DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish. 2004 ABAQUS. This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. Residual stresses i . This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg. Mathematics and Computer Science. The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. Phase transformation. TRAST. Welding. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines. Box 957. Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla.htu. Department of Technology. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. S-461 29 Trollhättan. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement. To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process. 15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. Simulation. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project. 2004 ii . Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan.

...............................................................................................2 2 FEA..............................................................................................................................................1.............................1 Create the model.......................6 7 Overview of the simulation......i Preface .........................................2........................................................................................................................................................ ii List of symbols ......12 Absolute zero temperature..............................................................................................................................................................2 2.................... 8 9.................................................................................................2....................................................5 6 References...................10 Create and assign section........2...........4 work area ......................9 9.......................................................................2 General flowchart for ex1..........................1 2.............................................................................................................................2 Aim.................................................3 Start the program............................................................................................................................................................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary....................................................................................................................................................................4 3................................................3 2............................................................2 8............................ 5 Create Model Database....2..........................................3 8 Start instructions ...........................................1 7..............................................................................v 1 Introduction.................1 Create part for ex1 ..................................................... 6 9 Modelling........................................................................................... 5 ABAQUS 6...........................................................1 Background................2 7.........................................................................................................2......................................................................................................3.....1 Used hardware....................1 1..........................1 1........1 How to read the manual ................................tdt-file .........2 General modelling in FEA......................................................................2 Assign the material properties.........................2 2.......................................................4 8................... 3 3 Technical equipment..........................3 Create the assembly............. 3 Loads and boundary conditions...........................................................1 General work description .......................3.4 8....................................................................................... 5 Generate model database ......3 8........................................................................................................................................................3.......................5 5......................................3 9..........2......................................................................6 9...............................................................2 2.........2 2...............................3 Limitations ................................................................................1 1.........5 5.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Meshing the model....................................3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ............................................................. 6 9............4 4 Material properties.....................2.....................................................................................................12 Create the .............................1 8.5 8......................1 General Knowledge ...............12 9.. 3 Results .......2...................................2 Installation of software ................................................................................................13 iii ......................................................................................4 3.........................................................................................4 5 Conclusions.........................................................................................................4 Material properties .....................1 Reflections..............2 Recommendations for further work .........2 9......6 9........................................3..................................................................................1................................4 Start ABAQUS CAE .....................................................................4 8.............................................................................................................................................2 Used Software..............................................................1 9................1 7................................4 Creating the model..................v List of symbols ..............................2 Split the model in partitions........................................

..........................................................24 11..........2..........................23 11 Post processing .........6.........2Results.........................18 9...............................Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9.......2......................4.........3 Plot the temperature result ..................................2...........19 9.............................................................................27 12..............................................................................................................................5 Create Mesh..........1 Temperature ..................................................................................16 9..........................................5................1 Create Sets.......................................................................................7 Load history definition...............................................................................inp-file .........................24 11......3Approximations............................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ...6..............................................................................................................................1 Plot the stress result ...........................19 9............21 10 Solve the problem ..................................................................4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv ......................................................................................................................26 12 Discussion.................................................28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6....1 Displacement/rotation............6 Define initial conditions ............................................................1SDV results ...............................................................27 12......................23 11..................15 9..........................................................................................................................................................14 9......................................................2 Symmetry ...........18 9...................27 12.....14 9..........2Plot the results ....................................................................................23 11......................3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ..............................18 9....................................1Generated files..................................................27 13 References..............................4.....................................................................................................................................................2 Create the ................25 11...............inp-file ............................................................................2 Animate the stress result.............................6...................................................................................................................................................................

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience. To satisfy their client’s high demands. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines. 1. evaporators.g. The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1]. The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development. 1. That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2]. The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004. The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. from small units to giant tailor-made boilers.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material. The company delivers power boilers worldwide. 1 . power boilers. One project has already been done.2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process.

Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project. 2 FEA 2. FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling. 2. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures. even small companies can use the technology.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program. It is important to make the model as simple as possible. 2 .2. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products. thermal. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. Several simplifications will be used.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3]. Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed. There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help.2 General modelling in FEA 2.1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models.

When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. The results from FEA are not 100% correct.2. To get results with small deviation from the reality. 3 . The volume or the shell is divided into small elements.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2.2. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed. 2. line-loads etc. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied. point.2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads. Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality.3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. surface-. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature.2. Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality.. 2.

