000b. ll For references. see Smith and Tait 1983. Houlihan 1986. nn P. still poses problems. 197 (for the reading. Unpublished text (reading by Quack. cf. see Gaudard 2009. see Smith and Tait 1983. 199 and 203 n. and 50–51 n. pp. Smith and Tait 1983.1. see Smith and Tait 1983. pp For discussion. 12 (for the reading.] cc unknown bnw /bny m n ḫlmsdd trἰ /try /tr-ḥꜢ(?) ff “kite”hh unidentified bird unidentified birdkk “sparrow”ll unidentified birdoo/“sparrow”pp unknown ḫrg[…] mnw kymy p …(?)jj fy-st ḏḏ ḳnwmm/ḳsnw(?)nn For discussion.

bIRDs IN ThE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AND COPTIC ALPhAbETs figure 6. who in his De natura animalium reports that “The Egyptians assert that a knowledge of clysters and intestinal purges is derived from no discovery of man’s. while the bird’s beak forms its horizontal bar. 6. in his Prodromus coptus sive aegyptiacus . that of the South Semitic alphabet. In addition to being based on the Plutarch quote already cited by Valeriano Bolzanio. alludes to another of Aelian’s statements also illustrated by Valeriano Bolzanio (fig. which according to him looks like a triangle. the Italian theologian Giovanni Pierio Valeriano Bolzanio (1477–1558 or 1560). and Ϯ(Ti).21 in his Hieroglyphica sive De sacris Aegyptiorum.”30 In the right-hand illustration of figure 6. while discoursing on the history of the letter A and citing passages from Plutarch26 and Valeriano Bolzanio. if one keeps only one of the possible positions for the letter m. for example.18 The practice of designating the letters of the alphabet by a bird name seems to have survived in Coptic. as already noted by Plutarch: “The number five forms a square of itself. he adds two representations of the letter A as an ibis.1). the seventeenthcentury German Jesuit scholar Athanasius Kircher (1601 or 1602–1680). which originated in the Arabian Peninsula.” Plutarch’s misstatement that the Egyptians did “write the first of their letters with an ibis” gave rise to some misconceptions.3. with some variations. 43).28 In order to support his demonstration.1. Ϩ (Hori). Indeed. The ibis as a model for figure 6.”16 Quack noted that the order of the ancient Egyptian alphabet followed.1.http://oi. In the left-hand illustration. forming the main shape of the letter. aliarumque gentium literis commentarii. Ϭ (Kyima). namely.17 Note that the alphabetical order used in modern Egyptological publications was established by scholars in the nineteenth century and does not follow that of the original Egyptian 6.2) when describing a passage from Aelian. p. By comparison. Ϫ (Djandja). as noted by Aufrère (2009.uchicago. 24 with the letter A of the Greek and Latin alphabets. he deduced that the latter was apparently the older. 174) p. The Coptic alphabet derives from the Greek alphabet. while the other kind encounters the serpents that come down the Nile when in flood . came to believe that the first letter of the Egyptian alphabet was depicted by an ibis. It is worth noting that the names of at least some of these additional Coptic letters seem to be best explained as bird names:20 Ϫ (Djandja). the Egyptian alphabet consists of twenty-five letters. An ibis attacking a winged clysters (after Valeriano Bolzanio serpent (after Valeriano Bolzanio 1602. reminds us of ḏn(e)ḏn(e) “swan. 236) figure 6. to express sounds not represented in Greek. the ibis stands legs apart. which is the same number as the Egyptians have of letters and as the Apis had of years to live. this illustration also reminds us of another one used by the latter (fig. 6.25 In his turn. Ϥ (Fai). p.22 Moreover. to which the Egyptians added six letters19 coming from Demotic characters. p. 174) Interestingly. The ibis mistakenly understood as the source of the shape of the letter A (after Kircher 1636.2. but fights to protect the land it loves.27 tries to explain how the shape of that letter depicts an ibis. Ϣ (Shai). 1602. referring to a passage in which Plutarch states that “the ibis when hatched 67 … forms an equilateral triangle by the position of its outspread feet and bill.3) and according to which the ibis was famous for protecting Egypt from snakes: “The Black Ibis does not permit the winged serpents from Arabia to cross into Egypt. but they commonly affirm that it was the Ibis that taught them this remedy.” 23 this author compares the first letter of the Egyptian alphabet. accompanied by the legend “Ibis litera prima à Mercurio inventa” 29 (fig.” and Ϭ (Kyima) of kymy “hen” or “black ibis. the horizontal bar of the letter A is formed this time by a snake which. 6.

