Distillation (data, heat) Geankoplis Ex. 11.

6-1

Distillation using the Ponchon-Savarit Method with equilibrium
and enthalpy data points

20000.0

by Mark Burns and James Sung
Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Michigan
D=
Xd =

53.85
0.91

R=
q=
E(ML) =

0.29
0.45
1

15000.0

lb mol/hr
H or h

Example from King, 1980, p. 278

10000.0

5000.0

F=

100

Xf =

0.5

lb mol/hr

0.0

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

-5000.0

Y or X

Qr =

927826.457

BTU/hr

Qc =

-97849.459

BTU/hr

W=
Xw =

46.15
0.02

lbmol/hr
Num ber of Stages Required
13=
Ponchon-Savarit Diagram >>>>>>>>

1.0

Axis Title

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0
0.0

0.2

Axis Title

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

Equilibrium and Enthalpy Data
Equilibrium
Point #
X
Y
0
0.000
0.000
1
0.010
0.253
2
0.020
0.425
3
0.050
0.624
4
0.100
0.755
5
0.150
0.798
6
0.200
0.815
7
0.300
0.830
8
0.400
0.839
9
0.500
0.849
10
0.600
0.859
11
0.700
0.874
12
0.800
0.898
13
0.900
0.935
14
1.000
1.000

Enthalpy
X or Y
0.000
0.020
0.050
0.100
0.300
0.500
0.600
1.000
1.000
1.000
1.000

units=
h
0
-433
-776
-1047
-840
-391
-262
0
0
0
0

BTU/lb-mol
H
17510
17210
16950
16650
15690
14975
14600
12980
12980
12980
12980

Warning: Error w ill occur if all h or all
H values are constant.

Graphical Representation of Successive Substitution

Feed
100
0.5
hF(sat liq)
-391
HF(sat vap)
14975
h'F
8060.3

mol/hr
Xf

Qr
927826.5
Qc
-97849.5

R=
q=
E(ML) =
# of Stages

0.29
0.45
1
13

Tray

x

y

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

0.83243
0.77933
0.73267
0.68836
0.62905
0.52738
0.32794
0.14876
0.11377
0.10713
0.09144
0.04886
0.01111
-

0.91
0.89304
0.88184
0.87225
0.86336
0.85174
0.83251
0.79694
0.76684
0.76113
0.73258
0.61642
0.27216
done
-

McCabe-Thiele Plot
Distillate
53.85 mol/hr
0.91 Desired Xd Enriching Line
y=
0.224

Ponchon-Savarit Plot

x + 0.707

Saturated Liquid Line (from least-squares regression)
h=
1252.3536
x^2 +
-708.8857
x+
-518.4295
R^2 =
.7447

Stripping Line
y=
4.212

x + -0.069

Saturated Vapor Line (from least-squares regression)
H=
936.6227
y^2 +
-5247.9716
y + 17301.9994
R^2 =
.9985

q line
y=

x + 0.909

Point D'
x=
0.91
H' =
17169.34272

-0.818

Intersection (q,enriching)
x=
0.194
y=
0.750

Point W'
x=
0.0215
h' =
-2570.61937
Sw itching Point
x=
0.11

Bottom s
46.15 mol/hr
0.022 Desired Xw
Determ ine Quadratic Least Squares Fit for the Enthalpy Curves
Saturated Liquid

X_1 =

XT_1 =

a_6 =
a_5 =
a_4 =

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0.00
0.02
0.05
0.10
0.30
0.50
0.60
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.09
0.25
0.36
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

1
0.00
0.00

1
0.02
0.00

1
0.05
0.00

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

0.00
0.02
0.05
0.10
0.30
0.50
0.60
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.09
0.25
0.36
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00

