Distillation using the Ponchon-Savarit method with alpha

by Mark Burns and James Sung Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan Example from Geankoplis, 1993, p. 674 D= Xd = 41.18 0.95 mol/hr 1.2
1.0 Axis Title 0.8 100000.0 80000.0

F= Xf =

100 0.45

mol/hr

H or h

R= alpha = q= E(ML) =

1.755 2.5 1.195 1

0.6 0.4 0.2
0.0

60000.0 40000.0 20000.0 0.0 -20000.0
-40000.0 -60000.0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

0.0 W= Xw = Pure component enthalpies Saturated Saturated Liquid Vapor hB = 5109 HB = 38439 hA = 0 HA = 30820 Qr = Qc = J/mol J/mol 4138403.7 J/hr -3510493.9 J/hr 58.82 0.1 mol/hr Axis Title

2.0

Number of Stages = 11 Minimum Reflux = 1.16

-80000.0
Y or X

Ponchon-Savarit Diagram >>>>>>> Graphical Representation of Successive Substitution Distillate 41.18 0.95 Tray 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 x 0.88372 0.79762 0.69951 0.60308 0.52114 0.45970 0.39707 0.31272 0.21777 0.13026 0.06326 y 0.95 0.90786 0.85337 0.79160 0.73124 0.68021 0.62213 0.53216 0.41038 0.27242 0.14444 done Bottoms 58.82 0.1 mol/hr Desired Xw Points for use on McCabe-Thiele (X-Y) plot - Only one decimal place used for the sake of clarity x 45 Degree line Equilibrium line Stripping line Enriching line q line Distillation(MT) op 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.0 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.5 0.7 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 Data points for use on enthalpy-concentration plot - Only one decimal place used for the sake of clarity x Sat. liquid Sat. vapor Equilibrium (PS) h H Mass balance h H 0.0 5109.0 38439.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 -65754.8 1.0 0.0 30820.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 37677.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 4785.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 37338.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 4443.5 0.0 0.0 0.3 36363.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 3996.4 0.1 -65754.8 0.4 35312.3 0.1 37338.5 0.3 3511.3 0.1 -65754.8 0.5 34384.4 0.3 36363.4 0.4 3080.4 0.1 -65754.8 0.6 33699.0 0.4 35312.3 0.5 2760.4 0.1 -65754.8 0.7 33256.5 0.5 34384.4 0.5 2446.5 0.1 -65754.8 0.7 32867.7 0.6 33699.0 0.6 2027.9 1.0 85510.3 0.8 32407.8 0.5 2446.5 0.7 1535.2 1.0 85510.3 0.9 31937.2 0.6 2027.9 0.8 1033.9 1.0 85510.3 0.9 31522.0 0.7 1535.2 0.9 594.1 1.0 85510.3 1.0 31201.0 0.8 1033.9 1.0 85510.3 0.9 594.1 1.0 85510.3 1.0 255.5 Enriching Line y= 0.637 x + 0.345 Sat. Liquid line h= -5109 x + 5109.000 Sat. Vapor line H= -7619 x + 38439.000 Point D' x= 0.95 H' = 85510.3 Point W' x= 0.1 h' = -65754.8 Switching point x= 0.484299 McCabe-Thiele Plot Ponchon-Savarit Plot

mol/hr Desired Xd

Stripping Line y= 1.442 x + -0.044

Feed 100 mol/hr 0.45 Xf hF -3469.1475

q line y= 6.128 x + -2.308 x= Intersection (q,enriching) x= 0.483 y= 0.653 Intersection (q,equilibrium) x= 0.492 y= 0.708

R= alpha = q= E(ML) = # of Stages Min. reflux Qc Qr

1.755 2.5 1.195 1 11 1.16 -3510493.926 4138403.676

equil 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0

Feed line 0.1 0.5 1.0

-65754.8 -3469.1 85510.3

Minimum reflux data x= 0.5 y= 0.7 h(x) = 2595.1 H(y) = 33046.6 H' = h(Xd) = H(Yd) = 67244.9 255.5 31201.0

Notation (1) Color convention Black line in McCabe-Thiele plot denotes y=x line Black lines in Ponchon-Savarit plot denote enthalpy-concentration lines Blue-colored values denote spreadsheet-calculated values Blue line in McCabe-Thiele and Ponchon-Savarit plots denote stage steps Green line in McCabe-Thiele plot denotes equilibrium line Magenta line in McCabe-Thiele plot denotes q line Red line in McCabe-Thiele and Ponchon-Savarit plots denote operating lines Yellow boxes denote required data entry (2) Variable Descriptions alpha b_e b_q b_sat_liq b_sat_vap D E(ML) equil_hi equil_ps_Hi F H_del_D H_del_W hF liq_hA liq_hB m_e m_q1 m_q2 m_sat_liq m_sat_vap massbal_hi massbalance_Hi min_trays min_reflux mintray_equil_i mintray_op_i mt_equil_i mt_op_i mt_x_i q Qc Qr R root_i slope_stripping stages stage_number vap_HA vap_HB W X_del_D X_del_W x_i Xd Xf Xint_q_enrich Xint_q_equ Xs Xw y_i Yint_q_enrich Yint_q_equ Relative volatility (ratio of partial pressures if system obey's Raoult's Law) Y-axis intersection of enriching line Y-axis intersection of q line Y-intercept of the saturated liquid line Y-intercept of the saturated vapor line Distillate flowrate Murphree tray efficiency based on the liquid phase Equilibrium (tie line) point i on saturated vapor line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps Equilibrium (tie line) point i on saturated liquid line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps Feed flowrate H-position of the "D" point H-position of the "W" point Feed enthalpy Enthalpy of saturated A liquid Enthalpy of saturated B liquid Slope of the enriching line Slope of the q line when q is not equal to 1 X-position of q-line when q=1 (i.e., Xf) Slope of the saturated liquid line Slope of the saturated vapor line Mass balance point i on saturated vapor line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps Mass balance point i on saturated liquid line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps Stage-number vector used to determine minimum number of stages required (at infinite reflux) Minimum reflux (at infinite number of stages) Equilibrium line point i used to find minimum number of stages Operating line point i used to find minimum number of stages Equilibrium line point number i used for stage step plotting on McCabe-Thiele plot Operating line point number i used for stage step plotting on McCabe-Thiele plot Point number i for x-axis plotting on McCabe-Thiele plot Feed quality Condenser heat duty Reboiler heat duty Reflux ratio Root of quadratic equation used to find intersection of of q and equilibrium lines Slope of the stripping line Number of stages required to achieve desired Xw Stage-number vector used to determine number of stages required to achieve desired Xw Enthalpy of saturated A vapor Enthalpy of saturated B vapor Bottoms flowrate X-position of the "D" point X-position of the "W" point Fraction of lower boiling component in liquid leaving stage i Fraction of lower boiling component in distillate Fraction of lower boiling component in feed X-intersect of q and enriching lines X-intersect of q and equilibrium lines X-position of switching point Fraction of lower boiling component in bottoms Fraction of lower boiling component in vapor leaving stage i Y-intersect of q and enriching lines Y-intersect of q and equilibrium lines