DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg. The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. Department of Technology. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. Residual stresses i . 15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June.htu. This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. S-461 29 Trollhättan. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created. Simulation. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström. Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla. Phase transformation. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement. 2004 ABAQUS. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. Box 957. Welding.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. TRAST. Mathematics and Computer Science. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish. To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan. We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project. 2004 ii .

......................................................10 Create and assign section.....................................1 7.................................................................3 Start the program.............................3 9...................5 6 References.................................4 3..........................................................2 Installation of software .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 2.........................................................6 7 Overview of the simulation..................tdt-file .....12 Create the .......................................................................................................1.....................2 Aim.......3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ........13 iii ........................................................................................9 9.............1 1......................................................2 General flowchart for ex1.................................2 Recommendations for further work ...................................................................................................................3 Create the assembly................................................6 9............................4 8...................................................................2..............................................................................................................................2 2.........................................2 2...............................................................................3................. 5 Generate model database .............................2....................................................1 Background............................................................................................................................................................................ 5 Create Model Database........................................4 work area .....1 How to read the manual ............................1 General work description .................................................................................2......................................................2 General modelling in FEA...................................... 8 9.... 2 Meshing the model................ 5 ABAQUS 6.....................................1 9......................................................................3 8............................................................................2 2 FEA.................................................................3 2.2........................................................................... 6 9 Modelling......................................1 1.......................................................4 3...............................1 Used hardware.................................1 Create part for ex1 .........................................4 5 Conclusions...........................................................................................................................2 2.................................2 8.........1................................2......2 9.....1 8....................................i Preface ....1 Create the model...4 Start ABAQUS CAE .5 5........1 1..................................................................................................................................4 8..............2 7.................................................................................3 8 Start instructions .................................................2 Split the model in partitions.............................................................1 Reflections.............................................4 4 Material properties................................2..................3 Limitations .........................................................................................4 Creating the model.........................................................1 General Knowledge .....6 9........5 8................................................................................................................3..........................................................................v List of symbols ....5 5...............................1 7......................................................2 Assign the material properties.......................................4 Material properties ................................................................2 2....................................................3......... 3 Results .12 Absolute zero temperature......... ii List of symbols ............................3....2...............................v 1 Introduction................................2 Used Software...............................................................................................................................................................................12 9....................................................................................................... 6 9......................................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary.............................................................................................. 3 Loads and boundary conditions..................... 3 3 Technical equipment...................................................4 8......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2.................................................................................................

.................................19 9................................2Results..............27 12....................................................................1SDV results ......................................................................................................23 11.......25 11....................24 11.......................................................................................................................................................2...........................................4...............................inp-file ...3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ..........................................................................6 Define initial conditions .........................4 Create Boundary Conditions .....2..............................2 Animate the stress result............................2Plot the results ..........................................................................................................................4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv ...................................................23 11 Post processing ......................3 Plot the temperature result ...5 Create Mesh...............................................................18 9..........................................26 12 Discussion......................................................19 9...2......2 Create the ...................16 9.28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.3Approximations.....6....................................................................................................inp-file ..........5.......................................................................................................................1 Temperature ........18 9..........................1Generated files...........1 Plot the stress result .....................................................................................................................................21 10 Solve the problem ........................................................................................................................6..................23 11..............................4.......................................15 9......................18 9...........................................................................1 Create Sets........................................................................................27 12.........................................................................................................24 11.................................1 Displacement/rotation.............................27 12...........................................7 Load history definition.........................27 13 References........................................................................14 9............................2 Symmetry .................................................................................6.................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9..............................................................................14 9..........

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2]. power boilers.g. 1. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines. To satisfy their client’s high demands. The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation. evaporators. This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e.2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. from small units to giant tailor-made boilers. The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004. 1. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience. The company delivers power boilers worldwide. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram. The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. One project has already been done. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1].Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). 1 .

to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D. The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. thermal. FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. even small companies can use the technology. There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. 2 FEA 2. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers. 2 . Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed.2 General modelling in FEA 2. Several simplifications will be used.2. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3]. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project.1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models. It is important to make the model as simple as possible. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. 2. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. 3 .3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions. It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program. 2.2. line-loads etc. The volume or the shell is divided into small elements. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads. Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature.2.2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. The results from FEA are not 100% correct. To get results with small deviation from the reality. surface-. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model. 2.. point.2. When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality.

