DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

TRAST. Phase transformation. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created. 15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June. 2004 ABAQUS.htu. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. Residual stresses i . Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström. The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. Welding.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS. S-461 29 Trollhättan. Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla. This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine. Mathematics and Computer Science. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. Department of Technology. Box 957. Simulation. To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines.

Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan. We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. 2004 ii .

5 6 References................................................................................................................ 3 Loads and boundary conditions.......2 8........................................................1 Create part for ex1 ...............................................................................................................2....................................................................................5 5..................10 Create and assign section...........................................1 8.......................................................................................................................... ii List of symbols ............2 2..............................................................................6 9................................1 Reflections..................................................2..........................................................................................................................3.....................................................1..........................................................1 1............1 7.......................................................................................................................................................................................3 Create the assembly.............................. 3 3 Technical equipment.........................................................1 9....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 9.............................v List of symbols ..........................................................................2 Assign the material properties...............................................................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ........................4 work area ..................................................................1 General Knowledge .....................................................3 8 Start instructions ........................................................................................... 5 Generate model database .........................4 8.........................................................................................v 1 Introduction....................2 General flowchart for ex1.................... 2 Meshing the model.................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ..................................................2..............2 9........................................3 Limitations ...................................2...................................................................................................................................................................12 Create the ....................................5 5.............................................................................................................................................................6 9..........................................4 Creating the model................2 2...............................2 Recommendations for further work ..........................4 3...................... 5 Create Model Database..9 9.........................................................4 4 Material properties......................4 8........................2..................... 5 ABAQUS 6.............................4 8..........5 8.......2........................................................................................................................13 iii .........................................1 1.............................................................1 Used hardware..3 9........................... 3 Results ...................................2 2........................... 6 9.....................................................................................................2.................2 Used Software.......................................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary............................................................................1 Background.......................................................................3...............................1 7......................2 Aim..................................................................................................................................................................2..tdt-file ..............12 9..................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Material properties ........3......................................2 2.3 Start the program.......2 7...........4 5 Conclusions.......4 3........................................................................................................................1 2..................1 1......................................................................3.............6 7 Overview of the simulation................................................................................................1...........................2 Installation of software ............... 6 9 Modelling.....................1 Create the model........i Preface ..........................12 Absolute zero temperature...............................................................................1 How to read the manual ....................2 Split the model in partitions.............................................................................2 2 FEA.......................................1 General work description ..............................................................................................3 8...................3 2...2 General modelling in FEA......................................................

..........................................................................................28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6...1 Displacement/rotation..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................6 Define initial conditions .......inp-file ...........................................................................26 12 Discussion..................................................................................................4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv .......18 9............14 9..........2Results.........................................................................................................................................1 Create Sets...................................................................................................................................................25 11...................................15 9...............................................................................................19 9.................................................................23 11.............18 9..................................................................2 Create the ...............................24 11.....3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .....2 Animate the stress result.......................................................................................................inp-file ............................6................................................................................................................18 9................2........16 9...................23 11 Post processing ..........................................................2Plot the results .......1Generated files.......2 Symmetry ................................19 9.2......................6.........................................................................1 Plot the stress result ...........................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ....................................................................1SDV results ......................................21 10 Solve the problem ............5.......2....................1 Temperature ................3Approximations...........................27 12................................................27 13 References...................................................5 Create Mesh......................................3 Plot the temperature result .4.........27 12............................................................................................23 11..........................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9.......14 9..........4.............................6..........................................................................................................24 11.....7 Load history definition...............27 12.....................................................................

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. 1 . To satisfy their client’s high demands.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). power boilers. The company delivers power boilers worldwide. The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004. That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2]. The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience.g. 1. from small units to giant tailor-made boilers.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e. One project has already been done. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram. This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1]. 1. The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development. evaporators.

but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3]. 2. It is important to make the model as simple as possible.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed. thermal. There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. 2 FEA 2.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures.1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers. Several simplifications will be used. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material.2. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project.2 General modelling in FEA 2. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved. The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products. to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D. 2 . FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. even small companies can use the technology. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help.

If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model. surface-. 2.2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. 3 .2. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads. It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program.2. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied. To get results with small deviation from the reality.. The volume or the shell is divided into small elements. When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses. The results from FEA are not 100% correct. 2. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature. point.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. line-loads etc. Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality. Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality.2.3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions.

