PAPER PRE-EMPLOYEMENT TRAINING PREMIER OIL INDONESIA PRODUCTION OPERATION TRAINING

GAS MEASUREMENT WITH ORIFICE METER

By OKTARIANDI

EDUCATION AND TRAINING CENTRE ON OIL AND GAS PUSDIKLAT MIGAS Jalan Sorogo No. 1 Cepu 58315, Kab. Blora – Jawa tengah Telp: (0296) 421888 (Hunting), Fax: (0296) 421891, E-mail: informasi@pusdiklatmigas.com 2013

PRODUCTION OPERATION TRAINING

APPROVAL

Title By Name of Training

: Gas Measurement with orifice Meter : Oktariandi : Production Operation Training-Premier Oil

This work paper has been approved in 14th August 2013.

Cepu, 30th July 2013

Advisor

English Corrector

(M. Ridwan Ansyori, S.T., M.T.)

(Santi Oktaviani, S.Pd)

Course Leader

(Puurnomo Sidi, S.T., M.T.)

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PREFACE
Alhamdulillah, all praises are to Allah SWT who we all adore, who has given me all inspiration, power, and motivation so I can finish this paper entitled “GAS MEASUREMENT USING ORIFICE METER” that requires to present and pass the Pre-Employment Training of Premier Oil Indonesia, held in Pusdiklat Migas Cepu from 29th April until 23rd August 2013. In this session, I would like to extend my thanks and high appreciation to: 1. Management of Premier Oil Indonesia 2. Course leader of Pre-Employment Training of Premier Oil Indonesia 3. Advisor 4. All the Instructors, Lecturers and staff of Pusdiklat Migas Cepu 5. My Parents 6. All of my friends PET Premier Oil Indonesia who have motivated me, and help me to finish this paper. I realize that there are so many mistakes in this paper, so all critism, suggestion, and corrections will be highly appreciated for the improvement of this paper in the future. Cepu, August 2013

Oktariandi

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ABSTRACT

Flow measurement such as orifice meter is the one of gas flow measurement that uses the differential pressure as the basic principle. The flow of the fluids is calculated from the difference in pressure of the fluid flowing through a different gap diameter, it will make a pressure drop from the fluids flow. Orifice meter has many advantages such as easy on handling and maintenance, a good supply from market and low cost investment. Considering plate and pipes diameter ratio, the properties of gas, the Bernoulli equation was modified with calculates coefficient value based on AGA 3-1. From the equation of AGA 3-1 we can calculate the gas flow rate across the pipes. During the operations, this device should be given some maintenance. A routine or periodically maintenance can decrease the risk financial and increase the device lifetime and performance.

Keywords : AGA 3-1, Bernoulli, Gas flow measurement, Orifice meter.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

APPROVAL................................................................................................. i PREFACE ...................................................................................................ii ABSTRACT................................................................................................ iii TABLE OF CONTENTS .............................................................................iv LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................vi LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................... vii CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION ................................................................... 1 I.1 I.2 I.3 I.4 Background................................................................................... 1 Objectives .................................................................................... 1 Scope of Discussion .................................................................... 2 Outline of the Paper ...................................................................... 2

CHAPTER II BASIC THEORY ................................................................... 4 II.1 Units and Characteristic of Flow ................................................... 4 Laminar flow........................................................................... 5 Transition flow ........................................................................ 6 Turbulent flow......................................................................... 6

II.2.1 II.2.2 II.2.3 II.2 II.3 II.4

Basic Flow Rate Equation............................................................. 6 Differential Pressure Flow Meter................................................... 9 Orifice Meter ............................................................................... 10 Types of orifice plates .......................................................... 10 Orifice plate casing............................................................... 14 Type of orifice tap connections............................................. 16 Straightening vanes.............................................................. 20

II.4.1 II.4.2 II.4.3 II.4.4 II.5

Chart Recorder ........................................................................... 21

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II.5.1 II.5.2 II.5.3

Uniform scale chart types..................................................... 22 Square root chart types ........................................................ 23 Read chart............................................................................ 24

CHAPTER III INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE.............................. 26 III.1 Equipment Installation................................................................. 26 III.1.1 Local system........................................................................... 26 III.1.2 Remote system ....................................................................... 27 III.2 III.3 III.4 III.4.1 III.4.2 Chart Replacement Procedure ................................................ 27 Remove and Replace an Orifice Plate..................................... 28 Maintenance ............................................................................ 29 Orifice plate and seal ring ................................................. 30 Visual inspection of flow meter assembly.......................... 31

CHAPTER IV GAS FLOW CALCULATION ............................................. 32 IV.1 IV.2 Flow Rate Calculation with Chart Recorder ............................. 32 Calculation of Gas Flow Rate Using AGA Report No.3 ........... 32

