DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg. S-461 29 Trollhättan. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. Residual stresses i . Phase transformation.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS. Box 957. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström.htu. Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla. Department of Technology. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines. This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. TRAST. 2004 ABAQUS. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine. Mathematics and Computer Science. Simulation. 15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June. To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. Welding. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. 2004 ii . Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan. We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project.

.........................................................................................................1 How to read the manual ........................................................................................................2 2.........................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 .......2................................................................................4 3.......3.............................3 2...............................................................................................2.. 5 Create Model Database.......... 3 Loads and boundary conditions............................................................5 5.............2 Installation of software ...................13 iii ..............v List of symbols .................................................................4 8............4 3...........................2 2.........................................1 1...................10 Create and assign section.....................................................................2..........................................2 Split the model in partitions............. 6 9........4 8...............................................................................................................................................................................9 9......................................................................................................................................................................2 Aim....................................1 Used hardware...............................................................2 2.................................4 Creating the model..............................................................................................................................................................1 Background.... 5 ABAQUS 6...........2 2 FEA.................2 Used Software..........................................................................................................................................1 Create the model.............................................3...............................................1...............1 8...................................................................................................................................................................................................6 9.................................................................................................................................................. 6 9 Modelling..2 General modelling in FEA.........................................................................................1 9..............................2 General flowchart for ex1.........12 9......................................................tdt-file ..............................2.........................................................................3 8.....................................................................................................................................................12 Absolute zero temperature...................................................................... 3 Results ....................... ii List of symbols ...1 Create part for ex1 ......................................................2 9..........3...................................................................3...................4 work area .................................................................v 1 Introduction......................................4 4 Material properties....4 Material properties ..................................................................................................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ...........i Preface ......3 Limitations .........6 9........ 8 9...................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 3 Technical equipment........2..............................................................................................3 8 Start instructions ........................................................................................................2 8.....1 General Knowledge ................................................................1 1.2.1 7..............................................1 7............. 2 Meshing the model......................................................................................2 7...Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary...................................................................................................................................................4 8.................1 General work description ..............................................3 Start the program.....5 8.........................................................2 Assign the material properties.......................................5 6 References......................................................................2...12 Create the ................................................4 5 Conclusions...............................................................................................................5 5.................1 1................................................................................... 5 Generate model database .........................................................2.........3 9..............................................................2 Recommendations for further work ............................................1 2.6 7 Overview of the simulation....................1......................................................................2 2.........................................................................1 Reflections............................................................................3 Create the assembly.............................................

..................6..........................................................................................................2Plot the results ..........................................................................................23 11.3 Plot the temperature result ...........4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv ...............................................6 Define initial conditions ......18 9..............21 10 Solve the problem .........2..........................................19 9.............................................................................................5....23 11...............................2 Create the .............1SDV results ..6................................................inp-file ....................................................................18 9......................................................................................24 11..........................27 12...........................................................15 9.......................1 Displacement/rotation......3Approximations.........................................................................................................................16 9..............4.............................2Results.........27 13 References.................................................................................................................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions .14 9..............................................26 12 Discussion......................27 12...6.....................................14 9.....................................................19 9.........................................27 12............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2......................2..............................24 11..7 Load history definition.................................5 Create Mesh.2 Symmetry ........................1 Plot the stress result ...............1 Temperature ..................................2 Animate the stress result.................................................................................................................................3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ...........................................................................................1Generated files..........18 9....inp-file .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9...28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.........................................................................................................1 Create Sets....4............................................25 11................................................................................................................................................................23 11 Post processing ..........

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

1. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines. To satisfy their client’s high demands.2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. One project has already been done. The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development.g. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1]. The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience. The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram. evaporators. 1 .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e. power boilers. That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2]. This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material. from small units to giant tailor-made boilers. 1. The company delivers power boilers worldwide.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project. FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers.2. 2 . Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. Several simplifications will be used. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3]. even small companies can use the technology. to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D. There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements. The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program.1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models. thermal. 2. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help. It is important to make the model as simple as possible. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material. 2 FEA 2. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates.2 General modelling in FEA 2.

The volume or the shell is divided into small elements. point.2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model. 2. line-loads etc. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality.3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions. 2. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading.2. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. surface-.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature.. It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied. To get results with small deviation from the reality. Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality. 3 .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model. When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses. The results from FEA are not 100% correct.2.2.

