Postnationalism

Mabel Berezin
SubjectSociology » Government, Politics, and Law, Sociology of Development Key-Topicsimperialism DOI:10.1111/b.9781405124331.2007.x

Sections
  Postnationalism REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READINGS

Postnationalism as an analytic frame articulates with a hypothesized decline of the nation-state in the face of globalization and reterritorialization (Berezin 2003; Ansell 2004). The increasing presence of immigrants on the territories of established nationstates, particularly but not exclusively in Europe, has pushed the discussion of postnationalism to the forefront of social science research. Soysal (1994) describes immigrant organizations in six European nation-states. Soysal identifies four types of “incorporation regimes” and argues that a new form of postnational citizenship has emerged that decouples territory from legal membership. Trans-territorial membership is based upon human rights – the rights of persons as persons, rather than persons as citizens of nation-states. Scholars have contested the postnational argument – Soysal's variant as well as other articulations of it (e.g., Jacobson 1996; Tambini 2001). Postnationalism as theory is based on a paradox that squares poorly with political reality (Eder & Giesen 2001). Postnationalism upholds the autonomy of national cultural difference at the expense of political membership. By privileging culture and nature, nationality and humanity over territorially based institutional ties, postnationalism as concept leaves itself open to criticism that it is utopian and, that in practice, it may actually threaten the legal rights of migrants Empirical research based on Europe underscores the point that a European is only European, as defined by the European Union, if he or she is a citizen of one of the member states. Koopman and Statham (1999) tested the postnational hypothesis by examining immigrant claims in Britain and Germany. They found that minorities structure their claims in the language of citizenship and rights prevailing in the national territory in which they find themselves and not in terms of the national identities and cultural practices of their homeland. Bhabha (1999) demonstrates, using data from cases before the European Court of Justice, that residents of a territory who are not legally incorporated members of the territory (i.e., citizens) have little recourse to the full array of constitutionally protected rights. Many of her examples focus on marriage. Citizens of non-member states, even if married to naturalized citizens, face the threat of deportation. Legally, transnationality within Europe is a tightly bounded concept. Indeed, the juridical evidence makes postnationalism appear moot. The continuing hegemony of the nation-state, even in the presence of an expanding European Union, suggests why

Kastoryano. Princeton. Princeton. M. (1999) Challenging the Liberal Nation-State? Postnationalism. A. 1–30. K. Oxford University Press. pp. & Statham. Evans 1997. M. Baltimore. Paul et al.. & Schain. D. Multiculturalism. Oxford. 2004. Berezin. . (Eds. J. Oxford University Press. Eder. G. Citizenship and Identity in a Transnational Age. B.. M. compelling counter-arguments exist from a purely structuralist and normative perspective that suggest that the territorially defined nation-state is hardly withering away (e.. (1996) Rights Across Borders: Immigration and the Decline of Citizenship. Giesen.). & Di Palma. pp. (Eds. J. and the Collective Claims Making of Migrants and Ethnic Minorities in Britain and Germany. Cambridge University Press. American Journal of Sociology (105) (3): 652– 96. G. R. Jacobson. Ikenberry. Bhabha. C. V. K. SEE ALSO: Citizenship. Nation-State and Nationalism. Johns Hopkins University Press. C. T. Migration: International. Despite the scholarly discourse on postnationalism. Mann. (2004) Restructuring Authority and Territoriality: Europe and the United States Compared. J. M. Baltimore. K. Emotion and Identity: Spatial Recalibration in a New Europe. The continued legal and cultural importance of the national state coupled with a resurgence of ethnic nationalism throughout the world suggest that we are a long way from a postnational political or cultural universe. 3–16. (Eds. Johns Hopkins University Press. Princeton University Press.” “Transnational” captures the hybrid potential implicit in the “postnational” without attenuating the difficulties of a rapidly diversifying Europe (Kastoryano 2002). Culture.“transnational” is a better descriptor of the contemporary European political culture than “postnational. World Politics (50) (1): 62–87. Koopmans. International Social Science Journal (159) (March): 11–23.). R.) (2004) The Nation-State in Question. (Eds.g. Princeton University Press. In: Berezin. (1999) Belonging in Europe: Citizenship and Post-National Rights. Mann 1997. Restructuring Territoriality: Europe and the United States Compared. Europe Without Borders: Remapping Territory. P. (1997) Has Globalization Ended the Rise and Rise of the Nation-State? Review of International Political Economy (4) (Autumn): 472–96. (2002) Negotiating Identities: States and Immigrants in France and Germany. New York. Cambridge. (2003) Territory. Evans. Paul. P. Waldinger & Fitzgerald 2004). Nationalism Ansell. In: Ansell. & Hall.) (2001) European Citizenship between National Legacies and Postnational Projects. (1997) The Eclipse of the State? Reflections on Stateness in an Era of Globalization.

com/subscriber/tocnode?id=g978140512 4331_chunk_g978140512433122_ss1-80> . Ethnic and Racial Studies (24) (2): 195– 217.sociologyencyclopedia. Tambini. Previous Entry Next Entry Cite this article Berezin. Blackwell Publishing. American Journal of Sociology (109) (5): 1177–95. Y. D.fr:443/http/www. N. Waldinger.Soysal. Chicago." Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology. 10 May 2012 <https://acces-distant. Mabel. 2007. Blackwell Reference Online. & Fitzgerald.sciencespo. University of Chicago Press. D. Ritzer. (2001) Post-National Citizenship. R. "Postnationalism. (1994) Limits of Citizenship. (2004) Transnationalism in Question. George (ed).