Building New Homes

Residential Design Guide,

Volume 1

Supplementary Planning Document Adopted November 2008

Planning for a Better Watford
0429 - 11/08

P. 1

A work programme for Watford’s Local Development Framework 2005-2008

Local Development Scheme

'Building New Homes', Residential Design Guide SPD, Volume 1 Watford Borough Council

Contents
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Introduction 1.1 Purpose, aims and objectives 1.2 Status of the Guide 1.3 Statement of community involvement 1.4 Structure of the Guide Policy Context 2.1 National planning policy 2.2 Design guidance and advice 2.3 The Development Plan 2.4 Summary Achieving Design Quality - Key Design Principles 3.1 Response to context 3.2 Character and distinctiveness 3.3 Quality buildings and spaces 3.4 Movement, access and permeability 3.5 Mixed development 3.6 Efficient use of land 3.7 Safety and security 3.8 Amenity 3.9 Continuity and enclosure 3.10 Sustainability 3.11 Inclusive design and mobility 3.12 Biodiversity The Watford Context 4.1 Residential development in Watford 4.2 Character areas 4.3 Watford Town Centre - the Historic Core 4.4 Victorian and Edwardian terraces 4.5 Late 19th and Mid 20th Century detached housing 4.6 1920s municipal housing 4.7 Inter-war semi-detached housing 4.8 1950s-1960s housing estates 4.9 Late 20th Century (1970s to mid-1990s) 4.10 Higher density: mid-1990s onwards Site and Context Appraisal 5.1 Context appraisal 5.2 Site appraisal 5.3 Checklists for context and site appraisal

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6 Residential amenity space 7.2 Boundaries 7.1 Checklist: materials and architecural detailing Sustainable Development 9.1 Energy conservation 9.8 Car parking 6. Volume 1 Contents 6 Layout Principles 6.2 Water supply and drainage 9.10 Waste Storage and Recycling Building Form and Siting 7.7 Flexibility and adaptability 7.6 Density 6.1 Response to context 6.4 Checklist: sustainable development Planning Application Requirements 10.4 Privacy and outlook 7.2 Environmental Statements 10. Residential Design Guide SPD.Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.1 Building line and setbacks 7.3 Creating a movement network 6.3 Waste storage in new housing 9.3 Building size and scale 7.3 Design and Access Statements 10.5 Layout and form 6. sunlight and overshadowing 7.9 Checklist: layout principles 6.7 Ownership and security 6.2 Creating character 6.4 Creating a neighbourhood 6.8 Checklist: building form and siting Materials and architectural detailing 8.5 Daylight.1 Compulsory submission requirements 10.4 Additional information Bibliography Appendices Key Design Principles Master Checklist Glossary 47 47 48 49 51 51 54 54 55 57 59 61 61 62 63 64 67 69 69 70 72 73 75 75 77 78 79 80 80 81 81 82 86 90 93 96 106 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 3 .

It will assist architects and developers to formulate design proposals for new development. as well as the policies set out in the Council’s adopted development plan (see Section 2: Policy Context).1.1 Watford Borough Council is committed to embracing the Government’s housing agenda to improve the quality of new residential development and to create sustainable communities for existing and future residents of the borough. the Residential Design Guide will form a material consideration in the determination of planning applications. both public and private. Residential Design Guide SPD. The Watford Residential Design Guide provides clear guidance embodying this commitment.3 1. The overall objectives of the guide are to encourage residential development which: responds to local context. provides high standards of amenity space.1 Purpose.2 . 1. mixed-use.4 The guide also provides guidance on meeting the goals of sustainable development and provides a checklist of planning application requirements.1 This Residential Design Guide has been produced by Watford Borough Council in conjunction with Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners Ltd. As such. and/or creates an identifiable character of its own.2. is of the highest standard in terms of the quality of architecture and the public realm. It has been adopted by the Council as Supplementary Planning Document.2 1. and.2 Status of the Guide 1.1. SPG 4: Privacy Guidelines.1. design and development of new housing. town centre redevelopment schemes. The guide is aimed at all stakeholders involved in the planning. and SPG14: Designing for Community Safety (all adopted October 2001). provides safe and secure environments. promotes “sustainable neighbourhoods”. SPG5: Private Gardens. It provides a robust set of design principles which can be applied to proposals ranging from new." A separate “Householder Development” design guide has been prepared by the Council to provide advice on proposals involving minor extensions and alterations to existing dwellings. These principles will contribute to the achievement of the local authority’s and Government’s agenda to improve the quality of new development and the Council’s goal of creating “sustainable neighbourhoods. including guidance on the preparation of Design and Access Statements.'Building New Homes'. to aid in the creation and preservation of high quality residential environments throughout the borough of Watford. 1.1. in particular housebuilders and their professional advisors. 1. individual dwellings to large-scale. aims and objectives 1. namely: SPG8: Extensions. It replaces the Council’s existing Supplementary Planning Guidance. and Council officers in the provision of pre-application advice.2. The Residential Design Guide is consistent with national and regional planning guidance. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 4 Introduction 1 1 Introduction 1. where appropriate.