2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6. taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 . Pa) will be used.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12].1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2. N. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables. For example decide if (m.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage.4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6.

The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes.1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared. body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10]. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13]. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11].2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation. These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem. In this simulation it is not. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. It is also used for plotting the results. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5. 5. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. 5 . In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created. the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot.

Dieter Radaj.4. pp. Institute of Technology. 11. Transactions of the ASME. B. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Welding Journal Research Supplement. pp. J. Niklas Järvstråt.com 2. A. ”Allmänt om FEM”. Ph. P. pp133141 9. B. F. Swansea. Berlin Heidelberg. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”. Vander Voort. Jan Langkjær Hansen. pp I:10. 1992. S. Linköping 1990. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Abaqus system requirements. 1998. 14.356-362 8. N. Aug. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Master thesis. X. thesis. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”. Michaleris and A. Nov.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1. Technical University of Denmark 2003. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. 1999. C.100 Issue.akerkvaerner. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. R. pp. R.328-335 10. Sjösröm.D. Keiser. B Andersson. 4. http://www. Dantzig and D. Wang. Kvaerner Power AB. Swindeman. Chalmers University of Technology 2004. Kjell Niklasson. Maneli Faraji. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. T. DeBiccari. 1978. 1989.361-366 7. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”. 13. Tortrelli. 1997. J. Z.172-181 6. Michaleris. Jirinec. 12. Karlsson. University of HTU 2000. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Feng and M.-L. J. USA 1991. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. http://www. Wales. 3. T.html#win32 5. Welding Journal Research Supplement.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts. Järvstråt. P. pp.abaqus. Vol. 1995 6 . homepage. Taljat. Springer-Verlag. “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”. G. “Heat effects of welding”. Engineering Computations. Zacharia. Vol.6. W.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .

Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology.

.....................................................................................................1 9....................15 9.........................................3..............................................25 11........................................6............................................................................................3 Create the assembly......9 9.........................................................4.............................................................................................1 8.....................................................2 9......6 Define initial conditions .................1 Create Sets.............18 9..............................18 9..............4 Start ABAQUS CAE ......................................................................................3 Plot the temperature result .............................4 Material properties .....2 Installation of software ...................1 Create the model...1..........................................................................13 9........3 9..........2.........................................1 Displacement/rotation....3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ........................ 5 ABAQUS 6............................................................................................ 6 9.....................................2 7................................................12 9..............1 General work description ..............................6 9......1 How to read the manual .................................................................1Generated files............................................2............................................................................................................................................................................12 Absolute zero temperature........................................................................4 8...................................................................................................................................................................................................24 11............................................7 Load history definition............................................................2 Assign the material properties..................................tdt-file ........................................................................14 9..16 9...........................................3............................................................................23 11...........................6..................2 Create the ..5................19 9...........................2.........................2.......... 8 9..........................14 9...............24 11......5 8..................................................................................4 work area ............................2 Split the model in partitions.........4...................................................1 7..2 Animate the stress result........3........... 5 Generate model database .....27 12.......................5 Create Mesh........................................................................................................................................................2 8......................................................................................3...........................................................................................................23 11.................... 6 9 Modelling.......2 General flowchart for ex1............4 8............................................................................6.............3 8 Start instructions ............................................2......3 8....1............................................................................................................................................................................................inp-file ......2 Symmetry .......................................................3 Start the program.............27 12...........................Contents 7 Overview of the simulation.....................................................................................................................3Approximations........................................10 Create and assign section................27 13 References........................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ..........................................1 7..........................................................................................................................................................19 9.........1SDV results .......2......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................27 12.................12 Create the .4 8............................................................................................ 5 Create Model Database.......18 9.............23 11 Post processing .................2Plot the results ..............................................................................................26 12 Discussion..................6 9...................1 Temperature ................4 Create Boundary Conditions ....................2............1 Create part for ex1 .28 i ................................................................................................................inp-file .1 Plot the stress result ...............................................21 10 Solve the problem ............................................2Results............

dat-file ii .inc-file .tdt-file .Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .inp-file .

inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .7 Overview of the simulation 7.

tdt Trast7_tv ex1.2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .inp ex1.7.odb vtt.inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.

Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1. that calculate the phase transformation.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4.2 3 .inp • • • ex1.inc • Edit inp-file 4.inp-file 3. stresses and displacement 5.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4.dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3.9 ex1. ex1.odb • • Create inc-file 4.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv. ex1.5 Create Sets and Fields 3.7.7-3.4 Create Mesh 3.1 Assign the material properties 3.2 Create assembly 3. Plotting the results for temperature.8 Create .3 Create boundary conditions 3.2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5.3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.

FLUX(2).5) 4 .TEMP.FLUX. It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string). so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file.PREDEF. PREDEF(*). it means that the user When the text is Italic. Before the simulation can start. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon. SVAR(9). 8.f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv. START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv. Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do.DTIME.8 Start instructions 8.DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2). Copy the subroutine trast7_tv. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created.TIME(2). (4. the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS.4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME. | . it is a describing sentence for the particular step.for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler.2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6.for.TIME. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6.SVAR.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual.

4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.8.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6.3.3.3.3 ABAQUS 6. | Create Model Database | 8.3 Start the program 8. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 . The “Start Session” window pops up.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8.

Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database.3. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 . It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program.1.1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions.8. Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9.1 Create the model 9.

0. Give the depth of the model: 0.05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 .Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid.01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up. Extrusion Approximate size: 0.1.2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0. 0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.

0. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions.9.1. Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0.1. To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model.01. 0. These groups of elements (sets) must be named. 0. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material. 0. filler material and the plate.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0. First step is to divide the model into two parts.045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0.2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements.045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions. 0. Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 . 0.

If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used.3. For points when the time variable is short. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 . This material data is collected from an IT-diagram. the material name must be identical with the name of the . The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources.tdtfile is described in 4. This data is not from a specific material. The data for density. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6]. specific heat. as it is in this simulation. The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5].Figure 4 9. conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4].2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram. The name of the material is also given. it is very important that the reading is accurate. The creation of the . The material data in the .tdt-file.tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4].

0.2. 10 Temp.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 .Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9. To make more rows.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL. Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7.1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up. place the “cursor” in the window and right click. [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”. Select “Insert Row After”. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp.

473. Temp.5 500 851. Temp.5 200 37. 43.0 100 551.1 600 29.5 700 563.9 300 650.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond.0 800 30.7 400 33.8 0 502.4 900 .5 0 42.0 1000 Spec.

tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C).9. The . Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9.2.2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model. 12 .3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale.2. In this simulation an old .tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition.tdt-file The . Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up. It contains the IT-diagram for the material.2.4 Create the . The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations.tdt-file is a user defined input file. START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old . Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273.tdt-file or create a new. CEUT = Eutectic carbon content.15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9.

The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees). It is usually 1% and 99%. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. Appendix C 9. Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up. For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. CC = Carbon content in the material.The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase.3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered. Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts. These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. When a temperature is selected. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis. These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram. Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve.

Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 . Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane. it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions. 9. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane.and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas.9. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up. To prevent the model to translate along the X. Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry.4. Pick: Mechanical.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation.

Pick the upper line on the back of the model. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9. Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up.2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up.Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis. Pick: Mechanical. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 .4.

Pick: Hex. Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.Figure 7 9. The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 . Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0.5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy. Select the whole model with a “window”.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up.

Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 . Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”.Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up.

6 Define initial conditions 9. These groups are called “sets”. | Dismiss | 9.9. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 . ….6.5.1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. they must be assigned to a field. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other.1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names.. ELEMENT8.

6.2 Create the .inp-file This step will create the .inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.6. notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2]. see 2.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .inp (with e.g.inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3. (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS.2) 19 .6).3) 9.13. Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9.6.

The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. material=VTT 1. Add these strings to the . The name of this set is found in the . 0. TYPE=FIELD. 0. TYPE=FIELD. This is an example from the . TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. 0. 1.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. WRITE.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4]. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. ** *RESTART. a set that contain the whole model must be used. This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model. TYPE=FIELD. These strings should be reordered after the material data. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. 0.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. elset=_PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.inp-fil.0 ** 20 . These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation..inp-file. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. 0. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0.

inc-file has been copied from an old simulation.inc-file contains all the step data. It is also possibly to reuse old . creep=none 1. these steps will be included in the calculation of the results.inc-files. 21 ..Add this string last of all to include the separate . name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.input=ex1. This file is written in “Notepad”. In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one.inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1. It is also possible to copy the step information from the .dat-file [3]. In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed. In this simulation some parts of the . In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. edit and save it with a new name.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution. ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. 10. File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1.inc-file.inc-file that contains the step data: *include..inc File > Save Appendix A 9.dat-file. An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one. One way to view these results is to write them into the . START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created.7 Load history definition The . The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the .