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS ................................................................. 37 REFERENCES ........................................................................................ 38 APPENDIXES A ORIFICE DIAMETER RATIO........................................ 39 APPENDIXES B ORIFICE FACTOR DATA ............................................. 42 APENDIXES C PARTS & MATERIAL SENIOR ORIFICE ....................... 48 APPENDIXES D NATURAL GAS PROPERTIES .................................... 54

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LIST OF TABLES
Table B. 1 Basic Orifice Factor for Flange Taps, Fb ................................ 42 Table B. 2 Basic Orifice Factor for Pipe Taps, Fb .................................... 45 Table C. 1 Parts & Material of Orifice Meter ............................................ 48

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2. 1 Laminar Flow ........................................................................... 5 Figure 2. 2 Turbulent Flow ......................................................................... 6 Figure 2. 3 Basic Flow Measurement with Head Method........................... 7 Figure 2. 4 Concentric Orifice Plates ....................................................... 11 Figure 2. 5 Eccentric Orifice Plates.......................................................... 12 Figure 2. 6 Segmental Orifice Plates ....................................................... 12 Figure 2. 7 Sharp Edge ............................................................................ 13 Figure 2. 8 Quadrant Edge ...................................................................... 14 Figure 2. 9 Senior Orifice ......................................................................... 15 Figure 2. 10 Simplex orifice ..................................................................... 15 Figure 2. 11 Flange Orifice ...................................................................... 16 Figure 2. 12 Pipe Taps and Flange Taps Connection.............................. 17 Figure 2. 13 Corner Connection............................................................... 18 Figure 2. 14 Vena - Contracta Connection............................................... 19 Figure 2. 15 Radius Tap Connection ....................................................... 19 Figure 2. 16 Straightening Vanes............................................................. 21 Figure 2. 17 Chart Recorder .................................................................... 22 Figure 2. 18 Chart Uniform Linear............................................................ 23 Figure 2. 19 Chart Uniform Square Root ................................................. 23 Figure 3. 1 Local system installation ........................................................ 26 Figure 3. 2 Remote system ...................................................................... 27 Figure 3. 3 Senior Orifice Parts Units....................................................... 28 Figure A. 1 Minimum Length of Straight Pre Required Expressed in Nominal Pipe Diameters .......................................................................... 39 Figure A. 2 Minimum Length of Straight Pre Required Expressed in Nominal Pipe Diameters .......................................................................... 40 Figure A. 3 Minimum Length of Straight Pre Required Expressed in Nominal Pipe Diameters .......................................................................... 41 Figure C. 1 Senior Orifice Parts (1).......................................................... 51 Figure C. 2 Senior orifice parts (2) ........................................................... 51 Figure C. 3 Senior Orifice Parts (3).......................................................... 52 Figure C. 4Senior Orifice Parts (4)........................................................... 53 Figure D. 1 The Compressibility Factor for Natural Gas .......................... 54 Figure D. 2 Natural Gas Properties for Pseudo Temperature and Pressure ................................................................................................................. 55

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

I.1

Background In oil and gas industries, flow measurement of flow rate is very

important. Flow measurement has developed as an essential part of all phases of fluid handling, including production, processing, and distribution of water, oil, and gases. This result becomes very important, because if there are some errors in this process, it can affect the lost of financially Flow measurement is the process of measuring the quantity of fluid that passes a particular point in a given internal of time. A quantity of fluid can be expressed as volume or mass. There are a variety of primary element in use, such as orifice plate, venture tube, and other. The principal of this meter is creating pressure drop when gas passes the restriction. So, there is a differential pressure between before and after the restriction. By using the differential pressure which is produced by the restriction, it can indicate the gas flow rate. Orifice is a flow measurement that use differential pressure. This device has used many times ago in many industries especially in Oil-Gas Industries, because it is easy for installation and more cheap.

I.2

Objectives

The objectives of writing this paper are: a) To develop our knowledge about gas measurement using orifice plate.

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b) As reference or literature for next trainees. c) As one of the requirements to take the examination test for PreEmployment Training of Premier Oil.

I.3

Scope of Discussion In writing this paper, I only discuses the gas measurement using

orifice plate, although in the field, we find another measurement. And I only focuses on gas flow rate measurement using orifice plate and equations referring to tables AGA Committee Report No.3.

I.4

Outline of the Paper : INTRODUCTION It is about the background of this paper, objective of writing, scope and outline of the paper.

CHAPTER I

CHAPTER II

:

BASIC THEORY It is about units and flow characteristics, basic flow rate equation, differential pressure flow meter, and orifice and the units.

.CHAPTER III :

INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE It is about the equipment installation, procedure to change chart recorder and plate and about orifice maintenance.

CHAPTER IV :

GAS FLOW CALCULATION

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It is about how the calculation flow use chart recorder, equipment installation and gas flow calculation based on AGA-3. CHAPTER V : CONCLUSIONS It is about the summary of paper.