and approximately 30 attended.2 Key Issues Raised in December 2005 consultations: Councillors raised concerns about site access. access to quality amenity space.3. Watford Police.1 An ongoing programme of consultation has guided the preparation of this document. 1.3.4 . the choice and quality of photos and maps and spelling mistakes.3 Over the next five years Watford’s Local Development Framework (LDF) will replace the Watford District Plan 2000.3. A copy of the RDG was given to all Councillors and the One Watford -Equalities Panel as part of the consultation. 1.3. Residential Design Guide SPD. Public Consultation March 2007: A public consultation on the Residential Design Guide took place between 9th March and 19th April 2007 and was conducted by the Council. The following provides a summary of the consultation process by the consultants at the onset of the document: Saturday 3 December 2005 . Councillors were concerned about the distinction between Permitted Development and development that requires planning permission and the practicalities of enforcing certain policies. PPS12: Local Development Frameworks notes that SPDs will not be subject to independent examination and will not form part of the statutory development plan.Presentation to.Presentation and workshops with invited stakeholder groups. Consultation with Council officers. 1. At the same time we consulted on the draft Sustainability Appraisal with integrated SEA (SA/ SEA) for the Residential Design Guide. parking and traffic issues. the flexibility of policies for larger detached properties and the choice of building materials in new-builds. All statutory consultees and wide range of organisations. Monday 5 December 2005 . nature conservation and green spaces. the Community Services and the Equalities Panel were invited to the statutory consultation.3 Statement of community involvement 1. Ultimately. key stakeholders and the wider community has been undertaken. Key Issues Raised in March 2007 consultation: Issues that were raised were about the importance of context and area appraisals. also in accordance with statutory requirements. mixed communities. community safety and planning for safer places and car parking. backland infill resulting in cramming and a loss of larger houses. Monday 5 December 2005 .5 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. and pastiche versus modern architectural design. Many comments were concerned about historical facts. sustainable design solutions. rubbish storage facilities. Comments on the Sustainability Appraisal demanded more reference to nature conservation and sustainable design issues in the guide and to mitigation measures in the SA/ SEA and subsequently developed local planning guidance in the LDF.3 1. and discussion with. members. but they should be subject to rigorous procedures of community involvement.2. such as CABE. Approximately 300 individuals and groups were invited.Presentation and Workshop with Watford Councillors structured around CABE’s Building for Life toolkit. Planning Officers and key stakeholders. Volume 1 1 Introduction 1. this guide will be adopted within the LDF as a Supplementary Planning Document (SPD). English Heritage.

4.4. which includes a list of useful websites. Sections 5 to 9 of the Guide are supported by checklists.4. Unless otherwise stated.3. 1. 11.1 The Guide contains the following sections: 1.3 to 1. 8. All responses from these consultations have been considered and a final version produced. some are the copyright of the Council.'Building New Homes'.4. 3. which was adopted in November 2008.2 Introduction Policy Context Achieving Design Quality The Watford Context Site and Context Appraisal Layout Principles Building Form and Siting Materials and Architectural Detailing Sustainable Development Planning Application Requirements Bibliography Not all the sections apply to all forms of residential development.4 1.3 1. Residential Design Guide SPD. Where alterations or extensions to existing dwellings are proposed the separate guide “Householder Development . 1. 2.4) by Watford Borough Council. most illustrations and photographs are the copyright of NLP. there is unlikely to be a need to refer to Section 6. Where housing schemes involve purely infill development or development on small-scale backland sites. The draft has been corrected and amended and used in statutory consultation exercises (see also paragraphs 1.4 Structure of the Guide 1. 10.4. A bibliography is provided at the end of the guide. The Guide had been prepared by Nathaniel Lichfield and Partners (NLP) as a draft document.5 .4. It is suggested that these are used both during the design process and as a means of structuring material to support planning applications. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 6 Introduction 1 1. 6. 5.3.Extending Your Home” should be consulted. 9. 7.

established by the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 and the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004.PPGs and PPSs The current development plan for Watford comprises those policies in the Hertfordshire Structure Plan (adopted 1998) and the Watford District Plan 2000 (adopted Dec. The Acts promote a “plan-led” approach in which planning applications should be determined in accordance with the 'development plan’ covering an area “unless material considerations indicate otherwise.1 National planning policy 2. 1 Local Guidance will be gradually replaced by documents with-in the Local Development Scheme .1 National policy of most relevance to residential design is contained in the following PPGs/PPSs: PPS1: Delivering Sustainable Development (2005) PPS3: Housing (2006) PPG13: Transport (2001) PPG15: Planning and Historic Environment (1994) PPS22: Renewable Energy (2004) 2.2 The key aims of national policy are: high quality inclusive design (PPS1). Local Guidance .1. which were saved by Direction in September 2007 and the East of England Plan (published May 2008).0. re-use of previously developed land (PPS1 and PPG13). 2. which guides local decision making and seeks to ensure the reconciliation of competing development and conservation interests at the local level.7 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.” The policy framework that guides decision making in Watford consists of the following layers: National Policy .2003). Volume 1 2 Policy Context 2 Policy Context 2. Residential Design Guide SPD.1. (1) Picture 2.1 The town planning system provides a framework of policy.Supplementary Planning Guidance (non-statutory) supports the policies established in the Local Plan and provides greater detail.1 Cover of the Watford District Plan 2000 (adopted December 2003).