1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3. taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation. For example decide if (m.4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage. Pa) will be used.2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12]. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3. N.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc. 5 . body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10]. It is also used for plotting the results.2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. 5. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13]. the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot. One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11]. The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared. If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem. The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. In this simulation it is not. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes.1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation.

Welding Journal Research Supplement.html#win32 5. Welding Journal Research Supplement. C. ”Allmänt om FEM”. Z. Abaqus system requirements. Jan Langkjær Hansen. X. N.D. B Andersson. F. Keiser. Jirinec.6. Feng and M. Technical University of Denmark 2003. T. R. pp. B. 1989. Engineering Computations. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”.172-181 6. Chalmers University of Technology 2004. 13. Vol. 4. 1995 6 . pp133141 9. pp. Sjösröm. Michaleris. Wang. Nov. Taljat. Michaleris and A.356-362 8. University of HTU 2000. Tortrelli. Swansea. 11. J. B. Springer-Verlag. Linköping 1990. Vander Voort. P. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”. http://www. S. Transactions of the ASME. 3. Institute of Technology. 12. 1998. Master thesis. Ph. thesis.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts. J. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. 1999. T. pp.100 Issue. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. A. DeBiccari. Zacharia. Wales. Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 1997. http://www. Järvstråt. R. Vol. “Heat effects of welding”. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. 1992. G.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1.361-366 7. Dieter Radaj. W.abaqus. Dantzig and D. Swindeman. 1978. pp I:10. Aug. Karlsson. Welding Journal Research Supplement. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”.-L.com 2. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”.4. USA 1991. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Niklas Järvstråt. 14. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”.akerkvaerner. J.328-335 10. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. homepage. Kjell Niklasson. Kvaerner Power AB. Maneli Faraji. P. “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”.

4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.

Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology.

.................................................24 11.........................2 9.. 5 Create Model Database.........................................................................................................................1.........4 8.........3.....................................................................................2.....................................................4 8....................................................2................................................................................................................................................2.................................................................................2 Assign the material properties..........................................................................................................................2.......................................................................................4 8.12 Absolute zero temperature...................................................................................................1SDV results ............................................................18 9.3 Create the assembly............................9 9.............3 9..................18 9.................27 13 References.......................................2 Animate the stress result.................2.......................................1 General work description .............................................................6...........................................................7 Load history definition.......................................................................inp-file ......................................28 i ......2 Installation of software ............................ 5 Generate model database ...............................1.....6............................................................................................................................................ 8 9...................1 8....................12 Create the .........14 9....................................................................................................................................................................................................15 9............................14 9.......................................3 Start the program..........................................18 9.....3............................................23 11.............4 Material properties ..inp-file .................3Approximations..................................................................................................tdt-file .............4 Create Boundary Conditions .2Plot the results .....1 9......27 12...............................3.........................................................................3 8 Start instructions ..............................................................................................................................5 Create Mesh.............................2 Create the ............................................................................................................6 Define initial conditions ...23 11 Post processing .............16 9..............................................5 8.......................................25 11.............3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 .............1 Create Sets............13 9...................21 10 Solve the problem ....................23 11..............4 work area ................................................................24 11..................................................................................................2 Symmetry ...............................1 7....3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ..................................................2 7.................................2 General flowchart for ex1................................2..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2................................1 Temperature ..................................................................................19 9..............................27 12..............26 12 Discussion.........................................1 Create the model.............................................................19 9.3......................12 9.....2 Split the model in partitions......1 Create part for ex1 .........................................27 12..................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ......................................................3 Plot the temperature result .....................................................................4....................................6 9.............. 6 9.....................................................................6....................................................................... 6 9 Modelling................ 5 ABAQUS 6.............................................................................1 Plot the stress result ....5........................2Results...............................................................................1 Displacement/rotation..............2 8......Contents 7 Overview of the simulation...............4.......6 9...........................................1 7...........................................................................................3 8.......................................................................................................1 How to read the manual ......................................10 Create and assign section...1Generated files.........................................................................................................

Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .tdt-file .inp-file .inc-file .dat-file ii .

