DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. S-461 29 Trollhättan. Box 957. 15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. 2004 ABAQUS. Residual stresses i . Mathematics and Computer Science. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. TRAST. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish.htu. Phase transformation. This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. Welding. Department of Technology. Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created. Simulation. Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan. We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project. 2004 ii .

..........................................................................1 Background...1 1...............................................................................................................13 iii .2 9....................................4 work area ..........3 Create the assembly..................................................... 8 9.........6 7 Overview of the simulation.....................................2 Used Software............................................................................3..............................................3.................................................................................. ii List of symbols ................1 2....................................................................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ................................................3 9.........................................................3 Start the program.......................2...................................2..............1 Create part for ex1 ......................1 9.......................................2.....................................1 Used hardware........................................................................................................2 Aim.............. 6 9.......i Preface ........12 Create the ............2..........................................................................1 8......................................3 Limitations ..........................................................................................1 Reflections...................................2........................................................2..................................................................................................................................1 7.............................1...............10 Create and assign section...................................................3 8..........................................2 2........................................................3............................................2 General modelling in FEA............................................9 9..4 Start ABAQUS CAE .........................................5 5......................................................................................1............................................................................................................................................................2 2 FEA......................................................................................................2 2...................................................3 8 Start instructions ................................................................................................................................................ 6 9 Modelling....................................................4 Material properties ............... 3 3 Technical equipment........................................................................................................4 4 Material properties...................................................2 General flowchart for ex1.........Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary..............................................3..........................................................................................................12 9........12 Absolute zero temperature......2 Installation of software ....4 8..............v List of symbols ............2 Split the model in partitions........... 2 Meshing the model........................................................... 5 ABAQUS 6.................6 9..................4 8............1 1............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 8.........................................4 Creating the model.........................1 Create the model...................................................................................................1 General work description ....... 3 Results ...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 Assign the material properties.....................5 5..............................................................1 7....tdt-file ...................v 1 Introduction..............................................................4 5 Conclusions..............................................................................................................................1 How to read the manual .......................... 5 Generate model database .............2 Recommendations for further work .....1 1....5 8....................4 3............................4 3.......................................................................................2 2.................6 9.........................................................................2 7.........................2............. 3 Loads and boundary conditions.................................................2................2 8.2 2..................3 2........................................................................................... 5 Create Model Database................................................................................................................................1 General Knowledge ...........................................................................5 6 References.....................................................................................................................................

..............27 12..........................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9...............1 Create Sets.........................24 11.......................2 Symmetry ...............................................27 12............................1Generated files...........................14 9.1 Temperature .......................26 12 Discussion...19 9..................................................................................................15 9...........................................6...................................................................................3 Plot the temperature result .................4......................6...............................................................................................................27 12.........................18 9...........................................................................................................................5 Create Mesh..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2Results......................................................................................2 Animate the stress result....................18 9.....................................................................25 11..........................18 9...........................................................................7 Load history definition.........4.........................24 11.................14 9............................28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.....................2 Create the .............................................................3Approximations..2Plot the results ...........6 Define initial conditions ......................5..............................................................1SDV results .......................................................................................................................27 13 References...........................3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ..2.........................2........................................................................................2........................................19 9....................................................................................................................................................inp-file .......4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv ..............23 11 Post processing .....................16 9............................................................................................inp-file ...23 11........................................1 Plot the stress result ......................................................................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions .23 11....................6........................................21 10 Solve the problem .............1 Displacement/rotation..............................

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

To satisfy their client’s high demands. evaporators. The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2]. This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1].Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). 1. 1 . The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004. from small units to giant tailor-made boilers.g. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development. The company delivers power boilers worldwide. The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation.2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. power boilers. One project has already been done. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram. 1.

1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. 2 . The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products. thermal. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help. FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3].2 General modelling in FEA 2. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers. even small companies can use the technology.2. Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed. The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program. Several simplifications will be used.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. 2 FEA 2. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material. to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D. It is important to make the model as simple as possible.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling. There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved. 2.

To get results with small deviation from the reality. It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature.. surface-. The volume or the shell is divided into small elements. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. 2. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality. The results from FEA are not 100% correct.3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions.2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model. 2. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2.2. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements.2.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. line-loads etc. point. 3 . Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality. When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses.2.

