DEGREE PROJECT

Department of Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science

2004:M028

Welding Simulation
with
Finite Element Analysis

Johan Elofsson
Per Martinsson

Publisher: Examiner: Advisor: Subject: Level: Number: Keywords University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla. SWEDEN Phone: + 46 520 47 50 00 Fax: + 46 520 47 50 99 Web: www. 2004 ABAQUS. Box 957. The results of this simulation will be written into two different files. When the modelling is finished an input data file is created. TRAST. Phase transformation. To simplify the development of new welding routines with new materials. Kvaerner Power AB Mechanical Engineering Language: English Advanced Credits: 10 Swedish. Mathematics and Computer Science. S-461 29 Trollhättan. This is a simulation of a butt welded plate with filler material. the company would like to create a routine for simulation in ABAQUS. one file is a text file containing the phase transformation data and one file will be used for the plotting of nodal temperature and displacement. the subroutine TRAST will be used with ABAQUS. This project has been generated from Aker Kvaerner AB in Gothenburg.htu. In this file command strings will be added or changed for calling user defined subroutines. For this purpose several files will be used by ABAQUS and TRAST. Their manufacturing of power boilers and evaporators requires high quality welding. Welding.se Niklas Järvstråt Per Lindström. Residual stresses i . To be able to analyze the micro structure of the material during the welding process. Department of Technology. The model is created in the interactive part of ABAQUS/CAE. 15 ECTS credits 2004:M028 Date: June. This project is one step in their development of the simulation routine.DEGREE PROJECT Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson Summary The aim of this work is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process with the FEA-program ABAQUS. Simulation.

2004 ii . We also want to thank Per Lindström at Kvaerner Power AB for the possibility to work on this project.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Preface We would like to thank our supervisor Niklas Järvstråt at the University of Trollhättan/Uddevalla for all the support and time during this degree work. Johan Elofsson and Per Martinsson Trollhättan.

................................................................................2................... 6 9 Modelling....................................................................................................9 9..................................1 8............................2 9.......................................................................12 Create the ........................................................2 2...............................1 2..............................4 8...................................................................4 work area ................3........................................2 Aim...........2............................................................................................................................1...........................................................13 iii ...........................................................3 2......2....................................2 2................................................................................................................................................................................ 8 9.................................................................................................................... 2 Meshing the model.....Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis Contents Summary...................2 General flowchart for ex1......................................2.................................................................v 1 Introduction............................................1 Background...................................................2....2.................2 2....................2 7.......................3 Create the assembly.............1 How to read the manual ............................................ 5 ABAQUS 6.................................................................3...........................................5 8.......1 1..... 3 Results ...................3 Start the program.......................3 Limitations ............................................. 3 Loads and boundary conditions..................................................................................................................................................................................................4 5 Conclusions.......................................................................................................................................4 8................................1 7............. 6 9...........................................................4 3.....................1 General work description .....................................................................5 5...................................................................4 4 Material properties....2 Installation of software ...........................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ...................................................................1 Create the model......... ii List of symbols ............................1 General Knowledge ...........................1 Reflections...............................................................................................1 1.......3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ..............3 8 Start instructions ...........................................2 Used Software....................................... 5 Generate model database ..1 Create part for ex1 .........12 9..6 9............10 Create and assign section..........................3................................................5 5......................................4 Material properties ........................................3 8............................tdt-file ...............3.....................4 3...........................................................................................................................4 Creating the model......1...........................6 7 Overview of the simulation..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 2...........................................................................5 6 References.............2 2 FEA.......2 Recommendations for further work . 5 Create Model Database........................................................................2..........................i Preface ............................. 3 3 Technical equipment..................................12 Absolute zero temperature........................................................................................1 Used hardware........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................2 General modelling in FEA...............................................................................................................................6 9......................................2 8.........................2 Assign the material properties.........................................................................2....................................1 9................................................................................................................................................................1 1..............................................................................................................4 8..2 Split the model in partitions.......v List of symbols .....................................3 9.1 7................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................2.........................................................................4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 iv ...........................5............................................6........1 Temperature .Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 9.23 11.............27 12.................................................26 12 Discussion....................................1 Displacement/rotation.............................................................................................................................24 11...................................................................3 Plot the temperature result .........6......27 12............................................1 Create Sets..................18 9.........................15 9.....................14 9......................18 9..............................................19 9...............................4...................................14 9...............................................................................................................................................................................2 Animate the stress result......28 Appendices A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6..........18 9.......................................................4..........................................................................24 11............................................19 9..........................................inp-file ..............................inp-file ...............27 13 References.................................................................................................................................................................................................3Approximations..............................................2.....3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .........23 11 Post processing ..............................7 Load history definition.......................................................1 Plot the stress result ...............................................................27 12..................................................................2...16 9...........................................25 11..................................................................................................2 Create the .........................21 10 Solve the problem ....................................................................................................................................5 Create Mesh.......................................................6...............................................................1SDV results ..6 Define initial conditions ........2 Symmetry .2Results.....................23 11...........................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ......................................................................................................................1Generated files....................................................................................2Plot the results ............................................

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis List of symbols FEA = Finite Element Analysis MAG = Metal Active Gas CAD = Computer Aided Design PC = Personal Computer SDV = Solution Dependent Variables * = Command ** = Comment NT = Nodal Temperature U = Displacement S = Stresses E = Total strain v .

The main content of this report is a manual for thermal-metallurgical welding simulation in the FEA-program ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. from small units to giant tailor-made boilers. The technology of manufacturing these boilers is based on more than 100 years of experience. evaporators. The project took place at HTU during 10 weeks in the spring of 2004.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1 Introduction This project is the final assignment on our education for a Bachelor of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering at the university of Trollhättan/Uddevalla (HTU). The company delivers power boilers worldwide. power boilers. The welding department of the company constantly develops new and improved welding routines.g.2 Aim The aim of this project is to develop a manual for simulation of a welding process. To satisfy their client’s high demands. 1 . One project has already been done.1 Background Kvaerner Power AB designs and manufactures chemical recovery and power generation system for the global pulp and paper industry e. 1. To improve this process the welding engineer at the welding department wants to have the possibility to simulate new welding routines with a FEAprogram. This simulation with TRAST makes it possible to calculate the residual stresses and phase transformations in the material. 1. The company will with a number of degree projects develop a routine for this simulation. The results from the FEA-program will reduce the time and simplify the development. The software that has been used is ABAQUS with the subroutine TRAST. the company has an intense focus on research and development [1]. That project was a master thesis that concluded that the company should use the FEA-program ABAQUS [2].

The most common way is to import the model from a CAD-program. Now when the PC’s are getting higher performance and the usability of the FEA-programs are improved. The aerospace industries were the first companies to use FEA in their development of new products.2 General modelling in FEA 2. 2. even small companies can use the technology.3 Limitations The manual should contain a simulation of a “simple” butt-welded plate. There were “simple” analyses of beam structures. Proper boundary conditions are not the main purpose of this project. The first FEA calculations were made without computer help. Several simplifications will be used. 2 . The name FEA comes from the way a complicated model is divided into a model that is built up by small elements. but most of the FEA-programs are not suitable for modelling. fluid mechanics and electromagnetic analysis [3].2. to use symmetry in the model or make the model in 2D instead of 3D.1 General Knowledge FEA is the most dominant method for calculation and simulations of computer made models. The energy from the welding process may be given as an initial temperature in the filler material. FEA can be used in some different types of simulations e g structural. Feasible simplifications are to eliminate small details. 2 FEA 2. The welding process should be a single-pass MAG with filler material that fuses two plates. It is important to make the model as simple as possible.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 1. The development of FEA-programs follows the development of computers.1 Creating the model The first step is to create or import a model. thermal. There are possibilities to create the model in the FEA–programs. Then the car industries and middle size companies have followed.