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CHAPTER II BASIC THEORY

II.1

Units and Characteristic of Flow Generally, we can say flow is a volume or mass units in every time

unit, in mathematic we can write it : Q W = v.A = Q.ρ = v.A.ρ Where : Q v A W ρ = volume flow rate (m3 /s) = velocity in fluid (m/s) = area of pipe (m2 ) = mass flow rate (kg/s) = density of fluid (kg/m3 ) According were to the energy conservation laws, that there

no energy losses within the fluid from one point to another. In a

practical sense, there are always losses in energy. The characteristic of the flow, whether it is laminar, transition, or turbulent, is one of the factors involved in determining these energy losses. To describe the flow characterized Reynolds number, the equation is :

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Where : Fluid density (ρ) Fluid dynamic viscosity (µ ) Pipe diameter (D) Velocity average (v)

= = kg/m3, lbm/ft3 = Ns/m2 or kg/(ms), lbfs/ft2 or cp = m, in = m/s, ft/s

So, from Reynolds Number formula it will be shown that: • • • NR < 2000 2000 < NR < 4000 NR > 4000 = Laminar Flow = Transition Flow = Turbulent Flow

II.2.1 Laminar flow Laminar flow moves regularly as a straight line in the pipeline and it can be represented by concentric layer.

Figure 2. 1 Laminar Flow

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II.2.2 Transition flow This flow resides between laminar flow and turbulent flow. It can be really unstable and difficult to be predicted. Transition flow is really avoided in a process. II.2.3 Turbulent flow Turbulent is a random flow, where the inertia force (the force which keeps the movement of fluids in the straightway) is greater than viscous force.

Figure 2. 2 Turbulent Flow

II.2

Basic Flow Rate Equation Flow rate measurement with orifice plate is one of the measurement

that use measurement principles using differential pressure.

This device

consists of pipes where on the inside there is a perforated plate that is smaller than the diameter of the previous. The fluid passing through the hole will experience a change of pace caused by pressure differences. The differential pressure is called as Pressure drop (ΔP) and causes the changes of velocity when if the velocity is higher and the pressure is lower. 6

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Figure 2. 3 Basic Flow Measurement with Head Method

This calculation uses the principles of Bernoulli’s equation. The equation is + + ℎ = ) + + ℎ (1)

Assume h1 = h2; P1-P2 = ΔP , so the equation (1) would be : 2∆ = ( − (2)

And, Q= A1 v 1= A2 v 2 Combining (1) and (2), assuming A2 < A1, gives the "ideal" equation:
( )

=

(3)

(

For a given geometry (A), the flow rate can be determined by measuring the pressure difference p1 - p2. The theoretical flow rate q will in practice be smaller (2 - 40%) due to geometrical conditions. The ideal equation (3) can be modified with a discharge coefficient:

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=
Where

(

(

)

(3b)

cd = discharge coefficient The discharge coefficient cd is a function of the jet size - or orifice openingthe Area ratio = Avc / A2 Where : Avc = area in "vena contracta" "Vena Contracta" is the minimum jet area that appears just downstream of the restriction. The viscous effect is usually expressed in terms of the no dimensional parameter Reynolds Number (Re). Due to the Bernoulli and Continuity Equation, the velocity of the fluid will be at its highest and the pressure at the lowest in " Vena Contracta". After the metering device, the velocity will decrease to the same level as before the obstruction. The pressure recovers to a pressure level lower than the pressure before the obstruction and adds a head loss to the flow. Equation (3) can be modified with diameters to:

Where

=

(

(

β

)

)

(4)

D2 = orifice, Ventury or nozzle inside diameter

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D1 = upstream and downstream pipe diameter β = D2 / D1 diameter ratio Equation (4) can be modified to mass flow for fluids by simply multiplying with the density:

When measuring the mass flow in gases, it is necessary to considerate the pressure reduction and change in density of the fluid. The formula above can be used with limitations for applications with relatively small changes in pressure and density.

=

(

(

β

)

)

(5)

II.3

Differential Pressure Flow Meter Differential pressure (also known as head type) measurements can

be made for flow rate determination when a fluid flows through a restriction. The fluid after restriction will decrease which can be directly related to flow rate, as already shown in the derivation of Bernoulli’s equation. Common devices using this principles are:  Orifice plate  Ventury tubes  Pitot tubes  Flow nozzle This paper only will discussed about gas flow rate measurement using orifice plate.