4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6.2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3. For example decide if (m.1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12]. N. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables. Pa) will be used.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage. taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 .

If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot. 5. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10]. 5 . It is also used for plotting the results. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13]. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared.1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. In this simulation it is not. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc. The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%.2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes. The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem. One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11].

pp. Wang. C.html#win32 5. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Chalmers University of Technology 2004. R. http://www. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”. R. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”. DeBiccari. Karlsson. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. Welding Journal Research Supplement. J. 12. 14. homepage. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. ”Allmänt om FEM”. Dantzig and D. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. Zacharia. Institute of Technology.akerkvaerner. University of HTU 2000. pp.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts. Sjösröm. Kvaerner Power AB. http://www.328-335 10. thesis. Abaqus system requirements. Linköping 1990. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1. F. Tortrelli. Swansea. G. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Keiser. pp I:10. X. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”.-L. S. USA 1991. “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”. Michaleris and A. T. 1998. Nov. Z.100 Issue. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Niklas Järvstråt. B Andersson.172-181 6. P. A. W. Transactions of the ASME. 1999. Maneli Faraji. Springer-Verlag. Aug. Vol. Engineering Computations. Jan Langkjær Hansen.361-366 7. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. pp.6. Michaleris. Technical University of Denmark 2003. 4. Berlin Heidelberg. Wales. B. J. P. 1989. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. 3. 1978. pp. Ph. Järvstråt. Vol.com 2. 13. J.D. pp133141 9. 1992. Vander Voort. Feng and M. Swindeman. Dieter Radaj. 11. Jirinec. 1997. Welding Journal Research Supplement.4. Kjell Niklasson.abaqus. N.356-362 8. Master thesis. 1995 6 . B. Taljat. “Heat effects of welding”. T.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .

Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology.

......................................................2...............19 9.....24 11..5 Create Mesh.................................................................................2 Create the ...................1SDV results ..................................3..........3 Create the assembly......................3 8............3....15 9...........3Approximations..........................................6 Define initial conditions ..............................................................................................4 work area ................... 5 ABAQUS 6...............................................................................................................10 Create and assign section........................................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ...............................................................19 9...............................................6........................................................23 11........3 Start the program.............3 Plot the temperature result ...1 Create part for ex1 ................2............................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ..................................inp-file ........................................................ 6 9 Modelling..................................................................2 7...........................16 9........2 Split the model in partitions.........................................................................................2Results....6 9....................2...................................... 8 9............... 6 9...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1 Create the model.....................1 7.......1 8.............5 8........................................................18 9...............................................................................................27 12....................1 7.......................................2 Symmetry ...............................6........................................................................4 Material properties ................................................................................................................................2 Installation of software ................23 11 Post processing ........................................................18 9.............3...........1 9.............26 12 Discussion................................................................................................18 9.................................2.............4 8.................................................25 11..........................................................................4.......2 Animate the stress result......................................3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .1............................14 9.......................................4...........Contents 7 Overview of the simulation..........................................................................................................................................................................2....................................................14 9.7 Load history definition...................................................................................................4 8...1 Temperature ........27 12.............4 8...................2 8..............................27 12.....1........28 i ........................................................................... 5 Create Model Database......................................................1 How to read the manual .......................................................2 Assign the material properties..........1 Create Sets...........................................................................................................2 General flowchart for ex1......................................6 9.9 9..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................12 Create the ..........27 13 References...............12 Absolute zero temperature..............1 General work description ............................................2.....................................................................................................3 9.tdt-file . 5 Generate model database ....................................................1 Plot the stress result .......................................................................................21 10 Solve the problem ...........................1 Displacement/rotation...................................................................................................................1Generated files...............................................................................................................................................................................2Plot the results ......................................................................................................................................12 9.................23 11....................5..............................................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ........6..................................24 11....................13 9....inp-file .....2..............................3.................................................................................................................................2 9...............................................3 8 Start instructions ........

dat-file ii .inp-file .inc-file .Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .tdt-file .

tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .7 Overview of the simulation 7.inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .

7.odb vtt.inp ex1.dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .tdt Trast7_tv ex1.2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.