1
0.00
0.00

1
0.02
0.00

1
0.05
0.00

f_1 =

1
0.10
0.01

1
0.30
0.09

0
-433
-776
-1047
-840
-391
-262
0
0
0
0

1
0.50
0.25

1
0.60
0.36

1
1.00
1.00

1
1.00
1.00

1
1.00
1.00

1
1.00
1.00

1
0.60
0.36

1
1.00
1.00

1
1.00
1.00

1
1.00
1.00

1
1.00
1.00

-518.4294518
-708.8856691
1252.353571

Saturated Vapor

X_2 =

XT_2 =

a_3 =
a_2 =
a_1 =

f_2 =

1
0.10
0.01

1
0.30
0.09

17510
17210
16950
16650
15690
14975
14600
12980
12980
12980
12980

1
0.50
0.25

17301.99936
-5247.971631
936.6226832
Data points for use on McCabe-Thiele (MT) plot - Only one decim al place used for the sake of clarity
x
45 Degree line
Equilibrium line
Stripping line
Enriching line
q line
Distillation (MT) steps: op
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.4
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.6
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.8
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.8
0.0
0.2
0.2
0.8
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.8
0.0
0.4
0.4
0.8
0.0
0.5
0.5
0.8
0.0
0.6
0.6
0.9
0.0
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.0
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.0
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.8
0.0
0.9
0.9
0.1
0.5
0.5
0.1
0.2
0.8
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.1
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9

equil
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.3
0.6
0.6
0.7
0.7
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.8
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9

Data points for use on enthalpy-concentration plot - Only one decim al place used for the sake of clarity
x
Sat. liquid data Sat. vapor data Sat. liquid correlation
Sat. vapor correlation Equil. (PS) h
0.0
0.0
17510.0
-518.4
17302.0
0.0
0.0
-433.0
17210.0
-532.1
17197.4
0.0
0.1
-776.0
16950.0
-550.7
17041.9
0.0
0.1
-1047.0
16650.0
-576.8
16786.6
0.0
0.3
-840.0
15690.0
-618.4
15811.9
0.0
0.5
-391.0
14975.0
-559.8
14912.2
0.0
0.6
-262.0
14600.0
-492.9
14490.4
0.0
1.0
0.0
12980.0
25.0
12990.7
0.0
1.0
0.0
12980.0
25.0
12990.7
0.0
1.0
0.0
12980.0
25.0
12990.7
0.0
1.0
0.0
12980.0
25.0
12990.7
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.6
0.1
0.7
0.1
0.8
0.1
0.8
0.1
0.8
0.3
0.8
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.9
0.7
0.9
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.9

H
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-526.2
15943.1
-550.1
14423.0
-572.8
13960.1
-580.0
13850.2
-582.9
13828.4
-596.2
13714.6
-616.2
13582.1
-544.0
13511.6
-468.8
13469.3
-413.0
13437.0
-365.5
13402.5
-310.3
13362.3
-240.7
13302.0

Mass balance
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.3
0.0
0.6
0.0
0.7
0.9
0.1
0.9
0.1
0.9
0.3
0.9
0.5
0.9
0.6
0.9
0.7
0.9
0.7
0.9
0.8
0.9
0.8
0.9
0.9

h

H
-2570.6
17189.6
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0
-2570.6
15943.1
-2570.6
14423.0
-2570.6
13960.1
17169.3
-582.9
17169.3
-596.2
17169.3
-616.2
17169.3
-544.0
17169.3
-468.8
17169.3
-413.0
17169.3
-365.5
17169.3
-310.3
17169.3
-240.7
17169.3
-126.4