7 Overview of the simulation 7.tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .

7.odb vtt.dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.tdt Trast7_tv ex1.2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.inp ex1.

inp-file 3. that calculate the phase transformation.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4.9 ex1.inp • • • ex1.odb • • Create inc-file 4.3 Create boundary conditions 3. Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL.2 Create assembly 3. ex1. stresses and displacement 5.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4.4 Create Mesh 3.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3.7-3. Plotting the results for temperature. ex1.3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations.8 Create .inc • Edit inp-file 4. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv.dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST.5 Create Sets and Fields 3.2 3 .1 Assign the material properties 3.7.

FLUX(2). it is a describing sentence for the particular step. it means that the user When the text is Italic. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created.f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv.SVAR.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler.5) 4 . Before the simulation can start.TEMP. the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS. Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do. PREDEF(*).2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6.TIME(2). It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string). | .8 Start instructions 8.for.DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2). START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv.4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6.DTIME. so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon.for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS. Copy the subroutine trast7_tv.FLUX.PREDEF.TIME. 8. SVAR(9). (4.

4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6. The “Start Session” window pops up.3.3 ABAQUS 6. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 . | Create Model Database | 8.3.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8.3 Start the program 8.8.3.

1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions. Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.1 Create the model 9.1. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 . Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9.8.4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database.3.

Extrusion Approximate size: 0. 0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.1.01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up.05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 .2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0. 0. Give the depth of the model: 0.Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid.

To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material. 0. Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 . 0.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0. 0.2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. 0. filler material and the plate.9.01.045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions. Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0.045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions.1. 0. These groups of elements (sets) must be named.1. First step is to divide the model into two parts. 0.

The material data in the . Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6]. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram.tdt-file. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 . This material data is collected from an IT-diagram. If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used.tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4].2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model. The name of the material is also given. The data for density.Figure 4 9. For points when the time variable is short. conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. the material name must be identical with the name of the . The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5]. The creation of the . This data is not from a specific material.3.tdtfile is described in 4. as it is in this simulation. it is very important that the reading is accurate. specific heat.

0.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL.2. 10 Temp. To make more rows. Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 . place the “cursor” in the window and right click. [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”.Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp.1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up. Select “Insert Row After”.

8 0 502.5 200 37.4 900 . 43.0 100 551.5 500 851. 473. Temp.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond.0 1000 Spec.0 800 30. Temp.1 600 29.5 700 563.9 300 650.7 400 33.5 0 42.

Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273. In this simulation an old .tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C). The .9. The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations.15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9.tdt-file The .tdt-file or create a new. START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old . Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9.2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model.3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale. CEUT = Eutectic carbon content.4 Create the . It contains the IT-diagram for the material. Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up.tdt-file is a user defined input file.tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition.2.2.2. 12 .

it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts. LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis. Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees).The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase. Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase. It is usually 1% and 99%. Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . When a temperature is selected. Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. CC = Carbon content in the material. These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered.3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). Appendix C 9.

To prevent the model to translate along the X. it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry. Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 . 9.4. Pick: Mechanical.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up.9. Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane.and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas.

2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 .Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis. Pick: Mechanical. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up. Pick the upper line on the back of the model.4.

5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy. The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model. Select the whole model with a “window”. Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0. Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up.Figure 7 9. Pick: Hex. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 .

Select the whole model with a “window”. Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 .Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up. Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up.

6 Define initial conditions 9. ELEMENT8. ….5..9. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. | Dismiss | 9.6. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1. they must be assigned to a field.1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names.1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 . These groups are called “sets”.

Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9.6).inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1.6.inp-file This step will create the .3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .2) 19 .2 Create the .inp (with e.6.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.g.13. notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2].6. (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS. see 2.3) 9.

0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. ** *RESTART. 0. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. 0. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used. TYPE=FIELD. Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4]. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL.0 ** 20 . The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1.. WRITE. TYPE=FIELD. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. Add these strings to the . This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. These strings should be reordered after the material data. 0. The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13.inp-file.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD. 0.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation. The name of this set is found in the . VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. material=VTT 1. 1. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD. a set that contain the whole model must be used. TYPE=FIELD. 0. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13.inp-fil.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. elset=_PickedSet13. This is an example from the .

