DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June.htu. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS. Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. Department of Technology. Box 957. Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. Residual stresses i . Mathematics and Computer Science. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine. The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg. TRAST. Phase transformation.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement. 2004 ABAQUS. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines. Simulation. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process. S-461 29 Trollhättan. Welding.

Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan. We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project. 2004 ii .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work.

....................1 General Knowledge ..........................................................................................3 Create the assembly...................2 General flowchart for ex1...........................4 3..............................................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary.........2 2....2 2.....................................................................................................................1 2..1 7....2 Assign the material properties............2..........................3.........................................................................................................................................................................................................1 1............................................................................4 8....................................3 2.................................................4 3........................................................................................................................2 2.........................................4 work area ....................5 8............. 6 9 Modelling..............................................2 Aim..................................................2................................v List of symbols ............1.2 Split the model in partitions...tdt-file ...........................................................................................................9 9.12 Absolute zero temperature.....................................4 5 Conclusions...........1 1.4 4 Material properties..................................................................................6 9....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3..............3 8.........1 7.............................................................................................................................................. ii List of symbols .................................1 Background...........................3..........................................................................................................6 9............................................4 8..............12 9.................1 How to read the manual ........................................5 6 References....................1 8.................................................................1 9..............1.................................................................................2 Installation of software ...............................................................................1 Used hardware....2 Used Software............... 6 9...............................................................................2 7.............v 1 Introduction..................................2 General modelling in FEA.........2...... 2 Meshing the model.......3 8 Start instructions ....................................................................1 General work description ..............................................................5 5..........................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ........................................................................ 3 Loads and boundary conditions............2.......................10 Create and assign section.......... 5 ABAQUS 6.........................................................................................................................2 Recommendations for further work .........................................6 7 Overview of the simulation................................................................................................. 3 Results ...............................................2....................................................................................1 Reflections.................................................................................2 2 FEA.........................................................................................................................2.................................................................... 5 Generate model database .................................... 5 Create Model Database..............3 Start the program..............................2.....................................3 Limitations ...................................................................................................................................................................13 iii ..................2......................................................................2 8................................................................................................4 8...........................................................................................................................................................5 5.i Preface .....4 Creating the model......................2 2..............3.....................................12 Create the ....................................................................................................... 3 3 Technical equipment........4 Material properties ...................................3 9.......................2 9....................1 Create part for ex1 .............................1 Create the model..............................................................................................................................................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ....................................... 8 9..................................1 1........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

................................24 11........................1SDV results ........................................18 9...........................24 11...2.......................................2Results..................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 12.......................................19 9...................................................................14 9..........................inp-file ..............................4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv .16 9................................................................................3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ...23 11 Post processing ............................2................................................................28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6........................2 Animate the stress result............................2 Symmetry ........................................................................................................................4........................3Approximations...........................................................1 Create Sets................................................4..................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9....18 9..........21 10 Solve the problem ...............23 11.........................26 12 Discussion...............................2........................................................................................................................25 11...............14 9....................................6................................................15 9..............................................1Generated files..............2 Create the ......................................................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ..................................19 9......inp-file ..............................................................7 Load history definition................18 9....27 13 References...........................................................1 Temperature .......................6 Define initial conditions ...................1 Plot the stress result ...............................27 12.....................................5..............6...........................................................................................................................2Plot the results ........................6.....................1 Displacement/rotation..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................3 Plot the temperature result .....27 12............23 11........................5 Create Mesh..........................................................

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

from small units to giant tailor-made boilers. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines. evaporators. The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2].2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004. 1. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram. power boilers. 1. This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development. To satisfy their client’s high demands.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation. The company delivers power boilers worldwide.g. 1 . The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1]. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e. One project has already been done.

There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. 2. Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. It is important to make the model as simple as possible. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling. Several simplifications will be used. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. thermal. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements. to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3].Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project. even small companies can use the technology. 2 FEA 2.2 General modelling in FEA 2.1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved. 2 .2.

Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality. surface-.2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model.3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions.2. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature. 3 . To get results with small deviation from the reality. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model. The results from FEA are not 100% correct.2.2. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. The volume or the shell is divided into small elements. When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses. 2. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2.. It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program. Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality. line-loads etc. 2. point.