4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage. taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6. Pa) will be used.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12]. For example decide if (m. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables. N.1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 .2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3.

The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. In this simulation it is not. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13]. The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%. It is also used for plotting the results. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10].1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem. 5.2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation. If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created. One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11].Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot. the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected. 5 . In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files.

“Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”. 12. 14. Berlin Heidelberg. Welding Journal Research Supplement. ”Allmänt om FEM”. pp. Dieter Radaj. Nov. Technical University of Denmark 2003. thesis. R. University of HTU 2000. pp. Abaqus system requirements. pp.172-181 6. Linköping 1990. 1997. 11. Aug. Michaleris. Michaleris and A.4. Chalmers University of Technology 2004. pp I:10. Keiser. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Ph. F. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”. Swansea. Kvaerner Power AB. B Andersson. Z. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. Vol. A. W. Engineering Computations. Taljat. N.328-335 10. B. Karlsson.-L. Zacharia. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. Kjell Niklasson.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1. P. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”.akerkvaerner. R.361-366 7. pp. Vander Voort. 1978. Feng and M. Springer-Verlag. 1995 6 . LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Dantzig and D. 3. http://www.abaqus. Vol. G. Sjösröm. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. S. 1999.html#win32 5. J. Jan Langkjær Hansen. Transactions of the ASME. T.D. Wales. Jirinec. USA 1991. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”. C. “Heat effects of welding”. http://www. Tortrelli. DeBiccari. 4. Järvstråt. Wang. homepage. pp133141 9.356-362 8. 1989. Niklas Järvstråt. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Swindeman.com 2. 1992. X. 13. P. Institute of Technology. J. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Maneli Faraji. J. 1998.6. B. T. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”.100 Issue. Master thesis.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .

DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology. Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .

...1 How to read the manual ........................................ 6 9..........3....................................................................................1 7...........................................5 Create Mesh................................1SDV results ......................2.........................................................................................................................................24 11..........................................................................................10 Create and assign section.....................5 8...............................................................................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ......................................7 Load history definition..........28 i ....................2....................................................................................................1 Create Sets........................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Installation of software .............................................................................................................................. 8 9......................23 11 Post processing ................................................1 Plot the stress result ................3 8................ 6 9 Modelling..................................................3................27 13 References................................................4 work area ...........1Generated files....................15 9..........4..................................1..............1...............................2...1 Temperature ....................................................................................................................................................inp-file ................9 9..1 Create the model..................24 11.........................................21 10 Solve the problem ...4 8.....................2 General flowchart for ex1.....................................................................................................14 9..............18 9.......................................... 5 Create Model Database........2 Animate the stress result........................................................................23 11..............................................1 7...............................................................................................12 Create the ..............................................3Approximations...................................................................................................................................2 7............................2..............................................1 Create part for ex1 ............4 8..................................................................................................................3...............................6 9......13 9....3........................................................................................2Plot the results .6 Define initial conditions ...................inp-file .......2..26 12 Discussion.....................................................................................................................23 11..................................................1 9...............................6..............27 12.....................1 General work description ..2.................................................... 5 Generate model database .........................................................................................................................5................6..................................................18 9.........................................................................................................................................2 9..........................................................................2 Split the model in partitions.........................................................1 8.........................................................................2 Create the ...............................2 8.............................2Results...............................................16 9........................3 8 Start instructions .......................4...........3 Create the assembly.............3 9.............................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions .........................................................................................14 9.. 5 ABAQUS 6......................................2..Contents 7 Overview of the simulation.......19 9...............................................................................................................4 Material properties ..............................2 Assign the material properties.................4 8....................................................................27 12.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .......1 Displacement/rotation........................................................................................2 Symmetry ........27 12...........18 9..................tdt-file ................................................................12 Absolute zero temperature....................................................................................................................6............................25 11................................................3 Start the program...................................................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 .............................................................12 9..............19 9...3 Plot the temperature result ..................................................6 9.............................................

inp-file .dat-file ii .tdt-file .inc-file .Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .

1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .7 Overview of the simulation 7.inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .

dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.tdt Trast7_tv ex1.inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.7.odb vtt.inp ex1.