ELEMENT3. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 . ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step.DIRECTIONS=YES S.POSITION=NODES.FREQUENCY=1.. ADD ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT4. ELSET=ELEMENT2.E ** *EL PRINT. ELEMENT7.POSITION=NODES.** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT6. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.GLOBAL=YES U. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 10.GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.E *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE.NT ** *EL FILE. ELEMENT5. REMOVE ELEMENT2. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. ** *MODEL CHANGE..

1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the . In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step. One is the .inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The .10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv.1). Appendix D 23 .for and creates a number of files ( 7. This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE.odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11.odb-file. START > Program > ABAQUS 6.dat with notepad. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file.4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1. Open ex1.dat-flie.

odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 . 11.11.odb) Select: ex1.2.2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the .

2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .2.11.

2.3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .11.

1 Generated files .3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated. The file also contains the commands for the output results.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6.dat-file will direct to the .msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings. This file contains the models geometrical data. The . These sets are named.odb-file: This file is the result-file. . boundaries. commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file.log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material.4. the user should have some FEA experience. . In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot. It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS. 12. the . it is a good idea to have a separate step file. This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation.12 Discussion 12. For the manual to be useful.incfile can be saved and reused.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation. . Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge.sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation. . sets. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST. 27 . . sets with elements are created. 12. In the first step the elements are removed.msgfile. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used.dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails. The . material data. Then they are added one by one in each step.inp-file: In data file. .msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. To reduce time in the simulations.

B. R. Institute of Technology.com 16. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45.13 References 15. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. http://www. Järvstråt. Feng and M. Linköping 1990.-L.abaqus. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. J. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Sjösröm. 1995 19. T. S. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. pp. Bodelind. ABAQUS documentation 18.328-335 20. Niklas Järvstråt. Taljat. J. ”Hållfasthets. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Persson. Jirinec. ABAQUS support. 1999 28 . B. N. 17.och materialtabeller”. X. R. Aug. Wang. Zacharia. pp I:4. Keiser. Z. A. 1998. Swindeman. W.

172. 0. 43. echo=NO. 54. 16. 0. 147 4. 44. 251. 56. .00625. . 42 2. 0.05 7. 368 253. 459.1. 54. 455. 128. 150. 352. 45 5. 0. 82. 33. . 81.00625. material=VTT 1. 353.05 4. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. . . 0. model=NO. *End Instance . 6. . 0. 0.045 2. 368. 0. 144. 9. . 0. 129. 369 255..05 3. . . 34. 369. elset=_PickedSet13. .02571429 457. 106. 172. 0. 148. 0. 49. 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. 0. 48. 56. 0. . 353. 0. 112. 12 7. 56. 145. 0.01.006428571 *Element.01. . 106. 150. name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. 48. 2. 0. 0. 0. . 45. 0. 0. generate 1. 42. 47.005. 147. 150.005. 46.. 353. 0.05 6.1. 9. 145 254. . 55. 0. 5.01285714 459. 35. 369. elset=_PickedSet13. 82. . 0. internal. 16.1.045 . 10.1.inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint. name=Part-1-1. 100. 51. 0. 148. 11. . 36 256.005. 10.B Appendix . 147. 39. . 127 252. 41. 40. 13.045 5. . 56. 128.00625. . . 53. 0. . 13. 44.0875. 3. 149. 0. .. 0. name=Assembly ** *Instance. 47. 146. 52.005.01. 0. 50. 144. 0. . 49. 41. 0. 147. 148. part=Part-1 *Node 1. . . 8. 262. 1. 148. 0. 54. 369. .01928571 458. history=NO. 0. 0. 459. 0. 7.03214286 456. . 43.00625. .. 146.01. 0. 0. 50 6. 54. 256. 4 3.0875.00625. type=C3D8T 1. 353.0875.005. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part. 149. 46. 149 .