7.odb • • Create inc-file 4.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1.3 Create boundary conditions 3.2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5. Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL.inc • Edit inp-file 4.7-3.inp-file 3.dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.4 Create Mesh 3.2 Create assembly 3.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4.2 3 .5 Create Sets and Fields 3.1 Assign the material properties 3. ex1.inp • • • ex1. ex1.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv.9 ex1. Plotting the results for temperature. stresses and displacement 5.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4. that calculate the phase transformation.8 Create .3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations.

8. it means that the user When the text is Italic.for. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon.FLUX.f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6.5) 4 . START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv.SVAR.8 Start instructions 8.TEMP. | . (4. the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS.PREDEF.DTIME.TIME(2). Before the simulation can start. FLUX(2).2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual.for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS. SVAR(9). Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do. It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string).4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME.TIME. so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file. it is a describing sentence for the particular step. Copy the subroutine trast7_tv. PREDEF(*).DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2).

3.3 ABAQUS 6.3 Start the program 8.3.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6.4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.3. The “Start Session” window pops up.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened. | Create Model Database | 8.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8.8. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 .

4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database.1 Create the model 9.1.3.8. Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9. Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 .

0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 .Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid.01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up.1. Extrusion Approximate size: 0.2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0. Give the depth of the model: 0. 0.

Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 .045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0. 0. 0.9.1.01. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0. To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model. 0. 0.1.2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0. 0.045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions. These groups of elements (sets) must be named. First step is to divide the model into two parts. filler material and the plate. 0. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material.

conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. it is very important that the reading is accurate. The data for density. as it is in this simulation. The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5]. The creation of the . For points when the time variable is short.tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. This material data is collected from an IT-diagram. The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. The name of the material is also given. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram.2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model.tdt-file. specific heat. The material data in the .Figure 4 9.tdtfile is described in 4. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6]. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 . This data is not from a specific material. the material name must be identical with the name of the . If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used.3.

Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL. 10 Temp. Select “Insert Row After”.1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp.Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9.2.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0. place the “cursor” in the window and right click. 0.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 . [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”. To make more rows.

5 700 563.9 300 650. Temp. 473.5 0 42.4 900 .5 500 851.8 0 502. 43.7 400 33.5 200 37.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond.1 600 29.0 800 30.0 100 551.0 1000 Spec. Temp.

4 Create the .9.tdt-file is a user defined input file. Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9. The . CEUT = Eutectic carbon content.2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model.tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition.2.tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C). START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old .3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale. It contains the IT-diagram for the material. Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up.tdt-file or create a new.2. The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations. Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273. In this simulation an old .tdt-file The .2. 12 .15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9.

It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve.3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). When a temperature is selected. it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts. These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram.The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase. Appendix C 9. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). It is usually 1% and 99%. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis. Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up. The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered. This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. CC = Carbon content in the material. LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees). Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase.

Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Pick: Mechanical.9.and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas. Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane. it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions.4. 9. To prevent the model to translate along the X. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 .

Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up. Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9.2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Pick: Mechanical. Pick the upper line on the back of the model.4. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 .

Select the whole model with a “window”. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 . The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model.Figure 7 9. Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0. Pick: Hex.5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up. Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.

Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”. Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 . Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up.

| Dismiss | 9. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other.1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature.6. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 . Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1.1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names.5. …. they must be assigned to a field. These groups are called “sets”.6 Define initial conditions 9. ELEMENT8..9.

2 Create the .inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.inp (with e.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the . (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS.6.6).g.2) 19 .inp-file This step will create the .6.3) 9. Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9. see 2.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.13. notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2].6.inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1.

0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ** *RESTART. TYPE=FIELD.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. elset=_PickedSet13. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions. Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4].inp-file. 0. TYPE=FIELD. 1. 0.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. material=VTT 1. TYPE=FIELD. 0. TYPE=FIELD. 0. WRITE. a set that contain the whole model must be used. 0. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. 0. The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13.0 ** 20 .inp-fil. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. Add these strings to the .0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. The name of this set is found in the . This is an example from the . These strings should be reordered after the material data. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13..

inc File > Save Appendix A 9. One way to view these results is to write them into the . In this simulation some parts of the .inc-file that contains the step data: *include.inc-file has been copied from an old simulation. This file is written in “Notepad”.. In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one. START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created. ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step.dat-file [3].inp file generated in a fully interactive execution. The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the . edit and save it with a new name.dat-file.inc-file.inc-files. In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. It is also possibly to reuse old .inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1. An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one. these steps will be included in the calculation of the results.Add this string last of all to include the separate .inc-file contains all the step data.. 21 . name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.7 Load history definition The .input=ex1. In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed. File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1. It is also possible to copy the step information from the . 10. creep=none 1.