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II.4

Orifice Meter The orifice is the most primary element to flow measurement. The

orifice is made of a piece of steel plate with a certain hole. The orifice is set by putting between 2 (two) flanges. Pressure taps on the both sides flange is used to detect the pressure difference. Its meter accuracy generally is about 2 to 4 %. Orifice plate specification is 1: conditioned by API MPMS, Chapter 14.3/AGA Report No.3 (1992). These conditions are:  Material: Orifice made of zero corrosion material generally is stainless steel (304SS, 316SS), Monel, or other mixed metal depend on the service.  Plate thickness: Minimum and maximum depend on pipe size, but for minimum size is 1/8 inch.  Roughness: Plat surface roughness may not more than 50 micro-inch.  Upstream edge: Orifice may not have hole side that blunt or notch.  Beta ratio: is the ratio between the orifice hole for pipe size. Generally about 0.25 – 0.75. II.4.1 Types of orifice plates a. Concentric orifice plates

1

API MPMS, Chapter 14.3/AGA Report No. 3

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This is the most popular used for a vast range of gas. This type of orifice has a concentric hole in the side of upstream face and 45o beveled at the downstream. This type is only for clean liquid and liquid that does not contain any abrasive particle that can cause erosion. This is most popularly used for fast range of gas.

Figure 2. 4 Concentric Orifice Plates

b. Eccentric orifice plates The eccentric plate has a round opening (bore) tangent to the inside wall of the pipe. This type of plate is most commonly used to measure fluids which carry a small amount of non-abrasive solids, or gases with small amounts of liquid, since with the opening at the bottom of the pipe, the solids and liquids will carry through, rather than collect at the orifice plate. The orifice hole is placed at the bottom for gas service and top for liquids.

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Figure 2. 5 Eccentric Orifice Plates

c. Segmental orifice plates The third type is segmental orifice. This plate is generally used for measuring liquids or gases which carry non-abrasive impurities such as light slurries or exceptionally dirty gases. The diameter ”D” is equal to 98% of the line I.D. “H” is the height of the circular segment.

Figure 2. 6 Segmental Orifice Plates

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d. The orifice edge The general purpose of the orifice edge is to get the laminar flow. There are two varieties of the orifice plate:  Sharp edge The disadvantages of the edges of concentric orifice are incompatible for dirty fluid, inadequate disposal of condensate in flowing steam or vapor in a liquid, erratic behaviour on viscous flows, and pressure loss higher than the century tube. Sharp edge, concentric orifice should be used on clean condition, non viscous fluid.

Figure 2. 7 Sharp Edge

 Quadrant edge The quadrant edge orifice is recommended for measurement of flows with Reynolds Number (based on pipe diameter) less than

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10.000. It is used in small sizes, where tolerance on the sharp edge orifice becomes increasingly difficult.

FLOW

Figure 2. 8 Quadrant Edge

II.4.2 Orifice plate casing There are three types orifice plate casing : a. Senior orifice This type has two chambers. We can change the orifice plates alone without turning-off flow. It has many kinds of size for pipes 2”- 48” and with pressure till 10.000 psi.

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Figure 2. 9 Senior Orifice

b. Simplex orifice Models of this types is simple because it is not a lot of parts, Easy for maintenance, designed for 3”-4” pipes diameter, generally used for gas well with high pressure till 1.000psi.

Figure 2. 10 Simplex orifice

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c. Flange orifice This is the simplest models, just clipped on between the flanges for installation. To change the plates, we must turn-off the flows and open all the nuts.

Figure 2. 11 Flange Orifice

II.4.3 Type of orifice tap connections They are several common tap locations for taking differential pressure measurement across primary element, they are: a. Flange taps The most commonly used taps location on pipe size 2 inches or larger are in the orifice flange or fitting. These taps are located 1 inch from the upstream face of the orifice plate and 1 inch from the downstream face.

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b. Pipe taps Pipe taps or full flows tape measure the permanent pressure loss across the orifice. The taps are located upstream as 2.5 pipe diameter and downstream 8 pipe diameter where the static pressure has reached its maximum following the vena contracta. The pipe type has many characteristic, such as:  The upstream tap is located at point a head of any pressure change caused by orifice plate.  The downstream tap is located at a point where maximum pressure recovery has been achieved. But this location has smaller differential pressure, so the measurement is less accurate.

Figure 2. 12 Pipe Taps and Flange Taps Connection

c. Corner taps

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Corner tap are located directly at the faces of the orifice plate. They are common used in Europe and are particularly useful for pipe size less than 2 inches. Possible difficulties using the tap corner include:  Small passage are vulnerable to plugging.  A test has indicated pressure instability in the region of the orifice plate.

Figure 2. 13 Corner Connection

d. Vena - contracta taps Vena contracta is the point where the minimum pressure caused by restriction on pipe made. Vena contracta taps are made at location which theoretically take advantage of the highest ∆P available at the orifice. The upstream is located on one the pipe diameter from the face of the orifice and the downstream tap is located at the vena contracta.