Urban Design in the Planning System: Towards Better Practice. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 8 Policy Context 2 access to jobs and services (PPS1 and PPG13).DETR (1998).com/ . preservation or enhancement of the conservation areas (PPG15). English Partnerships. This highlights best practice and aims to improve urban design standards and. Residential Design Guide SPD. DTLR & CABE (2001). definition of minimum housing densities (PPS3). in particular.securedbydesign. Streets and Movement: A Companion Guide to Design Bulletin 32. preservation of listed buildings and their settings (PPG15). Urban Design Compendium. The key documents. Places. are: By Design . Safer Places: The Planning System And Crime Prevention. and. The Housing Corporation (2000). ODPM (2004)” and website ‘Secured By Design’: http://www.1 A variety of non-statutory design guidance and advice has been published over recent years. reduction of carbon dioxide emissions (PPS22). Protecting Design Quality in Planning.2 Design guidance and advice 2.'Building New Homes'. promotion of renewable energy use (PPS22). the principles of which have been reviewed and incorporated where applicable.2. The principles set out in these documents provide the context to this Watford Residential Design Guide. Building in Context: New Development in historic areas. integration with public transport (PPS3 and PPG13). .DETR & CABE (2000). creation of safe environments (PPS1). English Heritage/CABE (2001). integration between the natural and built environment (PPS1). creation of "mixed communities" (PPS3). Residential Roads and Footpaths. promotion/reinforcement of "local distinctiveness" (PPS1). CABE (2003). Thomas Telford Publishing. By Design: Better Places to Live. 2. a companion guide to PPG3. the design of residential development.

Since April 2007.html [web link current at 10/9/2008. which were saved by Direction in September 2007 and the East of England Plan (published May 2008).5 Picture 2.gov.uk/england/professionals/en/1115314116927. Details of which policies were saved are available on Watford Borough Council and Hertfordshire County Councils websites.3 Picture 2. “Vision for Watford”. developers in England can choose to have new homes assessed against the Code for Sustainable Homes – a new national standard for sustainable design and construction. In April 2008. (2) 2.communities.uk] and made it mandatory.gov. the Code’s Technical Guide and related documents and links. Chapter 2 of the Plan.2 Picture 2.2003).3. contains the following table. covering the Code for Sustainable Homes. It should be read in conjunction with this Guide. outlining the Council’s commitment to achieving sustainable development.3 Building Futures: A Hertfordshire Guide to Promoting Sustainability in Development is a non-statutory technical document which has been jointly commissioned by the local authorities in Hertfordshire. Residential Design Guide SPD. 2.3 The Development Plan 2.2.3 2.3. The Watford District Plan 2000 will ultimately be replaced by Watford’s Local Development Framework.planningportal. the government published the Code on the website of the Department for Communities and Local Government [http://www.4 Picture 2. a more detailed Technical Guide to the Code was published.2. Volume 1 2 Policy Context Picture 2.6 2.2 2.4 A fuller bibliography is provided at the back of this document.2. The “Design” module in particular seeks to complement local design guides. .3 “The Council will ensure that all new developments regardless of size should play their part in seeking: 2 The Planning Portal published in 2008 a very useful webpage. subject to change. This page is accessible through http://www.9 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.1 The current development plan for Watford comprises those policies in the Hertfordshire Structure Plan (adopted 1998) and the Watford District Plan 2000 (adopted Dec. In February 2008.3. 2.

PPS3. U1. provide a benefit to wildlife and appearance and. to provide additional spaces. enhance their use.Urban Design Compendium 2. Policy/Guidance Objectives PPG / PPS Local Plan Policy Guidance Document 1. Building in Context . Character and Distinctiveness PPS1.4 Applications for planning permission should respond to all relevant planning policies in the preparation of proposals. where possible. utilising solar energy) and efficient building design/orientation wherever possible to use renewable resources and recycled materials in construction to ensure that uses which are likely to cause pollution directly or indirectly are carefully considered in the development control process to protect existing open areas.” Achieving Sustainable Development (Watford District Plan.'Building New Homes'. p7) 2. 2. PPG15 H8.4 Summary 2. incorporate technologies to limit the direct or indirect causes of green house gas emissions to reduce the overall need for private commuter car journeys by making full use of locations which encourage walking or cycling and the use of passenger transport to locate in areas where single journeys can serve several functions or through appropriate mixed land use development schemes to encourage in principle development schemes which seek to incorporate renewable energy generating technologies (e. Quality Design PPS1. the Guide replaces the following Supplementary Planning Guidance: SPG 4 (Privacy Guidelines). the principal aspects of national planning policy and guidance and local planning policy relevant to residential design are summarised in the table below.4. SPG 5 (Private Gardens) and SPG 8 (Extensions).g. U18 By Design. U17. The RDG expands on the policies as listed below. PPG15 U2.3. U15. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 10 Policy Context 2 to use land efficiently to minimise energy demands to reduce the need for transport movements and. U2 By Design. Residential Design Guide SPD. U3. H9. U10. U6.1 In essence. wherever possible. particularly in association with developments that may increase recreational and open space demands ensure that open spaces are easily accessible by all people and are safe environments for play and recreation. Also.

PPG13 H6 Planning and Access for Disabled People 6. PPS3. U1. Places Streets and Movement. U2 By Design. U6 By Design. Places Streets and Movement Planning for Sustainable Development: Towards Better Practice 4. Places Streets and Movement. PPS3 H5. Secure and PPS1 Accessible Environments H9. Safer Places: The Planning System and Crime Prevention By Design 8. U5 10. U4. Residential Amenity PPS1. Volume 1 2 Policy Context Policy/Guidance Objectives PPG / PPS Local Plan Policy Guidance Document 3. PPS22. PPS3. H5 9. SE1. Mix of Housing Type and Tenures Integration between Land Uses and Transport PPS3 H11. Sustainable Development PPS1.11 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. H17 By Design 7. Urban Design Compendium. Residential Design Guide SPD. Mix of Uses PPS1. Planning and Access for Disabled People Planning for Sustainable Development: Towards Better Practice By Design. H9. Safe. PPS3 H7. U1. PPG13 H8. U2 . PPS3. U3. Integration with Existing Fabric PPS1 H8. Best Use of Land PPS1. H12. U2 5. SE1. H12. PPG13 H5.