REMOVE ELEMENT2. ELSET=ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S.** *MODEL CHANGE. ** *NODE FILE..FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT7..GLOBAL=YES U. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 . ** *MODEL CHANGE. 10.GLOBAL=YES U. ELEMENT3. ELSET=ELEMENT2.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT6.NT ** *EL FILE. ELEMENT4. ADD ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT5.E ** *EL PRINT.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1. creep=none 1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE.E *EL PRINT.POSITION=NODES.

dat with notepad. Open ex1.for and creates a number of files ( 7.4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1.odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file.odb-file. Appendix D 23 . One is the .1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the .1). START > Program > ABAQUS 6. This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE.dat-flie. In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step.10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv.inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The .

odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 . 11.11.1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the .odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.2.odb) Select: ex1.

2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .11.2.

3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .11.2.

.dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails. Then they are added one by one in each step. . It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS.log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. The file also contains the commands for the output results. In the first step the elements are removed. 12. the . Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge. To reduce time in the simulations. This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material.sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation. These sets are named. This file contains the models geometrical data. the user should have some FEA experience. For the manual to be useful. commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file.incfile can be saved and reused.3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation.dat-file will direct to the .4. .msgfile.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6. 12. sets with elements are created.12 Discussion 12. The . sets.msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings.odb-file: This file is the result-file. This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation. The . . material data. 27 . with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST.inp-file: In data file. it is a good idea to have a separate step file.msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. . boundaries.1 Generated files . In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot. .

1999 28 . ABAQUS documentation 18. Aug. Institute of Technology. 17. X. Wang. T. ABAQUS support. R. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. B.com 16. Järvstråt. http://www. Persson. B. S. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Sjösröm.och materialtabeller”. Niklas Järvstråt. Swindeman.abaqus. pp I:4. J. Feng and M. pp. Bodelind. Zacharia. 1998. A. Jirinec. Keiser.328-335 20. 1995 19. N. ”Hållfasthets.-L. Taljat.13 References 15. J. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. R. Z. W. Linköping 1990.

11. 0. 127 252. 0. 145 254. 100. 10. 0. 34. 0. 53. 9. 459. . 55. 0. . 8. internal. 455. generate 1.1.. 368 253. 0. 81. 0. 0.045 . 172.01928571 458. 106. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. 353. 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. 43. 42 2. . 0. *End Instance . 106. 40. 47. 150. 45 5. 5. 147. 0. 0.. 147. . 256. type=C3D8T 1.045 5. 56. 0. 50. 353. 148. 52.01. 146. 49. . 112. 369.05 4. 0.00625. 82. 172. 368. 0. 459. . . 148.B Appendix . 46. 0. 46. . .1. 56. 0. 13. . 149. 4 3. 36 256. 10. 369. 0. 33.02571429 457.005.00625. 352. echo=NO. 54. 50 6.0875. 148.00625.05 6. 0. 0. model=NO. 54. 145. 128. .01. . 0. . . 7.0875. 369 255.05 3. 56. 150. 9.045 2. elset=_PickedSet13.01. 0.006428571 *Element. . 48. . 39. 0. 6. 48. 0. 3.03214286 456. . history=NO. material=VTT 1. 144. 2. 47. 251. part=Part-1 *Node 1. 144. 44.1. 262. 35. 16. 147.01. 16.005.0875. 0. 42.005. 82. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part.inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint. . . . .. 56. .01285714 459. 369. 149. 0. 0. name=Assembly ** *Instance.. 129. 128.05 7. .005. . 1. name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. 0.00625. . 0. 0. 54. 353. 148. elset=_PickedSet13. 45.1. 49. 146. 43. 0. . 44. 0. 0. 149 . 0. 13. name=Part-1-1. 41. 0. 150. 54. 12 7. .00625. 147 4. 0. 41. . 353. 0. 51.005.