2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5.5 Create Sets and Fields 3.8 Create .7-3.1 Assign the material properties 3. Plotting the results for temperature.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3.9 ex1.3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations.dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.4 Create Mesh 3.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4.odb • • Create inc-file 4.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv.2 Create assembly 3.2 3 . stresses and displacement 5. that calculate the phase transformation.inc • Edit inp-file 4. ex1.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1.inp • • • ex1.3 Create boundary conditions 3. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.inp-file 3.7.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4. ex1. Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL.

8.FLUX.5) 4 . PREDEF(*). Copy the subroutine trast7_tv.DTIME.PREDEF.2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6. (4.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6.TIME.TEMP. Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do.SVAR.4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME. It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string).f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv. SVAR(9). | .8 Start instructions 8. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler. START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv. it is a describing sentence for the particular step. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created. FLUX(2). Before the simulation can start.DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2). the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS. it means that the user When the text is Italic.TIME(2). so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file.for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS.for.

3 Start the program 8.3.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened.8.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 . The “Start Session” window pops up.4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.3. | Create Model Database | 8.3 ABAQUS 6.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6.3.

Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9.3. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 .1 Create the model 9. Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.1.8.1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions.4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program.

05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 . Extrusion Approximate size: 0.2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0.1.Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid.01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up. 0. Give the depth of the model: 0. 0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.

To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions.045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions. These groups of elements (sets) must be named. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material. 0. 0.045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0. 0.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0.9.1. Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0. First step is to divide the model into two parts.1. To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model. 0. 0. Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 .2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. 0.01. filler material and the plate.

The name of the material is also given. specific heat. If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram. The material data in the . The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5].3. The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. as it is in this simulation.tdt-file. This material data is collected from an IT-diagram. conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4].tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. The creation of the . This data is not from a specific material.Figure 4 9. The data for density. For points when the time variable is short. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 .2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model. it is very important that the reading is accurate. the material name must be identical with the name of the .tdtfile is described in 4. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6].

1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up. place the “cursor” in the window and right click. Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7. [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”. To make more rows.Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9. 0.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 .2. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL. Select “Insert Row After”. 10 Temp.

5 500 851.5 200 37.0 800 30.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond. 43. Temp.9 300 650.4 900 .8 0 502.5 700 563. Temp.1 600 29.7 400 33.5 0 42.0 1000 Spec.0 100 551. 473.

CEUT = Eutectic carbon content.4 Create the .tdt-file is a user defined input file.2. 12 .tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C).2. The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations. Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273.2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model.3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale.9.tdt-file The . Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up. START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old .2.15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9.tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition. Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9. In this simulation an old . It contains the IT-diagram for the material.tdt-file or create a new. The .

In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve. LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase. It is usually 1% and 99%. When a temperature is selected. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered. These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees).3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase.The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. Appendix C 9. CC = Carbon content in the material. These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram. This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis. Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up. it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts.

Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane.4. it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions. Pick: Mechanical. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry. To prevent the model to translate along the X. Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up. 9.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation.9.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 .and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas.

4. Pick: Mechanical. Pick the upper line on the back of the model. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9.Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis. Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 .

Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”. Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 . Pick: Hex.5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy. The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model.Figure 7 9.

Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”. Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 .Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up.

9. These groups are called “sets”. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other..6.1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1. …. | Dismiss | 9.5.6 Define initial conditions 9. ELEMENT8. they must be assigned to a field.1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 .

2 Create the .g.inp-file This step will create the . notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2]. Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .inp (with e. see 2.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.13.3) 9.6.inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1.6.6.2) 19 . (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS.6).

** *RESTART.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. 1. material=VTT 1. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD.0 ** 20 . 0. TYPE=FIELD. a set that contain the whole model must be used.inp-fil.inp-file. 0. 0. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. These strings should be reordered after the material data. The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. 0. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions. This is an example from the ..0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. 0. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used. The name of this set is found in the . Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4].0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. TYPE=FIELD. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation. WRITE.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD. Add these strings to the . The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. elset=_PickedSet13.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material.