For example decide if (m.4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3.2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 .0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3.1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables. Pa) will be used.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage. taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6. N.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12].

The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem.1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%. body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10]. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc. If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes. The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. 5 . One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11].2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation. It is also used for plotting the results. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13]. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. 5. In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes. These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. In this simulation it is not. the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5.

Aug.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1. T. Tortrelli. 1998. 13. Nov.328-335 10. Welding Journal Research Supplement. “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”. Vander Voort.html#win32 5. W. B. P. Sjösröm. 1992. Transactions of the ASME. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. Ph. A. Berlin Heidelberg. Chalmers University of Technology 2004. 12. “Heat effects of welding”. Kvaerner Power AB. Kjell Niklasson. B. Welding Journal Research Supplement. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”. pp I:10. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts. Engineering Computations. T. DeBiccari. 14.4. B Andersson. X. Michaleris and A. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. Master thesis. Zacharia.D. Z. Michaleris.100 Issue. R. Swindeman. homepage. Niklas Järvstråt.356-362 8. thesis.-L. C. 1997. Karlsson. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. Welding Journal Research Supplement. ”Allmänt om FEM”. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”. USA 1991. 3.172-181 6. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”. Taljat. S. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. Vol. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. 11. Technical University of Denmark 2003. Maneli Faraji. Feng and M. Dantzig and D. G.com 2. pp. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. J. Jirinec. 1989. pp. 4. Wang. University of HTU 2000. Springer-Verlag. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Jan Langkjær Hansen. P. Wales. R.6. Järvstråt. Abaqus system requirements. Keiser. J. Vol. Swansea. pp. 1978.361-366 7. pp133141 9. F.akerkvaerner.abaqus. 1999. http://www. Dieter Radaj. N. 1995 6 . http://www. pp. J. Institute of Technology. Linköping 1990.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .

DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology. Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .

...............................2 7.....2 Symmetry ...................2Results........................16 9...............................................................................23 11 Post processing ...............................4...........................1 Displacement/rotation.tdt-file ...................................................................................................................19 9................................inp-file ..................3 8.............................4......................................................................................................................7 Load history definition.......................2............................1SDV results ......................3Approximations.............................................................................18 9.................................19 9...................inp-file ..21 10 Solve the problem ..........................................................................6......2 Create the .........................................1 General work description ..........................................6 9...................................................................................................12 Absolute zero temperature....................................................3.......2 8.................................................................................... 5 Create Model Database..............5....................................................................................................................2..........................................2 Split the model in partitions.................................3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .............3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ................................................................27 12.................1 How to read the manual ................................................................................................................................3....1 8....27 12...........................................................................................5 8.........12 Create the ...........................................2 9.................13 9..................................6.........................3 9..............................................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ..4 8..............................................18 9...........................................10 Create and assign section....................... 5 Generate model database ......................................................12 9................................................................................................14 9.............................................6 Define initial conditions ................3...........................................................................................2Plot the results ............1 Create Sets.9 9.................................................................................................................................1 Create part for ex1 ....................24 11.............1 9.............................................2 Animate the stress result............................................2 General flowchart for ex1....................................................................................................................4 8..........1.....................................................2 Installation of software .....................................................................1 7.......1........................2.1 7............................................................................................4 Material properties .................................................2..................1 Temperature .......................................................6...........................................................3 Create the assembly.............15 9....................................................6 9.................................................................................2........................................1 Plot the stress result .....................................................................5 Create Mesh...1Generated files...........27 12.................3 8 Start instructions .26 12 Discussion..................................................................................23 11...........14 9.........................................2..................................................... 6 9 Modelling............................... 5 ABAQUS 6.......4 work area .......................................................................................3.......................3 Start the program.........28 i ...........................................................................4 8................................................27 13 References.....................3 Plot the temperature result .....................................................................................................................4 Create Boundary Conditions .....................................................Contents 7 Overview of the simulation.. 6 9...................................................................................... 8 9...................................................................................................................................25 11..........2........24 11......................................................................................................................1 Create the model.......................................................................................................................18 9.............................................................................2 Assign the material properties.23 11...................

inp-file .Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .dat-file ii .tdt-file .inc-file .