It is important to be aware of that all calculations are approximations and there can be many inaccuracies in the FEA program. There are many different kinds of loads e g temperature. it is crucial which way the loads and boundary conditions are applied. 2. line-loads etc. The volume or the shell is divided into small elements. Too few elements will affect the calculations negatively and the results will deviate too much from reality. Therefore it is important not to divide the model into too many elements. One way to make a small model that gives good results is to create big elements in areas with lower loads and small elements in areas with higher loads. The results from FEA are not 100% correct. If the loads or boundary conditions are incorrect or applied inappropriately on the model. surface-.2. 2. 3 .2 Meshing the model Next step is to mesh the model.3 Loads and boundary conditions Next step is to apply loads and boundary conditions.4 Results The results are visualized with contour plots and can be analyzed.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 2.2.2. The number of elements and the type of the elements affects the calculation time. it will not move realistically and the results will be misleading. point. Point loads/boundary conditions or radius equal to zero can give singularities that don’t exist in reality.. To get results with small deviation from the reality. When meshing the model it is important to avoid badly shaped elements in order to avoid great miscalculations of the stresses.

1 Used hardware Processor (CPU) speed: 2. To be able to get correct results it’s important to use consequent units for all variables.8 GHz RAM (Random Access Memory): 512 MB Monitor: 21” HDD (Hard Disk Drive): 40 GB 3. For example decide if (m.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 3 Technical equipment The ABAQUS system requirements should be checked at ABAQUS homepage.2 Used Software Operating system: Windows XP FEA-program: ABAQUS 6.4-2 4 Material properties The result will be more accurate if the material data is temperature-dependent [5-12]. taken from TRAST7 and adapted for ABAQUS 6. N.0 and Microsoft Visual C/C++ 6.4-2 Compiler: Compaq Visual Fortran 6. This may be necessary due to introduction of new ABAQUS versions [4] 3. The material data used in this simulation are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s ratio Density Specific heat Conductivity Enthalpy Thermal expansion Data from IT-diagram 4 . Pa) will be used.0 Subroutine: HETVAL subroutine for latent heat and phase transformation.

These files contain data such as material and different commands that control subroutines etc. body flux 21% and surface flux 41% [10]. 5 . If all material data is correct and a more complex model is created.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 5 Conclusions 5. The high temperature and the need of data for each phase require unusual material data. The interactive part of ABAQUS is mostly used for the modelling work. Often it is only inform that is possible to use different commands. One possible way to get better results from the simulation is to make the moving heat source model as a semi-ovaloid [11]. In this project material data from different materials has been used in the simulation. This problem occurs when the plate and the filler share a number of nodes. Plot the results for SDV (Solution dependent variables) as a contour plot. ABAQUS is developed for users that are familiar in the handling of different files and their contents. 5. the appropriate material data for a specific material must be collected. The amount of total power input is approximately divided into filler 38%. Proper material data for a specific material is hard to get. An improved heat source model includes even body flux and surface flux. The documentation has too few examples that really show how to solve a problem. To be able to get more correct results the initial temperature in the filler material should be homogeneous. Create a simulation with the subroutine UMAT that calculates the residual stresses [13].1 Reflections The interactive part of ABAQUS has limitations. but it’s not giving the step for step information how to use the command in the in-data files. One possible way to solve this problem is to model the plate and the filler as different parts with coupled nodes. In this simulation the heat source was simplified with an initial temperature in the filler material. The permanent opportunity of linking to related material makes it very hard to get a good overview of the information. In this simulation it is not. It is also used for plotting the results. the results between the simulation and an experiment could be compared.2 Recommendations for further work To be able to get good results from the simulation. ABAQUS documentation is very big and confusing. The initial temperature of both the filler material and the plate is given to these shared nodes. For example creating different models and give them their boundaries etc.

172-181 6. Niklas Järvstråt. Jan Langkjær Hansen. J. Swansea. USA 1991. 1999. Keiser.328-335 10.com/support/v64/v64_sysRqmts. Taljat. Nov. T. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45.akerkvaerner. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology. “Numerical Modelling of Welding Induced Stresses”. pp I:10. “Thermal Stresses in a Submerged-Arc Welded Joint Considering Phase Transformations”. Tortrelli.Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis 6 References 1. B Andersson. University of HTU 2000. Zacharia. G. pp.6. P. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Institute of Technology. ”Allmänt om FEM”. pp.abaqus. Springer-Verlag. Swindeman. 12. Michaleris and A. pp. 3. B. T. Vol. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. J. Aug. Berlin Heidelberg. Jirinec. W.D. thesis. Kvaerner Power AB. 4. DeBiccari. Ph. Linköping 1990. Kjell Niklasson.-L. Järvstråt. S. “Minimizing of Welding Residual Stress and Distortion in Large Structures”. Karlsson. Wales. “Prediction of Welding Distortion”. pp. 1989. Vander Voort.356-362 8. Technical University of Denmark 2003. “Finite Element Analysis of Temperature and Stresses in a Single-Pass Butt-Welded Pipe – Influence of Mesh Density and Material Modelling”. R. Abaqus system requirements. Chalmers University of Technology 2004.com 2. “FE simulation of residual stresses with a software selected for an industrial application”. J. 1995 6 . P. 14. 1997. http://www.361-366 7. http://www. Master thesis. Transactions of the ASME. 1998. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Michaleris. Z. Welding Journal Research Supplement. Sjösröm.100 Issue. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”.html#win32 5. Engineering Computations. Dantzig and D. 11. “Atlas of Time-Temperature Diagrams for Irons and Steel”. C. R. 13. N. pp133141 9. 1992. B. Feng and M.4. Wang. Vol. Dieter Radaj. Maneli Faraji. “Heat effects of welding”. X. homepage. F. 1978. A.

Welding Simulation with Finite Element Analysis A Appendix: Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with subroutine TRAST7 .

Mathematics and Computer Science 2004:M028 Manual for ABAQUS 6.4-2 with HETVAL Subroutine from TRAST7 Johan Elofsson Per Martinsson .DEGREE PROJECT Department of Technology.