'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 12 Policy Context 2 .

4.0.Key Design Principles 3 Achieving Design Quality . 8.2 Twelve Key Design Principles 1. 10. 5. 7.Key Design Principles 3. Character and distinctiveness. Movement. 1 By Design . Inclusive design and mobility. 9. (1) 3. Volume 1 3 Achieving Design Quality . Response to context. Through an appreciation of the qualities of both historic and contemporary environments.13 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. It forms the basis for the more detailed design principles set out in following chapters of this Guide.0. 2. Thomas Telford Publishing. Amenity. access and permeability. a companion guide to PPG3.Urban Design in the Planning System: Towards Better Practice. DTLR & CABE (2001) .1 Building on the broad planning policy objectives derived from the review of national planning guidance and local planning policy in the previous section. 12. Mixed development. the principles of high quality urban design have been established and set out in a series of guidance documents. Safety and security. Efficient use of land. Continuity and enclosure. and good design practice. DETR & CABE (2000) and By Design: Better Places to Live. From a thorough review of all guidance documents. the following guiding principles for residential design in Watford have been defined. Sustainable development 11. Biodiversity. 6. 3. Quality buildings and spaces. this section defines a set of overarching principles for the achievement of good quality residential environments. Residential Design Guide SPD. most notably the two 'By Design' documents .

Key Design Principles 3 3.1 Response to context New housing development and changes to existing properties should be based on a thorough understanding and analysis of the characteristics of the proposal site and its surroundings.2 Cassio Metro. a development with a specific character and distinctiveness. 3.2 Character and distinctiveness New housing development should either reinforce the character and distinctiveness of its surroundings or.where appropriate. Picture 3.1 A site analysis plan can help in identifying problems. . Character and distinctiveness are generally created through the definition of a coherent structure and legible hierarchy of streets. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 14 Achieving Design Quality . buildings and spaces. create a distinctive environment that complements its setting. Picture 3.'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. potentials and urban key characteristics.

Key Design Principles 3. this should link in with existing routes and should not be dominated by vehicles. . Residential Design Guide SPD. that they are over-looked.3 Cassio Metro. Picture 3. Picture 3. and by avoiding paths that allow easy access to the rear of properties.4 A safe cycle path in Watford. access and permeability Where development involves the creation of a new movement framework into or through a site.materials and craftsmanship of buildings and public spaces is crucial to the achievement of good quality residential environments. Volume 1 3 Achieving Design Quality . Walking and cycling and the use of public transport will be encouraged and should be safe and convenient.15 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.4 Movement.3 Quality buildings and spaces The quality of the detailed design. straight. 3. broad and well lit. Watford: a recent high quality development. Crime prevention should be taken into account in the design of access routes by ensuring that they are included only when they are likely to be well used.

Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 16 Achieving Design Quality . Residential Design Guide SPD. 3. However. provide local community. Picture 3. Medium and large-scale residential developments should provide a mix of housing tenures. Picture 3. as well as dwelling types and sizes that are compatible with the site’s location and the Council’s housing needs. Well-considered layouts and careful design of buildings can limit the amenity effects of higher densities thus enabling more efficient use of land. where possible.opportunities must be taken to make best use of land through achieving medium to high density development where appropriate.5 Poundbury. Dorset: A variety of retail and community facilities are provided as part of the residential development.5 Mixed development Large-scale housing development should.6 Cassio Metro.Key Design Principles 3 3. . Watford: A higher density development which still provides quality amenity space.6 Efficient use of land Consideration should be given to existing densities in the local area and the function of the site within the structure of the town. leisure and retail facilities that can form a focus for a new neighbourhood and minimise car use.'Building New Homes'.

where not possible. Encouraging natural surveillance and ensuring spaces are actively used will go a long way to ensure safety and security are achieved. Some of the SBD key points relating to permeability/ access are shown below: Superfluous and unduly secluded access points and routes should be avoided. that they are over-looked. for example by means of lockable gates. Volume 1 3 Achieving Design Quality . in a very visible and controlled location Crime prevention should be taken into account in the design of access routes by ensuring that they are included only when they are likely to be well used. Good visibility should be maintained from either end. Picture 3. Watford: Doors and windows in flank walls encourage natural surveillance and safer streets. broad and well lit. Access points to the rear of buildings should be controlled. Secured by Design (SBD) has been proved to reduce crime in areas where it has been utilised as part of the design/planning procedure.17 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. straight. and by avoiding paths that allow easy access to the rear of properties. privacy and shared ownership. Footpaths and cycle ways should only be provided if they are likely to be well used.Key Design Principles 3. .a development should form a key consideration in determining the layout and mix of housing schemes.7 Safety and security The actual and perceived sense of safety and security experience by residents within. Footpaths and cycle ways should be of generous width and have a suitable landscape setting to avoid creating narrow corridors which could be perceived as threatening. and visitors to. Footpaths and cycle ways should not generally be routed to the rear of buildings. and along the route of footpaths and cycle ways. but if this is unavoidable a substantial buffer should be planted between a secure boundary fence and the footpath’s margins. and Parking should be within the curtilages or. Roads to groups of buildings should be designed to create a sense of identity. Sharp changes in direction should be avoided. Residential Design Guide SPD.7 Harwoods Road. with planting designed so as to discourage intruders.