7 Load history definition The . An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one..inc-file contains all the step data.inc-file that contains the step data: *include. File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1. This file is written in “Notepad”.dat-file [3]. The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the . 21 .inc-file has been copied from an old simulation. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.. In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed. START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created. edit and save it with a new name.inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1. these steps will be included in the calculation of the results.inc-file. In this simulation some parts of the .inc File > Save Appendix A 9.input=ex1.dat-file. creep=none 1. ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. One way to view these results is to write them into the . In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one. It is also possibly to reuse old . It is also possible to copy the step information from the . 10.Add this string last of all to include the separate .inc-files.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution.

ELSET=ELEMENT2. ELSET=ELEMENT2.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT5.POSITION=NODES.NT ** *EL FILE.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT6.E *EL PRINT. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. ELEMENT3.FREQUENCY=1. ADD ELEMENT2. REMOVE ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT4.DIRECTIONS=YES S. creep=none 1.. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. ** *NODE FILE. 10.E ** *EL PRINT.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT7.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.** *MODEL CHANGE.. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 .GLOBAL=YES U.

4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1. START > Program > ABAQUS 6.odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11.inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The .1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the . One is the .dat-flie. This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE.10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv. Appendix D 23 . In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step.for and creates a number of files ( 7. Open ex1.odb-file. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file.1).dat with notepad.

odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.odb) Select: ex1.11.2.2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the . 11.odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 .1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.

2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .2.11.

11.3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .2.

.msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6. This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation. it is a good idea to have a separate step file. sets. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST. Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge. It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS.3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated. 12.incfile can be saved and reused. This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material.log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. 12. . the . . This file contains the models geometrical data. commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file. material data. the user should have some FEA experience. 27 . The file also contains the commands for the output results. These sets are named.msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. In the first step the elements are removed. The .msgfile.inp-file: In data file.12 Discussion 12. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used. For the manual to be useful. sets with elements are created. To reduce time in the simulations. .odb-file: This file is the result-file. .dat-file will direct to the . The .sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation. Then they are added one by one in each step.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation. In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot.dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails.1 Generated files . .4. boundaries.

Welding Journal Research Supplement. pp. N. ABAQUS documentation 18. J. Taljat. Bodelind. 1999 28 . Järvstråt. J. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. Persson. Keiser. Zacharia. http://www.och materialtabeller”.-L. Niklas Järvstråt. ABAQUS support. Swindeman. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. Feng and M.328-335 20.com 16. X.abaqus. R. 1995 19. ”Hållfasthets. B. Linköping 1990. W. Sjösröm. A. Aug. R. Z. Institute of Technology. S. Jirinec. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Wang. B. pp I:4. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45.13 References 15. T. 1998. 17.

inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint. name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. 353.005.01928571 458.045 2. . part=Part-1 *Node 1. 36 256. 0. . 41. 34. . 56. 12 7. 0. 44. elset=_PickedSet13. 54. 0. . 0. . 147 4. 148. 41. 0. 0. . . 127 252.1. elset=_PickedSet13. 0. 42. 13. model=NO. . 43. 150. 0. 82. 13. 33.05 6. 150.05 4. 368 253.0875. 147.00625.05 3. 100. 42 2. 81.006428571 *Element. .005.01285714 459. 50 6.00625.03214286 456. 3. 54. 56. 4 3. 172. 0. .045 5. 147. . 145 254. 0. 147. 5. 10. 54. material=VTT 1. 256. 353. 51. 10. 0. name=Part-1-1. 459. 129. 0. 112.02571429 457. 11. . 149.. 459. 46.05 7. . . 54. 0. 368. 16. 0.045 . 2. 55. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. 262. 56.1. 35. 9.01. 148. 0. 0. 353. 144. *End Instance . 369. 352. 0. 0. .01.005. 150. 43. 0. 148. 106. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part.1.005. .. . 52. . 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. 1. 251. 145. 455.00625. 146. 128. name=Assembly ** *Instance. generate 1.. 0. 0. 149 . 48. 369 255. 369. 0.00625. 16. 39. 146. 44. type=C3D8T 1. echo=NO.00625. 45 5. 47. 0. 144. 0. 50. 369. . 0. 46. 53. 106. 56. 0. .0875.0875. 9. 0.B Appendix . 48. 149.1. . . 0. 8. . 0. . 128. 47.. 6. 148. 0. 49. 0. . 0. internal. . 82. .005. .01. 0. 353. 172.01. 0. 45. history=NO. 0. 7. 40. 49. 0.