............3 Start the program.23 11 Post processing ............................................................1 Create Sets.........12 9..................................19 9....................................14 9......................9 9................2.........................6........................................................................................................................... 6 9..................................................................................................................24 11...................................................................................1 Plot the stress result .........................................................................................5.............................................................................1 Create the model.................................................................................................... 5 ABAQUS 6.....................3......1....................................2......................................................................2 Assign the material properties........................................................................................24 11.....................2..........14 9...............................................................5 8...2....19 9..........................27 13 References.................................................21 10 Solve the problem ......................................................................................................................................................1SDV results ................4 8...................................................................................................................27 12........................2 8.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................1Generated files...........1 7.....................................................................................................................................1....................................................13 9............1 9.............1 7.................................2...........5 Create Mesh................................6..........3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ..................18 9...............................................................................26 12 Discussion................................2 Split the model in partitions...................................................................................................................12 Create the ...4 Material properties .....................23 11......28 i ..............................................................................................3 8.................................................................................................................................................................3..................4 Start ABAQUS CAE ......2 9......................1 Create part for ex1 .................................27 12...............6 Define initial conditions ...........................................10 Create and assign section.......................................4 Create Boundary Conditions ......................................................inp-file ............................3 Create the assembly....... 5 Generate model database ...........................................................2 Create the ...........12 Absolute zero temperature.........................................................1 Displacement/rotation.............................................................................................................................3Approximations........................3 8 Start instructions ................tdt-file ............2.................................................4 work area ........inp-file .............................................................................................2 Installation of software .......................23 11....3..................................3 Plot the temperature result .15 9........16 9....4.........................2 General flowchart for ex1..............................................18 9.......................18 9......................................... 8 9.........................................................2 Symmetry ..................................................................... 5 Create Model Database...1 8................................1 How to read the manual ..........................................................27 12............................................... 6 9 Modelling.....................................4....6 9........................................................6..........................................................................................................3.......................................................................1 General work description ..........................25 11..............4 8..............................................2 Animate the stress result...........................................1 Temperature ..............................................................................................................................................2Plot the results ......................................................4 8...........2 7.............................................2Results..................3 9........7 Load history definition...................................................6 9.Contents 7 Overview of the simulation..3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the ................................................2........................

inc-file .tdt-file .Appendices B C D E Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix .dat-file ii .inp-file .

1 General work description Create the model Assign material data • Create .7 Overview of the simulation 7.inc-file Assign boundary conditions Create mesh Create input data • • Solve the problem Plot the results 1 .tdt-file • Define initial conditions Call the subroutine HETVAL Create .

odb vtt.inp ex1.inc ABAQUS (solver) ex1.tdt Trast7_tv ex1.dat ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) 2 .2 General flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) ex1.7.

that calculate the phase transformation. ex1.dat • Contain the results readable for ABAQUS/CAE 5.2 Create assembly 3.tdt ABAQUS (solver) • • • • Solve the problem in ABAQUS command window 4. Give the initial conditions to the different phases in HETVAL • • vtt.5 Create Sets and Fields 3.2 Contain the results from the different phase transformations 5.inc • Edit inp-file 4.7.2 3 .8 Create .7-3.1 ABAQUS/CAE (post processing) • Create tdt-file 4. ex1.1 Assign the material properties 3.5 Compile and link the subroutines in Trast7_tv. stresses and displacement 5.1 Make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL from TRAST.odb • • Create inc-file 4.9 ex1. Request the result of SDV from HETVAL in TRAST Trast7_tv Contains the subroutine HETVAL.3 Give the material data that HETVAL requires for calculation of the phase transformations.3 Create boundary conditions 3. Plotting the results for temperature.inp • • • ex1.3 Detailed flowchart for ex1 ABAQUS/CAE (modelling) • • • • • • • Create model 3.inp-file 3.2 Give the step data for the simulation ex1.4 Create Mesh 3.

DPRED) Check that the dimensions are correct: DIMENSION TEMP(2).SVAR.TIME.for. [3] For this simulation in ABAQUS 6. When the text is written in Bold text after > or between | should “click” on this icon.f to C:\Temp and change the name to trast7_tv. Copy the subroutine trast7_tv. DPRED(*) This simulation is compiled and linked every time a new job is created.5) 4 . | .4-2 the interface of the only used subroutine HETVAL is: SUBROUTINE HETVAL (CMNAME. 8. it is a describing sentence for the particular step. It can also give the instruction what to write after : (for example a number or a string).8 Start instructions 8.4-2 and Compaq Visual Fortran compiler. (4. SVAR(9). Plain text describes were to look for next command or gives the instructions what to do.TIME(2). FLUX(2). START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open trast7_tv. it means that the user When the text is Italic.TEMP.1 How to read the manual This description shows generally how to follow the manual.PREDEF. so that it is recognised as a Fortran source code file. Before the simulation can start.DTIME. the TRAST subroutines must be compiled and linked with ABAQUS.FLUX.2 Installation of software Install ABAQUS 6.for Check that the user subroutine interface is the same as the call for subroutine HETVAL in ABAQUS. PREDEF(*).

3.4-2 > ABAQUS CAE 8.3.3 Start the program 8.2 Create Model Database When ABAQUS/CAE program has started the first question is if a new model should be created or an old model should be opened. (Figure 1) Figure 1 5 .3.1 Start ABAQUS CAE START > Program > ABAQUS 6.8.3 ABAQUS 6. The “Start Session” window pops up. | Create Model Database | 8.4 work area These are the names and titles of areas that will be used in this manual.

4 Generate model database To make it possible to reopen and modify the model it is important to save the model in a model database.1 Create the model 9. It is also possible to import an already existing model from a CAD program. Context bar > Module > Part (Figure 2) Figure 2 Toolbox area > Create Part The “Create Part” window pops up: Pick name: 6 Part-1 .8. Give the model database a “name” where the model information can be saved.3.1 Create part for ex1 The first step in this simulation is to create and give the model the right geometrical dimensions. Menu bar > File > Save As > “ex1” | OK | 9 Modelling 9.1.

0. Extrusion Approximate size: 0.1.2 | continue | Toolbox area > Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first corner: 0. Give the depth of the model: 0.01 | Enter | Deactivate: Create Lines: Rectangle > Prompt area > | Done | The “Edit Base Extrusion” window pops up. 0 | Enter | Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the second corner: 0.Modeling Space: 3D Type: Deformable Base Feature: Solid.05 | OK | (Figure 3) Figure 3 7 .

Toolbox area > Create Datum Points > Prompt area > Give the coordinates for the first point: 0. 0.045) | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 3: (0.01. These groups of elements (sets) must be named. Toolbox area > Create Cell > Pick the part of the model that should be partitioned Prompt area > | Done | Prompt area > | 3 Points | > Pick the 3 points in the middle of the filler material > Prompt area > | Create Partition | > Repeat the last step until all partitions are created > | Done | (Figure 4) 8 . 0.9.1.2 Split the model in partitions The welding simulation requires the possibility to remove and add elements. 0.1. 0. First step is to divide the model into two parts.045) | Enter | Toolbox area > Partition Cell > Prompt area > 3 Points Pick point 1 | Pick point 2 | Pick point 3 | Prompt area > | Create Partition | Done | Second step is to divide the filler material into eight partitions. filler material and the plate. 0. 0. To be able to create these sets the model is divided into partitions. To simplify the simulation groups of elements are removed and added to the model. This is one way to simulate a welding process with a filler material.045 | Enter | Repeat previous step for datum point 2: (0.

Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio are taken from an ordinary table for structure material [6]. In this simulation the material data are: Young’s modulus Poisson’s Ratio Density 9 . The material data in the . This data is not from a specific material. If the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST is used. specific heat. the material name must be identical with the name of the . The thermal expansion is taken from a welding journal [5].2 Assign the material properties In this step the material properties is given to the model. Pick a number of points for each phase and read the result from the diagram. This material data is collected from an IT-diagram. For points when the time variable is short.tdtfile is described in 4.3. as it is in this simulation.tdt-file are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. The material data in this simulation is taken from a number of sources. The data for density.tdt-file.Figure 4 9. conductivity and the enthalpy are taken from the TRAST manual [4]. The name of the material is also given. The creation of the . it is very important that the reading is accurate.