8 Cassio Metro. privacy and sense of enclosure. 3. 3. and between building fronts and backs. Watford: Recent development with high quality amenity. The illustration shows a clear distinction between public and private space with a continuous building line and all principle entrances fronting the street.'Building New Homes'. Buildings should be built to last and be adaptable over time. The continuation of existing building frontage lines should be respected and principal entrances should address the street.9 Continuity and enclosure Residential development should create clear distinction between public and private space. For larger-scale development. Residential Design Guide SPD. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 18 Achieving Design Quality . and in respect of the provision of adequate outdoor amenity space. the amenity of future occupiers needs to be adequately addressed both in terms of natural light and privacy. Watford.10 Bedzad.8 Amenity All forms of residential development need to take into account potential impacts on the amenity of neighbouring property occupiers in terms of effects on levels of natural light.9 Sutton Road. use and lifespan of housing developments should be a consideration at the design stage. Picture 3.Key Design Principles 3 3. Picture 3. Picture 3. Sutton: An environmentally-friendly. energy-efficient mixed use development .10 Sustainability The minimisation of energy use in the construction.

the transport infrastructure. Department for Transport (2002): http://www. ability or circumstance by working with users to remove barriers in the social. such as by means of the Design and Access Statement (In the case of dwelling houses a Design and Access Statement is only required in Conservation Areas).g. Guidance is available from the internet.org. 4. political and economic processes behind building and design.uk/ transportforyou/access/tipws/ inclusivemobility Available under http://www. and will include for example: (3) 1. that means e.pdf. badgers. In some cases professional advice might be required.Key Design Principles 3.gov. Widely used guidance on Design and Access Statements from CABE: http://www.communities. make sure that the fundamentals of inclusive access are understood for that particular development.doc. how the completed building will be occupied and managed. Inclusive Mobility provides the standards and guidance for the external built environment.11 Inclusive design and mobility Inclusive Design is a way of designing products and environments so that they are usable and appealing to everyone regardless of age.cabe. In consideration to extension and auxiliary building(s) in back gardens.asp?id=1144644.uk/assetlibrary/8073. (2) PPS1 places inclusive design as a key element in the policies for achieving sustainable development. the gradient of the plot. at concept stage. the implications of the presence or closeness of protected species. respectively the Best Practice in building and design from Part M of the Building Regulation. the ‘Lifetime Homes’ standards (see also criteria HEA 4 in the ‘Code for Sustainable Homes’) and ‘Wheelchair Accessible Homes’ and other guidance available from a number of organisations. the relationship of adjoining buildings. it should be considered from the very beginning. to incorporate the need for ‘Lifetime Homes’ or wheelchair accessible housing in mainstream provision. the location of the building on the plot. inclusive design and inclusive mobility such as ‘Inclusive Mobility: A guide to best practice on access transport infrastructure'. Part M of the Building Regulations set out the minimum requirements for accessibility that all new homes are statutorily obliged to meet and shows possible design solutions to meet those 3 . technical.gov. Volume 1 3 Achieving Design Quality . These will not be limited to the design of the building.equalityhumanrights.uk/index. and be prepared to amend concept designs as necessary (see also Appendix 4 in the volume 2 of the RDG 'Extending Your Home'). age or circumstances. Also. a good practice guide.12 Biodiversity PPS9 on ‘Biodiversity and Geological Conservation’ and Watford’s draft Biodiversity Action Plan highlight nature conservation issues.com/ Documents/Disability/Services/ Access%20Statements. In Watford Borough Council and neighbouring councils in particular Great Crested 2 The Department for transport published a number of documents on disability. Many barriers encountered at that stage can be overcome by good design.19 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.dft. newts and other rare or protected plants and animals should be considered. 2. such as bats. DCLG (2003) Planning and Access for Disabled People. 3. and Section 42 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004 provides the means to ensure that design and access are considered at the earliest stage of development. Liaise with the relevant organisations and statutory authorities as early as possible. In general. so that they are usable by everyone regardless of disability. Residential Design Guide SPD. www. 3.

Key Design Principles 3 Newts. such as e. Swifts. In some occasions. .'Building New Homes'.g. Residential Design Guide SPD. For local biodiversity enquiries the Watford Nature Conservation & Development Officer can be contacted in the Leisure and Community Service in Watford Borough Council. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 20 Achieving Design Quality . several species of bats. ecological surveys and suitable mitigation measure will be necessary. Sloworms and Grass Snakes have been found in back gardens. the use of swift-bricks in the (re)build of extensions and auxiliary buildings in back gardens.