4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12]. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation.1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2. Pa) will be used.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage.2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6. N. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 . taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6. For example decide if (m.

The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. It is also used for plotting the results. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. In this simulation it is not. In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation.2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation. If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc.1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11]. 5. 5 . the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13]. The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files. These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10]. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux.

Vol. pp133141 9. Jan Langkjær Hansen. pp. S. 1992. Niklas Järvstråt. thesis. Linköping 1990. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”.com 2. http://www.html#win32 5. Wales. G.-L. ”Allmänt om FEM”. Welding Journal Research Supplement. 1999. 11.4. T. C. Engineering Computations. pp. Karlsson. 1998. Järvstråt. pp I:10.6. 1978. 12. Swindeman. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. J. Technical University of Denmark 2003. Springer-Verlag. Berlin Heidelberg. B. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. “Heat effects of welding”. Kjell Niklasson. Institute of Technology. J. Abaqus system requirements.172-181 6.D. Dantzig and D.100 Issue. R. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”. P. B Andersson. N. Nov. Maneli Faraji. T. 1989. 1997. Keiser. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. Taljat. pp.361-366 7. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”. Feng and M. Vol. Transactions of the ASME. R. F. Zacharia. P. Michaleris and A. A. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. B. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. Master thesis.328-335 10. Michaleris. “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”. pp.akerkvaerner. Ph.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1. Tortrelli. Dieter Radaj. Vander Voort.abaqus. Jirinec. X. 1995 6 .356-362 8. 14. http://www. DeBiccari. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Welding Journal Research Supplement. homepage. J. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. University of HTU 2000. 3.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts. Sjösröm. 4. W. Swansea. Aug. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Z. Kvaerner Power AB. USA 1991. 13. Wang. Chalmers University of Technology 2004.

4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.

DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology. Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .

......................6 9.........................5 8...........................................3.........................inp-file ...5.........................4 Start ABAQUS CAE .....2....................7 Load history definition.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ............................................................................................1SDV results .............3Approximations...........................................................................1 Temperature ...........................................................................inp-file ................3 8 Start instructions ........................................6 9.................................................1 9........... 5 Create Model Database..........................................................3...............................................4..................................................................12 Create the .......................2 Assign the material properties...........1 Displacement/rotation...............6.....27 12...........................................................................3 Start the program.....................................................................................................................3 Plot the temperature result ...25 11.....................................................................1.................................................... 6 9 Modelling..................3......3........................15 9...........................................27 13 References..................27 12...........................................................19 9.1 Plot the stress result ............28 i .....................................................................2Plot the results .........................2 Create the ..4 Material properties ..................................................................1 7.....1 General work description ..................................................................................................................................................4....................................................3 9................................................................................2 8.................24 11.........................23 11.........................2 Installation of software ........................................................6................2...............................................14 9.....10 Create and assign section............................................................ 8 9........................ 5 Generate model database ............................14 9..........................................................................................................................................................2............................1............19 9..... 6 9......1Generated files................1 Create part for ex1 .............................2 Animate the stress result..............................................................................................2 Symmetry ........................................Contents 7 Overview of the simulation..........................................................................................................................................................3 Create the assembly...............................................................................................23 11 Post processing ...................................................2..................................................................1 Create Sets....26 12 Discussion...........................................................................................................2.................................23 11.................12 9....6...................3 8.........................................................................2 7.......27 12.............................4 8..............................................................................................................1 How to read the manual ....5 Create Mesh....................2. 5 ABAQUS 6..................12 Absolute zero temperature..3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ...........................................4 8....2 9..........................................................9 9....18 9....................................2.........................................2Results..........................................1 7........................................................................................................................................................18 9..................18 9.............................1 8.......................................................................................................2 Split the model in partitions..................................................................................16 9....4 work area ..................................................................................................................24 11...............................6 Define initial conditions ........4 8....1 Create the model...............................................................................................................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ...............................................21 10 Solve the problem .................................13 9..........................tdt-file ...............2 General flowchart for ex1..........................................................................................................................

Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .inp-file .tdt-file .inc-file .dat-file ii .

tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .7 Overview of the simulation 7.inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .

dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .odb vtt.inp ex1.tdt Trast7_tv ex1.2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.7.inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.