Select “Insert Row After”. place the “cursor” in the window and right click. 0.1 Material properties Context bar > Module > Property Toolbox area > Create Material > The ”Edit Material” window pops up.0 0 12E-6 125 13E-6 250 14E-6 500 15E-6 750 16E-6 900 18E-6 1200 . To make more rows.3 9 variables are assigned by HETVAL. (Figure 5) Mechanical > Expansion > Expansion Coefficient alpha: Exp. 10 Temp. [4] General > Depvar > Number of solution dependent state variables: 9 To be able to use temperature-dependent data select “Use temperature-dependent data”.81E3 Mechanical > Elasticity > Elastic > Young’s Modulus: 210E9 Poisson’s Ratio: 0.2. Type the material name: VTT General > Density > 7.Conductivity Specific Heat Thermal expansion Enthalpy IT-diagram 9.

43.0 1000 Spec.9 300 650.5 200 37.Thermal > Conductivity > Conductivity: Thermal > Specific Heat > Specific Heat: | OK | (Figure 5) Figure 5 11 Cond.0 800 30.8 0 502.4 900 . 473.5 0 42. Temp.5 700 563. Temp.5 500 851.1 600 29.0 100 551.7 400 33.

tdt-file has been used (see Appendix C). CEUT = Eutectic carbon content.2 Create and assign section In this step the material property is assigned to the specific area of the model. The . START > Program > accessories > wordpad Open an old . 12 .3 Absolute zero temperature The model is given the absolute zero temperature for the Celsius scale.tdt-file contains (see [4] for a detailed format description): IPH = The material phase condition.tdt-file or create a new. Toolbox area > Create Section > The “Create Section” window pops up.2.2.2. The data from the IT-diagram is required in HETVAL for the calculation of phase transformations.tdt-file The . Name: Section 1 Category: Solid Type: Homogeneous | continue | The “Edit Section” window pops up Pick material: VTT | OK | Toolbox area > Assign Section > Select the whole model with a “window” Prompt area > | Done | The ”Assign Section” window pops up | OK | Done | 9. It contains the IT-diagram for the material.9.15 (for Celsius) | OK | 9. In this simulation an old .4 Create the .tdt-file is a user defined input file. Menu bar > Model > Edit Attributes > Model-1 The “Edit Model Attributes” window pops up Write: -273.

Pick: Part 1-1 | OK | 13 . This variable is picked from the IT-diagram. For this model there is only one part so that is the part to be added to the assembly. When a temperature is selected. CC = Carbon content in the material. read first the start time and then the finish time for the same temperature. It is also important that the points are picked so they give a good reflection of the curve. TEF = Finish temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). LOG(TIR) = This variable is the finish time as a function of temperature TER for each phase. As above the finish time is read at the horizontal axis.The start (VL) and finish (VR) of the curves in IT-diagram gives the volume fraction of phase constituent for each phase (IPH). This variable is read from the IT-diagram TES = Start temperature for each phase transformation (Celsius degrees). Appendix C 9. It is usually 1% and 99%. HS = The enthalpy released by transformation for each phase. In this simulation eleven points are used to show the different values on the curve. The vertical axis is the temperature (Celsius degrees). Then read the time in seconds on the horizontal axis. it is possible to create one model assembly of these parts.3 Create the assembly If the model contains several parts. This variable is read from the IT-diagram VEQ = Equilibrium volume fraction for each phase. The use of a logarithmic time scale gives benefits when both a very short time and a extremely long time intervals are considered. Context bar > Module > Assembly Toolbox area > Instance part > The “Create Instance” window pops up. These results are shown as curves in the IT-diagram. Select one temperature and follow that line out to the curve. These values (VL and VR) indicate how much of the austenite that has been transformed into another phase. LOG(TIL) = This variable is the start time as a function of temperature TEL for each phase.

it is important that the model have correct boundary conditions. The model has a symmetry boundary in the symmetry plane. This simulation of two plates welded together is simplified by using symmetry. 9.9. Select: U3 and UR3 | OK | Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along X-axis Select a point in the XY-plane.and Y-axis boundary conditions are given to selected areas.1 Displacement/rotation Create the boundaries for the backside that will prevent the model to translate out of the XY-plane Context bar > Module > Load Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. To prevent the model to translate along the X. Pick: Mechanical. (Figure 6) Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Place the marker over the hidden back > The top area is selected To be able to select the back > Prompt area > | Next | OK | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.4.4 Create Boundary Conditions To get accurate results from the simulation. Displacement/Rotation | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U1 | OK | 14 .

Pick: Mechanical. Select: ZSYMM | OK | Repeat for all symmetry-areas (Figure 7) 15 . Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre | continue | Prompt area > Show/Hide Selection Option > The “Options” window pops up. Repeat the previous instructions Select: U2 9.4. Pick the upper line on the back of the model.Create the boundary conditions that will prevent the model to translate along Y-axis and rotate around Z-axis.2 | OK | Symmetry Create the boundary conditions for the symmetry-plane Toolbox area > Create Boundary Condition > The “Create Boundary Condition” window pops up. Activate: Select the Entity closest to the Screen Pick one symmetry-area | Done | The “Edit Boundary Condition” window pops up.

Prompt area > | Done | The ”Mesh Controls” window pops up.Figure 7 9. The mesh in this model has equal size through the whole model. Context bar > Module > Mesh Toolbox area > Seed Part Instance > Assign the element size Prompt area > 0. Pick: Hex.5 Create Mesh In this simulation the size of the elements are chosen for fast calculations and not for accuracy.005 | Enter | Enter | Toolbox area > Assign mesh controls > The “Options” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”. Structured | OK | Prompt area > | Done | 16 .

Prompt area > | Done | Select: Element Library: The ”element type” window pops up. Select the whole model with a “window”.Toolbox area > Assign element type > The “Options” window pops up. Standard Geometric Order: Linear Family: Completed Temperature-Displacement | OK | Prompt area > | Done | Toolbox area > Mesh part instance > Prompt area > | Yes | (Figure 8) Figure 8 17 .

they must be assigned to a field.6 Define initial conditions 9. These groups are called “sets”. …. Menu bar > Tools > Set > Manager > The “Set Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Set” window pops up Write name: element1 | Continue | The “Options” window pops up Activate “Select the Entity Closest to the Screen” Pick a surface on the first partition > Prompt area > | Next | (to select the whole volume of the partition) Prompt area | OK | Done | Repeat seven times to create the eight sets with names: ELEMENT1. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the filler material with a “window” | Done | 18 . ELEMENT8.1 Create Sets In this simulation groups of elements that simulate the filler material are given names. Temperature | Continue | Select the whole volume of the plate with a “window” | Done | Magnitude: 20 | OK | | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other.9..1 Temperature To give the Plate and the Filler a correct initial temperature. Context bar > Module > Load Menu bar > Field > Manager > The “Field Manager” window pops up | Create | The “Create Field” window pops up Category: Other. | Dismiss | 9.6.5.

inp-file This step will create the .2) 19 . (The subroutine must be linked with ABAQUS. notepad) Add the string: *HEAT GENERATION This command string will make ABAQUS call the subroutine HETVAL [2].6.g. Context bar > Module > Job Toolbox area > Create Job > The “Create Job” window pops up Pick name: exempel1 | Continue | The “Edit Job” window pops up | OK | Toolbox area > Job Manager > The ”Job Manager” window pops up (Figure 9) | Write Input | Dismiss | Figure 9 9.2 Create the .6.inp-file containing the data input from all previous steps (3.3) 9.Magnitude: 2000 | OK | | Dismiss | (Some initial conditions are also defined in 3.inp-file START > My Computer > C: > Temp Open the file: ex1.6).6. see 2.13.inp (with e.3 Add subroutine calls and initial conditions on internal variables (SDV’s) in the .

VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13. 0. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. a set that contain the whole model must be used.0 ** 20 .. These strings should be reordered after the material data. The sum of variables 1-6 must be equal to 1. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13. 1. This is an example from the . Add these strings to the .0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. 0. TYPE=FIELD.inp-file. Variable 1-6 are the phase fractions and variable 7 is the temperature [4].0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ** *RESTART. WRITE. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD.inp-file (Appendix B) ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. material=VTT 1. The set that has been “picked” is called “_PickedSet13”. 0. TYPE=FIELD. This set is created by the program when the material data is assigned to the model.** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 0. elset=_PickedSet13. The name of this set is found in the . TYPE=FIELD. 0. *End Instance The initial condition for each variable must be assigned if the subroutine HETVAL is used.inp-fil. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. These variables are the different phases and the temperature in the simulation. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13. name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION ** To assign initial conditions. 0. and use the set “_PickedSet13” to give the material its initial condition for the solution dependent variables in HETVAL. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.

21 .inc | Save | This is a part of the ex1. It is also possibly to reuse old ..inc-file. In step 2-8 the elements are added one by one. creep=none 1. One way to view these results is to write them into the . In step1 the elements 2-8 are removed.7 Load history definition The . In this simulation only the ELEMENT2’s phase results will be viewed. This file is written in “Notepad”.dat-file [3].inc-files.inc-file that contains the step data: *include. START > Program > Accessories > Notepad In the inc-file the information for each step is created. these steps will be included in the calculation of the results.inc File > Save Appendix A 9. It is also possible to copy the step information from the .. In this simulation some parts of the . ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. File > Save as Save in directory C:\Temp File name: ex1. The command block *EL PRINT write the SDV (Solution Dependent Variables) results for ELEMENT2 to the . name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.inp file generated in a fully interactive execution. edit and save it with a new name.dat-file. 10. An alternative to write a new inc-file is to open an old one.Add this string last of all to include the separate .inc-file contains all the step data.inc-file has been copied from an old simulation.input=ex1.

** *NODE FILE.E *EL PRINT. 10. ** *MODEL CHANGE.GLOBAL=YES U. creep=none 1. ELEMENT4. ELEMENT7. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.E ** *EL PRINT. REMOVE ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE..** *MODEL CHANGE.FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------Appendix B 22 ..GLOBAL=YES U.DIRECTIONS=YES S.POSITION=NODES. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** ---------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. ADD ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ELEMENT3.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ELEMENT6. ELEMENT5.DIRECTIONS=YES S.POSITION=NODES. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.

4 > ABAQUS Command Write the command in the ABAQUS Command window: C:\Temp> Write: abaqus user=trast7_tv job=ex1.10 Solve the problem The execution solves the problem with subroutines from trast7_tv.for and creates a number of files ( 7.dat with notepad. One is the .odb-file.1).dat-flie. START > Program > ABAQUS 6. Open ex1. In this simulation the results of ELEMENT2 are written for every increment in each step.1 SDV results The SDV results are written to the .odb-file will be created in the directory C:\Temp Figure 10 11 Post processing 11. This file makes it possible to plot the results in ABAQUS/CAE. Appendix D 23 .inp | Enter | (Figure 10) The . The SDV results “1-9” for ELEMENT2 are listed for each step in the file.

2.odb) Select: ex1.odb | OK | (Figure 11) 24 .2 Plot the results The data from the post-processing that have been written in the .odb-file will be opened in ABAQUS/CAE and plotted as a contour plot.11. 11.1 Plot the stress result Open ABAQUS/CAE Menu bar > File > Open > The ”Open Database” window pops up Change File Filter: Output Database(*.

2.11.2 Animate the stress result Toolbox area > Plot Contours > Toolbox area > Animate: Time History Figure 11 25 .

2.3 Plot the temperature result Menu bar > Result > Field Output > The “Field Output” window pops up Select: NT11 (to plot temperature) | OK | (Figure 12) Figure 12 26 .11.

12 Discussion 12. The . Then they are added one by one in each step. .inc-file: This file contains the step data for the calculation.dat-file will direct to the .log-file: In this file it is possible to check the status of the calculation that is in progress. The file also contains the commands for the output results. with the HETVAL subroutine from TRAST. . In the first step the elements are removed. sets with elements are created. Further work on this project also requires some programming knowledge. .inp-file: In data file. To reduce time in the simulations.dat-file: In this file it is possible to check for errors and warnings when the simulation stops due to fails. it is a good idea to have a separate step file. sets. 12. This will reduce the need of making step data for every simulation. For the manual to be useful. . the . commandos for subroutine calls and a “link” to the step data file. The file also contains results when the command *EL PRINT is used. .sta-file: This file shows what has been done during the calculation. 27 .incfile can be saved and reused. the user should have some FEA experience.msgfile.odb-file: This file is the result-file. It is addressed to first time users in ABAQUS. 12. These sets are named.1 Generated files . boundaries. In ABAQUS/CAE it is possible to open this file and plot the results with contour plot. material data.msg-file will tell the reason for the errors in the simulation. The .msg-file: If there are serious errors and warnings.2 Results The manual contain a detailed step by step instruction for a welding simulation in ABAQUS 6. . This file contains the models geometrical data. This makes it possible to create a moving heat source with filler material.3 Approximations When the filler material is simulated.4.

Aug. B. J. Institute of Technology. Bodelind. X. Järvstråt. Welding Journal Research Supplement. 1999 28 . T. pp. Feng and M. pp I:4. Keiser.com 16. 17.-L. Linköping 1990. A. 1995 19.13 References 15. LIU-TEK-LIC-1990:45. Wang.och materialtabeller”. Sjösröm. N. ”Two-Dimensional Calculation of Quench Stresses in Steel”. Zacharia.abaqus. B. Z. R. W. http://www. J. 1998. S. Persson. ABAQUS support. ”Hållfasthets. “TRAST7 USER’S MANUAL”. Swindeman. ”Numerical Analysis of Residual Stress Distribution in Tubes with Spiral Weld Cladding”. R. Taljat. Jirinec. Niklas Järvstråt.328-335 20. Akademiförlaget i Göteborg AB. ABAQUS documentation 18.