10.input=ex1.7 Load history definition The .inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1.inc-files. The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the .inc-file has been copied from an old simulation. It is also possible to copy the step information from the . In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed. 21 . creep=none 1. ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. This file is written in “Notepad”.inc File > Save Appendix A 9. edit and save it with a new name. In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution.dat-file [3].. One way to view these results is to write them into the .inc-file that contains the step data: *include.inc-file. It is also possibly to reuse old . File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1. An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one.inc-file contains all the step data.dat-file. In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. In this simulation some parts of the . START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created.Add this string last of all to include the separate .. these steps will be included in the calculation of the results.

ELEMENT7.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ADD ELEMENT2. ELEMENT3.. ** *MODEL CHANGE.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES.FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT. ELSET=ELEMENT2.NT ** *EL FILE.E *EL PRINT. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. ** *NODE FILE. REMOVE ELEMENT2. 10.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. ELSET=ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT6. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1. ELEMENT5. ELEMENT4.DIRECTIONS=YES S. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 .** *MODEL CHANGE.GLOBAL=YES U.POSITION=NODES..

START > Program > ABAQUS 6.for and creates a number of files ( 7.4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file. One is the . This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE.odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11.1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the .dat-flie.odb-file.inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The .10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv. In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step. Open ex1. Appendix D 23 .1).dat with notepad.

odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the .odb) Select: ex1.2.odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 .11. 11.1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.

2.11.2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .

3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .11.2.

dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails. To reduce time in the simulations. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST.dat-file will direct to the . the user should have some FEA experience. sets with elements are created.odb-file: This file is the result-file.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6. commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file. . .msgfile. In the first step the elements are removed. material data. These sets are named.sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation.msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings. boundaries. For the manual to be useful.inp-file: In data file. . This file contains the models geometrical data. 12. it is a good idea to have a separate step file.msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS.log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. . 12.1 Generated files . The .3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated. Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge. Then they are added one by one in each step. In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot. 27 . This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material. The file also contains the commands for the output results. . This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation. The .incfile can be saved and reused. sets.4. . The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used.12 Discussion 12. the .

ABAQUS support. Feng and M. ABAQUS documentation 18. R. T. Bodelind. Institute of Technology.abaqus.13 References 15. N. A. Wang. R. Swindeman. B. B. J. pp. Jirinec. Taljat.com 16. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. Sjösröm. ”Hållfasthets. W. 1998. 1995 19. pp I:4. S. X.och materialtabeller”.-L.328-335 20. Welding Journal Research Supplement. 1999 28 . Z. http://www. Linköping 1990. Keiser. Niklas Järvstråt. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Zacharia. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. Aug. Järvstråt. 17. J. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. Persson.

54. 0. 262. 149. 353. 0. 148. 0.005. 49. 35. 42. 40.05 4. . 54. . 0. 147. 54. . 54. 42 2.inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint. 50. 147. 56.05 6. 81. echo=NO. 0. 353. 0. 0. 0. 0.045 5. 41. .05 3.02571429 457.1. 112. 0. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. 0. 148. 34. 0. 369. 53. .1. 45 5. 55.01928571 458. . 39. 368. 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. 144. 150. 16.00625. 0. 46. 0. 0. model=NO. 0. . 0. 459..00625. 0. 149 . 13. 56. 0. elset=_PickedSet13. 49. 369. . 56. 0.00625. 146. 9. 0. 48. type=C3D8T 1. history=NO.005. 0. 0. 16. 147 4. 82. 149. 369 255. 43. 41. 147.045 2. 145.045 . 251. 44. 47. . 0. name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. . 44.. 36 256. 10. 455. 106. 56. . 0. elset=_PickedSet13. 13. . . 353.01285714 459. 12 7. 0. 146.005.00625.05 7. 4 3. 0. 0. 144.03214286 456. 45. 6. 51. 127 252. generate 1. 100. . . . 11. 0. 10. 150. 48. name=Part-1-1. 0.01. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part. . 0.01. 150. 5.00625. 352. 459. 145 254. 148. 82. 50 6.0875. 3. 353. *End Instance . 0.005. 128. . 8. . material=VTT 1. 0. . 1.B Appendix . 0. 0. . 256. 0. 47.1. . 128.0875.. . 368 253. . 148. 9. . 43. 172.1. 172.005. 2. internal.01. ..0875. 46. name=Assembly ** *Instance.006428571 *Element. 369. . 33.01. . 7. 52. 129. 106. part=Part-1 *Node 1.

