Verbs Followed by Gerunds

9 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive 13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning 14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning admit advise 9! allow 9! antici'ate a''reciate avoid begin 14! can&t bear 14! can&t hel' can&t see can&t stand 14! cease 14! com'lete consider continue 14! defend delay deny des'ise He admitted cheating on the test. "he doctor generally advised drin#ing low$fat mil#. %reland doesn&t allow smo#ing in bars. % antici'ated arriving late. % a''reciated her hel'ing me. He avoided tal#ing to her. % began learning (hinese. He can&t bear having so much res'onsibility. He can&t hel' tal#ing so loudly. % can&t see 'aying so much money for a car. He can&t stand her smo#ing in the office. "he government ceased 'roviding free healthcare. He com'leted renovating the house. )he considered moving to *ew +or#. He continued tal#ing. "he lawyer defended her ma#ing such statements. He delayed doing his ta,es. He denied committing the crime. )he des'ises wa#ing u' early.

discuss disli#e don&t mind dread 13! encourage 9! en2oy finish 13! forget 13! hate 14! imagine involve #ee' li#e 14! love 14! mention mind miss need 13! neglect 14! 'ermit 9! 'ost'one 'ractice

-e discussed wor#ing at the com'any. )he disli#es wor#ing after . /0. % don&t mind hel'ing you. )he dreads getting u' at . 10. He encourages eating healthy foods. -e en2oy hi#ing. He finished doing his homewor#. % forgot giving you my boo#. % hate cleaning the bathroom. He imagines wor#ing there one day. "he 2ob involves traveling to 3a'an once a month. )he #e't interru'ting me. )he li#es listening to music. % love swimming. He mentioned going to that college. 4o you mind waiting here for a few minutes. )he misses living near the beach. "he a5uarium needs cleaning. )ometimes she neglects doing her homewor#. (alifornia does not 'ermit smo#ing in restaurants. He 'ost'oned returning to /aris. )he 'racticed singing the song.

. % 'ro'osed having lunch at the beach. "hey urge recycling bottles and 'a'er. )he regretted saying that. % understand his 5uitting. "he certificate re5uires com'leting two courses. o&cloc#. % remember telling her the address yesterday. % tolerated her tal#ing. He resisted as#ing for hel'. *ic# resented 4ebbie&s being there. "om recalled using his credit card at the store. He started studying harder. )he sto''ed wor#ing at . )he 5uit worrying about the 'roblem. He ris#ed being caught. )he recollected living in 6enya.'refer 14! 'ro'ose 14! 5uit 13! recall recollect recommend regret 13! remember 13! re'ort re5uire 9! resent resist ris# start 14! sto' 13! suggest tolerate try 13! understand urge 9! He 'refers sitting at the bac# of the movie theater. He re'orted her stealing the money. "hey suggested staying at the hotel. "ony recommended ta#ing the train. )am tried o'ening the loc# with a 'a'ercli'.

% chose to hel'. His health a''eared to be better. *aomi arranged to stay with her cousin in 0iami. Harris. -e decided to go to Hawaii.Verbs Followed by Infinitives 7 = verb followed by an infinitive OR an o'tional noun + an infinitive 13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning 14 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with little difference in meaning agree a''ear arrange as# 7! begin 13! can&t bear 14! can&t stand 14! care cease 14! choose 7! claim continue 14! decide demand "om agreed to hel' me. *ancy can&t stand to wor# the late shift. )he continued to tal#. He began to tal#. . )he as#ed to leave. "he government ceased to 'rovide free healthcare. He doesn&t care to 'artici'ate in the activity. He demanded to s'ea# to 0r. He can&t bear to be alone. )he claimed to be a 'rincess.

-e love to scuba dive.'ect 7! fail forget 13! get 8be allowed to9 ha''en hate 14! hesitate ho'e intend learn li#e 14! love 14! manage need 7<13! neglect 14! offer 'lan 'refer 14! 're'are 7! 'retend He deserves to go to 2ail. )he neglected to tell me the date of the meeting.'ect to arrive early. He hates to clean dishes. % need to study. =ran# offered to drive us to the su'ermar#et. . % dread to thin# what might ha''en. "he child 'retended to be a monster. He failed to get enough money to 'ay for the new 'ro2ect. )he ha''ened to be at the ban# when it was robbed. He managed to o'en the door without the #ey. -e 'lan to go to >uro'e this summer.t s'ring.deserve dread 13! e.t wee#: -hy can&t %. % forgot to loc# the door when % left. )he hesitated to tell me the 'roblem. "hey 're'ared to ta#e the test. % learned to s'ea# 3a'anese when % was a #id. % ho'e to begin college this year. 4ebbie gets to go to the concert ne. -e intend to visit you ne. "hey e. He 'refers to eat at ? /0. )amantha li#es to read.