 Evolution of the letter Ⲁ into a bird a. 10. fol. BM Ms. ad 1300) (after Cramer 1957. fig. 73b (sixth century ad) (after Cramer 1957. Cod. 50 (ca. Thompson 1924. Cod. Cod. fig. Vienna. bETWEEN hEAVEN AND EARTh: bIRDs IN ANCIENT EGYPT a b c d e f g h i j k l m n figure 6. fig. fig. Wadi Natrun (twelfth– thirteenth century ad) (after Cramer 1957. Vienna. fol. 8 vo. 81b (fifth century ad) (after Cramer 1957. Cod. 107 vo. Copt. fol. BM Ms. 35:7) e. 588. 35:9) f. fig. BM Codex Alexandrinus. (ad 842) (after Cramer 1957. 35:19) 68 .4. fol. fol. 10. ad 300) (after Cramer 1957. Cod. 14 ro. 35:16) l. 10. fig. 35:3) c. 35:17) m. BM Codex Add. (ad 1828) (after Cramer 1957. fig. 5000. fig.http://oi. fol. fig. (ad 1828) (after Cramer 1957. 35:14) j. Cod. (ad 1828) (after Cramer 1957. fig. fol. 35:18) n. 15 ro. 35:10) g. 10. Copt. 35:5) d.uchicago. fig. 252 vo. Macarius. fig. Vienna. Or. 35:11) h. Pierpont Morgan Ms. Vienna. Vienna. fol. Vienna. Copt. of the Monastery of St. Or. 35:13) i. 5997 (ad 1273) (after Cramer 1957. 9. (ad 1547) (after Cramer 1957. Ms. fig. fol. 6. 1320 (ad 1006) (after Cramer 1957. 35:15) k. fol. 69 vo. fig. Date uncertain (after Cramer 1957. (ad 1828) (after Cramer 1957. Copt. 35:1) b. Copt. 94 (ca.

Cod.5 displays ornithomorphic writings of the letter Ⲁ at the beginning of a word. c+15662+15677+15818 +23536+23537. Tropper 1996. at the beginning of the first word of one of the first lines of a text (fig. 165. S. top left). bIRDs IN ThE ANCIENT EGYPTIAN AND COPTIC ALPhAbETs and destroys them. 2106) already stated: “I have come across the picture of the bird in Coptic manuscripts only for the ‘A. b. Schwartze (1843. 3.http://oi. d. b. see Quack 2003. The examples in figure 6. 140 and 144). for permitting me to use one of the manuscripts from his collection. e. pp. 235.4:i are described by Cramer as “fish-birds” due to the shape of the head (Cramer 1957. cols. cf. 1969. for example. composed mainly in Demotic but also in hieroglyphs and hieratic.). fig. 212–13. Johnson and Robert K. the letter Ⲁ (alpha) could be depicted as a bird when placed in an initial position. and Geb knew how to write. aj. 40–41. and Chris Karcher.33 Note that in most cases the shape of the original letter Ⲁ (alpha) is still perfectly visible within the figure of the bird.g. 4 Plutarch.5) or in the Christian symbol Ⲁ Ⲱ (alpha-omega) used to refer to God. 208.4 illustrate some stages in the evolution of the letter Ⲁ into a bird. For a similar tradition. pp. g (Ptolemaic. and Ⲁⲙⲏⲓⲛⲓ “Come!” (Imperative pl. 199. for their useful comments. and 209. 1 ro. Berlin 8278a. Quack 1993 and 1994. Ⲁⲩⲙⲟⲩϯ “They called” (Perfect I). fourth–third century bc). 199. also Vittmann 1998. pp. see. fol. and 209. c. a. p. Special thanks also go to Thomas G. I leave the question entirely the hieroglyphic open.. x. e. 6 See. p.. Ornithomorphic writings of the letter Ⲁ at the beginning of a word. Smith and Tait 1983.g. pp. Saqqara 27 (Ptolemaic. 52. (fifteenth–seventeenth century ad) 69 . Kahl 1991. Copt. Carlsberg 425+P. 11 Transliteration and translation by Smith and Tait 1983.” As noted by Cramer (1957. Aufrère 2009. p. 8 See Smith and Tait 1983. Janet H. birds were also very commonly used as decoration and not only as letters. 10 Transliteration and translation by Smith and Tait 1983. 5 See Zauzich 2000a. translation in Minar et al. 139). Kammerzell 2001. Altenmüller 2010. as attested in the writings of other classical authors. p. P. Karcher 1. p. and Larry Lissac. 3 Plato. 151–52. pp. (a) Vienna. Shu. 208. Quaestiones convivales 9. it should not be completely discounted since in Armenian and Georgian manuscripts the figure of the bird. f. 205 n. In Coptic manuscripts.32 Noticing this peculiarity. H. which occurs in a form similar to that found in Coptic texts. (ad 1486) (after Cramer 1957. pp.’ Whether the latter contains a reminiscence of Ꜣ. Smith 1975. include P. noteworthy is the fact that in Coptic manuscripts from about the thirteenth to the nineteenth century. dated year 35 [Ptole]my a b figure 6.”31 Although this does not relate to the use of birds to name the letters of the Egyptian alphabet.” 2 On the fact that other gods such as Re. also Plato. Urban. although Schwartze’s idea seems odd.. see. 82 vo. 9 For the dating. Otherwise there would have been nothing to prevent the Egyptians from being killed by their coming. no. Figure 6. Phaedrus 59 (274 C–275 B). P. including Joachim Friedrich Quack. to whom I am grateful for sharing with me his latest insights on the reconstruction of the Egyptian alphabetical sequence. Philebus 18 B.34 This popularity of birds in Egyptian script and culture can probably be attributed to the important role they played in religious beliefs. p. e. p. 35.uchicago. p. For the identification of the benu-bird with the heron. notes * I would like to take this opportunity to thank people who helped me in the preparation of this paper. is used only as border decoration.3. 258. see Aufrère 2009. 12 These papyri.g. 7 See Buchberger 1986. (b) Ms. “Lord of hieroglyphs. Quack 2003. 73. 1 That is. Leslie Schramer. p. 89–96. 1046–47. 6. 42 n. cf. fourth– third century bc). e. These two examples also illustrate very well the fully developed bird shape of the letter Ⲁ. Examples similar to that of figure 6. fol. pp. BM 10852+10856 (Ptolemaic. Zauzich 2000a and 2000b. 4. Smith and Tait 1983.5. namely. Ritner.2 (738 E).