7-3.2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5. ex1. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.inp-file 3.3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations.inp • • • ex1. Plotting the results for temperature.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4.inc • Edit inp-file 4. Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL. ex1.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST. that calculate the phase transformation. stresses and displacement 5.9 ex1.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv.4 Create Mesh 3.2 3 .dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.5 Create Sets and Fields 3.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1.2 Create assembly 3.7.1 Assign the material properties 3.8 Create .odb • • Create inc-file 4.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4.3 Create boundary conditions 3.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3.

Before the simulation can start.5) 4 . START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv. PREDEF(*). Copy the subroutine trast7_tv.TEMP. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon.for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS. it is a describing sentence for the particular step.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual. it means that the user When the text is Italic. (4. FLUX(2). SVAR(9). It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string).TIME.for. the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS.DTIME.DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2).SVAR. so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file.FLUX.PREDEF. 8.2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6. | .8 Start instructions 8.TIME(2). Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do.4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler.f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv.

3. The “Start Session” window pops up.3.3 ABAQUS 6.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 .3 Start the program 8.8.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6.4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.3. | Create Model Database | 8.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8.

8. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 .3. Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions.1.1 Create the model 9.4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database. Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program.

01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up.1. 0. Give the depth of the model: 0.Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid.05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 .2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0. Extrusion Approximate size: 0. 0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.

0. To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material. 0. 0.1. Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 . 0.045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0. filler material and the plate. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions.1. Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0. These groups of elements (sets) must be named. 0.01.2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. 0. First step is to divide the model into two parts.9.045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions.

The creation of the . The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5].tdtfile is described in 4. the material name must be identical with the name of the .tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4].2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model. as it is in this simulation. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6]. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 . For points when the time variable is short. specific heat. The name of the material is also given. This data is not from a specific material. The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used.3. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram. it is very important that the reading is accurate. The data for density.Figure 4 9. The material data in the .tdt-file. This material data is collected from an IT-diagram.

To make more rows.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0. 0. Select “Insert Row After”.2. [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”.Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9. place the “cursor” in the window and right click.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 . Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL.1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up. 10 Temp. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp.

0 800 30.0 100 551. Temp.5 500 851.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond.0 1000 Spec.5 200 37. 473.5 700 563.8 0 502.1 600 29.7 400 33.4 900 .5 0 42. 43.9 300 650. Temp.

15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9. It contains the IT-diagram for the material.2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model.tdt-file The . The .tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition.4 Create the . CEUT = Eutectic carbon content. 12 . In this simulation an old .3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale.tdt-file is a user defined input file. Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273.9. Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9.tdt-file or create a new.tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C). The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations.2. START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old .2. Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up.2.

The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered. Appendix C 9. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase. read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts. LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram.3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up.The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. When a temperature is selected. CC = Carbon content in the material. In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase. Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees). It is usually 1% and 99%. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis.

To prevent the model to translate along the X.9.4. 9. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry. Pick: Mechanical. Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane. Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation. it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 .

Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis.4. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 . Pick the upper line on the back of the model. Pick: Mechanical.

Select the whole model with a “window”. Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0.5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy. The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model.Figure 7 9.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 . Pick: Hex. Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.

Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 . Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”.Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up.

1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 . they must be assigned to a field.6.6 Define initial conditions 9.5..1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names. ELEMENT8.9. …. These groups are called “sets”. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. | Dismiss | 9.

2) 19 .2 Create the .3) 9. see 2.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .g.6.inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1. notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2].6).inp-file This step will create the .13. (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS.6.6.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3. Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9.inp (with e.

0. TYPE=FIELD.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. WRITE. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model. ** *RESTART.0 ** 20 .0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. 0. 0. 0.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material.inp-file. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS..0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. This is an example from the . 0. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD. Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4]. Add these strings to the . VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. TYPE=FIELD. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used. 1. TYPE=FIELD. The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions. These strings should be reordered after the material data. 0. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13.inp-fil. TYPE=FIELD. The name of this set is found in the . FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. a set that contain the whole model must be used.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. material=VTT 1. elset=_PickedSet13.

input=ex1..dat-file. 10. edit and save it with a new name.7 Load history definition The .inc-file that contains the step data: *include. An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one. In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one. It is also possibly to reuse old .inc-files. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed.inc File > Save Appendix A 9. In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed.Add this string last of all to include the separate .. This file is written in “Notepad”.inc-file. One way to view these results is to write them into the . creep=none 1.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution.inc-file has been copied from an old simulation. It is also possible to copy the step information from the . File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1.inc-file contains all the step data. The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the . these steps will be included in the calculation of the results. ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step.dat-file [3]. In this simulation some parts of the . 21 .inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1. START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created.