54. generate 13. 84. 131. 34. 121. 78. 156 *Elset. elset=_PickedSet8. 4. 20. 1 *Nset. 76. 27. 68. internal. 362. 26. 1 *Nset. internal. 21. 134. 30. 127. 73. 25. 3. instance=Part-1-1 19. instance=Part-1-1. nset=_PickedSet12. 81. 156 *Elset. 30. 1 *Nset. 106. instance=Part-1-1 19. 138. 83. generate 17. 29. 135. nset=_PickedSet6. 40. 69. 72. 168. 358. 55. internal. 120. 84. 148 *Elset. internal. 238. 154 *Elset. 117. internal. 56. 48. internal. 85. instance=Part-1-1 2. 146. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 . 182. 122 123. 22. generate 21. 28. 363. internal. 75. 26. internal. 20. internal. 364. 39. 129. nset=_PickedSet8. 196. *Nset. 63. 361. 75. 140 153. 159 *Elset. 68 153. 41. 130. instance=Part-1-1. 1 *Nset. 63. 16. 19. internal. 93. 81. 29. internal. nset=_PickedSet5. 22. instance=Part-1-1. 133. 97. 76. 118. elset=_PickedSet6. instance=Part-1-1. 12. nset=ELEMENT3. generate 253. 154 *Elset. 143. 126. 24. 136. 112. 16. 60. 12. 251. elset=_PickedSet7. 365 366. 125. generate 25. instance=Part-1-1 40. 210. 367. 71. 32. 65. instance=Part-1-1 18. elset=_PickedSet11. 48. instance=Part-1-1 26. internal. elset=_PickedSet10. 50. 137. 36. 114. 5. 132. 61. 36. 1 *Nset. elset=_PickedSet9. 67. instance=Part-1-1 9. 29. 237. instance=Part-1-1 37. 8. 42. instance=Part-1-1 41. 76 155. 149 *Elset. 29. 76. 113. internal. 21. nset=ELEMENT1. 20. 31. 16. 256. 139. instance=Part-1-1 25. 357. generate 1. internal. 18. 24. internal. 69. elset=_PickedSet12. 34. instance=Part-1-1. 38. 65. 98. instance=Part-1-1. 74. 84. 111. 58. nset=_PickedSet10. instance=Part-1-1 2. 69. 70. 70. generate 25. 126. instance=Part-1-1. 154. instance=Part-1-1 9. 26. 116. nset=_PickedSet11. 86 159.*Nset. 86. instance=Part-1-1. elset=ELEMENT2. 195. elset=_PickedSet4. generate 5. 115. 62. 5. 142. 66. 68. 1 *Nset. 124. 6. 15. 53. instance=Part-1-1 17. 53. nset=_PickedSet7. instance=Part-1-1. nset=ELEMENT4. 181. 54. 360. 22. internal. 22. elset=ELEMENT3. elset=ELEMENT1. 61. 359. 151 *Elset. 1 *Nset. generate 13. nset=_PickedSet4. 157 *Elset. 21. instance=Part-1-1 18. 27. 32. 19. 74. 209. internal. 369 *Elset. 43. 67. 167. 1 *Nset. nset=_PickedSet9. 52. generate 17. 47. 28. instance=Part-1-1. 356. 119. internal. 141. generate 9. 145. 224. 67. 64. 12. 354. 80. 15. 355. 83. 223. 160 *Elset. 125. 23. 20. internal. 1 *Nset. 23. 16. 368 *Elset. 1 *Nset. 252 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1. 71. elset=_PickedSet13. nset=_PickedSet13. 28. nset=ELEMENT2. 67. 139 140.