4rew 'ro'osed to 'ay for the tri'. -e would li#e to start now. 4id you remember to loc# the door when you left. )he swore to tell the truth. He tends to be a little shy.otic. 0elanie yearns to travel somewhere e. He vowed to get revenge. "he guard refused to let them enter the building. % regret to inform you that your a''lication was re2ected.'romise 7! 'ro'ose 14! refuse regret 13! remember 13! seem start 13! swear tend threaten 7! try 13! vow wait want 7! wish 7! would li#e 7! 8meaning @wish@ or @want@9 yearn )he 'romised to sto' smo#ing. 0arge started to tal# really fast. He threatened to leave forever. % want to study )'anish. 0ary tried to lift the table< but it was too heavy. . )he waited to buy a movie tic#et. *ancy seemed to be disa''ointed. % wish to stay.

0r. %sabelle got 0i#e to wash her car. 4onelly hired )arah to wor# as a rece'tionist. He encourages his 'atients to eat healthy foods. "he commander forced the soldiers to march in the rain. %reland doesn&t allow 'eo'le to smo#e in bars. =inancial aid enabled the students to 'ay such e.'ensive tuition fees. -e invited them to 2oin us.Verbs Followed by Nouns + Infinitives 9 = verb followed by a gerund OR a noun + an infinitive 13 = verb followed by a gerund OR an infinitive with a difference in meaning List 1: Verb + Required Noun + Infinitive advise 9! allow 9! cause convince enable encourage 9! force get 8cause to9 hire invite % advised them to see a doctor. . He caused her to ma#e a mista#e. *ed convinced me to 5uit my 2ob.

"hey e. "o understand this better< loo# at the first verb @as#@ and its e. %n the second sentence< she is re5uesting that a man leave.'ect him to arrive early. % chose him to hel' out. % want to study )'anish. % need her to clean the house. "he certificate re5uires students to com'lete two courses. as# choose e.am'les below that the verbs can be followed by an infinitive or a noun 'lus an infinitive. % wish him to stay. -hen a noun is added< it usually changes who or what is 'erforming the action. "hey 're'ared to ta#e the test. % need to clean the house. % want my son to study )'anish. "hey 're'ared her to ta#e the test. % wish to stay. )he as#ed him to leave. rare form -e would li#e him to start now. "he e. % chose to hel' out. He told me to shut u'. "hey urge citiAens to recycle bottles and 'a'er. )he 'romised to sto' smo#ing He threatened to leave forever.'ect need 13! 're'are 'romise threaten want wish would li#e )he as#ed to leave.'ect to arrive early. "hey reminded me to 'ay the bills before the end of the month.order 'ermit 9! remind re5uire 9! tell urge 9! warn "he 'olice ordered him to 'ut his hands in the air. . He threatened her to leave forever. )he 'romised him to sto' smo#ing. )he warned him not to be late. -e would li#e to start now.am'les below and consider how the o'tional noun changes the meaning. )tudy the e. %n the first sentence< she is as#ing if she herself can leave. (alifornia doesn&t 'ermit 'eo'le to fish without a fishing license.am'les. List 2: Verb + Optional Noun + Infinitive *otice in the e.

He encourages eating healthy foods. "he certificate re5uires students to com'lete two courses. (alifornia doesn&t 'ermit 'eo'le to fish without a fishing license. "hey urge citiAens to recycle bottles and encourage 'ermit re5uire urge . He encourages his 'atients to eat healthy foods. "hey urge recycling bottles and 'a'er. %reland doesn&t allow 'eo'le to smo#e in bars. % advised them to see a doctor. (alifornia doesn&t 'ermit fishing without a fishing license. "he certificate re5uires com'leting two courses.Verbs Followed by Either Gerunds OR Nouns + Infinitives advise allow % advised seeing a doctor. %reland doesn&t allow smo#ing in bars.

forget )he forgot reading the boo# when she was a #id. it means "to forget that you have done something." The sentence above means that she forgot that she needed to ay the rent." )he forgot to 'ay the rent this month. "Dread" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "think" or "consider. Usually "dread" is followed by a gerund. an infinitive is used. "dreaded to think" means "did not want to think. it means "to forget that you need to do something. dread )he dreaded ta#ing the test. He dreaded to thin# of the conse5uences of his actions." The sentence above means that she ." In the sentence above.Verbs Followed by Gerunds OR Infinitives (Different Meaning begin )he began singing. you can either use a gerund or an infinitive. When "begin" is used in noncontinuous tenses. When "forget" is used with a gerund. )he began to sing. When "begin" is used in continuous tenses. When forget is used with an infinitive. )he is beginning to sing.