E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE.NT ** *EL FILE.POSITION=NODES.. ELSET=ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT5.POSITION=NODES. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. REMOVE ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1..GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT4. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1. 10. ELEMENT3. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. ADD ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 . ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT7. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.E *EL PRINT.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT6.** *MODEL CHANGE.GLOBAL=YES U.

1). Appendix D 23 .inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The .4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1.1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the . This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE. In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step. START > Program > ABAQUS 6.dat with notepad.dat-flie. One is the .10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file.for and creates a number of files ( 7.odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11. Open ex1.odb-file.

1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.odb) Select: ex1.odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 .2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the . 11.11.2.

2.2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .11.

2.3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .11.

In the first step the elements are removed.msgfile. The .4. Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge. . . This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material. The file also contains the commands for the output results.odb-file: This file is the result-file. In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot. For the manual to be useful. sets. The . it is a good idea to have a separate step file. This file contains the models geometrical data. 27 . 12. . boundaries.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation.dat-file will direct to the .1 Generated files . These sets are named. the . sets with elements are created.msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS. To reduce time in the simulations.inp-file: In data file. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6.sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation. .12 Discussion 12.dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails. 12.3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated.msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings. Then they are added one by one in each step. the user should have some FEA experience. . . commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file.incfile can be saved and reused.log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation. material data. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST.

”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. pp.och materialtabeller”. J. Jirinec. N. http://www. ”Hållfasthets.com 16. T. X. 1995 19. Swindeman. Institute of Technology. pp I:4.abaqus. Aug. 1999 28 . Taljat. Sjösröm.13 References 15. B. S. R. Z. 1998. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. Järvstråt. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Bodelind. 17. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. R. J. Wang. B. Niklas Järvstråt. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. W. Feng and M. ABAQUS support. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. Keiser. ABAQUS documentation 18. Linköping 1990.-L. Persson.328-335 20. A. Zacharia.

0. 50. 82. . 0. 369. 353. 47. 7.01. elset=_PickedSet13. 0. .005. 16.05 6. 41. 0.005. 0. 5.005. 0. . 106. 145 254. . 145. 0. 56. 36 256. . 42. .045 5. 369 255. 10.045 . 0. 49. 0. 42 2. 459. 147. 0. . 147. 39. part=Part-1 *Node 1. 0.1. 353. 172. 54. 0. 112. name=Part-1-1.01285714 459. 0. . 3. 368 253. generate 1. 148. 56. 146. 148. type=C3D8T 1. 147. 144. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part. 149 . 146. . 2. material=VTT 1. 128. 352.006428571 *Element. 16. 40.01.03214286 456.0875. 13.. 6. . 41.00625. 149. 53. 129.0875. . 1.00625. . 54. 0. 0. 0. 0. 9.01928571 458.05 3. . 148.05 7. elset=_PickedSet13. 0. 34.005. 48. 13. 50 6. 369. 46. 0. . . 46. 172. 56.01. 0. . 262. . .02571429 457. . . 82. 48.B Appendix . 106. . 100. 369. 44. 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. . 10. internal. 11. 0. 0. 8. history=NO. . 33.. 44. 56. 52. . 51. 353. . 55. 368. .00625. 12 7. .00625. 4 3. 128. 148. echo=NO. *End Instance . name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. 47. 43. 0.1. name=Assembly ** *Instance. 127 252. 256. 0. 0..0875. 35. 0. 9. 150. 0.00625. 0. 0. 147 4. 0. 49. 45 5. model=NO. 0. 0. . 81.1. 455. 459. 149. 144.1. 54. 43.inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint. 0. 150. 0.01. 353. 45. 0. 54. 150. 251. 0.05 4. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section.045 2..005.