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Figure 2. 14 Vena - Contracta Connection

e. Radius taps Radius taps are a close approximation of vena contracta taps, at location one pipe diameter upstream and 0.5 pipe diameter downstream from the orifice plate face.

Figure 2. 15 Radius Tap Connection

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Taps are usually drilled at the top, side, or bottom of the orifice flange and sometimes at 45o angels from these point. The selection of this orientation is usually based on the type of the flowing fluids. a. Gas Taps are usually made on the top of the flange to allow condensate drainage back into the line. b. Liquid Taps are made at the side normally to prevent trapped gas bubble from interfacing the measurement and to prevent sludge or foreign particles from entering the leads line. c. Steam Taps are made at the top if the secondary device is located at the top of the plate and at the side if the secondary device is located at the bottom of the pipe. Connecting an additional pipe or tubing between orifice taps and secondary devices is usually slopped for drainage and vent purpose. II.4.4 Straightening vanes Gas flow in a pipe note laminar for all time. Sometimes after runs elbow, valve, pipe fitting makes pipe line uncertain. Where as in measurement, flow rate must be laminar. The function of straightening vanes is to neutralize uncertain gas flow at upstream orifice. The length of straightening vanes is usually 1”. Figure 2.13 to 2.16 show the location of straightening vanes and the minimum length of pipe run.

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Figure 2. 16 Straightening Vanes II.5 Chart Recorder Chart recorder is secondary element from orifice plate that is used to record the pressure drop and static pressure that caused by orifice plate. Chart recorder may have two or three recorder pens with different colors ink. This pens will write on the paper that is rotated around based on time. The actuator is a wound spring which must be playback use the certain key in replacement of paper. Some data which on recording chart are:  Static pressure The pressure which is measure in psia or psig at the upstream of orifice. The color of ink is black or blue.  Differential pressure The differential pressure between upstream and downstream which measure in inch H2O. The color of ink is red.  Time Shown the day and hour when static pressure and differential pressure is noted.

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 Temperature Temperature data is taken when changing chart recorder. The color ink is green. However, the gas temperature is usually measured by temperature gauge.

Figure 2. 17 Chart Recorder

There are two kinds of chart commonly used to record the flow rate, they are: II.5.1 Uniform scale chart types Linear chart has addition percentage value. It needs equal span length in the chart. Measuring the flow by linear chart can be done directly by diverting the flow factor with square root of the differential pressure and static pressure.

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Figure 2. 18 Chart Uniform Linear

II.5.2 Square root chart types This chart has addition percentage value. It does not equal span length in the chart.

Figure 2. 19 Chart Uniform Square Root

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II.5.3 Read chart The recording chart notes static and differential pressure. The recording chart can be read directly for linear chart and use the mathematic formula for square root chart. For these case, we must know the highest range of the static or differential pressure of the chart. The reading static or differential pressure at the time that we want, and compute the each pressure using: h = ∆P =
(∆ ( )

After that, we can compute the flow rate of gas using the formula: = ℎ

P = Static =

x∆P range
)

xStatic range

The others way to read chart are2 : a. Manual read chart The scratch on chart read of average time every 2 hours then summed and divided with total combination. Example : scratch pens on chart average per 2 hours is 7,50 the across to 12 and divided to 24 if we running the chart on 24 hours. b. Mechanical planimeter Planimeter is a measurement device used to read average reading the scratch on recording chart. Usually it is used to measure the

2

Tim Pusdiklat Migas : Metering.

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differential and static pressure with 7 days (weekly) or 24 hours (daily) period.

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CHAPTER III INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE

III.1

Equipment Installation

III.1.1 Local system

Figure 3. 1 Local system installation For this type installation, to measure the flow rate, we must do manually by reading the Barton charts. For this type, the operator must check the charts frequently depending on the role.

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III.1.2 Remote system

Figure 3. 2 Remote system This system makes the control automatically, the differential pressure transmitted by pressure transmitter so the operator can calculate the flow from pressure indicator. Chart Replacement Procedure3 Open by pass valve Close both block valve together Open vent valve (to 0 psig). Open cover box Pull up pen lift and take the old chart Straighten the lock chart and take it. Set/turning the clock until full.

III.2 • • • • • • •
3

Pusdiklat Migas, Tim, “Metering”

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• • • • • •

Check the pen/ink, replace if was broke. Install the new chart and matched with the installation time. Make zero static and differential pen by set from zero pen Close cover box Close vent valve Close the one of bypass valves Remove and Replace an Orifice Plate4

III.3

Figure 3. 3 Senior Orifice Parts Units

To remove Orifice plates : • • • •
4

Open no. 1 (Max. 2 turns only) Open no. 5 Rotate no. 6 after that rotate no. 7 Close no. 5 and then no. 1

Ibid. 27

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• • • • •

Open no. 10B Lubricate THRU no. 23 Loosen no. 11 (Don’t remove no. 12) Rotate no. 7 to free no. 9 and 9A Remove no. 12 and 9A

To Replace orifice plate Based on figure 3.3, to replace the orifice plate : • • Close 10B Rotate no. 7 slowly until plate carrier is clear of sealing bar and gasket level. Do not lower plate carrier on to slide valve. • • • • • • • • Replace no. 9A and 12. Tighten no.11. Open no. 1 and then no.5. Rotate no. 7 and then no,. 6. Close no. 5 and then no. 1 Open no. 10 B. Lubricate THRU no.23. Close no. 10B.