Land sales for every single house specify individual plot widths and styles. and brought with it the development of the Sutton/Sotheron/Estcourt Road area. the following section provides guidance on analysing the site characteristics and context generally. Hence the term "Cassiobury style" and the strong sense of place. scale and style of buildings. Further expansion adjacent to these areas. the character of Watford. all building materials and roof styles.3 4.when the arrival of the railway in 1837 acted as a stimulus for new development.such as Callowland and West Watford.1 Residential development in Watford 4. and with only a few more recent infill houses. spaces. are located along the High Street and around St Mary’s Church. mostly built between mid-1920s and 1950s. It comprises a mixture of medium to large semi-detached and detached houses with a few bungalows.1. or enhances. or. Whilst this section specifically looks at Watford. materials. followed in the late 19th and early 20th Century. The Cassiobury estate comprises all roads between Hempstead Road and the North-East of Cassiobury Park and Sports Grounds.1. the reason for this might lay in the fact that the original concept was set out in the 1920s to 1930s. period of development and influence of vegetation and open spaces.0.0. delineation by single storey garages. 4. building lines. Watford remained a relatively small and compact market town until the 19th Century . These areas are characterised by a variety of terraced housing that. Nearly all residential areas in Watford have similarities with one of the character types outlined: these should be the starting point in analysing the context of an area.2 4. all conform to the stipulations in the larger deed arising out of the sale of the Essex's land. Watford Junction Station opened on its current site in 1858. varies widely in detailed design. Residential Design Guide SPD. These need to be avoided in future development. They include the church itself and a number of timber-framed buildings which once formed Watford’s medieval core. This section identifies a number of areas within Watford which share common characteristics e.0.1. In the early decades of the 20th Century the southern part of the Cassiobury Estate and the first municipal housing. boundary treatments. although of consistent character. land use. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context 4 The Watford Context 4.g.2 4. notably the Harebreaks Estate were built. The area to the west of St Albans Road [starting from Church Road and Bedford Street] was developed soon after the first of the railway stations opened on St Albans Road.3 4. There is a lot of similarity between interwar 1930s and post-war 1950s housing.4 . which date from the middle ages.1 The oldest buildings in Watford. Appropriate design solutions often stem from an analysis of the area within which development is proposed. 4. density of development.1 An understanding of a site’s context is crucial to ensure that new development is compatible with. Some characteristics that commonly detract from the character of an area have also been identified. and all plots conform to this pattern with spaces and set-backs and.21 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.1.

1 to 4. During the 1950s a period of public housing construction took place at Meriden and Woodside to the north and Holywell to the south. Industrial and housing development continued throughout the 1960s and 1970s.1.5 However. 4.1. The construction of the Harlequin shopping centre and redevelopment of Clarendon Road took place in the 1980s and 1990s. Picture 4.8 4.1. a significant number of semi-detached houses were built in the northern half of Watford around the North Western Avenue and the North Orbital Road.1 Watford 1862 Picture 4.7 4.9 . the YMCA and the Charter Place shopping centre. in the roads leading from Langley Way and Stratford Way.'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD.1. Further parts of Cassiobury were also completed at this time.2 Residential Expansion of Watford by 1902 Pictures 4. roundabout and underpass at the Town Hall.6 During the 1930s. multi-storey car parks.4 showing the expansion of Watford 4. Over recent years new and generally higher density housing development has taken place on former employment sites and in town centre locations. the majority of the Cassiobury Estate comprises inter-war housing built between 1925 and 1938. Of significance was the central area redevelopment which included the ring road.1. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 22 The Watford Context 4 4.

4 Watford by 1938 .4 showing the expansion of Watford Picture 4. Residential Design Guide SPD.1 to 4. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context Picture 4.23 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.3 Expansion of Watford by 1920 Pictures 4.

6. 8.2. These are: 1. Watford contains a wide variety of residential areas reflecting generally typical housing types and layouts that can be found in many English towns and cities. 4. 5.1 As a result of its evolution.2 Character areas 4. Residential Design Guide SPD. There could be some overlapping of referenced building periods. 2.2.2 4. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 24 The Watford Context 4 4. 4.the Historic Core Victorian/Edwardian terraces Late 19th Century and Mid 20th Century detached housing 1920s municipal housing Inter-war semi-detached housing 1950s-1960s housing estates Late 20th Century (1970s to mid 1990s) Higher density: mid 1990s onwards The Residential Character Areas map on the next page gives indicative information on the location of character areas in Watford Borough Council. 7.3 Watford Town Centre. 3. as this map is more about the character (building style) of a residential area. Key character types that occur throughout the borough have been identified.'Building New Homes'.2. . than about the time houses were actually built.

000. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context Map: Residential Character Areas in Watford Picture 4. Residential Design Guide SPD. Scale approx.5 Key Residential Character Areas in Watford (this map is indicative only). KEY 1 A-C (yellow): Watford Town Centre 2 A-F (dark orange): Victorian/ Edwardian 3 A-D (light green): Late 19th/mid 20th Century 5 A-L (light violet): Inter-war Housing 6 A-D (light pink): 1950s-1960s Housing 7 A-F (light orange): Late 20th Century Housing (1970s to mid 1990s) 8 A-E (purple) Mid 1990s onwards with higher densities 4 A-D (light blue): 1920s Municipal Housing .25 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. 1:40.

1 The High Street contains buildings of a range of styles.6 Watford Town Centre. 1:10. Lower High Street has been completely altered during the latter half of the 20th Century. Areas: 1A High Street 1B The Parade 1C Lower High Street 4. Commercial uses dominate the area. It consists of a number of linked spaces. all with streets and alleyways joining it. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 26 The Watford Context 4 4.3.4 Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure Buildings of various ages from medieval to 20th Century.3 4. Vary greatly from 6m x 35m to 180m x 330m.3 Watford Town Centre . at the junction with Market Street. Some built elements of the original street remain.3. There is some recent/new residential development around the ring road which essentially forms part of the Town Centre. the former market place. and the area in front of the Harlequin entrance. High residential densities. Previously of traditional high street appearance .000. ages. at the junction New Street/King Street. 4. Taller buildings in town centre.3. Basic historic street layout remains. Plot sizes . Approx.2 4.one long main street lined on both sides by small scale premises . Footprints of 20th Century buildings (particularly the Harlequin Centre) fill entire blocks. such as the Parade with the area around the pond.it is now a part of the ring road and ‘gyratory’ system and is dominated by retail premises and car sales forecourts. scale and quality. Buildings of varying heights. The historic grain of the area is at risk of being lost.'Building New Homes'.3. Residential Design Guide SPD.the Historic Core Picture 4.