instance=Part-1-1. 131. 145. 158 *Elset. instance=Part-1-1 1. 68. 120. 144. 14. 14. 161. 308. 253. 196. 313. 57. 51. instance=Part-1-1. 224. 302. 225. 251. 12. 237. 132. 31. 82. 244. instance=Part-1-1 1. 228. 269. 173. 317. 4. 72. 98. 66. nset=_PickedSet26. 81. 94. 64. 176. 81. 54. 170. 124. 279. 194 195. 182. 304. 235. 24. 190. 150 *Elset. 45. 79. 295. 206. 104. 35. 290 291. 155. 87. 337. 325. 210 211. 214. 60 151. 101. 1 *Nset. 32 33. 117. 99. 369 *Elset. 257. 189. 77. 184. 175. instance=Part-1-1. 102. 35. 50. 7. 216. 333. 13. 16. 168. 258 259. 166. 10. 74. 233. 8. 115. 255. 294. 335. 164. 55. 312. 46. 12. 103. 113. 181. 82 157. 283. 70. 282. 324. 17. 234. 129. 136. 171. 256. 6. 229. 201. 4. 33. 220. 91. 47. 2. 331. 306 307. instance=Part-1-1. 13. 20. 213. 270. 183. 142. 110. 152 *Elset. 215. nset=ELEMENT5. 7. 11. 140. 250. 286. 178 179. 200. 273. 3. 43. 188. generate 253. elset=ELEMENT8. 36. 59 62. 10. generate 21. 296. 49. 177. 268. 21. 218. 54. 285. 42. 271. 152. 108. 303. 119. 153. 130. 114. 252. 198. 300. 160. 12. 46. nset=ELEMENT8. 56. 44. 197. elset=ELEMENT4. 65. 34. 315. 328. 133. 8. 266. 245. 232. 147. 319. 1 *Nset. generate 9. 249. instance=Part-1-1 9. 148 *Elset. 293. 105 106. 23. 314. 193. 111. elset=ELEMENT7. 219. generate 5. 298. 192. 280. 204. 59. elset=ELEMENT6. 329. 246. generate 1. 334. 205. 18. 55. 327. 267. 316. 66. 212. 311. 265. 264. 55. 51. 256. 35. 209. 236. 299. 202. 121 122. 172. 4. 42. 126. 107. 260. 318. 88. instance=Part-1-1 1. 56. 165.17. 24. 77. 8. 272. 230. 309. 15. 79. elset=ELEMENT5. 10. 109. 52. 187. 53. 2. 11. 180. 263. 158. 41. 231. 100. 16. 1 *Nset. 191. 330. 167. 203. internal. 125. 141. 320. 36. instance=Part-1-1. 208. 56 149. 274 275. 338 78. 301. 238. 128. 169. 39. 150. 8. 49. 284. 97. nset=ELEMENT7. 5. 116. 1 *Nset. 48. 112. 278. 186. 289. 221. 199. 11. 326. 96. 281. 226 227. 14. 118. 321. 83. 288. 44. 137 138. 53. 127. 242 243. 40. 34. 174. 276. 336. 89 90. nset=ELEMENT6. 305. 123. 287. 292. 135. instance=Part-1-1 9. 15. 143. 128. 80. 134. 33. 310. 139. 332. 1 *Nset. 322 323. 57. 82. 46. 207. . 28. 146 353. 144. 48 147. 92. 239. 261. 73. 262. 95. 277. 37. 25. 247. 24. 58. 254. 217. 13. 185. 297. 85. 45. 241. 240. 222. 93. 223. 5. 162 163. 38. 248.