1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .7 Overview of the simulation 7.tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .

inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .inp ex1.odb vtt.7.tdt Trast7_tv ex1.2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.

dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.8 Create .inp • • • ex1. Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST. ex1. stresses and displacement 5.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4. Plotting the results for temperature.inp-file 3.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.inc • Edit inp-file 4.2 Create assembly 3.7.5 Create Sets and Fields 3.odb • • Create inc-file 4.3 Create boundary conditions 3.2 3 .3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3.3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv.4 Create Mesh 3.7-3. that calculate the phase transformation.2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5.9 ex1.1 Assign the material properties 3. ex1.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4.

for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS. FLUX(2).f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv. it means that the user When the text is Italic. | . It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string).SVAR.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual. it is a describing sentence for the particular step. (4.4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME. so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file.for.TEMP.FLUX. PREDEF(*).PREDEF. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6. 8. Copy the subroutine trast7_tv. START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv. Before the simulation can start.DTIME.TIME. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created.5) 4 .TIME(2).8 Start instructions 8. Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do.DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2). SVAR(9).2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6. the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS.

3 Start the program 8.3.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8.3 ABAQUS 6.3. The “Start Session” window pops up. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 .3.4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual. | Create Model Database | 8.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6.8.

4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database.8.3. Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 . Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9.1 Create the model 9. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program.1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions.1.

Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid. 0.01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up.2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0. Give the depth of the model: 0. 0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0. Extrusion Approximate size: 0.05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 .1.

045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions. 0.1. filler material and the plate.045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0. 0.1. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions.9. 0. Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 . 0. These groups of elements (sets) must be named. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material. First step is to divide the model into two parts.01. To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0.2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0. 0. 0.

The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5]. This material data is collected from an IT-diagram. The creation of the .3. If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used. specific heat. conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. as it is in this simulation. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 .2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model.Figure 4 9. This data is not from a specific material. The material data in the .tdt-file. The data for density.tdtfile is described in 4. Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6]. The name of the material is also given. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram. it is very important that the reading is accurate.tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. the material name must be identical with the name of the . For points when the time variable is short.

Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9. place the “cursor” in the window and right click. 10 Temp. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp. 0.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0. To make more rows.2.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 . Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7. Select “Insert Row After”.1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up. [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL.

473. Temp. Temp.5 500 851.9 300 650.5 200 37.1 600 29.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond.7 400 33.0 1000 Spec.5 700 563.8 0 502.0 100 551.5 0 42.0 800 30. 43.4 900 .

2. Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up. The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations.tdt-file The .9. CEUT = Eutectic carbon content.tdt-file or create a new.3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale.2. The . START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old . Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9. In this simulation an old . 12 .tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition.tdt-file is a user defined input file. Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273. It contains the IT-diagram for the material.2.4 Create the .tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C).2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model.15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9.

Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees).3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . Appendix C 9. Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up. This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. CC = Carbon content in the material. This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts. HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase. read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature.The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. When a temperature is selected. The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered. This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase. These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis. Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. It is usually 1% and 99%. The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees). These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram.

9. To prevent the model to translate along the X. it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions.and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.9.4. Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry. Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 . Pick: Mechanical. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up.

Pick: Mechanical.4. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up. Pick the upper line on the back of the model.Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis.2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 . Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up.

Pick: Hex. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 . The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model. Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0.5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy. Select the whole model with a “window”. Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.Figure 7 9.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up.

Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up.Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”. Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 .

1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature. | Dismiss | 9.9.6 Define initial conditions 9. These groups are called “sets”. …. they must be assigned to a field. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 .1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names.5.6. ELEMENT8. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1.. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other.

notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2].6).6.inp-file This step will create the . see 2.g.inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.6.13.inp (with e.2 Create the .3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .6.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.3) 9.2) 19 .inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1. (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS. Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9.

WRITE. Add these strings to the . VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.0 ** 20 . TYPE=FIELD.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. material=VTT 1.. 0.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model.inp-file. 0. 0. The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. 0. TYPE=FIELD.inp-fil. TYPE=FIELD. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. 0. 0. Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4]. These strings should be reordered after the material data.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. This is an example from the .0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ** *RESTART. 1. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. a set that contain the whole model must be used. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used. The name of this set is found in the . TYPE=FIELD.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD. The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions. elset=_PickedSet13.

input=ex1. In this simulation some parts of the . ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step.7 Load history definition The .inc-file contains all the step data.dat-file [3]. 10. It is also possible to copy the step information from the . In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one. 21 . creep=none 1. It is also possibly to reuse old . File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1. An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one. edit and save it with a new name.inc-file has been copied from an old simulation. START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.inc-file.dat-file. The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the . In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed.inc File > Save Appendix A 9.inc-files.inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1.. One way to view these results is to write them into the .inc-file that contains the step data: *include.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution. This file is written in “Notepad”.. In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. these steps will be included in the calculation of the results.Add this string last of all to include the separate .