internal. 154 *Elset. 28. nset=_PickedSet7. 76. 76. generate 13. 76. instance=Part-1-1. elset=_PickedSet6. 83. 1 *Nset. 157 *Elset. 146. 111. 29. 98. elset=_PickedSet13. 363. internal. 68 153. 159 *Elset. internal. 148 *Elset. 50. generate 25. 133. 39. instance=Part-1-1. nset=ELEMENT3. 130. 18. 116. 93. internal. 34. 48. generate 17. 64. 167. 74. elset=_PickedSet11. 16. nset=_PickedSet13. 31. 1 *Nset. 117. 223. instance=Part-1-1. 114. 84. 43. 36. 113. nset=_PickedSet9. 22. instance=Part-1-1 2. generate 21. 360. elset=ELEMENT2. 32. 1 *Nset. nset=_PickedSet11. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 40. 23. 41. instance=Part-1-1 18. instance=Part-1-1 9. 70. 12. 15. instance=Part-1-1 26. 65. 131. nset=_PickedSet6. 22. 27. 68. 251. 209. instance=Part-1-1 19. instance=Part-1-1. 369 *Elset. 29. 54. 61. 118. 196. 73. instance=Part-1-1 37. 20. 28. 22. 85. 78. 75. 60. 80. internal. 122 123. 364. 24. 106. 3. 69. 1 *Nset. 142. 355. internal. 134. instance=Part-1-1. 86. 16. instance=Part-1-1 17. 237. generate 13. 53. 30. 26. nset=_PickedSet4. 126. 125. instance=Part-1-1 41. 12. 54. 1 *Nset. 20. 126. generate 253. 42. 358. 129. 156 *Elset. elset=_PickedSet12. 156 *Elset. 21. 29. 32. 71. instance=Part-1-1 18. instance=Part-1-1. 120. 143. instance=Part-1-1 2. 84. 69. 67. 12. 195. 1 *Nset. 149 *Elset. 238. 181. 139 140. 36. 367. 53. elset=_PickedSet8. 139. 8. nset=ELEMENT2. 354. 83. 19. internal. internal. 5. 137. 58. nset=_PickedSet8. 28. 1 *Nset. 252 *Nset. internal. 121. 72. 47. 27. 141. 154. 67. 21. instance=Part-1-1. 75. 357. 16. instance=Part-1-1 25. 361. 154 *Elset. 76 155. nset=_PickedSet10. 30. 29. 16. 69. 20. 68. 151 *Elset. 67. 256. internal. 52. elset=ELEMENT1. 145. 136. internal. 19. internal. nset=_PickedSet5. 34. generate 25. internal. instance=Part-1-1 9. 115. 6. 97. 140 153. instance=Part-1-1 19. 5. *Nset. 362. 127. 135. internal. instance=Part-1-1. 22. 210. nset=ELEMENT1. 1 *Nset. 168. internal. 67. 359. instance=Part-1-1. 62. 224. 84. 24. 63. 124. 119. internal. internal. elset=_PickedSet10. elset=_PickedSet7. internal. 20. 81. generate 1. 1 *Nset.*Nset. 65. 160 *Elset. 38. 25. 132. 138. 55. 63. elset=_PickedSet9. 23. generate 17. 74. instance=Part-1-1 . nset=ELEMENT4. 112. 71. 15. 21. 48. 86 159. instance=Part-1-1. 61. 356. 365 366. 4. elset=ELEMENT3. 125. 182. 40. 56. 1 *Nset. 26. internal. generate 9. 26. generate 5. 70. 66. instance=Part-1-1. elset=_PickedSet4. 81. nset=_PickedSet12. 368 *Elset.