Feed line
0.0
0.5
0.9

-2570.6
8060.3
17169.3

Notation
(1) Color convention
Black line in McCabe-Thiele plot denotes y=x line
Black lines in Ponchon-Savarit plot denote enthalpy-concentration lines
Blue-colored values denote spreadsheet-calculated values
Blue line in McCabe-Thiele and Ponchon-Savarit plots denote stage steps
Green line in McCabe-Thiele plot denotes equilibrium line
Magenta line in McCabe-Thiele plot denotes q line
Red line in McCabe-Thiele and Ponchon-Savarit plots denote operating lines
Yellow boxes denote required data entry
(2) Variable Descriptions
a_i
alpha
b_e
b_q
b_sat_liq
b_sat_vap
D
E(ML)
enth_h_i
enth_Hi
equil_x_i
enth_xy_i
equil_y_i
F
f_1,2
H_del_D
H_del_W
h_i
hF
hF_sat_liq
HF_sat_vap
liq_hA
liq_hB
m_e
m_i,b_i,y1_i,y2_i
m_q1
m_q2
m_sat_liq
m_sat_vap
mintray_op_i
mintray_equil_i
ps_equil_hi
ps_equil_Hi
ps_massbal_hi
ps_massbal_Hi
q
Qc
Qr
R
root_i
sat_liq_constant_term
sat_liq_x_term
sat_liq_xsquared_term
slope,m
stage_number
stages
step_equil_i
step_op_i
W
vap_HA
vap_HB
X_1,2
X_del_D
X_del_W
Xd
Xf
Xint_q_enrich
Xint_q_equ
Xs
XT_1,2
Xw
xx_i
y_i
Yint_q_enrich
Yint_q_equ

Coefficients in enthalpy data quadratic curve fits
Relative volatility (ratio of partial pressures if system obey's Raoult's Law )
Y-axis intersection of enriching line
Y-axis intersection of q line
Y-intercept of the saturated liquid line
Y-intercept of the saturated vapor line
Distillate flow rate
Murphree tray efficiency based on the liquid phase
Saturated liquid enthalpy corresponding to enth_xy_i
Saturated vapor enthalpy corresponding to enth_xy_i
X value number i used as equilibrium data
X or Y values number i used as enthalpy data
Y value number i, corresponding to equil_x_i used as equilibrium data
Feed flow rate
Right-hand-side vectors used for liquid and vapor quadritic curve fits
H-position of the "D" point
H-position of the "W" point
Enthalpy of liquid leaving stage i
Feed enthalpy
Feed enthalpy if it w ere a saturated liquid
Feed enthalpy if it w ere a saturated vapor
Enthalpy of saturated A liquid
Enthalpy of saturated B liquid
Slope of the enriching line
Intermediate variables used to calculate y_i values
Slope of the q line w hen q is not equal to 1
X-position of q-line w hen q=1 (i.e., Xf)
Slope of the saturated liquid line
Slope of the saturated vapor line
Operating line point i used to find minimum number of stages
Equilibrium line point i used to find minimum number of stages
Equilibrium (tie line) point i on saturated vapor line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps
Equilibrium (tie line) point i on saturated liquid line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps
Mass balance point i on saturated vapor line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps
Mass balance point i on saturated liquid line on Ponchon-Savarit stage steps
Feed quality
Condenser heat duty
Reboiler heat duty
Reflux ratio
Root of quadratic equation used to find intersection of of q and equilibrium lines
Constant in saturated liquid correlation
Second-order coefficient in saturated liquid correlation
First-order coefficient in saturated liquid correlation
Used to calculate location of sw itching point, Xs
Stage-number vector used to determine number of stages required to achieve desired Xw
Number of stages required to achieve desired Xw
Equilibrium line point number i used for stage step plotting on McCabe-Thiele plot
Operating line point number i used for stage step plotting on McCabe-Thiele plot
Bottoms flow rate
Enthalpy of saturated A vapor
Enthalpy of saturated B vapor
Coefficient matrices used for liquid and vapor quadratic curve fits
X-position of the "D" point
X-position of the "W" point
Fraction of low er boiling component in distillate
Fraction of low er boiling component in feed
X-intersect of q and enriching lines
X-intersect of q and equilibrium lines
X-position of sw itching point
Transposed X_1 and X_2 matrices
Fraction of low er boiling component in bottoms
Fraction of low er boiling component in liquid leaving stage i
Fraction of low er boiling component in vapor leaving stage i
Y-intersect of q and enriching lines
Y-intersect of q and equilibrium lines