4. Varied. 4.4 Victorian and Edwardian terraces Picture 4. Property plots are small and well-defined.2 . These have typical street layouts that are evident across the country and are characterised by blocks of small-scale terraced housing. . laid out on a grid street pattern with rear gardens or yards backing onto each other. and some semi-detached housing.27 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.4. Varied. Residential Design Guide SPD. Lower High Street has a very fragmented building line. Varied. The Parade/High Street has a relatively consistent building line.000.7 West Watford. 4. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context Key Characteristics Streetscene Building lines/setbacks Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Car parking 4.3.6 Detractors: Ring road YMCA and Charter Place Multi-storey car parks. Public and multi-storey. Many have alleyways which lead to the rear gardens.1 Watford contains large areas of Victorian/Edwardian terraced housing. Frontages to pavement edge. Areas: 4. public houses and churches are a feature of these areas especially in the older Victorian area of Sutton/Sotheron/Estcourt Road. Scale 1:10. Typical town centre. A mix of uses including small industrial units.Typical Victorian street pattern. corner shops.

1m gap between terraces or unbroken terrace along length of street. Clay or slate roof tiling. Typically 4-5m x 25m.300m x 75m.5-1m high wall or low hedge. Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure Plot sizes Streetscene Building lines/setbacks Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Late 19th to early 20th Century. Residential Design Guide SPD. Rear gardens 15m-20m deep. Pitches roof with chimney. c.4. Vertical proportions typical of the period. Pebbledash. On-street parking. Yellow stock or red brick. Small front gardens of 0-3m with limited planting. Originally timber sash. Strong sense of enclosure. Urban streetscene. Some boundary hedges.80-100 dwellings per hectare. Strong and consistent building lines. Blocks typically long and thin c. Decorative terracotta detailing. Set at back of pavement or behind small front gardens. render. Predominantly two storeys.'Building New Homes'. and painted brick later introductions. 0. Bay windows at ground floor level. Grid street pattern. Car parking Gardens 4. tiles and brickwork. Limited street trees. doors. .3 Detractors: Loss of architectural detailing through replacement windows. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 28 The Watford Context 4 2A Nascot Street/Nascot Road with most parts of Nascot Conservation Area (Late Victorian/Edwardian) and Westland Road east of St Albans Road 2B Sutton/Estcourt/Gladstone Road area including Estcourt Conservation Area(1860s) 2C Callowland (1860s onwards) 2D West Watford (late 19th and early 20th Century) 2E Capel Road/Paddock Road/Villiers Road/Pinner Road/Grover Road/Heath Road area (1850s/60s) 2F Around Wiggenhall Road and Watfords Fields (late 19th and early 20th Century).

with some elements of Post-war housing). A wide variety of architectural styles is a feature of these areas.1 These residential areas are characterised by largely detached houses mixed with some semi-detached houses. and sometimes small pockets of Post-war housing.29 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.000 4.2 Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure Late Victorian and mid 20th Century Villas. 1920s) 3D Temple Close/Garden Close/Devereux Drive/Cassiobury Drive and parts of The Gardens (northern part of Cassiobury Estate. and consisting of a mixture of ages from late Victorian to Inter-war. Irregular block structure.8 Langley Road. forming suburban boulevards such as Hempstead Road and Langley Road. .1930s. Densities range from 8-12 dwellings per hectare. Residential Design Guide SPD.5. 4. Predominantly two or three storeys. Areas: 3A Langley Road/Stratford Road/Hempstead Road (late 19th Century onwards) 3B Rickmansworth Road (late 19th Century onwards) 3C East end of Cassiobury Park Avenue and Shepherds Road (southern part of Cassiobury Estate. 4.5. Typical late 19th and mid 20th Century detached development 1:10. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context Poorly designed dormer windows and rooflights added. are later examples of detached villas.5 Late 19th and Mid 20th Century detached housing Picture 4. The earliest parts of the Cassiobury Estate to the south and some streets to the north including Langley Way. Loose urban grain. Porches and front extensions either inappropriate or out of character with the street.

Plots large enough to accommodate off-street parking. .3 Detractors: Removal of boundary walls/fences to provide forecourt parking. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 30 The Watford Context 4 Key Characteristics Plot sizes Large plots typically 15m x 70m. Gaps between dwellings predominantly 1-3m. Poor quality infill development. Buildings generally situated in centre of plot away from plot boundaries. Streets often tree-lined. clay tiling. scale of windows and doors and details. Residential Design Guide SPD.5. render.'Building New Homes'. some with grass verges. Brick banding and terracotta detailing a feature. materials. Varied rooflines and profiles. Streetscene Building lines/setbacks Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Car parking Gardens 4. Large front gardens 10m-20m deep. Buildings are set back from the front boundary but generally maintain consistent building line. Applied mock-tudor style timbering to upper floors. Extensions that do not respect the character and scale of the host building in terms of size. Materials include red brick. Bay windows a prominent feature of later buildings. Suburban boulevards. Large rear gardens 30m-80m deep with mature landscape features. Later houses often built with integral garages. roof pitch. Loss of architectural detailing through replacement windows. Low boundary walls and hedges to front gardens. tiles etc.