DIRECTIONS=YES S.GLOBAL=YES U.E ** *EL PRINT. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT7. REMOVE ELEMENT2. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ** *NODE FILE. creep=none 1. ADD ELEMENT2.POSITION=NODES.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 . ** *MODEL CHANGE..DIRECTIONS=YES S. ELEMENT4. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT5.GLOBAL=YES U. ELEMENT3. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step.** *MODEL CHANGE.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1.E *EL PRINT. 10. ELEMENT6..FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.NT ** *EL FILE.

10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv.dat with notepad.dat-flie.odb-file. This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE.4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1. One is the .1). Appendix D 23 . Open ex1. The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file.1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the . START > Program > ABAQUS 6. In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step.inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The .for and creates a number of files ( 7.odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11.

odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.odb) Select: ex1.1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.11. 11.odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 .2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the .2.

2.2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .11.

3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .2.11.

the .dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails.odb-file: This file is the result-file.4.12 Discussion 12. . This file contains the models geometrical data.msgfile.inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation. . This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation. In the first step the elements are removed.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6. 12. commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file.msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. boundaries.inp-file: In data file. sets. .dat-file will direct to the .3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated. Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used. 12. . It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS. The . material data. These sets are named.incfile can be saved and reused. . the user should have some FEA experience. To reduce time in the simulations. This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material. . sets with elements are created. 27 . For the manual to be useful. The file also contains the commands for the output results. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST.1 Generated files .log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot.msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings.sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation. it is a good idea to have a separate step file. Then they are added one by one in each step. The .

pp I:4. X. ”Hållfasthets. Järvstråt. http://www. B. J. 17. Persson. R. B.-L. Welding Journal Research Supplement. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Institute of Technology.abaqus. 1998. J. A.328-335 20. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Swindeman. Bodelind. Jirinec.och materialtabeller”. pp. T. 1999 28 . Z. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”.com 16. R. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. Feng and M. Aug. Sjösröm. W. Zacharia. Wang. Linköping 1990. S.13 References 15. Niklas Järvstråt. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. N. ABAQUS support. ABAQUS documentation 18. Taljat. Keiser. 1995 19.

. 368 253. .1. . . 455. . 45. 35. 129. name=Assembly ** *Instance. 147.006428571 *Element.0875. 36 256. 144. 0. 0. 9. 45 5. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section.005. 49. material=VTT 1. 172. 5. type=C3D8T 1. internal.05 4. 146. 0. . 128. 144. 0. 146. 147. 0. 54. . . 459.045 . 0. 0. 44. 112.0875. 150. . 128. 149. 0. 42 2. 0. 262. 53. 0.. 3. 0. 1. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part.03214286 456. 369 255. . 10.05 3. 43. 256. 7.00625. 353. 56. 54. 48. 0. . 149. .01. 147 4. 172. . 0.00625. 100. 54.01.01285714 459. . 9. 106. 0. 49. 0. 50 6.02571429 457.005. 353. 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. history=NO. 82. 0. 0. 50. . 16. 148. 8. 2. . 56. 13. 34. 41. 4 3. 147. 369. . name=Part-1-1. 48.00625. 369.045 2.0875. 12 7. 0.005. 0. elset=_PickedSet13. .005. 0. 41. .1. 33. 51. 16. 368.inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint.. 150. 127 252. 81. 47. 148. 353. . 40. 149 . 0. 0. 0. 13.05 7. 0. 44. echo=NO. 56. . . .00625. 352. 52. . . 251. . 148.B Appendix . part=Part-1 *Node 1. 0. 10.. 0. 0. . *End Instance . 42. 369. 0. . model=NO.045 5. 106. 0.05 6. 459. 148. 47. 82. 56. 353.01.01928571 458. generate 1.1. 54. 39. 0. 0. 0. 0.01.. 55. 11. name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. 46. 43. 0.005. 6.1. 145. 150. elset=_PickedSet13. 0.00625. 145 254. 0. 46.