362. 140 153. 130.*Nset. 223. nset=_PickedSet10. 28. 19. 121. 83. 8. 86 159. 127. 237. elset=ELEMENT3. 75. 354. nset=ELEMENT3. 5. 22. internal. 70. 182. instance=Part-1-1. 369 *Elset. 66. instance=Part-1-1 19. instance=Part-1-1 . 58. instance=Part-1-1 41. elset=_PickedSet4. 53. 154 *Elset. 159 *Elset. internal. 136. instance=Part-1-1 2. nset=_PickedSet7. 126. 358. 16. 251. 151 *Elset. 48. elset=_PickedSet8. 111. 27. elset=ELEMENT1. 12. 97. 195. 67. 41. internal. 71. internal. 256. instance=Part-1-1. 83. 63. 168. 154 *Elset. 29. instance=Part-1-1 9. elset=_PickedSet10. internal. nset=_PickedSet9. generate 17. elset=_PickedSet6. internal. 63. internal. 80. 76. 32. 38. 157 *Elset. 363. 29. 113. 67. 138. 156 *Elset. 22. 36. instance=Part-1-1 17. nset=_PickedSet4. 69. 67. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 40. 3. 16. elset=ELEMENT2. instance=Part-1-1. 357. 1 *Nset. 43. 122 123. 47. nset=_PickedSet6. 15. instance=Part-1-1. 76. 65. nset=_PickedSet13. 119. 67. 356. 12. 69. generate 5. 134. 75. 28. 18. 196. 65. elset=_PickedSet7. 48. 71. 22. 21. 139. 20. 69. 68. 224. 16. 42. instance=Part-1-1. 93. 137. 209. 20. 25. 365 366. generate 21. 364. 60. 139 140. 24. 81. 76. instance=Part-1-1. 361. 27. internal. 39. 98. 142. instance=Part-1-1 25. 23. 160 *Elset. nset=_PickedSet5. 36. internal. 133. 23. instance=Part-1-1. 31. 1 *Nset. internal. 106. nset=_PickedSet12. 26. 29. 154. 52. instance=Part-1-1 19. generate 9. 22. elset=_PickedSet11. 210. 367. 116. 30. 143. 124. 145. 1 *Nset. 68. 86. 16. 54. internal. 141. 148 *Elset. 68 153. 61. 34. 20. instance=Part-1-1 18. 112. 28. instance=Part-1-1. 12. elset=_PickedSet9. 125. elset=_PickedSet12. 29. generate 25. *Nset. 70. 50. 84. elset=_PickedSet13. 181. instance=Part-1-1. generate 25. 85. 62. generate 253. 125. nset=_PickedSet8. internal. 84. 132. instance=Part-1-1 18. instance=Part-1-1. internal. nset=_PickedSet11. 74. 146. 32. 78. 5. generate 13. generate 1. 56. 74. 118. nset=ELEMENT4. generate 13. 1 *Nset. 114. 21. internal. internal. internal. 24. 15. 1 *Nset. 359. instance=Part-1-1 37. generate 17. 4. 55. 156 *Elset. 73. 21. instance=Part-1-1 26. internal. 149 *Elset. 131. 1 *Nset. 19. 72. 238. instance=Part-1-1. instance=Part-1-1 9. 34. 20. 252 *Nset. internal. 53. 76 155. 120. 30. 360. 355. 40. 81. 1 *Nset. nset=ELEMENT1. nset=ELEMENT2. 54. 26. instance=Part-1-1 2. 84. 167. 1 *Nset. 368 *Elset. 115. 6. 135. 126. 26. 61. 1 *Nset. 117. 129. 1 *Nset. 64. internal.