pls. 4. Gaudard 2009. 14/1–2. 22 See Valeriano Bolzanio 1602. 23 Plutarch. fig. 21.g. 235–36. 130. 13 For discussion.38. pp. pls. 51–52. p. 6. 31 Aelian. 507. 88.uchicago. see Zauzich 2000a. 25. fig. pp. 51. 50. problematic. 33. De natura animalium 2. p. P. P. 17/2. 24 70 . For discussion. fig. 28 See Kircher 1636. pls. fig. the so-called “Sign Papyrus” from Tanis (Roman. h. 152–54. 89. Cramer 1964a. among others. 77. 34 For discussion and examples. 17 For further discussion. p. 25 See Valeriano Bolzanio 1602. 15 References to the texts are given only for variant. or single attested writings of a letter name. see above. 33 For further examples of the ornithomorphic initial letter Ⲁ (alpha). 76. pls. p. 166. For discussion and references. looks indeed like a triangle when written in Demotic and somehow recalls the position of the ibis depicted in the lefthand illustration of figure 6. Cramer 1964a.2 (670 C) and 9. 174 and 507. Bibliothèque nationale 215 vo. Berlin 23861 (Roman).” see Gardiner 1957. col. see Quack 1993. pp. 20 For discussion. 53. see Vycichl 1990. pp. 57. the shape of the first letter of the Egyptian alphabet. “ bETWEEN hEAVEN AND EARTh: bIRDs IN ANCIENT EGYPT VI = 147 bc). P. 15/1–2. see Quack 2003. 18 For discussion. 133.35. fig. 10.” 30 Aelian.5. first–early second century ad ). Zauzich 2000b. second century ad[?]). 48. De natura animalium 2.  Carlsberg 7 (Roman. Cramer 1964b.. p. translation in Clement and Hoffleit 1969. 24. Steindorff 1892.3. fig. 39. e. cf. P. and 2003. 45. p. 1994. pp. Ironically. see. p. pp. pp. and 76–85.1: (for hieroglyph “reed shelter in fields. 27 Valeriano Bolzanio 1602. 47. 493. and P.. 68. 67. (late Ptolemaic or early Roman). 32. see Quack 2003. 16 Plutarch. depending on dialect. 2/1. cf. p. 169. P. 27–30. fig. Cramer 1964a. 53. 13/1. P. Cairo 30705 (Ptolemaic). pp. p. p. p. p. 26 Plutarch. Quaestiones convivales 4. 3/2. Griffiths 1970. e (Ptolemaic). 70–71. 27. fig. Badawy 1978. Cairo 31169 vo. pp.. Carlsberg 43 (Roman. 45.g. p. 280. 32 See. 175 and 507. 21 Also known. 19 Or seven or more..g. see. 22/1–2.2 (738 E). 46. but this is to be seen as pure coincidence. O4). 135. p. translation in Scholfield 1958. p. 87. p. 8/1.56. 509–10. Cramer 1964b. 45. De Iside et Osiride 56 (374 A). Leroy 1974. 164–66. 12/1. p. Leroy 1974. 4. namely. fig. Altenmüller 2010. Quaestiones convivales 4. fig. and p. 89 and 94.2 (670 C).5. 355. p. p.http://oi. translation in Scholfield 1958. translation in Griffiths 1970. 11/1–2. 209. 19/1. 25. 168. first letter invented by Hermes. Berlin 15709 vo. see Gaudard 2009. second century ad ). e. 127. 48. 58. 29 That is. (Ptolemaic). 18/1–2. 21/1–2. 49. e. pp. as Giovan Pietro della Fosse and Pierius Valerianus. Cramer 1957. see Quack 2003. 166–68. 14 For further discussion. pp.

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