358. 53. 196. 354. elset=_PickedSet8. 15. 29. 125. 24. 1 *Nset. 61. 67. instance=Part-1-1 2. 15. 363. 136. 209. 67. generate 9. internal. 22. 97. 75. 84. 117. generate 13. 16. 76. 361. 69. internal. 1 *Nset. 154 *Elset. 181. 252 *Nset. 68 153. 55. 23. 368 *Elset. 146. 20. generate 253. 60. 137. 114. 122 123. 54. 129. nset=ELEMENT1. 121. nset=_PickedSet7. 34. 356. 84. 115. 30.*Nset. 112. internal. 145. generate 25. internal. 73. instance=Part-1-1. 78. 151 *Elset. elset=_PickedSet4. 142. nset=_PickedSet4. 119. 12. 65. nset=ELEMENT2. 29. nset=_PickedSet6. 19. 67. 53. nset=_PickedSet5. instance=Part-1-1 18. internal. 5. 67. 182. 26. 34. 125. 42. 38. 237. instance=Part-1-1 19. generate 5. 156 *Elset. nset=_PickedSet13. 167. generate 13. 20. 52. generate 17. 12. instance=Part-1-1 26. internal. 93. 27. 140 153. 41. 68. 71. internal. elset=_PickedSet9. 36. 70. 54. 20. instance=Part-1-1 40. 367. instance=Part-1-1 25. instance=Part-1-1 9. 21. 26. 28. 69. 369 *Elset. 126. instance=Part-1-1 . 16. 111. instance=Part-1-1. instance=Part-1-1. 360. 18. 61. 80. 124. instance=Part-1-1. 224. 29. elset=ELEMENT1. elset=_PickedSet11. 134. 48. 8. 85. 63. internal. internal. 355. 21. internal. 68. nset=ELEMENT3. 210. 364. 64. 154. generate 21. instance=Part-1-1 2. 3. 25. instance=Part-1-1. 138. 70. instance=Part-1-1. 126. 132. 72. 116. 256. instance=Part-1-1 18. 195. instance=Part-1-1 41. instance=Part-1-1 37. 74. 36. nset=_PickedSet10. 168. 139. 141. internal. nset=_PickedSet8. 81. 75. 154 *Elset. 135. 98. 30. 1 *Nset. 238. 28. internal. 127. 1 *Nset. 65. nset=_PickedSet9. instance=Part-1-1. 22. elset=_PickedSet13. instance=Part-1-1 19. 47. 86 159. 130. 66. 133. 160 *Elset. 19. 156 *Elset. 20. 6. elset=_PickedSet12. internal. 86. 27. internal. 149 *Elset. 50. 23. 32. internal. elset=_PickedSet10. 1 *Nset. 76. 22. 359. 16. 43. 39. 56. 16. 84. 31. 131. instance=Part-1-1. 118. 22. 4. nset=ELEMENT4. 26. 83. 1 *Nset. 1 *Nset. 5. 362. 71. generate 1. 69. 81. elset=ELEMENT3. 28. instance=Part-1-1 17. 1 *Nset. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 9. 32. 21. 120. 48. 106. 365 366. 62. 63. elset=ELEMENT2. 40. nset=_PickedSet12. elset=_PickedSet6. 113. 251. 159 *Elset. elset=_PickedSet7. internal. internal. *Nset. instance=Part-1-1. 357. 143. 24. instance=Part-1-1. 58. 1 *Nset. 1 *Nset. 74. nset=_PickedSet11. 76. instance=Part-1-1. 139 140. 157 *Elset. generate 25. generate 17. internal. internal. 29. 148 *Elset. 76 155. 12. 83. 223.