276. nset=ELEMENT6. 257. 143. 262. 81. nset=_PickedSet26. 150 *Elset. 198. 208. 82. 273. 199. 111. 183. 28. 253. 139. 114. 100. 44. 128. 43. 246. 16. 261. 127. 77. 319. instance=Part-1-1 9. 14. 128. elset=ELEMENT7. 123. 14. 221. 161. 233. 11. 99. 40. 11. 239. 60 151. 85. 52. instance=Part-1-1. 258 259. 107. 282. 80. 73. 220. 295. 186. 55. 47. 192. 81. 314. 182. 87. 152 *Elset. 334. 302. 306 307. 228. 108. 8. 238. 296.17. 82 157. 115. 14. 6. 328. 93. 148 *Elset. 58. 53. 129. 119. 338 78. 10. 146 353. 255. 49. 25. 144. 202. 131. 204. 284. 79. 5. 54. 153. 48. 223. 66. 235. 110. 230. 263. 8. 269. 172. 317. 332. 256. 142. nset=ELEMENT8. 207. 267. 102. 229. 203. instance=Part-1-1 9. instance=Part-1-1 1. 68. 46. 136. 13. 112. 299. 316. 82. . 36. 7. 32 33. 218. 10. 181. 216. 53. 72. 312. 24. 245. 74. 96. 1 *Nset. 103. 92. 369 *Elset. 59. 268. 252. 190. 41. 298. 164. 140. 270. 193. 178 179. generate 21. 318. 326. 331. 308. 184. 12. generate 5. 309. 224. 13. 214. 324. 147. 56 149. 213. 4. 180. 242 243. 166. 77. 56. 191. elset=ELEMENT6. 104. 144. 194 195. 201. 130. 175. 34. 285. 169. 283. 327. nset=ELEMENT7. generate 1. 266. 286. 4. 336. 55. 13. 94. 264. 38. 297. 12. 280. 51. elset=ELEMENT8. 120. instance=Part-1-1 1. 236. 10. 200. 109. 325. 160. generate 253. 215. 12. 174. 55. 305. 5. 132. 277. 333. 249. internal. 222. 196. 137 138. 56. 168. 98. 83. 287. 241. 54. 57. 49. 1 *Nset. 150. 45. 1 *Nset. 39. 64. 2. 18. 304. instance=Part-1-1. 232. 4. 51. 66. 250. 240. 320. 65. 33. 97. 89 90. 79. 158. 225. 91. 124. 171. 335. 35. 206. 117. 2. 274 275. 217. 158 *Elset. 265. 244. 1 *Nset. 48 147. generate 9. 231. instance=Part-1-1 1. 329. 170. 3. 15. 36. 310. 33. instance=Part-1-1. 210 211. instance=Part-1-1. 256. 237. 121 122. 260. 152. 50. 288. 7. 251. 278. 176. 292. 42. 303. 187. 226 227. 23. 322 323. 135. 162 163. 59 62. 185. 44. 197. 95. 167. 272. 21. 311. 46. 330. 1 *Nset. 247. elset=ELEMENT4. 165. 289. 300. 70. 11. 219. 133. 254. 35. 31. 134. 189. 24. 141. 118. 113. 279. elset=ELEMENT5. 315. 145. 35. 116. 20. 37. 17. 8. 281. 46. 209. 271. 294. 125. 88. 16. 126. 248. 188. 313. 337. 101. 34. 321. 45. 15. 173. 8. instance=Part-1-1. 177. 57. 234. 290 291. 105 106. 24. 301. 42. 293. 212. nset=ELEMENT5. 205. 155.

423. 0. 454. instance=Part-1-1. 422. 357. 160. 22. 381. 6. instance=Part-1-1. generate 41. 20.1e+11. 46. 432. 374. 440. 11. 12. internal. 253. 25. 351. 341.5e-05. 401. internal. 365.. 27. 15. 147. 443. 391. 2. 153. 25. 113. 400.4e-05. 375. 26. 402. 353. 15. 353. 60.5. elset=_PickedSet26. 12. 392. *Density 7810. 5. internal. 75. 1. 73. 30. 393. 255. 425. 114. 126 127. 37. . 50. 42. 18. 345. 144. 16 17. 421.. 52 53. 410. 28. 59. 156 157. 347. 254. 459 *Elset. 145. 356. 56. 68 69. 363. 418. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 352. 74. 455. 368. 57. 20. 500. 250. 42. 252. 64. 151. 83. 800. 251. 2. 354 355. 1 *Nset. 19. 47. 5. 49. 4. 346.7. 27. 76. elset=_PickedSet28. 159. 13. 128. 387 388. 86. 18. 444. 348. 26. 24. 146. 406. 446. 343. 417. 0. 3. 371 372.3 *Expansion 0. 416. 200. 409.. instance=Part-1-1 1. 360. 41. 453. 395. 117. 398. 10. 58. internal. 21. 359. 3. 28. 118. 9. 120. 750. 380. 23. elset=_PickedSet27. 394. 435 436. 125. 412. 434. 84 85. 115. 456. 44. 33. 1. 150. 1. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43. 123. 122. 340. 35.. 379. 414. 389. 415. 600. 124. 10. 14. 449. 350. 367. 13. 29. 29. 119. 349. 256 *Nset. 71. 399. 377. 396. 407. 63. 16 17. 437. 383. internal. 386. 14. 424. 433. 400. 11. 364. 342. 411. 428. instance=Part-1-1 38. 397. 30. 369 *Elset. 358. 373. 54. 390. *Elastic 2. *Depvar 9. 7. 22. 458. generate 29. 344. 62.2e-05. 70. 403 404. 419 420. 78. 7. 448. nset=_PickedSet27.3e-05. 4. 32 33. 82. 8. 158. 51. 55. 405. 413. nset=_PickedSet28. 439. 36.1000. instance=Part-1-1 1. 125. 361. 72.339. 1. 67. 154. 382. 6. 447. 442. 116. 121. 370. 148. 450. 61. 155. 48. 81. 8. 23. 445. 441. 43. 451 452. 19.1. 40. 34. *Elset. 426. 66. 427. 77. 429.5. 376. 378. 31. 24. 430. 80. 431. 65. 152. 45. 21. 438. 149. 366. 457. 362. 0. 384. 408. 9. 79. 385.