216. 14. 337. 48 147. 4. 34. 14. 8. 45. 58. 224. 210 211. 17. 228. 132. 325. 134. 222. 104. 330. 235. 230. 150. 324. 236. 305. 181. nset=ELEMENT8. 239. 52. 11. elset=ELEMENT7. 117. instance=Part-1-1. 33. 313. 290 291. 56 149. 11. 257. 1 *Nset. 105 106. 322 323. 97. 293. 108. 36. 13. 260. 112. instance=Part-1-1 9. 223. 129. 327. 23. 16. 101. 66. generate 253. 145. 264. 8. 268. 314. 178 179. 232. nset=ELEMENT6. 332. 20.17. 256. 234. 301. 82. 21. 270. instance=Part-1-1 1. 285. 306 307. 208. 143. 214. 8. 65. 184. 219. 146 353. 82 157. 116. 124. 40. 274 275. 74. 7. 110. 57. 35. 287. 43. 103. 118. 203. 148 *Elset. 192. 38. 14. 302. 46. 4. 89 90. 311. 209. 263. 251. 45. 284. 204. 24. 199. 217. 139. 144. 173. 87. 288. 256. 245. 169. 180. 12. 3. 300. 81. generate 9. 297. 244. 5. 79. 312. 8. 128. 95. 261. 136. 73. 44. 317. 142. 168. 96. 165. 292. 318. elset=ELEMENT4. nset=ELEMENT5. 206. 55. 202. 296. nset=_PickedSet26. 278. 160. 125. 141. generate 5. 212. 150 *Elset. 237. 10. generate 21. 153. 28. 24. 225. 100. 258 259. 335. 248. 39. 12. 60 151. 36. 72. 215. 119. 53. 321. 262. 319. 133. 254. 336. 41. internal. 175. 66. 238. 196. 50. 7. instance=Part-1-1. 331. 189. 333. 1 *Nset. 187. 152. 249. 109. 233. 32 33. 140. 241. 279. 70. 182. 328. 220. 334. 253. 54. 191. 252. 2. 277. 91. 46. 80. 11. . 123. 127. 83. 197. 269. 1 *Nset. 57. 246. 221. 316. 2. 280. 59. instance=Part-1-1 1. 155. 77. 289. 167. 265. elset=ELEMENT5. 35. 47. 64. elset=ELEMENT8. 44. generate 1. 51. 1 *Nset. 193. 162 163. 299. 218. 99. 158. 31. 4. 272. 55. 229. 194 195. 171. instance=Part-1-1. 5. 53. 55. 114. 177. 369 *Elset. 12. 54. 304. 111. 131. 6. 92. 201. 172. nset=ELEMENT7. 82. 185. 170. 34. 226 227. 18. 315. 281. 81. 24. 137 138. 271. 56. 68. 49. 77. 46. 164. 13. 13. 303. 282. 135. 79. instance=Part-1-1. 10. 56. 161. 25. 121 122. 42. 126. 166. 298. 174. 42. 1 *Nset. 190. 147. 10. 207. 308. 130. 102. 94. 286. 310. 115. 273. 158 *Elset. instance=Part-1-1. 16. 294. 98. 107. 183. 37. 15. 205. 88. 93. 200. 338 78. 33. 231. 309. 113. 295. 48. 240. 250. 49. 255. elset=ELEMENT6. 320. 85. 267. 35. 128. 266. 242 243. 276. 51. 59 62. 144. 213. 326. 152 *Elset. 120. 188. 15. 329. 186. 247. instance=Part-1-1 9. 198. 176. 283. instance=Part-1-1 1.