121 122. 82. 281. 140. 10. 237. 102. 206. 189. instance=Part-1-1 9. 288. instance=Part-1-1 9. 306 307. 72. 292. 276. 277. 152. 7. 11. 231. 176. 260. 304. 11. 4. 57. 66. 293. 311. 12. instance=Part-1-1. 55. 312. nset=ELEMENT8. 1 *Nset. 185. 332. 53. instance=Part-1-1 1. 241. 42. 169. 152 *Elset. 111. 35. 170. instance=Part-1-1. 310. 60 151. 160. 79. 298. 324. 279. 155. 33. 104. 36. 43. 283. 127. generate 9. 158. 271. 150. 174. 286. 200. 137 138. 336. 42. 80. 302. 236. 221. 12. instance=Part-1-1. elset=ELEMENT8. 285. 49. 79. 85. 46. 190. 20. 54. 265. 50. 3. 15. 245. 44. 214. 331. 13. 238. 124. 92. 327. 1 *Nset. 2. 133. 153. 14. 202. 284. 8. 314. 70. 52. 273. 308. 309. 123. 246. 91. 207. 299. instance=Part-1-1 1. 58. 141. 223. 55. 212. 162 163. 139. 125. 77. generate 5. 295. 110. 270. 244. 228. 326. 145. 334. 49. 183. 12. 83. 51. instance=Part-1-1. 101. 181. 255. 107. 132. 216. 112. 317. 316. 232. 5. 74. 130. 120. 95. 45. 338 78. 82 157. 131. 40. 56 149. 5. 262. 329. 210 211. 16. 197. 89 90. 39. 11. 45. 161. 325. 335. 24. 59. 105 106. 24. 251. 8. 218. 144. 167. 254. 201. 300. 38. 321. 250. 282. 165. 220. 55. 54. 213. instance=Part-1-1. 97. 46. 193. 17. 57. 4. 73. 158 *Elset. 28. 37. 196. 47. 313. 48 147. nset=ELEMENT5. 177. 136. internal. 134. 267. 290 291. 68. 148 *Elset. 41. 24. 98. 168. 14. 297. 14. 333. 46. 16. 215. 166. nset=_PickedSet26. 280. 287. 330. 66. 119. 143. 242 243. 128. 198. 269.17. 248. 56. 15. 305. 51. 103. 116. 2. 263. 337. 225. 222. nset=ELEMENT6. 94. 175. 4. 239. 150 *Elset. 224. 100. 208. 65. 25. 320. 114. 249. 233. 35. 96. 18. 256. 240. 219. 194 195. 77. 289. 34. 173. 81. 256. elset=ELEMENT6. 172. 21. 142. 188. 48. 303. 126. 35. elset=ELEMENT5. 99. 182. 135. 178 179. 33. 88. 32 33. 8. 226 227. 184. 10. 1 *Nset. 319. 192. 247. 13. 113. 56. elset=ELEMENT4. 144. 235. 205. 117. 261. 180. 268. 272. elset=ELEMENT7. 13. 64. 108. 129. 229. 278. instance=Part-1-1 1. 258 259. 1 *Nset. 23. 318. 118. 187. 186. 93. 230. 31. 44. 266. 109. 87. 164. 115. 315. 252. 253. 199. 59 62. 369 *Elset. 81. 217. 6. 257. 36. nset=ELEMENT7. 147. 8. 203. 209. generate 1. 7. 274 275. 128. generate 21. 328. 10. 301. 82. 264. 171. 191. generate 253. 1 *Nset. . 234. 294. 322 323. 296. 53. 204. 34. 146 353.

63. 353. 363. 64. 350. 419 420. 387 388. elset=_PickedSet27. internal. 160. 70. 383. 61. 23. 149. 123. 451 452. 153. 351. 422. 377. 406. 54. 28. 11. 349. 454. 72. 431.5e-05. internal. 67. 25. 86. 374. 147. 411. 448. 79. 453. 450. 4. 384. 30. 81. 426. 7.1e+11. 24. 381. 250. 125. 66. 159. 21. 360. 24.2e-05. 35. 32 33. 119. 356. 344. 36. 432. 361. 150. 342. 9. 43. 429. 1. 73. 16 17. 433.7. 18. 364. 425. internal. 78. 439. 114. 1. 21. 15. 438. 47.3 *Expansion 0. 358. 368. 398. 424. 44. 373. 408. 5. 46. 145. 144. 13.5. 23. 437. 366. 146. 0. 352. 423. 155. 750. nset=_PickedSet27. 3. 122. 118. 455. 19. 6. 12. 125. 151. 458. 20. 353. 347. 421. 116. 600. 800. 29. 7. 371 372.. 403 404. 370. 71. 77. 1. 380. 456. 115. 399. 25. 3. 444. 10. internal. 5. 412. 12. 31. 440. 84 85. 14. 367. . generate 29. *Depvar 9. 18. 414. 435 436. 68 69. 26. internal. 354 355. 10. 128. 376. 407. 400. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43. 397. 158. 148. 27.. 441. 20. 386. 49. 390. 156 157. 401. 75. 57. 126 127. 15. 82. 1 *Nset. 357. 341. 449. 447. 13. 0. 120. 42. *Density 7810. 340. 74. 254. 22. 34. 379. 48. 42. 348. 58. 459 *Elset. instance=Part-1-1 1. 446.1. 343. 51. 2. 418. 8. 16 17. 434. 22. 427. 415. 428. 40. 362. 4.339. 29. 393. 6. 410. 409. 395. 19. 200. *Elastic 2.3e-05. 443. 41. 8. *Elset. 391. 37. 80. 457. 382. 62. 11. 365. 45. 117. 1. 0. 253. 500. 402. 369 *Elset. 124. 60. 14. 385. 375. 346. instance=Part-1-1. 33. 359. 445. 400. instance=Part-1-1 38. nset=_PickedSet28. 430.1000. 28. 30. 255. 396. instance=Part-1-1. 26. 83. generate 41. 405. 9. 378.4e-05. 256 *Nset. 442. 389. 416. 413. 65. 50. 417. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 113. 251. 121. 27. 252. 56. instance=Part-1-1 1. 52 53. 392. 2. 59. 55. 152. elset=_PickedSet28.. 345. elset=_PickedSet26. 76. 394. 154.5..