23. 135. instance=Part-1-1 9. 12. 19. 83. instance=Part-1-1. 5. 131. 93. internal. 251. 75. 28. nset=_PickedSet10. 1 *Nset. internal. 12. 69. instance=Part-1-1 19. instance=Part-1-1. 74. 84. 115. 1 *Nset. 132. 120. 58. 69. generate 253. 76. nset=_PickedSet4. internal. 136. 54. 83. 238. 86 159. 195. 43. instance=Part-1-1 37. 20. 68 153. 5. internal. elset=_PickedSet13. 28. 55. generate 13. 61. 1 *Nset. internal. 22. 72. nset=_PickedSet7. instance=Part-1-1 19. 112. instance=Part-1-1 17. 32. internal. internal. 38. 52. 73. 20. elset=_PickedSet9. 26. 53. 16. 1 *Nset. 138. 133. 149 *Elset. 125. internal. 78. instance=Part-1-1. 140 153. 23. generate 13. 126. 76. 360. instance=Part-1-1. generate 5. 121. internal. internal. 365 366. 68. 3. 129. 106. 66. 24. internal. 50.*Nset. 154 *Elset. 53. 237. internal. 1 *Nset. 28. 84. 119. internal. 29. generate 25. 36. 356. 19. instance=Part-1-1 2. 16. generate 17. 1 *Nset. 355. generate 25. generate 21. 27. nset=_PickedSet5. 36. elset=ELEMENT2. internal. 24. 20. 69. 181. 359. 1 *Nset. 126. nset=ELEMENT2. elset=ELEMENT3. 67. 25. 68. 151 *Elset. 81. instance=Part-1-1. 75. elset=_PickedSet11. 354. 143. 18. 358. 130. 8. 117. 21. 56. nset=ELEMENT1. generate 9. 34. 48. 86. 154 *Elset. 63. 74. 223. internal. 15. 363. 139. 81. 1 *Nset. 113. 84. 67. 71. instance=Part-1-1. nset=_PickedSet13. 61. 209. 20. 146. instance=Part-1-1 . 15. 118. 1 *Nset. 67. nset=_PickedSet6. instance=Part-1-1 41. 361. instance=Part-1-1 9. internal. 30. 168. 357. 224. 39. 139 140. 154. 116. 156 *Elset. 22. 367. 32. 76. 114. 29. generate 1. elset=_PickedSet6. 1 *Nset. 67. elset=ELEMENT1. 148 *Elset. 63. 85. internal. instance=Part-1-1. 16. 182. 160 *Elset. 34. instance=Part-1-1 25. 21. 31. 70. 70. 26. 65. 368 *Elset. 127. 26. 6. 21. 145. 40. 369 *Elset. 4. 159 *Elset. 62. 22. 42. 29. 64. 256. 30. instance=Part-1-1. 196. instance=Part-1-1. 125. 41. instance=Part-1-1 18. instance=Part-1-1. nset=_PickedSet9. instance=Part-1-1 18. 22. 60. internal. elset=_PickedSet8. generate 17. nset=_PickedSet8. 48. 47. 1 *Nset. nset=ELEMENT3. instance=Part-1-1 26. 71. 12. elset=_PickedSet12. 111. 29. 141. 134. 124. nset=_PickedSet11. instance=Part-1-1 40. 16. 76 155. nset=_PickedSet12. 54. internal. nset=ELEMENT4. 98. instance=Part-1-1 2. 252 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1. 65. 122 123. 97. elset=_PickedSet7. *Nset. 80. 210. 27. 364. 137. elset=_PickedSet4. 156 *Elset. 362. 142. elset=_PickedSet10. 167. 157 *Elset.