5. 427. 67. 456. nset=_PickedSet27. 500. 361. 49. 5. 15. 353. 41. 145. 400. 44. 18. 72. 359. 150. 413. 439. 152. 352. 1. 347. 401. 390. 438. 113. 14. 151. 8. 8. 79. 403 404. 86. 399. 22. 28. 386. 83. 369 *Elset. 450. 26. 256 *Nset. 343. 357. 75. 353. 34. 432. 345. 389. 121. 371 372. 358. 33. 65. 21. elset=_PickedSet27. 366. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 25. 445.. 29. 12. 11. 149. 416. 48. 380. 440. 45. 114. *Elset. 370. 381. 451 452. 349. 430. *Depvar 9. 3. instance=Part-1-1. 426. 412. generate 41. 117. 61. 148. 15. 30. 376. 6. 19. 14. 13. 73. 421.1000. 340. 153. 64. 9. 122. 394. internal. elset=_PickedSet26. 76. 68 69. 46. 125. 16 17. 409. 77. 81. 60. internal. 58. 423. 362. 253. 433. 406. 459 *Elset. 56. 455. 52 53. 435 436. 42. 35. 1. 31. 348. 392. 6. 0. 354 355. 368. 115. 13. 10. 11. 28. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43. 7. 10. 119. 437. 365. 750. generate 29. 449. 125. 395. 346. instance=Part-1-1 38. 434. elset=_PickedSet28. 160. 405. 66. 391. 1 *Nset. 159. 54. 415. 32 33. 384. 419 420.5. 43. 158. 375. 1.4e-05. 128. 429. 411. 37. 383. 29. 24. 24. 78. 9. 410.2e-05. 457. 20. 120. 5. 63. 156 157. 147. 382. 441. internal.. 254.1. 55. 454. 2. 447. 7. 398. 414. 25. 385. 367. *Density 7810. 155. 22. 2. 350. 124. 425. 1. 342. 431. 21. 40. nset=_PickedSet28. *Elastic 2. 407. 154. 444. 442. 42. 23. 458. 36. 57. 424. 408. 443. 82.5e-05. 126 127.3 *Expansion 0. 51. 255. 252. 27. 344. instance=Part-1-1 1. 351. 417. 379. 374. 146. 250. 446. 373.. 30. 12. 418. 448. 600. 251. 0. 341. 453. 200. 62. 387 388. 396. 800. 23.1e+11. 26. 16 17. 4. 20. 84 85. 116. 377.. . 47. 144.339. 4. 397. 18. 378. 363. 74. 364. 422. 19.7. 3. 59. 402. 50.3e-05. 428. instance=Part-1-1 1. 360. 118. 393. 0. 27. internal. 71. instance=Part-1-1. 80. 400. 123. internal. 356. 70.

VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12.4. ZSYMM .0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13.5.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4. 0. 650. TYPE=FIELD. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28. 551. 0. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5. 6. 2. 3.6e-05.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.9. WRITE.500. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. 0.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. 1. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7.300. 900.5. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. *Specific Heat 473. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0.8. TYPE=FIELD.8e-05. 0.1. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10. 851. TYPE=FIELD. 502..1200.700. TYPE=FIELD.900.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.100. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD. 563. absolute zero=-273. ** ** *RESTART. 1. 0. 3 _PickedSet4. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11. 1. TYPE=FIELD.

2000. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27.** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.inc . 20.input=ex1. *include.

** *MODEL CHANGE.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. REMOVE ELEMENT2.GLOBAL=YES U.E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE..POSITION=NODES.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE..GLOBAL=YES U.. ELEMENT3. ** *NODE FILE. ADD ELEMENT2. ADD element3.. 10.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1. creep=none 1. ELSET=ELEMENT2. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 10.E *EL PRINT.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT7. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ELEMENT5.C Appendix . name=Step-4 . creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE.DIRECTIONS=YES S. creep=none 1.NT ** *EL FILE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step. ELEMENT6.DIRECTIONS=YES S...DIRECTIONS=YES S. ** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1. 10.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. ELEMENT4. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step.

. ** *NODE FILE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.NT ** *EL FILE. ADD element7. ADD element4.. creep=none 1. ELSET=ELEMENT2..E ** *EL PRINT. name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step.POSITION=NODES. creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *MODEL CHANGE. 10. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. 10.GLOBAL=YES . ** *NODE FILE. ADD element5. creep=none 1. creep=none 1.*Coupled Temperature-Displacement. 10.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE.POSITION=NODES. name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement...NT ** *EL FILE. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ELSET=ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S.FREQUENCY=1. ADD element6.. ** *MODEL CHANGE..GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step.POSITION=NODES. ** *NODE FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE. 10.E ** *EL PRINT.. ** *MODEL CHANGE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step.GLOBAL=YES U.

U.DIRECTIONS=YES S..DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELSET=ELEMENT2.GLOBAL=YES U.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. ** *NODE FILE.E ** *EL PRINT.. ADD element8. 100.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- . ** *MODEL CHANGE. creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT.POSITION=NODES. ELSET=ELEMENT2.