3 _PickedSet4. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11.5. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6. absolute zero=-273. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13.8. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10. 6. 0. ZSYMM .. WRITE.9. 0. 3. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. *Specific Heat 473. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13.300. 0.8e-05. 0.900. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13. 0.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 502. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4.5.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ** ** *RESTART.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.1. 563. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5.6e-05. 0. 551. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 900. 1. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 2.700. 1. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8. 0.1200. TYPE=FIELD.100. TYPE=FIELD. 851.0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD.4. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD. 1.500. 650. TYPE=FIELD.

** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.input=ex1. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. 20. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27. 2000.inc . *include. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26.

10. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ADD element3. name=Step-4 .POSITION=NODES.... ADD ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT5.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1. 10. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step. 10. creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT.FREQUENCY=1.. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step.NT ** *EL FILE..POSITION=NODES. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT3.C Appendix .FREQUENCY=1.E *EL PRINT.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT7. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ELEMENT6. ** *MODEL CHANGE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.FREQUENCY=1.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. ELSET=ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step. ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1..FREQUENCY=1.DIRECTIONS=YES S.NT ** *EL FILE. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.GLOBAL=YES U. ELSET=ELEMENT2.POSITION=NODES. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.E ** *EL PRINT. REMOVE ELEMENT2. ELEMENT4. ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1.

name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1.GLOBAL=YES U. ** *NODE FILE.POSITION=NODES.DIRECTIONS=YES S..GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1.. ** *MODEL CHANGE.. 10.FREQUENCY=1. creep=none 1. creep=none 1.POSITION=NODES.POSITION=NODES. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.GLOBAL=YES . creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1. ADD element4..FREQUENCY=1. ADD element7. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ** *NODE FILE. ELSET=ELEMENT2...NT ** *EL FILE. ** *NODE FILE.NT ** *EL FILE. 10. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step.. ELSET=ELEMENT2. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step. creep=none 1.NT ** *EL FILE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.*Coupled Temperature-Displacement. name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ELSET=ELEMENT2..GLOBAL=YES U.DIRECTIONS=YES S.E ** *EL PRINT. 10.E ** *EL PRINT. ADD element6. 10. ADD element5.E ** *EL PRINT. ** *NODE FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ** *MODEL CHANGE.

E ** *EL PRINT.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- .GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step.NT ** *EL FILE..DIRECTIONS=YES S.U.. ELSET=ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1. 100. ** *NODE FILE.DIRECTIONS=YES S.NT ** *EL FILE. creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT. ADD element8.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ** *MODEL CHANGE.