The sentence above means "the house needs to be cleaned. but then the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to. When "need" is used with a gerund. and that I remember the fact that I did that. it takes on a assive meaning.. "%egret" is sometimes used with infinitives such as "to inform." In the sentence above. it means "to remember that you have done something. "he attac#ers #e't hostages to 'revent the 'olice from entering. He needs to call his boss. "#eed" is usually used with an infinitive or an ob"ect $ an infinitive. -e regret to inform you that your 'osition at the com'any is being eliminated.. the attackers ke t hostages in order to revent the olice from entering. He needs him to call his boss. you can either use a gerund or an infinitive. an infinitive is used. . start 0arge started tal#ing really fast." He remembered to turn off the lights before he left.read the book when she was a kid. . When "remember" is used with an infinitive. and that she has forgotten that fact." In the sentence above. "We regret to inform you" means "We wish we did not have to tell you &bad news'. #ee' )he #e't tal#ing. need "he house needs cleaning. it means "to remember that you need to do something. "!ee " is normally used with a gerund to mean that you continue doing an action. 0arge is starting to tal# really fast. "%egret" is normally used with a gerund. When "start" is used in noncontinuous tenses. When "remember" is used with a gerund." The sentence above means that I mentioned the meeting." The sentence above means that he remembered that he needed to turn the lights off. 0arge started to tal# really fast. % started to learn Russian< but it was so remembe r % remember mentioning the meeting yesterday. When "start" is used in continuous tenses. "!ee " can also be used with an ob"ect followed by an infinitive." regret % regretted being late to the interview.

10. he sto ed in order to rest for a few minutes. but you do not really like it or want to do it again." In the sentence above. "Try $ gerund" means to try or to e) eriment with different methods to see if something works. sto' He sto''ed smo#ing for health reasons. "Try $ gerund" is often used when you e) eriment with something.much wor# that % finally 5uit the class. )he tried eating the sna#e sou'< but she didn&t li#e it. )he tried to climb the tree< but she couldn&t even get off the ground. . "(to " is normally used with a gerund. the infinitive takes on the meaning of "in order to. In the sentence above. you want to do it. He sto''ed to rest for a few minutes. *n infinitive is also used if you are asking someone to try something they may or may not be able to accom lish. but you do not succeed in actually doing it. )he also tried going sho' to sho'< but nobody was hiring. an infinitive is used because she cannot successfully climb the tree. "ry not to wa#e the baby when you get u' tomorrow at . )he tried as#ing friends and family< but nobody #new of anything. an infinitive means that you did not com lete or continue an action. In other situations. When you "try to do" something. )he tried loo#ing in the 'a'er< but there was nothing. When "sto " is used with an infinitive. try )he can&t find a 2ob.

-e love scuba diving.Verbs Followed by Gerunds OR Infinitives (!i"ilar Meaning can&t bear can&t stand cease He can&t bear being alone. continue hate li#e love neglect 'refer . -e love to scuba dive. "he government ceased to 'rovide free health care. )amantha li#es to read. He hates to clean dishes. *ancy can&t stand wor#ing the late shift. )amantha li#es reading. )he continued to tal#. He 'refers to eat at ? /0. )he continued tal#ing. He hates cleaning dishes. He can&t bear to be alone. "he government ceased 'roviding free health care. He neglected doing his daily chores. *ancy can&t stand to wor# the late shift. He 'refers eating at ? /0. He neglected to do his daily chores.