395. 36. 417. 430.2e-05. 451 452. internal. 398. 64. 750. 377. 22. 116. elset=_PickedSet28. 600. 4. generate 41. 46. 74. 383. 413. 10. 65. 154. 256 *Nset.4e-05. 425. 158. 5. 77. 78. 348. 42. instance=Part-1-1 38. 367.. 16 17. 119. generate 29. 56. 14. 114. 37. 50. 121. 33. 407. 41. 392. 400. 432. 125. 42. 500. 444. 27. 389. 429. 352. 418. 82. 399. 120. 346. 412. 26. 370. 1.1000. 147. 24. 400. 410. 363. 9. 448. 433. 118. 3. nset=_PickedSet27. 394. 34. nset=_PickedSet28. *Density 7810. 26. 368. 459 *Elset. 20. instance=Part-1-1. 54. 351. 200. 385. 439. 12. 25.. 2. 73. 428. 252. 13. 800. 373. 48. 31. 145. 375. 19. 58. 401. 35. 13. 382. 421.. 386. 59. *Elset. 21. 115. 60. 124. instance=Part-1-1.5. 380. internal. 365. 52 53. 24. 71. internal. 369 *Elset. 55. 449. 406. 403 404. 426. 83. 435 436. 152. 0. elset=_PickedSet26. 14. 445. 416. 45. 442. instance=Part-1-1 1. 402. 390. internal. 415. 40. 21. 79. 423. 75. 387 388. 405. 349.3e-05. instance=Part-1-1 1. 28. 6. 66. 23. 11. 144. 424. 4. 393. 153. 81. 441. 438. 70. 344. 128. 384. 15. 447. 68 69. 47. 117. 1. 86. 57.1. 9. 11. 29. 151. 72. 422. 434. 411. 456. 80. 359. 450. internal. 12. 49. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 126 127. 356. 8.3 *Expansion 0. 440. 251. 63. 360. 18. 62. 76. 30. 44. 23.5e-05. 414. 455. 159. 0. 371 372. 125. 1 *Nset. 3. 7. 160. 0. 7. 61. 16 17. 397. elset=_PickedSet27. 364. 350. 27. 353. 122. 2. 378. 19. 254. 20. 396. 5. 458. 345. 354 355. 1. 10. 437. 457. 84 85. 342. 30. 146. 113. 255. 454. 150. . 340. 8. 148.7. 446. 431. 427. 15. 409. 443. 358. 391. 366. 6. 250. 43. *Depvar 9. 343. 362. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43. 149. 361. 25. 22. 376. 253. 29. 381..5. 408. 156 157. 28. 1. 453. 347. 341. 374. 51. 419 420. 123.339. 32 33. 379.1e+11. 353. *Elastic 2. 357. 18. 67. 155.

9.5.8e-05. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD.700.. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9. 6.0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants. 0. 2. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10. 1. *Specific Heat 473.1200. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ZSYMM .0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 3.300. 0. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28. 1. 0.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13. 0. 563. 3 _PickedSet4. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. 551.1. TYPE=FIELD.4. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. 0. 900.500.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4.900. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5.100.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. 1. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13.8. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11. TYPE=FIELD. 502. absolute zero=-273. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD. 851.5. 650.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. WRITE.6e-05. ** ** *RESTART.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.

input=ex1. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.inc . type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26. 2000. 20. *include.

ELSET=ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE. 10.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step.POSITION=NODES. REMOVE ELEMENT2...GLOBAL=YES U.POSITION=NODES. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ** *NODE FILE. 10.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. ADD element3.. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.C Appendix . name=Step-4 . creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE..E *EL PRINT.. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ADD ELEMENT2. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step.E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE. ELEMENT7.DIRECTIONS=YES S. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step. ELEMENT6. ELEMENT4. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT5.FREQUENCY=1.GLOBAL=YES U. ELSET=ELEMENT2.GLOBAL=YES U. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 10..DIRECTIONS=YES S. creep=none 1.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT3.

creep=none 1.NT ** *EL FILE. creep=none 1.NT ** *EL FILE... ADD element5. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step. ADD element6. ** *NODE FILE. ADD element4.FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step.FREQUENCY=1..GLOBAL=YES . ** *MODEL CHANGE. ** *NODE FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE...FREQUENCY=1. 10. ADD element7..*Coupled Temperature-Displacement. 10.. creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES.GLOBAL=YES U.DIRECTIONS=YES S.E ** *EL PRINT. ELSET=ELEMENT2.GLOBAL=YES U.DIRECTIONS=YES S. 10. ** *NODE FILE.NT ** *EL FILE. 10.. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ** *MODEL CHANGE.POSITION=NODES. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ** *MODEL CHANGE. creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1.DIRECTIONS=YES S.POSITION=NODES.GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.E ** *EL PRINT. ELSET=ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step.

E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE.POSITION=NODES.POSITION=NODES.FREQUENCY=1. creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1. ** *MODEL CHANGE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- .DIRECTIONS=YES S..E ** *EL PRINT.. ELSET=ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. 100.U. ** *NODE FILE.NT ** *EL FILE.GLOBAL=YES U.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ADD element8.