144.1. 256.01. 353. 56. 0. 0. material=VTT 1. 0. 0. 146. 16. 148. 145. .00625. . 54. 8. . . 459. 150.00625. . 0. . internal. generate 1. 251. 1 ** Section: Section-1 *Solid Section. 0. 147. 56. 112. 0. 0. 50. 262.0875.05 3. .00625.01. name=Assembly ** *Instance. 0. 128.1. . . 145 254. 0. model=NO. 45 5. . 0. 0. 0. 49. 106. 81 ** Region: (Section-1:Picked) *Elset. 150.inp-file *Heading ** Job name: ex1 Model name: Model-1 *Preprint. 100. 7. 369. 40. 148. 12 7.00625. 35. 0. . 43. 0. 369. 368. . 0.1.005. 54. 127 252. 51.B Appendix . 353. 146. 6. 369 255. 459. 368 253. *End Instance .006428571 *Element. . 129. 81. . .05 4. 46. 34.005. 128. 49. 52. 47.0875.. 0. 42 2. contact=NO ** ** PARTS ** *Part. 46.02571429 457. 0. 369. 0.005.045 2. . history=NO. 3. 41. 0. . 2. name=Part-1-1. 82. 10. 54. 0.05 6. 9. 48. . 353. .. 172.1. 13.01285714 459. . 0.0875. 0. 149.. 1. . .01. elset=_PickedSet13. echo=NO.00625. 353. .. 149. 147. . 11. elset=_PickedSet13.03214286 456.005. 0. 0. 0. 0. 0. 42. 150. 44. 147.045 . 41. 16. 0.045 5. type=C3D8T 1. 9. 48. 50 6. 144. 0. 0. 5. 55. 56. 0.005. . . 106. 33. 148. 10. 39. . 149 . 352. 0. 147 4. 0. 148. 47. 43. 13. part=Part-1 *Node 1. 45. 53. 54. 172. 82.05 7. 36 256. 44.01928571 458. 455. name=Part-1 *End Part ** ** ASSEMBLY ** *Assembly. . 4 3. 0. 56.01. 0.

182. 141. instance=Part-1-1. elset=_PickedSet12. elset=_PickedSet9. 117. nset=_PickedSet9. instance=Part-1-1. 61. 356. instance=Part-1-1. 22. 27. 70. 157 *Elset. nset=_PickedSet12. 151 *Elset. elset=_PickedSet7. 1 *Nset. 32. nset=ELEMENT1. nset=_PickedSet5. 1 *Nset. 134. 223. elset=_PickedSet4. internal. 65. instance=Part-1-1 41. 12. elset=_PickedSet11. 154. 142. 12. 130. 18. 54. instance=Part-1-1. 126. 68. 15. nset=_PickedSet13. 28. 116. 114. 1 *Nset. 39. elset=_PickedSet8. 139 140. 237. 63. 148 *Elset. 5. 21. 137. 69. 6. nset=_PickedSet6. 224. nset=_PickedSet4. internal. 22. 357. internal. 76 155. 1 *Nset. 181. 22. instance=Part-1-1 25. 29. 364. 84. 210. instance=Part-1-1 40. 63. 28. 53. internal. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 9. 29. instance=Part-1-1. 20. internal. 129. 67. 146. 122 123. 209. 23. 75. instance=Part-1-1 26. 367. 97. 66. 53. 93. elset=ELEMENT3. 125. 154 *Elset. 98. 361. instance=Part-1-1 37. 67. internal. 52. 34. instance=Part-1-1 . 115. 15. nset=ELEMENT2. 1 *Nset. 81. 136. 156 *Elset. 20. elset=ELEMENT1. instance=Part-1-1 19. internal. instance=Part-1-1. 119. internal. 365 366. 355. 80. 138. 121. 111. 84. nset=ELEMENT3. elset=ELEMENT2. nset=_PickedSet11. 24. generate 5. 167. generate 9. 36. 67. 26. 70. instance=Part-1-1 2. 16. 159 *Elset. 20. 76. 29. 4. instance=Part-1-1 17. 71. internal.*Nset. 38. internal. 27. internal. generate 17. 1 *Nset. 74. 1 *Nset. internal. 30. instance=Part-1-1 18. 156 *Elset. *Nset. generate 17. 23. 139. 42. 28. 43. 238. internal. 26. generate 25. 20. 118. nset=_PickedSet8. 86 159. generate 13. 74. 86. 256. 21. elset=_PickedSet13. generate 21. 143. 1 *Nset. 48. 41. 360. 120. 131. 358. generate 1. internal. 16. 5. 30. generate 253. 76. 71. 62. 32. generate 13. 196. instance=Part-1-1. 368 *Elset. 56. 16. 369 *Elset. 69. 26. 54. instance=Part-1-1. 25. 168. 81. 359. 58. 195. instance=Part-1-1. internal. 75. 85. 83. 135. nset=ELEMENT4. 50. 34. 154 *Elset. 61. 362. 16. instance=Part-1-1 18. 113. internal. 127. 65. 252 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1. 354. 83. 1 *Nset. 84. instance=Part-1-1 19. 19. 47. 21. internal. 132. 3. 133. 140 153. 19. 67. 68. nset=_PickedSet7. 78. 12. 8. instance=Part-1-1. nset=_PickedSet10. 64. generate 25. 69. 76. instance=Part-1-1 9. 363. 60. 31. 68 153. 149 *Elset. 22. 73. 112. 251. 24. 145. instance=Part-1-1 2. 48. 106. elset=_PickedSet6. internal. 1 *Nset. 72. 36. 126. 29. 40. 124. 125. internal. elset=_PickedSet10. 55. 160 *Elset.

297. 221. 14. 123. 315. 158. generate 253. 216. 226 227. 31. 68. 244. 205. 81. 133. 300. 188. 144. 178 179. 57. nset=ELEMENT7. 58. 8. 11. 148 *Elset. 273. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1. 137 138. 14. elset=ELEMENT7. instance=Part-1-1. 218. 281. 8. 207. 121 122. 14. 247. 129. 136. 277. instance=Part-1-1. 89 90. 161. 215. 93. 57. 288. 42. 38. 20. 164. 50. 234. 231. 294. 194 195. 101. 143. nset=ELEMENT5. 268. 258 259. elset=ELEMENT6. 24. 327. 167. 82. 206. 99. 290 291. instance=Part-1-1 9. 295. 173. 126. 287. 325. 18. 220. 296. 96. 271. 272. 256. instance=Part-1-1 1. 10. 314. 82. 265. 48. 311. 35. 119. 33. 331. 225. 308. 55. 254. 321. 147. 150 *Elset. 25. 326. 73. 202. 293. 209. 158 *Elset. 70. 319. 7. 109. 110. 282. 92. 338 78. 242 243. 252. 181. 32 33. 223. 12. 330. 256. 306 307. 81. elset=ELEMENT5. 141. 262. 124. 313. 193. 139. 44. 199. 45. 266. 56. 36. 8. 11. 172. 175. 232. 145. 170. 46. 317. 111. 185. 37. 49. 98. 322 323. 190. 169. 4. 274 275. 155. 46. 1 *Nset. 329. 267. 13. 298. 236. 55. 56. 33. 269. 53. 186. 116. 303. 197. 165. 120. 35. 48 147. 316. 16. 335. 301. 192. 152 *Elset. 54. 261. 310. 66. 299. 46. 112. 17. 49. 238. 100. 174. 241. 142. 264. 55. 114. 337. 53. 257. 320. 39. 108. 334. 79. 2. 280. 130. 187. 103. 182. 77. 332. 4. 74. 132. 208. 203. 42. 255. 104. 189. 200. 85. 150. 204. 127. 23. 12. nset=_PickedSet26. 107. 198. 302. 35. 228. 44. nset=ELEMENT6. 128. nset=ELEMENT8. 2. generate 5. 248. 11. 171. 152. 263. generate 21. 102. 80. 210 211. instance=Part-1-1 1. 1 *Nset. 219. 5. 8. 95. 240. 64. 250. instance=Part-1-1. 15. 328. 191. generate 9. instance=Part-1-1. 41. 12. 125. 82 157. 276. 144. 305. elset=ELEMENT8. 1 *Nset. 24. . 160. 285. 286. generate 1. 249. 4. 60 151. 3. 54. 229. 21. 34. 5. 65. 312. 117. 292. 13. 36. 176. 183. 94. 253. 45. 260. 128. 10. 13. 222. 233. 88. internal. 246. 6. 278. 212. 51. 309. 270. 43. instance=Part-1-1 9. 134. 284. 66. 289. 235. 72. 201. 214. 131. 87. 369 *Elset. 224. 52. 230. 113. 333. 336. 7. 153. 304. 168. 251. 135. 115. 91. 15. 16. 166. 28. 79. instance=Part-1-1 1. 59. 162 163. 237. elset=ELEMENT4. 77. 239.17. 180. 318. 24. 105 106. 34. 283. 196. 245. 83. 279. 140. 177. 47. 97. 56 149. 324. 40. 118. 1 *Nset. 146 353. 10. 213. 51. 59 62. 217. 184.