internal. 120. 357. 29. 20. 12. 53. 68. 139 140. 86. instance=Part-1-1. 22. 70. 20. nset=_PickedSet13. 106. 76. 62. 32. 148 *Elset. 15. 149 *Elset. 141. instance=Part-1-1 40. 134. 1 *Nset. 129. 22. internal. 20. 145. 63. internal. 63. internal. 67. elset=_PickedSet13. 115. instance=Part-1-1 2. 83. 1 *Nset. 71. instance=Part-1-1. 251. 1 *Nset. 224. 67. 125. 8. 36. 38. 363. 55. 159 *Elset. 84. 67. generate 25. 29. 356. 26. 30. 27. 167. 369 *Elset. 21. 138. 56. 21. generate 21. nset=_PickedSet11. elset=ELEMENT1. internal. 34. internal. nset=_PickedSet4. 97. generate 17. 48. instance=Part-1-1 19. 133. 93. 21. nset=_PickedSet7. 22. 29. 76. 40. 30. elset=ELEMENT2. 32. 354. nset=_PickedSet6. instance=Part-1-1 2. 84. 365 366. 29. elset=ELEMENT3. 61. 61. 16. nset=_PickedSet8. 69. 85. 66. 42. 23. 360. 154 *Elset. 112. 154 *Elset. 53. 86 159. 22. instance=Part-1-1 26. instance=Part-1-1. elset=_PickedSet12. 132. 358. 131. 139. 41. 54. internal. generate 1. 1 *Nset. 6. 182. 364. 39. generate 9. 31. elset=_PickedSet9. 117. 68. 136. 252 *Nset. internal. generate 253. 71. 1 *Nset. elset=_PickedSet7. 119. 4. 196. 84. nset=_PickedSet10. 156 *Elset. 1 *Nset. 16. 1 *Nset. 238. 362. 60. instance=Part-1-1. nset=_PickedSet9. 28. 15. instance=Part-1-1. 355. 28. 68 153. 12. 23. 26. elset=_PickedSet11. internal. instance=Part-1-1. 78. 83. 125. instance=Part-1-1 18. 36. 361. 50. 210. 127. 113. 43. 81. internal. 151 *Elset. 160 *Elset. 124. 1 *Nset. 28. 54. instance=Part-1-1. 237. generate 13. nset=_PickedSet5. 1 *Nset. nset=ELEMENT2. instance=Part-1-1 9. *Nset. 34. 140 153. 3. 116. instance=Part-1-1. 195. 74. 154. 256. generate 17. 5. 122 123. generate 25. 52. 70. 359. 58. instance=Part-1-1 19. 64. generate 5. 20. 80. 181. instance=Part-1-1. internal. 48. 5. nset=ELEMENT3. 67. internal. 25. internal. 69. 74. internal. 16. internal. 65. 69. 146. instance=Part-1-1 41. 75. 114. elset=_PickedSet6. nset=_PickedSet12. elset=_PickedSet8. 223. 142. 135. 121. 27. elset=_PickedSet4. 76 155. 65. 368 *Elset. instance=Part-1-1 . 118. elset=_PickedSet10.*Nset. 156 *Elset. 19. 12. nset=ELEMENT1. instance=Part-1-1 25. instance=Part-1-1. 81. 137. instance=Part-1-1. internal. 24. 26. 76. internal. internal. 367. internal. instance=Part-1-1 18. instance=Part-1-1 17. 111. nset=ELEMENT4. 209. 47. 18. 168. 143. 1 *Nset. 73. 130. 75. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 9. instance=Part-1-1 37. 24. 98. 126. 16. 72. 19. 157 *Elset. 126. generate 13.