>.iety about belief in His addiction to surfing the %nternet is a 'roblem. % li$e s%ea$ing =rench because it&s such a beautiful language. Bsing an infinitive suggests that you are tal#ing about 'otential or 'ossible activities or e.ork and he likes what he e) eriences there.'ro'ose 4rew 'ro'osed 'aying for the tri'. I like the e) erience of s eaking -rench. credit for dedication to delay in . +e lives in #ew .'eriences. )he too# credit for im'roving the filing system. I refer the o tion of s eaking -rench when I am in -rance.am'lesD • • "he Critish re'orter li$es living in *ew +or#. Cecause of this small difference in meaning< gerunds and infinitives cannot always be used interchangeably< such as in the e. Bsing a gerund suggests that you are referring to real activities or e. Her an. He has the advantage of s'ea#ing >nglish fluently. +e likes the o tion or ossibility of living in #ew . "he Critish re'orter li$es to live in *ew +or# whenever he wor#s in the Bnited )tates. His dedication to teaching was im'ressive.'eriences.iety about s'ea#ing in 'ublic caused her to lose the 2ob.ork when he works in the United (tates. addiction to advantage of an. REMEM#ER 1lthough the difference in meaning is small with these 'articular verbs< and gerunds and infinitives can often be used interchangeably< there is still a meaning difference.am'les below. • • Noun + &re%osition 'o"binations Followed by Gerunds "he following is O*E+ 1 )10/E> E%)" of the most commonly used noun + 're'osition combinations that can be followed by gerunds. % li$e to s%ea$ =rench when %&m in =rance. 4rew 'ro'osed to 'ay for the tri'. and the way it makes me feel when I s eak the language. His belief in not harming animals was something he learned from his mother. "he delay in 'rocessing the visa caused 'roblems.

His fear of flying made travel difficult. "he main reason for ta#ing the course is to im'rove your language s#ills.'erience in introducing new 'roducts to international mar#ets. % don&t #now if % believe his story about seeing a B=O. With the noun "e) erience. "heir memories of traveling in 1frica will stay with them forever. Her career as a 'ilot evolved out of her interest in flying. % thin# his 'reference for s'ea#ing his native language is natural. Her fondness for traveling led to her career in the travel industry. His reaction to winning the 'riAe was 5uite funny.devotion to disadvantage of e.) erience introducing new roducts" would also be acce table. His habit of smo#ing in restaurants caused many 'roblems in (alifornia. fear of fondness for habit of interest in #nowledge of love of memory of 'reference for 'rocess of reaction to reason for regret for re'ort on re'utation for res'onsibility for story about . His res'onsibility for com'leting the 'ro2ect on time was ac#nowledged by the com'any.'erience in His devotion to bi#ing allowed him to win the com'etition. "he 'rocess of 'ainting such a large mural is more com'licated than you might thin#." ". His love of singing develo'ed when he was a child. "he magaAine&s re'ort on choosing the right car was not well researched. Her #nowledge of climbing hel'ed her during the com'etition. "he criminal&s regret for committing the crime did not convince the 2udge. "he disadvantage of flying is that you can&t see the scenery along the way. )he has a great deal of e." sometimes a gerund is added without the re osition "in. Her re'utation for lying is well #nown.

)he is addicted to watching "F.talent for His talent for learning languages was im'ressive. % am bored of doing the same old 2ob. )he is afraid of s'ea#ing in 'ublic. *orma is an.ious about bored of ca'able of He is accustomed to having his own office. He is ca'able of winning a gold medal. accustomed to addicted to afraid of an. (d)e*tive + &re%osition 'o"binations Followed by Gerunds "he following is O*E+ 1 )10/E> E%)" of the most commonly used ad2ective + 're'osition combinations that can be followed by gerunds.ious about ma#ing the 'resentation. .

)he is interested in becoming a doctor. "he surfer is terrified of being attac#ed by a shar#. "he organiAation is dedicated to ending 'overty. "he money will be devoted to 'rotecting the environment. )he is remembered for 'rotecting mountain gorillas. "he ban#er was guilty of stealing money.tremely weird. )he is fond of having 'icnics. )he is frightened of being alone at night. . He is res'onsible for causing the damage. "hat actor is famous for being e. "im is content with winning second 'lace. He was 'roud of having com'leted the marathon. )he was #nown for causing 'roblems. "hey are o''osed to building a new road in the 'ar#. He was discouraged by not getting the 2ob. "he researcher was e. He was ha''y about winning the lottery.committed to concerned about content with dedicated to devoted to disa''ointed with discouraged by e. =iona was disa''ointed with coming in third 'lace. He was involved in ma#ing the movie.cited about famous for fond of frightened of guilty of ha''y about interested in involved in #nown for o''osed to 'roud of remembered for res'onsible for scared of terrified of )he is committed to im'roving her >nglish. "ina is scared of being alone at night. *ancy was concerned about being late.cited about going to 1frica.

ious to start her new 2ob. )he is bound to be elected class 'resident. )he was an.ious be ashamed be bound be careful He was amaAed to discover the truth.tired from tired of worried about )he is tired from wor#ing all day. . "he hi#ers were worried about not having enough water. He was ashamed to admit he had lied. 0argaret is tired of ma#ing dinner every night. "hey were careful not to reveal the winner of the 'riAe until the end. #e + (d)e*tive 'o"binations Followed by Infinitives be amaAed be an.