1. 117. 434. 82. 64. 366. 426. 26. nset=_PickedSet28. elset=_PickedSet27. 367. 361. 443. 2. 61. 442. 20. 26. 42. 125. 600. 5. 1. generate 41. 445. 399. 383. 343. 144. 13. 380. 750. 1. 357.. 20. 49. 115. 46. 29. 403 404. 128. 122. 406.1. 63. 81. 16 17. 73. 500. 396. 152. 83. 407. 342. 250. 70. 351. 75. 32 33. 450. 414. 401. 24. 369 *Elset. internal. instance=Part-1-1 1.. 345. 27. 78. 405. 353. 27. *Elastic 2. 77. 398. 433. 4. 150. 84 85. 430. 412. 7. 126 127. 156 157. 113. 440. 251. 429.3 *Expansion 0. 25. 370. 363. 119. 387 388. 435 436. 415. 391.2e-05. 449. 409.. 3. 347. 30. 43. elset=_PickedSet28. 79. 29. 419 420. 23. 51. 18. 158. 60. 13. 19. 118. 45. 76. 37. 15. 411.5e-05. instance=Part-1-1. instance=Part-1-1 38. 444. 350.5. 59. 417. 52 53. 8. 23. 353. 67.. 374. 145. internal. 6. 365. 15. 448. 447. 36. 457. 377. 421. 21. 438. instance=Part-1-1. 21. 22. generate 29. 200. 395. 428. 14 *End Assembly ** ** MATERIALS ** *Material. 22. 40. 389. 454. 425. internal. 800. 56. 358. 9. *Depvar 9. 416. 8. internal. 402. 14. 154. 349. *Elset.1e+11. 432. 160. 256 *Nset. 19. 31. internal. 123. 125. 254. 48. 400. 86. 80. 354 355. 146. 390. 375. 54. 424. 437. 360. 456.3e-05. 30. 35. 253. 384. 410. 453. 382. 71. 459 *Elset. 153. 418. 0. 344. 155. 28. 12.4e-05. 400. 0. 28. 455. 9. 5. 362. 352. 0. 11. nset=_PickedSet27. 413. 34. 252. 72. 120. 24. 427. 151. 12. 10. 66. 33. 441. 7. 1 *Nset. instance=Part-1-1 1. 6. . name=VTT *HEAT GENERATION *Conductivity 43. 356. 385. 114. 65. 368. 149. 74. *Density 7810. 379. 124. 41. 446. 458.1000.339. 147. 11. 68 69. 42. 394. 3. 397. 62. 340. 14. 44. 376. 373. 18. 341. 378. 4. elset=_PickedSet26. 371 372. 1.5. 55. 392. 148. 57. 393. 16 17. 386. 431. 439. 423. 58. 348. 10. 451 452. 159. 364. 25. 422. 359.7. 47. 121. 255. 408. 116. 50. 2. 346. 381.

0.100. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-11 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet28. ZSYMM . 0. absolute zero=-273. VARIABLE=2 _PickedSet13. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-5 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet8.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.1. ** ** *RESTART.9.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.1200. 1. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-8 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet11. WRITE. TYPE=FIELD. 2. 6.0 ** ** PHYSICAL CONSTANTS ** *Physical Constants. 1. 900. 1.5. VARIABLE=4 _PickedSet13.5. 0. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-6 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet9.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-4 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet7.4.700.500. VARIABLE=1 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. 551. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-7 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet10. VARIABLE=6 _PickedSet13.900. 3 _PickedSet4. *Specific Heat 473. 0.6e-05. 0.. VARIABLE=5 _PickedSet13. VARIABLE=3 _PickedSet13. TYPE=FIELD. 1 ** Name: BC-3 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet6. 0. 650. TYPE=FIELD.300. ZSYMM ** Name: BC-9 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet12. VARIABLE=7 _PickedSet13.8. 6 ** Name: BC-10 Type: Symmetry/Antisymmetry/Encastre *Boundary _PickedSet13. 3.15 ** ** BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ** ** Name: BC-1 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet4. TYPE=FIELD. 0. 502. 563.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. TYPE=FIELD. TYPE=FIELD. 851. 2 ** Name: BC-2 Type: Displacement/Rotation *Boundary _PickedSet5.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.0 *INITIAL CONDITIONS. FREQUENCY=20 *INITIAL CONDITIONS.8e-05.

** ** FIELDS ** ** Name: Field-1 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions. 20. ** Name: Field-2 Type: Temperature *Initial Conditions.inc . type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet27. 2000. *include.input=ex1. type=TEMPERATURE _PickedSet26.

10.GLOBAL=YES U.NT ** *EL FILE. ELEMENT8 ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-4 . ADD ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES. ** *NODE FILE.FREQUENCY=1..FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.C Appendix .FREQUENCY=1.NT ** *EL FILE. ELEMENT4. ELEMENT7.FREQUENCY=1.. ** *MODEL CHANGE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-4 ** *Step. ELEMENT5. creep=none 1.POSITION=NODES.POSITION=NODES. ELSET=ELEMENT2. ** *NODE FILE. name=Step-1 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.E *EL PRINT. creep=none 1.E ** *EL PRINT.DIRECTIONS=YES S. 10.. ** *MODEL CHANGE..GLOBAL=YES U.. REMOVE ELEMENT2. 10.DIRECTIONS=YES S.DIRECTIONS=YES S. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELEMENT6. ELSET=ELEMENT2. name=Step-3 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. FREQUENCY=1 SDV ** *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-2 ** *Step. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-3 ** *Step.NT ** *EL FILE. name=Step-2 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement. ELEMENT3..E ** *EL PRINT.inc-file ** STEP: Step-1 ** *Step. creep=none 1. ADD element3.GLOBAL=YES U.