206. 33. 92. 145. 176. 324. 45. 205. 264. 110. 309. 21. 321. 257. 293. 87. 128. 60 151. 12. 4. 7. 217. 68. 77. 167. 121 122. 131. 80. 11. 326. 214. 15. 278. nset=ELEMENT7. 202. 113. 315. 165. 81. generate 9. 158. 119. 28. 103. 168. 128. instance=Part-1-1. 64. 235. 1 *Nset. 260. 137 138. 322 323. nset=ELEMENT5. 184. 178 179. generate 253. 7. 242 243. 204. elset=ELEMENT6. 95. 226 227. 263. 56. 150 *Elset. 333. 318. 59. 123. 14. 312. 320. 148 *Elset. 216. 186. 13. 6. 313. 233. 224. 126. 146 353. 218. 132. 279. 125. 42. 52. 55. 225. 252. 24. 46. 127. 82 157. 287. 44. 174. 8. 245. 182. 188. 328. 48. 83. 219. 152 *Elset. 222. instance=Part-1-1. elset=ELEMENT4. instance=Part-1-1 1. 49. 34. 4. 209. 111. 282. 329. 161. 299. 25. 77. 139. 42. 223. 34. 14. 338 78. 117. 98. 59 62. 8. 32 33. 337. 277. 290 291. 136. 266. 164. 308. 50. 160. 166. 5. 105 106. 66. 93. 133. instance=Part-1-1 1. 51. instance=Part-1-1 9. 43. 285. 314. 331. 23. 253. 258 259. 310. 239. 240. 190. 94. 55. 65. 91. instance=Part-1-1 1. 102. 234. 51. 301. 31. 35. 2. 155. 11. 3. 241. 304. instance=Part-1-1. 17. elset=ELEMENT8. 198. 85. 39. 48 147. 246. 230. 162 163. 237. 270. 89 90. 172. 169. 38. 152. 41. 104. 124. 16. 200. 220. 8. 56. 327. 74. 244. 120. 170. 265. generate 5. 296. 192. 54. 100. 173. 181. 88. 269. 199. 66. 2. 45. 335. 1 *Nset. 280. 153. 254. 8. 116. 250. 1 *Nset. 53. 97. . 298. 221. 276. 143. 332. 144. 319. 54. 267. 183. 261. 47. 150. 256. 177. 53. 82. 207. 20. 114. 271. 99. 81. 212. 24. 302. 15. 303. 210 211. 229. 49. 101. 311. 4. 201. 10. 248. 294. 107. 286. 325. 13. 73. 274 275. 268. 213. 256. 46. 292. 96. 44. 147. 317. elset=ELEMENT7. 289. 231. 11. 272. 283. nset=ELEMENT8. 284. 180. 35. 255. 36. 115. 196. 10. 135. 79. 194 195. 130. 72. 40. instance=Part-1-1 9. 12. 144. 109. 249. 13. 37. 262. 10. nset=_PickedSet26. 189. 46. 140.17. 129. 305. 35. 297. 55. 232. 369 *Elset. 57. 134. 171. 228. 158 *Elset. 251. 1 *Nset. 334. 295. 273. generate 1. 16. internal. 336. 112. 191. 208. 215. 306 307. 56 149. 288. 24. 281. 118. 36. 300. generate 21. elset=ELEMENT5. 175. 82. 141. 1 *Nset. 57. 193. 5. 70. instance=Part-1-1. instance=Part-1-1. 142. 197. 316. 185. 79. 187. 330. 33. 238. 236. 12. 58. 18. 14. 247. 203. 108. nset=ELEMENT6.

455. 30. 147. 40. 1. 118. 250.3e-05. 61. 0. 67. 451 452. 353. 36. 49. 32 33. 114. 80. 155. 8. 45. 25. 365. 41. instance=Part-1-1 1. 376. 81. 5. 11. 3. instance=Part-1-1 1. 411. 83. 445. 363. 437. 447.2e-05. 29. 119. 406. 14. 0. 379. 454. 44. 360. 417. 500. 79. internal. 750. 150. 428. 1. 42. elset=_PickedSet26. 21. elset=_PickedSet28.1. 350. 70. 128. 146. 373. 398. 435 436. 26. 42. 66. 433. 423. 24. 28. 255. 444. 152. 342. 391. 400. 457. 148.1000. 600. nset=_PickedSet28. 12. *Depvar 9. 367. 344. 51. 403 404. instance=Part-1-1.5. 78. 75. 359. elset=_PickedSet27. 353. 158. 456. internal. 450. 394. 86. 2. 9. 4. 438. 12. 402. 48. internal. 19. 11. 459 *Elset. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43.. 418. 357. 21. 256 *Nset.339. 6.5e-05. 31. 351. 33. 29. 23. internal. 348. *Elastic 2. 252. 120. 46. 71. 393. 16 17. 10. 1 *Nset. 408. 414. 73. 429. 124. generate 29. 63..7. 18. 26. 453. 13. nset=_PickedSet27. 37. 154. 116. 458. 425. 58. 399. generate 41.. 72. *Elset. 82. 22. 800. 390. 346. 18. 74. internal. 370. 441. 4. 449. . 77. 392. 8. 368. 28. 47. 1. 432. 421. 412. 16 17. 117. 7. 144. 1. 251. instance=Part-1-1 38. 57. 413. 13. 160. 115. 443. 341. 440. 126 127. 431. 448. 27. 254. 345. 149. 125. 395. 410. 24. 30. 427. 22. 383. 389. 10. 439. 426. 387 388. 5. 401. 424. 65. 422. 20. 362.. 385. 407. 14. 382.5. 15. 113. 400. 43. 369 *Elset. 159. 375. 34. 54. 340. 6. 361. 76. 416. 9. 371 372. 378. 356. 343. 55. 84 85. 415. 62. 380. 347. 349. *Density 7810. instance=Part-1-1. 405. 25.1e+11. 374.4e-05. 0. 20. 358. 156 157. 60. 19. 50. 442. 121. 145. 7. 430. 446. 200. 396. 352. 15. 434. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 384. 123. 35.3 *Expansion 0. 409. 68 69. 386. 64. 125. 23. 364. 419 420. 56. 3. 397. 366. 27. 151. 354 355. 377. 2. 52 53. 153. 253. 122. 381. 59.

ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.5.700.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD. ZSYMM .500. *Specific Heat 473. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10. WRITE.4. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5. 1. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. 3 _PickedSet4. TYPE=FIELD. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 1. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. 6. 0.. TYPE=FIELD. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. absolute zero=-273. 0. 900. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. 0. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6. TYPE=FIELD. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. 2. 0.5.6e-05. 650. TYPE=FIELD. 0.8. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. 551. TYPE=FIELD. 563. 502.9. 0. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8. 3. ** ** *RESTART. TYPE=FIELD.1.300.900. 851. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13.100. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.1200.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4.8e-05. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11. 1.

input=ex1.** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. 20.inc . type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26. *include. 2000. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27.

NT ** *EL FILE. name=Step-4 . FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.E ** *EL PRINT. ** *MODEL CHANGE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step. ** *NODE FILE.C Appendix .POSITION=NODES. ELSET=ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1.. creep=none 1. REMOVE ELEMENT2. ELEMENT4. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ** *NODE FILE.GLOBAL=YES U.. ELSET=ELEMENT2. creep=none 1. ** *MODEL CHANGE.DIRECTIONS=YES S..POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT3.GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1. ADD element3. ADD ELEMENT2.DIRECTIONS=YES S.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step.. ELEMENT7. ELEMENT6. 10. creep=none 1. ELEMENT5..NT ** *EL FILE. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.. 10.DIRECTIONS=YES S. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.E *EL PRINT. 10.FREQUENCY=1. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. ** *MODEL CHANGE.E ** *EL PRINT.POSITION=NODES.NT ** *EL FILE.

** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1.. ADD element4.GLOBAL=YES .GLOBAL=YES U.*Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1.GLOBAL=YES U. ADD element6.DIRECTIONS=YES S. 10. creep=none 1. creep=none 1. creep=none 1. ** *MODEL CHANGE. 10.. 10..FREQUENCY=1.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES.NT ** *EL FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE. ** *NODE FILE.POSITION=NODES. 10..DIRECTIONS=YES S.DIRECTIONS=YES S. name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.NT ** *EL FILE. ** *NODE FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1. ADD element7. ELSET=ELEMENT2... ** *NODE FILE.POSITION=NODES.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.NT ** *EL FILE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step.E ** *EL PRINT.E ** *EL PRINT. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ADD element5. creep=none 1. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement..E ** *EL PRINT..

DIRECTIONS=YES S. ** *NODE FILE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step. ELSET=ELEMENT2.POSITION=NODES.E ** *EL PRINT.FREQUENCY=1.FREQUENCY=1.U.E ** *EL PRINT.GLOBAL=YES U. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. 100.NT ** *EL FILE. creep=none 1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- .DIRECTIONS=YES S.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES. ADD element8..NT ** *EL FILE.. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELSET=ELEMENT2.