1. 851. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12. TYPE=FIELD. 563.4. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. 3 _PickedSet4. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. TYPE=FIELD. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.8e-05.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.6e-05. 0. WRITE.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4.300. 1. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10.8. 0. 0. *Specific Heat 473.9. 0. TYPE=FIELD.1200. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13. 650.0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants.5. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6. 0. 6. ZSYMM . 0.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11. absolute zero=-273. 502.500. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. ** ** *RESTART. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. 900.900.100. 2.5.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.700. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 551. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28. 3. TYPE=FIELD. 1. 1.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.

type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26.inc .** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. 20. 2000. *include. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27.input=ex1. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.

. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. 10. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1. ADD ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step. 10. creep=none 1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.. 10.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT5.DIRECTIONS=YES S.POSITION=NODES. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1.C Appendix . FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step. ELEMENT4.FREQUENCY=1.. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1.E *EL PRINT..E ** *EL PRINT. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. ADD element3.DIRECTIONS=YES S..GLOBAL=YES U. creep=none 1. ELEMENT7. name=Step-4 . creep=none 1. ** *MODEL CHANGE.NT ** *EL FILE. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ** *MODEL CHANGE.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT3. REMOVE ELEMENT2. ELEMENT6.. ELSET=ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S.NT ** *EL FILE.GLOBAL=YES U.GLOBAL=YES U. ELSET=ELEMENT2.

.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1. creep=none 1.DIRECTIONS=YES S.. ** *MODEL CHANGE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE. 10. name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ELSET=ELEMENT2..FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES. 10.DIRECTIONS=YES S. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step. name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ADD element6.GLOBAL=YES U.E ** *EL PRINT. ** *NODE FILE. ADD element5. ADD element7. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step.GLOBAL=YES U.E ** *EL PRINT. creep=none 1. ** *NODE FILE. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 10.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ADD element4. ** *MODEL CHANGE.GLOBAL=YES U.POSITION=NODES. ** *MODEL CHANGE...FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT. 10.GLOBAL=YES ..*Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ** *MODEL CHANGE.NT ** *EL FILE. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES...

U. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- .NT ** *EL FILE.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT. creep=none 1. 100. ELSET=ELEMENT2.POSITION=NODES.NT ** *EL FILE. ADD element8.FREQUENCY=1. ** *MODEL CHANGE..E ** *EL PRINT. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ELSET=ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S..POSITION=NODES.DIRECTIONS=YES S.