III.4

Maintenance

Based on James E. Galaghar (Natural Gas Measurement Handbook, 2006), he said :

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To minimize the financial risks, the frequency of testing, verification, calibration, certification, and maintenance of the primary device (orifice fitting, orifice plate, and meter tube) is governed by the operator of the facility and API “Electronic Gas Measurement”.5 III.4.1 Orifice plate and seal ring To ensure compliance with the artefact compliance technique, field inspection and verification of the orifice plate and seal ring shall be performed at predetermined intervals for the following criteria6: • • • • • • • • • • Plate bore diameter (proper diameter, circular shape). Concentricity of plate bore diameter to outer plate diameter. Edge sharpness-no nicks, burrs, or dull edge. Surface roughness of plate-no deposits or corrosion. Flatness of plate-no bent plates. Plate bore thickness. Bevel (if appropriate) angle and length. Forward facing plate-no backward plates. Protrusions and gaps associated with the seal ring. Integrity of the seal ring (cuts, swelling, and so forth). MPMS Chapter 2-1 Section 1,

5 6

James E. Galagher, “Natual Gas Measurement Handbook”, Houston, Texas, 2006. Loc.cit

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The documentation and results of these tests are part of the audit trail for the orifice flow meter (calibration documentation) and should be retained for the life of the orifice plate. III.4.2 Visual inspection of flow meter assembly To ensure compliance with the law of similarity (geometric and dynamic, visual internal inspection of the flow meter assembly should be performed at predetermined intervals. The inspection should evaluate the presence of pipeline route, liquids, grease, and particulates on the orifice plate, seal ring, ΔP sensing taps, dual-chamber fitting, and pipe walls. The assembly should be evaluated for blockage of the high-performance flow conditioner (HPFC), orifice plate seal, orifice plate damage, gasket protrusions, and so forth.

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CHAPTER IV GAS FLOW CALCULATION

The actually gas measurement principle is same with liquid measurement. But, gas measurement is more complicated because the gas properties is compressible so that means temperature and pressure affect gas volume. If we measure the gas flow on different pressure and same pipes diameter, we will get the different value. So, used standard for temperature and pressure of gas which is atmosphere pressure (14.73 psia) and temperature (60 oF).

IV.1

Flow Rate Calculation with Chart Recorder Before calculating flow rate of gas, we must have the data:

a. Primary device  Nominal size pipe  Orifice bore size  Pipe tap/flange tap b. Chart recorder  Static pressure reading  Differential pressure reading c. Gas sampling specific gravity d. Tables factor coefficient

IV.2

Calculation of Gas Flow Rate Using AGA Report No.3 Gas account method is used to get parameter displayed on

standard table, AGA-3 (American Gas Associated). Gas Measurement 32

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Committee Report 3 is used to get suitable parameter with local condition out of factor value available on table or account result that is made by AGA-3. In gas measurement, it has one kind of fusion unit. It is used to notify flow rate in cu Ft/hr with certain reference or base condition from pressure and temperature. It has notification to account gas flow rate in AGA – Gas Measurement Committee 3 and used the next formula:

Where: Qh C’

Q =C

h xP

(1)

= Quantity rate of flow at base condition in cu Ft/hr = The constant of orifice flow = Fb x Fr x Y x Fpb x Ftb x Fg x Ftf x Fpv x Fm x Fa x Fl …..(*)

hw Pf

= Differential pressure in inch H2 = Absolute static pressure in psia

For actual practice in field measurement and gas transportation, this text shall adopt the tab les and procedure s of the Interstate Oil Compact Commission, so equations 1 become: = ℎ (2)7

Where: Qk

= MCFD flow at a pressure base 14.65 psia and temperature base

at 60 oF.
7

RV. Smith, Practical Natural Gas Engineering.

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Fb

= Basic orifice factor. It depends on location of the tap and the

inside diameter of the run and size of the orifice (on the tables B1). Ft = Flowing temperature factor. This factor is used to change from

flowing temperature of 60 oF to actual flowing temperature F = Fg = Specific gravity factor. This factor is used to adjust for specific .

gravity F = Fpv

= Super compressibility factor. This factor is a variation from gas

ideal law of an actual gas is corrected by the Fpv factor (on the tables) F = . z valuesare given in figure D-2

EXAMPLE: Gas with a specific gravity of 0 .610 is flowing through a 1.689­in. Nominal meter run with-an orifice diameter of 0.75 in. The differential pressure is 20.5 in, of water, the flowing. Pressures
is 105"F. are

624 psia, and the temperature

calculate the rate of flow. The meter has flange taps.