0 650.0 420.0 690.71 2.98 2.88 6.96 3.0 460.0 740. 320.95 3.22 1.0 710.E6 111.0 440.0 650.0 320.0 690.993 1.55 2.18 9.37 2.0 520.86 3.0 670.E6 590.0 30.62 4.57 2.14 2.53 2.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.0 570.51 3.D Appendix .0 320.0 690.85 2.0 760.35 2.43 2.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.0 540.84 1.57 2.0 570.0 760.926 0.39 2.E6 590.66 2.948 0.0 350.01 0.0 HS 590.44 TER 570.E6 TL 0.0 1 5 570.0 480.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.00 2.77 15.99 0.0 400.62 4.0 500.90 1.08 1.81 2.34 2.0 520.0 512.09 1.11 0.97 4.94 2.32 2.16 3.0 670.0 0.939 0.02 3.0 600.E6 640.0 560.0 760.0 680.53 2.03 20.0 560.0 TEL 570.0 540.0 350.0 710.70 2.0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.0 740.917 0.0 500.18 3.0 700.0 740.56 1.0 650.0 400.0 680.20 3.0 720.0 320.0 670.0 2.01 0.0 700.0 600.0 LOG(TIL) 3.0 720.29 1.0 420.0 700.E6 590.tdt-file CEUT .99 0.01 ! ! ! VL 0.0 440.0 .0 460.0 600.0 LOG(TIR) 4.0 201.0 480.

4916E-04 3.1648 0.3212 278.000 0.000 0.8260E-04 1.3114 0.0226E-06 3.4916E-04 3.1651 0.1647 0.7 277.3114 0.000 5.000 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.000 0.4 277.000 0.3212 SDV7 278.000 0.3114 0.000 0.000 SDV4 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.7 277.5802E-06 9.1651 0.7 276.3114 0.2 276.000 0.1628 0.000 0.3 278.3138 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.000 0.3185 0.1591 SDV6 0.3 0.000 3.5227 0.5215 0.4575E-08 5.000 0.3065 0.4236E-03 5.000 0.1648 0.000 0.5252 0.000 0.3090 0.5252 0.3065 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2423E-08 0.5197 8.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.3114 0.8260E-04 1.5802E-06 9.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.0915E-06 1.1651 0.1647 0.000 2.5197 0.4236E-03 5.7 277.1628 0.000 0.000 0.5248 0.000 0.1628 0.0915E-06 1.2423E-08 0.3138 0.4236E-03 5.000 0.3138 0.3138 0.1647 0.3 277.000 0.000 0.7 276.E Appendix .000 0.000 0.4 277.000 0.3138 0.0226E-06 5.2 278.2423E-08 0.7 276.5282 0.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.3090 0.1588 0.5215 0.000 0.7 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.3 277.4916E-04 3.3114 0.000 0.1588 0.0226E-06 5.000 3.5197 0.5227 0.5282 0.000 5.000 0.1648 0.1591 0.000 0.7 277.000 0.3185 0.3090 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.5248 0.1628 0.7 277.000 0.3065 0.000 0.000 0.5252 0.5197 26 0.2 278.7 276.3212 0.2 276.1647 0.0226E-06 8.000 0.000 0.4575E-08 4.4916E-04 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.1588 0.5802E-06 9.1648 0.000 0.4425E-06 0.4596E-05 3.0915E-06 1.9 277.8260E-04 1.5215 0.000 0.5282 0.4 26 25 25 25 0.1588 0.4916E-04 3.000 0.1647 0.000 26 SDV5 0.1591 0.5248 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.4575E-08 4.4 277.4425E-06 0.5252 0.2 277.000 0.5282 25 1.000 0.3185 0.0226E-06 5.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.3138 0.4575E-08 5.000 0.000 0.5215 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.0915E-06 1.2 276.000 0.000 0.4916E-04 3.3212 0.4575E-08 2.5215 0.000 0.1628 0.0226E-06 8.000 0.000 0.7 277.4575E-08 4.000 0.000 0.9 277.000 0.5227 0.1647 0.3114 0.5252 0.5252 0.7 277.3 25 0.4236E-03 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.000 0.000 0.000 0.1591 0.000 0.3138 0.000 0.3138 0.4236E-03 5.4596E-05 1.2 277.000 0.000 0.4425E-06 0.000 0.000 0.000 8.4916E-04 3.1628 0.4 277.000 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.3114 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.3212 0.2 276.3185 0.000 0.4575E-08 2.000 0.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.000 0.000 0.0226E-06 3.3065 0.9 277.000 0.000 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.1651 0.000 0.1647 0.1651 0.1588 0.5197 0.5802E-06 9.5248 0.000 0.000 0.1628 0.5252 0.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.5215 0.5282 0.5252 0.000 0.4425E-06 0.000 .000 0.000 0.0226E-06 5.3090 0.000 0.1628 0.5215 0.000 0.5215 0.5227 0.1647 0.000 0.9 277.000 0.

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