49. 32 33. 287. 1 *Nset. 300. 277. 226 227. 23. 85. 2. 73. 173. 160. 210 211. 1 *Nset. 92. 5. 256. 81. 51. 100. 13. 196. 201. 31. 24. 46. 332. 318. 238. 4. 56. 186. 281. nset=ELEMENT6. 146 353. 311. 244. 172. instance=Part-1-1. 144. 271. 170. 121 122. 158. 278. 188. 137 138. 16. 35. 214. 17. 132. 64. instance=Part-1-1 9. 25. 55. 139. 4. 150 *Elset. 229. 174. 66. 213. 314. elset=ELEMENT7. 216. 120. 48. 298. 320. 325. 6. 191. 252. 147. 109. 246. 119. 253. 36. 228. 37. elset=ELEMENT6. 8. 65. 112. 118. 247. 204. 117. 11. 182. generate 1. 269. instance=Part-1-1 9. 296. 79. 272. 15. 35. 15. 329. 91. 187. 258 259. 239. 127. 16. 58. 150. 297. nset=ELEMENT8. 284. 57. 234. 235. 177. 49. 294. 72. 81. 178 179. 34. 56 149. 304. 336. 54. 283. 140. 181. 123. 223. 208. 164. 104. . instance=Part-1-1. 130. instance=Part-1-1 1. 133. 12. 66. 128. 111. 285. 11. 42. 5. 282. 335. 338 78. 316. 249. 14. 189. 240. 319. 53. 80. 46. 46. generate 9. 102. 115. 209. 20. 34. 11. 207. 270. 12. 44. 53. 268. 131. 288. 158 *Elset. 254. 51. 309. 59 62. 13. 95. 114. 305. 77. 267. 36. 260. 299. instance=Part-1-1. 262. 171. 225. 43. 94. 326. 35. 331. 180. 148 *Elset. 14. 203. nset=ELEMENT5. 103. 176. 74. 8. 125. 206. 237. 38. 251. elset=ELEMENT4. 218. 185. 89 90. 231.17. 99. 322 323. 242 243. 113. 142. generate 21. 10. 245. 224. 7. 54. 83. instance=Part-1-1 1. 4. 55. elset=ELEMENT5. 101. 310. 315. 328. 93. 97. 141. 10. 47. 266. 45. 327. instance=Part-1-1. 175. 219. 162 163. 39. 333. 2. 3. 308. 96. 12. 8. 24. 129. nset=ELEMENT7. 198. 143. 48 147. 57. 230. 301. 290 291. 194 195. elset=ELEMENT8. 124. 52. 183. 77. 317. 220. 337. 42. 274 275. 1 *Nset. 264. 128. 153. 56. 169. 70. 33. 279. 152 *Elset. instance=Part-1-1. 1 *Nset. 68. 192. 165. 197. 222. 28. nset=_PickedSet26. 184. 7. 152. 248. 263. 369 *Elset. 302. 236. 145. 8. 144. 1 *Nset. 134. 50. 41. 21. 45. 212. 257. 280. 306 307. 256. 13. 200. 161. 55. 107. 286. 59. 273. 250. 105 106. 79. 241. 126. 255. 313. 292. 334. 44. 276. 98. 108. 166. 221. 312. 303. instance=Part-1-1 1. 215. 295. 168. generate 253. 217. 330. 82 157. 135. 289. 199. 60 151. internal. 87. generate 5. 205. 88. 116. 232. 82. 167. 233. 324. 33. 82. 193. 265. 155. 190. 18. 14. 261. 321. 293. 24. 40. 110. 202. 136. 10.