0 690.E6 640.99 0.948 0.84 1.01 0.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.98 2.0 700.0 420.0 320.E6 111.99 0.0 740.37 2.0 710.18 3.94 2.0 400.0 710.993 1.0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.0 700.08 1.0 540.tdt-file CEUT .0 0.44 TER 570.35 2.0 760.0 740.0 680.0 520.0 650.0 320.0 440.20 3.0 320.0 440.E6 590.51 3.01 0.E6 590.0 560.90 1.86 3.85 2.0 350.95 3.0 LOG(TIR) 4.0 520.81 2.0 680.0 570.53 2.03 20.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.926 0.0 670.0 512.0 560.0 2.62 4.0 670.0 480.88 6.14 2.66 2.57 2.0 600.09 1.34 2.0 350.0 540.39 2.E6 TL 0.0 1 5 570.00 2.0 201.0 HS 590.53 2.02 3.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.0 480.56 1.0 420.0 700.0 600.0 500.43 2.0 650.97 4.0 690.0 650.0 400.0 460.0 500.0 570.29 1.939 0.0 760. 320.16 3.77 15.0 690.01 ! ! ! VL 0.0 .32 2.71 2.917 0.0 760.11 0.96 3.0 460.D Appendix .0 670.18 9.0 720.0 600.0 TEL 570.0 LOG(TIL) 3.0 720.70 2.0 740.0 30.62 4.55 2.22 1.57 2.E6 590.

5197 0.4596E-05 3.5802E-06 9.000 0.5227 0.000 0.3212 SDV7 278.3 277.3 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.5215 0.000 0.3185 0.4575E-08 5.7 277.000 0.5802E-06 9.1651 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.3065 0.000 0.000 0.1628 0.4575E-08 4.3114 0.4575E-08 5.2 276.4916E-04 3.8260E-04 1.1647 0.5215 0.4425E-06 0.1591 SDV6 0.4425E-06 0.1591 0.000 0.8260E-04 1.2423E-08 0.0226E-06 3.000 0.000 0.3212 278.2423E-08 0.000 0.3212 0.5252 0.000 0.1628 0.5248 0.000 0.000 0.1651 0.1588 0.4236E-03 5.1588 0.3138 0.4 277.0915E-06 1.0226E-06 3.000 0.000 0.3212 0.000 0.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.000 0.000 0.5282 0.000 0.3 25 0.000 0.3090 0.000 0.4 277.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.000 0.000 .000 0.000 0.000 SDV4 0.000 0.1648 0.000 0.3185 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.0226E-06 5.000 0.3114 0.2423E-08 0.1628 0.5215 0.1651 0.4 277.5248 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.3138 0.5282 0.000 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.2423E-08 0.000 0.3138 0.2 278.5215 0.000 0.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.000 0.9 277.3138 0.000 5.1647 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.3185 0.5252 0.5215 0.5227 0.1647 0.2 277.4236E-03 0.0226E-06 8.5215 0.5215 0.000 0.1648 0.1588 0.5252 0.000 0.000 0.5197 0.1647 0.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.000 0.000 0.7 276.0226E-06 5.9 277.7 277.000 0.1628 0.000 0.4596E-05 1.4 26 25 25 25 0.4575E-08 2.5802E-06 9.0915E-06 1.000 0.1588 0.3 278.3212 0.3114 0.5227 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.000 0.1647 0.2 276.3138 0.1651 0.5802E-06 9.1628 0.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.5252 0.000 3.3114 0.3114 0.5197 8.7 276.000 0.4916E-04 3.1591 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.5197 0.000 0.1628 0.1647 0.000 0.3065 0.5215 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.5802E-06 9.4575E-08 4.3138 0.3065 0.2 276.4596E-05 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.3065 0.1648 0.3114 0.000 26 SDV5 0.000 0.5252 0.5252 0.000 0.5252 0.1588 0.1651 0.1647 0.000 0.1648 0.5252 0.000 0.9 277.000 0.000 0.3090 0.3090 0.5248 0.0915E-06 1.1628 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.7 276.1628 0.1647 0.0915E-06 1.4425E-06 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.3 0.4916E-04 3.7 277.4596E-05 3.3114 0.4575E-08 2.2 277.000 0.3114 0.4425E-06 0.2 276.4236E-03 5.4 277.000 3.5248 0.2 278.000 8.000 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.5282 0.000 0.5282 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.3138 0.E Appendix .7 276.000 0.000 0.7 277.000 0.5197 26 0.7 277.000 0.3185 0.000 0.0226E-06 8.0226E-06 5.8260E-04 1.0226E-06 5.4596E-05 3.3090 0.1591 0.000 0.8260E-04 1.7 277.000 0.000 0.5227 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.5282 25 1.000 5.9 277.3138 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.

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