..DIRECTIONS=YES S. ** *NODE FILE.NT ** *EL FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE.POSITION=NODES.DIRECTIONS=YES S. creep=none 1. creep=none 1.FREQUENCY=1. ** *NODE FILE.E ** *EL PRINT. ** *MODEL CHANGE.. ADD element7.NT ** *EL FILE.. ** *NODE FILE. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-6 ** *Step.*Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES.GLOBAL=YES U.FREQUENCY=1. 10.. 10.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-5 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2. creep=none 1.GLOBAL=YES .E ** *EL PRINT.GLOBAL=YES U. 10.DIRECTIONS=YES S.. creep=none 1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-7 ** *Step. ADD element4.FREQUENCY=1. ELSET=ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-7 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.FREQUENCY=1. name=Step-6 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.. ** *NODE FILE..GLOBAL=YES U. ADD element6.POSITION=NODES. ** *MODEL CHANGE. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 10. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-5 ** *Step. ADD element5.E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE. ** *MODEL CHANGE.

.DIRECTIONS=YES S.E ** *EL PRINT.NT ** *EL FILE. ** *NODE FILE.U.FREQUENCY=1. FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------- . FREQUENCY=1 SDV *End Step ** --------------------------------------------------------------** ** STEP: Step-8 ** *Step.GLOBAL=YES U. creep=none 1. name=Step-8 *Coupled Temperature-Displacement.POSITION=NODES. ELSET=ELEMENT2.FREQUENCY=1.E ** *EL PRINT. ELSET=ELEMENT2. 100.. ADD element8. ** *MODEL CHANGE.NT ** *EL FILE.FREQUENCY=1.POSITION=NODES.DIRECTIONS=YES S.

0 480.0 560.00 2.90 1.0 500.0 650.99 0.11 0.18 3.56 1.0 710.E6 590.0 .18 9.01 ! ! ! VL 0.0 680.39 2.01 0.0 420.0 560.57 2.09 1.0 720.0 201.0 400.84 1.53 2.99 TES TEF 750 570 VEQ 500E-3 3 750.0 700.20 3.85 2.0 1 6 IPH 2 3 4 5 6 LH0 TS 0.51 3.98 2.0 320.0 440.97 4.0065 IPH 2/4 3 5 CC 0.66 2.E6 111.43 2.0 480.02 3.926 0.0 440.0 520.70 2.0 710.29 1.96 3.32 2.0 600.939 0.0 320.E6 640.86 3.16 3.34 2.0 350.917 0.81 2.0 500.0 1 5 570.0 460.0 720.0 600.08 1.0 2.0 350.0 LOG(TIR) 4.95 3.03 20.0 400.53 2.0 740.0 760.993 1.0 512.0 600.0 690. 320.01 IPH 2/4 VR 0.tdt-file CEUT .0 570.0 LOG(TIL) 3.62 4.0 740.01 0.0 TEL 570.0 670.0 320.0 670.37 2.22 1.0 HS 590.0 760.0 650.0 540.0 420.0 650.35 2.0 520.0 700.0 30.0 690.55 2.71 2.E6 590.E6 TL 0.0 0.0 460.D Appendix .0 740.77 15.0 680.62 4.0 540.0 760.44 TER 570.E6 590.0 690.948 0.0 670.99 0.57 2.88 6.94 2.0 570.14 2.0 700.

4236E-03 5.3 278.000 0.0915E-06 1.000 2.dat-file ELEMENT OUTPUT THE FOLLOWING TABLE IS PRINTED AT THE INTEGRATION POINTS FOR ELEMENT TYPE C3D8T AND ELEMENT SET ASSEMBLY_ELEMENT2 ELEMENT PT FOOTNOTE 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 SDV1 SDV2 SDV3 2.4916E-04 3.3 277.4596E-05 3.4916E-04 3.000 0.5215 0.000 0.7 277.1628 0.2 276.5215 0.5282 0.9 277.000 0.9 277.3090 0.3138 0.2423E-08 0.1647 0.5252 0.000 3.000 0.000 0.1647 0.1591 0.3138 0.0226E-06 3.000 0.5197 0.3185 0.3114 0.000 0.3065 0.5197 8.9 277.0915E-06 1.3185 0.2 277.5215 0.000 0.1628 0.1651 0.7 277.1591 SDV6 0.8260E-04 1.1651 0.3185 0.5802E-06 9.0226E-06 5.7 276.4916E-04 3.1647 0.000 0.1648 0.000 0.5197 26 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.5252 0.3114 0.000 0.4 277.000 0.4425E-06 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 26 SDV5 0.000 0.000 MAXIMUM ELEMENT 0.000 0.5248 0.5252 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.4575E-08 2.000 0.1628 0.5227 0.000 0.1647 0.000 0.000 0.3114 0.1628 0.5802E-06 9.5248 0.000 0.4 277.3065 0.3114 0.000 0.000 0.000 8.7 277.3138 0.000 0.3212 SDV7 278.3138 0.2 278.2 276.3114 0.000 0.3090 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.4596E-05 1.000 0.4425E-06 0.3065 26 25 26 25 26 276.1591 0.4236E-03 5.3185 0.000 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.000 .3114 0.000 0.0226E-06 5.E Appendix .3114 0.2423E-08 0.000 0.5248 0.0226E-06 8.5227 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.3 277.7 277.000 0.4916E-04 3.5802E-06 9.1647 0.1588 0.000 0.000 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.4236E-03 5.5227 0.000 0.1651 0.000 0.3138 0.4916E-04 3.5215 0.1588 0.000 0.9 277.000 0.1628 0.5802E-06 9.000 0.4575E-08 2.000 3.000 0.5215 0.000 0.1648 0.1647 0.000 0.000 0.3138 0.3090 0.7 277.000 0.000 5.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 SDV4 0.000 0.1647 0.5252 0.000 0.000 25 SDV8 SDV9 0.1628 0.000 0.5282 0.000 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.4575E-08 5.0226E-06 5.4916E-04 3.3065 0.1588 0.000 0.4596E-05 3.0226E-06 3.000 0.5197 0.5282 0.2 276.1588 0.000 0.7 276.5215 0.1651 0.000 0.7 276.4425E-06 0.000 0.7 277.3138 0.3138 0.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.1628 0.0915E-06 1.5802E-06 9.4575E-08 4.4 277.5282 25 1.3114 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.4 26 25 25 25 0.4596E-05 3.000 25 25 25 25 MINIMUM ELEMENT 0.1647 0.4 277.000 0.000 0.0915E-06 1.000 0.5252 0.4916E-04 3.2423E-08 0.5282 0.000 0.000 0.4236E-03 0.0226E-06 5.5248 0.0226E-06 8.000 0.000 0.5802E-06 9.2 276.3212 278.7 277.000 0.8260E-04 1.000 0.000 5.000 0.4575E-08 4.4575E-08 5.3212 0.4425E-06 0.1588 0.5252 0.000 0.2 277.000 0.1648 0.5215 0.000 0.5252 0.3212 0.000 0.1648 0.000 0.5197 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.2 278.000 0.3065 0.7 277.4596E-05 3.3 25 0.000 0.4575E-08 4.000 0.1591 0.4916E-04 3.3212 0.1628 0.5215 0.000 0.000 0.3090 0.000 0.000 0.4236E-03 5.000 0.5227 0.3 0.7 276.5252 0.1651 0.

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