"hey were not eligible to 'artici'ate in the 'rogram. )he was ha''y to see them at the 'arty. )he was fortunate to receive the research grant. "hey are li#ely to show u' at any time. )he was really sad to leave. 0ary was hesitant to say anything.be certain be content be delighted be determined be eager be eligible be fortunate be glad be ha''y be hesitant be liable )he is certain to get the 2ob. He was 'roud to have been chosen to lead the 'ro2ect. He was shoc#ed to discover the truth. He was determined to finish the marathon. "he mountain climber is liable to hurt himself if he doesn&t use well$made e5ui'ment. )he was sur'rised to discover that he had never learned how to swim. be li#ely be luc#y be 'leased be 'roud be ready be reluctant be sad be shoc#ed be sorry be sur'rised . "he witness was reluctant to reveal what he had seen. -e were delighted to be invited to the wedding. % am sorry to have to tell you that the tic#ets are sold out. %&m ready to go now. +ou were luc#y to have such an o''ortunity. % am 'leased to meet you. % would be glad to hel' out. He was eager to begin. "he student was content to receive second 'lace in the com'etition.

Nouns Followed by Infinitives advice a''eal attem't chance His advice to continue was good. . %n Critain< you will have a chance to im'rove your >nglish. Her attem't to locate them was unsuccessful. "he a''eal to reduce 'ollution was ineffective.

Her wish to be treated normally was res'ected. 4ebra&s refusal to hel' did not go unnoticed. His recommendation to close the school u'set the community. His suggestion to leave seemed li#e a good idea. Her dream to become an actress was never realiAed. One way to im'rove your >nglish is to read novels. His goal to run a marathon seemed unrealistic. /ermission to enter the area was difficult to get. Cob&s need to be the center of attention was irritating. Her reminder to review the vocabulary hel'ed me 'ass the test. "he o''ortunity to live in *ew +or# interested )andra. Her motivation to enter university im'ressed them.decision desire dream goal motivation need o''ortunity order 'ermission 'lan 're'aration 'ro'osal recommendation refusal reminder re5uest re5uirement suggestion tendency wish way "he decision to increase ta. His tendency to ta' his des# during a test annoyed me. "hey followed the general&s order to retreat. *1)1&s 're'arations to launch on 0onday moved forward.es was not 'o'ular. "heir re5uest to 'artici'ate was granted. )andy&s 'lan to move to 0adrid bothered her 'arents. "heir re5uirement to s'ea# four languages was unreasonable. His desire to get a good 2ob motivated him. . Her 'ro'osal to host the 'arty im'ressed the committee.

.E+%ressions followed by VER#+ing have 8some9 'roblems He had some 'roblems reading without his glasses.

)he had a hard time e. "hey had a good time snor#eling.have a difficult time have a good time have a hard time have a 'roblem have an easy time have difficulty have fun have no difficulty have no 'roblem s'end one&s time waste one&s time )he had a difficult time hi#ing u' the mountain. =rancis had no 'roblem getting from the air'ort to the hotel. -anda had difficulty translating the letter by herself. .o*ation Verbs Followed by VER#+ing . )he had an easy time selling the delicious coo#ies. "he had fun s#iing. "hey had no difficulty finding a discount flight to Eondon. )he always wastes her time 'laying video games. 4ebbie had a 'roblem understanding his accent. He always s'ends his time wor#ing out at the gym.'laining the situation.

cling cower )he clung to the bottom of the bridge trying to resist the swift current. He lay in bed thin#ing about the day&s events. "he mon#ey hung in the tree chewing on the ri'ened fruit. *ancy stood at the corner loo#ing u' and down the street. "om leaned against the wall resting a few moments before he continued on. )he always sits on the couch watching "F. "he mountain lion crouched on a bolder watching the deer wal# by below. crouch hang lean lie sit stand . "he family cowered in their basement ho'ing the tornado would change directions.