Solution: Data: Pipe ID Orifice diameter Diff. Pressure (hw) Flowing Pressure (Pf) = 1.689 in = 0.75 in = 20.5 in H2O = 624 psia

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Flowing Tempt. (ft)

= 105oF

The equation (2) : = a) Fb (Base Orifice Factor) ℎ

From Table B1, Fb = 2,826. b). Flowing Tempt. Factor (Ft)

F = Ftf = 0.9594 c). Specific Gravity factor (fg)

F =

.

.

Fg = 1,2804 d) Super compressibility factor

From figure D2 : Pseudo critical Tempt. (Tsc) Pseudo reduced Tempt. (Tr) = 350 oR = (460+105)/350 = 1.6

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Pseudo critical pressure (Psc) Pseudo reduced pressure (Pr)

= 670 psia = 624/670 = 0.9

From figure D1 Z = 0.9136

F

=

,

.

Fpv = 1,036 So, the gas flow rate: = 2,826 0,9594 1,2804 1,036 √20.5 624

Qk = 406,9 MCFD at 14.65 psia and 60oF

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CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS

1) Until

now,

many

gas

companies

still

use

orifice

meter

as

instrumentation to calculate gas flow through the pipes, because it has more advantages, such as: • • • • • Low investment and operation costs. Suitable for liquids, gases, steam. Market available (parts and services) Easy for installation, operation and maintenance. Have good accuracy, rigidness, and simplicity to measuring.

2) Gas flow rate measurement is based on AGA Committee Report 3, which includes the orifice factor, differential pressure, static pressure to measure the gas flow rate. 3) The gas flow rate measurement recorder has two kinds, chart recorder and electronic flow meter. 4) The frequency of testing, verification, calibration, certification, and maintenance of the primary device (orifice fitting, orifice plate, and meter tube) can minimize the financial risks, increase the device life time and performance.

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REFERENCES
AGA Report Number 3.1 1990. Orifice Metering of Natural Gas and Other Related hydrocarbon Fluids. American National Standard. API MPMS Chapter 14.3 Part 2, 1992. Specifications and Installation Requirements Institute. Boyes, Walt. 2003. Instrumentation Reference Book. Burlington: 3rd Edition.Washington : American Petroleum

Butterworth Heinemann. Brown, Willis C, Hall, Malcolm B. 1921. The Orifice Meter and Gas Measurement. USA: Foxboro, Mass. Dunn, William C. 2005. Fundamentals of Industrial Instrument and Process Control. New York: McGraw-Hill. Gallagher, James E. 2006. Natural gas Measurement Handbook. Houston, Texas : Gulf Publishing. Morris, Alan S. 2001. Measurement and Instrumentation Principles. London: Butterworth Heinemann. Pusdiklat Migas, Tim. 2013. Gas Metering. Cepu: Pusdiklat Migas Cepu. R.V., Smith. 1990. Practical Natural Gas Engineering. Tulsa, Oklahoma : PennWell Books.

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APPENDIXES A ORIFICE DIAMETER RATIO

Figure A. 1 Minimum Length of Straight Pre Required Expressed in Nominal Pipe Diameters

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Figure A. 2 Minimum Length of Straight Pre Required Expressed in Nominal Pipe Diameters 40

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Figure A. 3 Minimum Length of Straight Pre Required Expressed in Nominal Pipe Diameters

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APPENDIXES B ORIFICE FACTOR DATA

Table B. 1 Basic Orifice Factor for Flange Taps, Fb

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Table B1-Continued

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Table B1-Continued

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Table B. 2 Basic Orifice Factor for Pipe Taps, Fb