0 700.0 760.55 2.0 600.0 320.99 0.0 201.0 HS 590.53 2.22 1.95 3.0 710.0 740.37 2.97 4.0 .0 690.0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.44 TER 570.0 440.0 540.0 1 5 570.98 2.66 2.0 600.0 420.0 680.0 700.01 0.0 650.0 LOG(TIR) 4.0 350.0 LOG(TIL) 3.84 1.16 3.0 670.0 TEL 570.0 420.D Appendix .0 320.85 2.0 720.94 2.0 600.57 2.0 500.0 520.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.948 0.0 320.0 670.E6 590.18 9.0 650.0 760.20 3.0 460.57 2.939 0.29 1.0 760.08 1.0 740.0 460.926 0.0 512.E6 TL 0.90 1.43 2.0 720.0 540.01 0.81 2.0 400.77 15.0 480.0 570.E6 640.0 560.53 2.62 4.917 0.0 740.0 520.88 6.70 2.86 3.0 350.32 2.14 2.0 690.0 480.09 1.00 2. 320.993 1.35 2.51 3.E6 590.0 500.56 1.99 0.34 2.0 30.0 690.0 560.E6 111.0 680.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.01 ! ! ! VL 0.03 20.0 650.0 570.0 440.39 2.71 2.11 0.E6 590.18 3.62 4.96 3.0 710.0 2.0 0.0 400.tdt-file CEUT .02 3.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.0 700.0 670.

000 0.3114 0.000 SDV4 0.5802E-06 9.3138 0.5252 0.000 0.1588 0.000 0.2 278.000 0.000 0.1628 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.000 0.7 277.1647 0.000 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.1647 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.9 277.0226E-06 8.3138 0.4 277.000 0.0226E-06 5.000 0.000 0.000 0.2423E-08 0.3090 0.4916E-04 3.5252 0.000 0.3065 0.000 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.7 277.4236E-03 5.2 276.5282 25 1.000 0.3114 0.7 276.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2 276.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.3 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.4596E-05 3.1648 0.5197 0.5215 0.4596E-05 3.000 8.000 0.2423E-08 0.1647 0.1591 SDV6 0.1591 0.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.3114 0.3185 0.1648 0.1651 0.3 277.4575E-08 2.000 0.000 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.000 5.4 277.1651 0.5197 0.3090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.0226E-06 5.000 0.7 277.4575E-08 5.1628 0.3 278.9 277.000 0.2 276.3212 0.0226E-06 8.4 277.000 0.000 0.1648 0.1588 0.3138 0.4575E-08 2.1628 0.000 0.000 0.4425E-06 0.5252 0.E Appendix .4575E-08 4.4596E-05 1.000 0.5215 0.5802E-06 9.5227 0.3114 0.5227 0.1588 0.3212 278.2 277.3065 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.5197 26 0.1591 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.3 0.1647 0.4575E-08 5.000 3.3138 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.5802E-06 9.000 26 SDV5 0.3212 SDV7 278.8260E-04 1.5197 0.000 0.000 0.5215 0.000 0.000 0.000 5.7 276.7 276.000 .000 0.000 0.000 0.3 25 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.5802E-06 9.5248 0.2 278.3090 0.5252 0.9 277.000 0.000 0.1651 0.0915E-06 1.4 277.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.4916E-04 3.2423E-08 0.000 0.000 0.0226E-06 3.5802E-06 9.000 0.5252 0.000 0.000 0.1651 0.1648 0.7 277.5282 0.5802E-06 9.4425E-06 0.000 0.000 0.3065 0.1588 0.000 0.4425E-06 0.000 0.5252 0.4236E-03 0.000 0.3212 0.2 277.1628 0.3114 0.1591 0.3114 0.5248 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.3212 0.000 0.1647 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.000 0.1647 0.3114 0.1628 0.5227 0.1628 0.000 0.7 277.0226E-06 3.7 276.000 0.1588 0.000 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.2 276.3138 0.1647 0.5248 0.000 0.000 0.1628 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.5227 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 3.5215 0.4596E-05 3.3114 0.000 0.5197 8.000 0.5215 0.3138 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.3185 0.9 277.0915E-06 1.7 277.000 0.4425E-06 0.5248 0.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.5215 0.1628 0.000 0.0226E-06 5.3138 0.5282 0.5252 0.4575E-08 4.0226E-06 5.3185 0.1647 0.3065 0.5282 0.3090 0.1651 0.000 0.3185 0.5282 0.000 0.000 0.5252 0.0915E-06 1.3138 0.8260E-04 1.5215 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.0915E-06 1.8260E-04 1.5215 0.4916E-04 3.4 26 25 25 25 0.

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