0 520.0 30.62 4.0 670.14 2.E6 590.0 740.0 512.34 2.0 LOG(TIR) 4.35 2.0 320.0 320.96 3.0 HS 590.939 0.E6 640.0 670.01 ! ! ! VL 0.0 560.0 710.E6 590.03 20.00 2.0 760.0 460.0 400. 320.0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.926 0.993 1.0 570.97 4.84 1.53 2.0 460.70 2.32 2.0 440.0 320.0 760.0 LOG(TIL) 3.0 740.0 600.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.0 420.88 6.0 540.0 720.11 0.85 2.44 TER 570.95 3.53 2.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.08 1.20 3.16 3.01 0.0 2.0 650.tdt-file CEUT .0 670.0 690.18 9.0 680.0 690.0 600.0 560.0 350.948 0.0 680.66 2.0 350.98 2.09 1.0 400.56 1.57 2.917 0.0 500.43 2.0 570.0 700.0 500.0 700.51 3.0 420.0 740.0 0.0 600.90 1.0 540.0 690.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.0 720.29 1.0 440.0 710.0 480.18 3.81 2.57 2.99 0.71 2.0 650.0 480.55 2.22 1.02 3.0 760.0 .0 TEL 570.39 2.0 201.0 1 5 570.94 2.E6 590.0 700.D Appendix .37 2.E6 111.77 15.0 520.86 3.62 4.99 0.01 0.0 650.E6 TL 0.

3138 0.3114 0.000 0.3138 0.7 276.1648 0.8260E-04 1.1588 0.1591 SDV6 0.4425E-06 0.5802E-06 9.5197 26 0.2 276.5282 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1651 0.000 0.000 0.5252 0.000 0.5252 0.5282 0.3 0.000 0.5215 0.5252 0.000 0.000 0.0226E-06 3.4 26 25 25 25 0.1588 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.3090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.5802E-06 9.2 278.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.1628 0.3114 0.4916E-04 3.3 25 0.4596E-05 3.000 8.5252 0.000 0.000 0.7 277.4916E-04 3.1628 0.4236E-03 5.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.4575E-08 2.000 0.3185 0.5197 0.000 0.1648 0.5227 0.8260E-04 1.5215 0.3114 0.3138 0.1647 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.7 277.4 277.000 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.5248 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.3212 0.000 26 SDV5 0.000 0.1588 0.5215 0.000 0.000 0.3065 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4575E-08 2.5252 0.000 0.0915E-06 1.000 0.3090 0.000 0.2 276.000 5.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.5282 0.000 0.7 277.9 277.4596E-05 1.000 0.3185 0.3114 0.4575E-08 4.3138 0.000 0.7 277.000 0.9 277.000 0.1647 0.000 0.1588 0.000 3.000 0.0226E-06 5.1651 0.3185 0.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.5197 8.4236E-03 5.2 277.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.5215 0.000 0.000 0.3114 0.4916E-04 3.5802E-06 9.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.000 .3138 0.4 277.000 0.1628 0.000 0.3065 0.0915E-06 1.000 0.7 276.000 0.4425E-06 0.3212 278.000 0.000 0.5197 0.3114 0.1651 0.1647 0.5227 0.000 0.4575E-08 5.1591 0.1591 0.5252 0.000 SDV4 0.1647 0.5252 0.0226E-06 8.000 2.000 0.000 0.5227 0.000 5.4916E-04 3.000 0.3138 0.3090 0.1648 0.4596E-05 3.7 277.0226E-06 5.5227 0.1591 0.3212 SDV7 278.000 0.5248 0.5802E-06 9.5282 0.000 0.000 0.2 276.000 0.7 277.1651 0.3212 0.3065 0.3 277.4425E-06 0.5215 0.000 0.000 0.1647 0.9 277.000 0.000 0.3 278.3065 0.000 0.5282 25 1.3114 0.1647 0.4596E-05 3.4236E-03 5.1588 0.000 0.3090 0.0226E-06 8.0226E-06 3.5252 0.000 0.3212 0.5215 0.0915E-06 1.000 0.E Appendix .4 277.1628 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.2 276.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.3 277.3114 0.5215 0.000 0.1628 0.5215 0.0915E-06 1.2 278.000 0.1628 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.4 277.000 0.000 3.0226E-06 5.1628 0.1651 0.000 0.000 0.1647 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.5248 0.3185 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.1628 0.000 0.0226E-06 5.2423E-08 0.000 0.7 277.7 276.000 0.4425E-06 0.000 0.4575E-08 5.4916E-04 3.8260E-04 1.3138 0.9 277.5197 0.4236E-03 0.000 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.1648 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.2 277.5248 0.3138 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4575E-08 4.7 276.1647 0.

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