10. 358. 154. 389. 10. 413. 441. 7. 24. 21. 427. 384. 8. 386. 353. 344. 449. 59. 428.5. 32 33. 43. 416. 359. 15. 365. 50. 71. 3. . 433. 30.. elset=_PickedSet26. instance=Part-1-1 1. 75. 146. 76. 423. 47. 1. 400. 156 157.3 *Expansion 0. 438. 60. 352. elset=_PickedSet28. 13. 16 17. 14. 398. 124. 432. 86. 1. 41. 396. 379. 44. 42. 368. 402. *Density 7810. 22. 426. 200. 400. 9.. 431. 454. 434. instance=Part-1-1. 51. 450. 410. 253.2e-05. 121. 394. 37. 6. 9. 117. 11. 29. 451 452. internal.. 4. 74. 65. 1. 254. 351. 397. 415. *Elset. generate 41.. 115. 30. 369 *Elset. 446. internal. 151. 429. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 350.7. 380. 36. 31. 2. 123. 418. generate 29. 6. 435 436. 122. 442. 382. 353. 66. instance=Part-1-1. 15. 160. 4. 22. 364. 357. instance=Part-1-1 1. 79. 5. 443. 383. 392. 399. 367. 455. 27. 385. elset=_PickedSet27. 255. 77. 70. 348. 55. 391. 159. 56. 67. 390. internal. 25. 421. 376. 343. 120. 48. 458. 395. 354 355.1000. 414. 403 404. 500. 23. 28. 375. 362. 1 *Nset. 0. 346. 153. 61. 800. 152. 412. 116. 345. 125.339. 68 69. 73. 453. 360. nset=_PickedSet28. 3. 12. 33. 40. 119.5e-05. 448. 2. 118. 16 17. 84 85. 0. 57. 155. 144. 12. 11. 42. 150. 14. 83. 456. 256 *Nset. 381. 52 53. 419 420. internal. 34. 405. *Elastic 2. 24. 5. 356. 126 127. 81. 18. 439. 401. 370. 26. 377. 113. 54. 72. 23.5. 363. 361. 750. 13. 114. 340. 457.1. 18. 430. 341. 437. 20. 407. 409. 28. 417. 445. 21. 252. 45. 366. 393. 125. 347. 440. 373. 251. 147. 600. 459 *Elset. nset=_PickedSet27. 158.4e-05. 1.1e+11. 58. 20. 29. 63. 422. 145. 447. 148. 408. 64. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43. 342. 128. 49. 425.3e-05. 46. 406. instance=Part-1-1 38. 80. 250. 62. 411. 7. 19. 19. 387 388. 27. 378. 424. 26. 78. 35. 149. 374. 8. 25. 444. *Depvar 9. 0. 371 372. internal. 82. 349.

ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28.6e-05.700.4. 563.500. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. 0. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. 502. 2. 900. TYPE=FIELD. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8. 0. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. 1.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.1200. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13.8e-05. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. 0. 3.9.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ZSYMM .8. TYPE=FIELD.100.300.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7. TYPE=FIELD. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ** ** *RESTART. 1. TYPE=FIELD. 0. 650. 551. 0.. 6.0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants.900. 3 _PickedSet4. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. WRITE. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.1. absolute zero=-273.5. 1. 851. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.5. TYPE=FIELD. 0. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. *Specific Heat 473. 0. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6.

inc . *include. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.input=ex1.** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26. 2000. 20. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27.

.NT ** *EL FILE.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.. 10. ** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1.C Appendix .E ** *EL PRINT. ADD element3. name=Step-4 .GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT7.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT4.. ** *NODE FILE. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ADD ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT3. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT5..POSITION=NODES.DIRECTIONS=YES S.E ** *EL PRINT. ELSET=ELEMENT2.POSITION=NODES.POSITION=NODES.E *EL PRINT. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. ELEMENT6.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. creep=none 1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step. 10. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. ELSET=ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step. ** *MODEL CHANGE. 10. creep=none 1.NT ** *EL FILE.NT ** *EL FILE. creep=none 1. REMOVE ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE..GLOBAL=YES U..

** *NODE FILE.E ** *EL PRINT. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ADD element5.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 10. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.DIRECTIONS=YES S.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1. 10. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step...FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT. ADD element7.POSITION=NODES. creep=none 1. 10.FREQUENCY=1.. ADD element4.. ** *MODEL CHANGE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.GLOBAL=YES . name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. creep=none 1.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ** *MODEL CHANGE... ELSET=ELEMENT2.. ** *MODEL CHANGE.POSITION=NODES.. ** *NODE FILE. 10.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. creep=none 1.POSITION=NODES. ADD element6. ** *NODE FILE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.E ** *EL PRINT. ** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1.*Coupled Temperature-Displacement.

. ** *MODEL CHANGE.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELSET=ELEMENT2.E ** *EL PRINT. ADD element8.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE.GLOBAL=YES U. creep=none 1. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE..FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- . FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 100.E ** *EL PRINT.POSITION=NODES.NT ** *EL FILE.U.DIRECTIONS=YES S.