11 0.E6 111.44 TER 570.18 9.0 320.0 540.0 670.66 2.0 670.D Appendix .53 2.0 760.E6 590.56 1.57 2.14 2.0 720.98 2.E6 590.00 2.0 LOG(TIR) 4.35 2.0 600.0 350.01 0.99 0.0 680.99 0.39 2.0 420.0 740.90 1.0 700.0 400.18 3.E6 640.0 320.917 0.62 4.0 420.0 710.94 2.01 ! ! ! VL 0.95 3.0 350.03 20.0 460.0 560.0 650.0 2.0 740.0 .0 440.0 TEL 570.77 15.0 720.88 6.20 3.0 30.0 480.0 0.0 500.22 1.993 1.E6 590.0 740.0 700.0 520.0 440.0 512.43 2.0 1 5 570.0 680.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.0 760.0 540.0 650.0 520.02 3.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.86 3.0 690.0 690.08 1.09 1.0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.0 670.0 460.0 HS 590.16 3.0 650.57 2.926 0. 320.0 710.34 2.0 570.53 2.0 690.0 480.85 2.51 3.0 500.0 600.01 0.0 560.0 700.32 2.29 1.948 0.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.0 570.55 2.E6 TL 0.0 760.84 1.97 4.0 LOG(TIL) 3.96 3.62 4.0 320.71 2.0 600.939 0.70 2.37 2.0 400.tdt-file CEUT .81 2.0 201.

3065 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.4 277.000 0.7 276.1628 0.3114 0.0915E-06 1.000 SDV4 0.1588 0.8260E-04 1.1628 0.3 278.1647 0.0226E-06 8.0226E-06 8.000 0.000 0.7 277.3212 0.4596E-05 1.000 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.5215 0.5252 0.1591 0.5252 0.7 277.8260E-04 1.000 0.1647 0.000 5.0226E-06 3.2 277.3185 0.000 0.000 0.3212 0.1647 0.1591 SDV6 0.5227 0.2423E-08 0.1588 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.5248 0.1628 0.000 0.5197 0.8260E-04 1.4236E-03 0.000 0.5248 0.4575E-08 4.7 277.1628 0.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.3065 0.5215 0.3138 0.0915E-06 1.4575E-08 2.000 0.9 277.1651 0.4916E-04 3.9 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.4575E-08 4.4916E-04 3.1651 0.0915E-06 1.5215 0.4575E-08 4.3114 0.000 0.000 0.3 277.000 26 SDV5 0.9 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.0226E-06 5.4575E-08 5.000 0.000 0.5282 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.0226E-06 5.000 0.4575E-08 5.3090 0.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.4 277.000 0.3138 0.000 0.5227 0.5282 0.4 277.1651 0.000 0.5282 0.000 0.1628 0.1628 0.5215 0.000 0.000 0.5215 0.1651 0.3138 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.2 276.5197 26 0.000 0.0226E-06 3.3114 0.1648 0.4 26 25 25 25 0.4236E-03 5.000 0.5252 0.1648 0.E Appendix .3114 0.1647 0.000 0.5252 0.4425E-06 0.000 0.7 276.3 25 0.2 278.000 0.5215 0.000 0.1648 0.000 0.000 0.1591 0.1591 0.1647 0.000 0.5282 0.1651 0.7 277.000 0.1588 0.000 2.000 .5802E-06 9.000 0.5248 0.3138 0.000 0.1647 0.7 276.2 276.5197 0.5215 0.000 0.5252 0.4916E-04 3.5227 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.3138 0.4 277.000 0.000 0.3185 0.3065 0.5197 0.4596E-05 3.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.1628 0.000 0.000 3.000 0.000 0.0915E-06 1.4425E-06 0.3090 0.000 5.1588 0.000 0.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.000 0.3114 0.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.4916E-04 3.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.000 0.3090 0.4916E-04 3.1647 0.1648 0.000 0.000 8.000 0.5215 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.7 277.2 276.8260E-04 1.000 0.000 0.5282 25 1.000 0.1628 0.0226E-06 5.3212 SDV7 278.3138 0.5802E-06 9.9 277.2 277.3212 0.3114 0.000 0.1647 0.7 277.000 0.2 276.000 0.5197 8.3114 0.3138 0.4236E-03 5.3 0.3065 0.000 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.2423E-08 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.000 0.3185 0.5248 0.2423E-08 0.5252 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.3212 278.4425E-06 0.4596E-05 3.3114 0.000 0.000 0.1588 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.5252 0.000 0.000 0.4425E-06 0.3185 0.3 277.7 277.2 278.000 0.3090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4575E-08 2.000 0.000 0.5252 0.4596E-05 3.000 0.4236E-03 5.7 276.5802E-06 9.000 0.3138 0.5227 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.0226E-06 5.

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