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Table B2-Conttinued

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Table B2-Continued

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APENDIXES C PARTS & MATERIAL SENIOR ORIFICE

Table C. 1 Parts & Material of Orifice Meter
PAR TS AN D M ATERIALS N um ber R equired Size Part No. 1 1G 1H 1D 1K 1J 2 2A 3 4 5 5A -LH 5A -RH 5B 6 7 8D M 8E 9 9A 10F 10H 11 12 13 14 U 14 L 14 C 15 16 16A 17 17A 18 18A D escription Equalizer Valve (Complete): Stem Packing Nut Ball Packing W asher Packing Ring O perating W rench - Gear Shaft O perating W rench - Clamping Bar Slide V alve Strip Body Slide V alve G ear Shaft Slide V alve Indicator Plate - LH Slide V alve Indicator Plate - RH Slide V alve Indicator Pointer Lower Plate Carrier Gear Shaft U pper Plate Carrier Gear Shaft Plate Carrier (Com plete) O rifice Plate Sealing Unit Sealing Bar Sealing Bar Gasket Bleeder Valve (Com plete): Bleeder Valve Nipple Clamping Bar Screw Clamping Bar O rifice Plate (N ot Shown) Top - Upper Section Top - Lower Section Split Top Gasket Slide V alve Springs Slide V alve Carrier Guide V alve Carrier Guide Screws Slide V alve Carrier Slide V alve Carrier Stop Pin Slide V alve Seat Slide Valve Seat /Top Gasket M aterial 316 Stainless Steel Carbon Steel CP Plated) Carbide Tungsten 17-4PH Stainless Steel Teflon D uctile Iron D uctile Iron Type 410 Stainless Steel Cast Carbon Steel 316 SS Cast Aluminum Cast Aluminum Stainless Steel 316 SS 316 SS Carbon Steel (N ot Shown) Nitrile Carbon Steel (CP) Composite CS/W /304SS Carbon Steel A lloy Steel (CP) Carbon Steel (CP) Type 304 or 316 Stainless Steel Cast Carbon Steel Cast Carbon Steel Composite 316 SS 316 SS A lloy Steel Cast Steel Carbon Steel (CP) Cast Alloy Iron Composite 28" 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 1 22 2 4 1 2 1 1 30" 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 24 1 1 1 1 1 22 2 4 1 2 1 1

(Cadmium

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18B 21 A 21 B 21 C 21 D 21 E 21 F 21 G 21 H 21 J 21 K 23 24 30 31 32 33 34 35 B 35 D 36 A 37 C 41 A 41 B 42 43 44 A 44 B 44 C 44 D 44 E

Slide V alve Seat Screw Lower Stuffing Box Body Stuffing Box Packing Nut Stuffing Box Packing Glands Stuffing Box Springs

A lloy Steel Phosphate Treat Carbon Steel (CP) Carbon Steel (CP) Stainless Steel 316 SS

44 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 48 2 2 2 2 4 88 88 1 2 4 1 4 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

44 4 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 48 2 2 2 2 4 88 88 1 2 4 1 4 2 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Stuffing Bo x Packing Retaining W 316 SS asher Stuffing Box Bushing and Spring 316 SS Retainer Stuffing Box Bushing Set Screws Stuffing Box Gasket Stuffing Box Packing U pper Stuffing Box Body G rease Gun (Com plete) G rease Seal Double Ball Check Valve D rain V alve Plug Meter Tap Plug (½ " NPT) H ex Nut Studs External Plate Carrier Gear Shaft External Rollers External Roller Retaining Rings External Roller Shaft Plate Carrier G uide Bracket Bushing Plate Carrier Guide Bracket G uide Bracket Hold D own Screws Plate Carrier Stop Plate Carrier Stop Attachment Bolt Plate Carrier Brake Body Plate Carrier Brake Band Monel Stainless Steel Teflon Carbon Steel (CP) Carbon Steel (CP) 316 SS Carbon Steel (CP) A lloy Steel A lloy Steel A lloy Steel 316 SS Brass A lloy Steel 316 SS Bronze Cast Steel A lloy Steel Carbon Steel A lloy Steel Cast Steel Bronze

Plate Carrier Brake A djustment Bolt A lloy Steel and N ut Carrier Brake Sleeve Plate Carbon Steel Plate Carrier Brake Attachment Bolt A lloy Steel

Notes: 1. W hen venting top chamber (14L & 14U ) through Bleeder V alve (10F), direct fluid and/or gas to a safe area using the threaded connection at the valve discharge port.

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2. All Daniel Senior® Orifice Fittings are supplied w ith pipe plugs on one side only. If additional quan tities are required, please contact the factory direct. * Indicates Interchan geable Parts for all line sizes of specified pressure rating(s). G eneral N otes: • • • M ost parts available in other materials upon specification. CS (Carbon Steel), CP (Cad mium Plated). The materials listed above indicated standard “A” trim. Various part materials are changed for “NACE” & "AASG" trim fittings. • Shaded part numbers are for items which are fluid med ia PIC

(parts in contact).

WHEN ORDERING PARTS, PLEASE SPECIFY: (1) catalog number, (2) size, (3) serial number and date of the original purchase, (4) part number, (5) material, (6) quantity of parts required.

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Figure C. 1 Senior Orifice Parts (1)

Figure C. 2 Senior orifice parts (2)

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Figure C. 3 Senior Orifice Parts (3)

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Figure C. 4Senior Orifice Parts (4)

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APPENDIXES D NATURAL GAS PROPERTIES

Figure D. 1 The Compressibility Factor for Natural Gas

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Figure D. 2 Natural Gas Properties for Pseudo Temperature and Pressure

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