0 440.0 460.tdt-file CEUT .16 3.0 570.0 650.0 720.0 700.39 2.0 690.66 2.0 440.0 740.0 480.0 500.E6 TL 0.0 520.D Appendix .0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.E6 640.0 740.0 760.0 30.993 1.96 3.0 400.0 560.0 350.0 650.01 0.0 710.0 480.917 0.84 1. 320.09 1.94 2.0 650.88 6.0 600.70 2.0 690.0 720.E6 590.0 540.95 3.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.56 1.00 2.0 760.0 540.0 690.0 LOG(TIR) 4.0 350.0 740.0 670.0 670.44 TER 570.0 1 5 570.0 500.E6 111.57 2.0 LOG(TIL) 3.37 2.11 0.03 20.86 3.99 0.18 3.0 560.90 1.0 201.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.0 2.98 2.01 0.99 0.0 420.32 2.0 0.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.0 320.0 600.62 4.0 700.0 670.29 1.85 2.0 420.0 460.53 2.948 0.0 710.55 2.0 760.E6 590.0 570.0 700.0 TEL 570.43 2.20 3.0 HS 590.0 320.0 320.02 3.71 2.53 2.57 2.08 1.35 2.77 15.0 520.34 2.0 .926 0.18 9.0 680.14 2.01 ! ! ! VL 0.939 0.51 3.0 400.0 680.E6 590.97 4.22 1.0 512.81 2.0 600.62 4.

8260E-04 1.5802E-06 9.000 0.4425E-06 0.3 277.000 0.3090 0.000 0.4575E-08 2.000 0.7 277.1647 0.3185 0.000 0.1628 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2423E-08 0.4 277.000 0.1647 0.5215 0.5248 0.4575E-08 5.5215 0.0226E-06 5.4236E-03 5.000 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.000 0.0226E-06 8.4916E-04 3.3 277.1628 0.000 .000 0.5252 0.000 0.0915E-06 1.0226E-06 5.000 0.2423E-08 0.4425E-06 0.3065 0.000 0.1591 0.3114 0.E Appendix .000 0.4575E-08 2.9 277.3185 0.1588 0.4596E-05 3.5252 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.4 277.2 278.7 277.000 0.000 0.000 SDV4 0.3090 0.5252 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.5802E-06 9.1591 SDV6 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.4916E-04 3.3114 0.1628 0.1591 0.2 277.5248 0.000 3.1628 0.5215 0.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.1647 0.000 0.2 276.4575E-08 4.000 0.5252 0.5282 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.1647 0.000 0.7 277.000 0.5252 0.7 276.000 0.000 0.000 0.8260E-04 1.0226E-06 3.4425E-06 0.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.4596E-05 3.000 0.0226E-06 3.2 276.8260E-04 1.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.7 277.0226E-06 5.000 0.3212 0.9 277.5197 0.5227 0.0226E-06 5.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.7 277.5282 0.5197 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.4916E-04 3.1628 0.5252 0.3065 0.3212 0.3138 0.000 0.1647 0.000 0.3 25 0.1628 0.4575E-08 4.3090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2 276.000 0.000 5.000 0.0915E-06 1.000 0.5282 25 1.000 0.5802E-06 9.1591 0.2423E-08 0.2 277.3138 0.4 26 25 25 25 0.1648 0.1588 0.5215 0.000 0.5252 0.3065 0.000 0.5215 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1647 0.4596E-05 3.0915E-06 1.000 0.4575E-08 4.3 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.5227 0.5197 26 0.5215 0.3138 0.000 0.7 276.3114 0.3185 0.4916E-04 3.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.000 0.000 0.3185 0.000 0.0226E-06 8.000 0.3138 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 5.3212 SDV7 278.000 26 SDV5 0.000 0.7 277.1628 0.5248 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.4236E-03 5.1651 0.7 276.3138 0.5252 0.1648 0.3 278.5197 0.000 0.000 0.3138 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.2423E-08 0.9 277.4596E-05 1.000 0.000 0.2 276.5227 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.1647 0.000 0.000 0.1588 0.000 0.1648 0.000 0.0915E-06 1.7 277.000 0.000 8.4575E-08 5.3114 0.000 0.000 0.3114 0.1651 0.5197 8.1647 0.3212 278.2 278.4 277.5248 0.5215 0.1648 0.1628 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4 277.3114 0.000 0.4236E-03 0.4236E-03 5.1588 0.3065 0.3138 0.000 0.9 277.1651 0.5282 0.5227 0.5802E-06 9.1651 0.3114 0.000 0.000 0.7 276.3090 0.000 0.1588 0.4425E-06 0.3114 0.5802E-06 9.4916E-04 3.3138 0.000 0.3212 0.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.000 0.5282 0.000 0.1651 0.000 0.5215 0.

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