Volume 1 4 The Watford Context 4. Residential Design Guide SPD.6 1920s municipal housing Picture 4. Predominantly two storeys. Scale 1:10. Block size typically 200m x 150m. The Harebreaks estate is a typical example. trees. Although there are a wide variety of house types there is a high degree of unity to the streetscene.2 4. albeit often in a much simplified form.9 Harebreake Estate. The Harebreaks.6. 15-25 dwellings per hectare. Open spaces. It comprises a main axis. short terraces and two windowed flat fronted and larger semis. Example of a street layout for a 1920s municipal housing estate. They contain a mix of semi-detached housing.3 Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure Plot sizes Streetscene 1920s. 4. hedges an important feature of the area. The layouts of such development and the design of dwellings followed the principles established by the Garden City movement.000.6. . forming a long tree-lined vista with crescents and greens or squares leading from it. The estates are predominantly residential. Dwellings set in larger plots of land in comparison to earlier development. squares. Typically 9m x 30m Wide streets with grass verges some tree lined.6. Areas: 4A Harebreaks 4B Rose Gardens/Willow Lane 4C Sydney Road (including industrial estate to the south) 4D Riverside Road 4.31 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. front gardens.1 Housebuilding accelerated in the years following the First World War to provide new municipal “homes fit for heroes”.

Loss of planting generally results in poor definition of public and private space.6. Plain red brick. however. Front gardens typically 6m deep.'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. Originally metal framed (Crittall) windows (although now largely replaced).000. Hardstanding for cars replacing front gardens. Poor definition of space due to setbacks. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 32 The Watford Context 4 Key Characteristics Building lines/setbacks Generally consistent building line. front gardens now being turned into parking spaces. Originally low hedges c.5-1m Consistent roof pitches with chimneys. Typical street pattern of inter-war development. On-street parking and originally no in-curtilage parking. although variation in setbacks follows a set pattern in places. rendered. Rear gardens typically 15m-25m deep.10 Tudor Drive. .4 Detractors: Tall garden walls replacing low hedges.7 Inter-war semi-detached housing Picture 4. Replacement of original small plain tiles with interlocking roof tiles. painted brick or pebbledash with plain tiled roofs. .0. Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Car parking Gardens 4. 4. Generally a lack of enclosure to space. Scale 1:10.

Mock Tudor is a common stylistic theme on the earliest parts of the Cassiobury estate. Areas: 5A Knutsford Avenue/Tudor Avenue (including a trading estate to the south) 5B Swiss Avenue/Gade Avenue (southern part of Cassiobury. Gaps between buildings of 4m-5m Roads often wide and tree-lined. 5E Westlea/Eastlea Avenue/Garston Lane/Gaddesden Crescent and First to Fifth Avenues 5F Holland Gardens/Spring Gardens/Purbrock Avenue (including industrial units to the south east) 5G The Ridgeway/Ridge Lane 5H Watford Heath/Wilcot Avenue/Talbot Avenue 5I Cedar Road/Kingsfield Road (dominated by inter-war housing with pockets of late Victorian/Edwardian development) 5J King Georges Avenue 5K Nasot Wood Road (1950’s/1960’s) 5L Leavesden Green 4. There is a variety of architectural styles within the estate. whilst built at the same time and sharing some similar characteristics. Boundaries to front gardens are traditionally low walls with hedges/ planting behind. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context 4. The housing is fairly consistent in terms of materials and styles and is typical of housing built across the country at this time. 1920s) 5C Leggatts Wood/Bushey Mill Crescent (including an industrial estate to the east) 5D Harford Drive/parts of Woodland Drive/Orchard Drive (1930s part of Cassiobury Estate).2 Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure 1920-1930s Predominantly two storeys. Residential Design Guide SPD.33 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. is distinct from the more typical housing types of this period. Plot sizes Streetscene Building lines/setbacks Front boundaries . Typically 20-30 dwellings per hectare. although generally house types within streets remain consistent.7. Regular pattern of blocks varying in size (450m x 80m). Typically 8m x 40m. Some bungalows. Consistent regular building lines and boundary treatments. The Cassiobury Estate.1 Inter-war semi-detached housing is also a prominent housing type in Watford. Generally larger block sub-division than Victorian/Edwardian development.7.

4. uniformity of design and materials generally provides a common character within each estate. roof pitch.11 Meriden. detached. but properties are predominantly two-storey.8. and terraced housing. Long rear gardens 20m-30m. Loss of architectural detailing through replacement windows. tiles etc. or protruding lower storey pitched roofs. Extensions that do not respect the character and scale of the host building in terms of size. Some four storey and taller blocks can be found. Typical street pattern of a 1950s-1960s housing estate. scale of windows and doors and details. 4. with hips and gables. Residential Design Guide SPD. Large front gardens 6m-10mdeep. however. Bay windows are often tile-hung below the upper windows. Car parking Gardens 4. Scale 1:10.3 Detractors: Removal of boundary walls to provide forecourt parking. Generally the dwellings are plain with some simple detailing such as cantilevered flat porch roofs. materials.8. The traditional layout of these estates was established in the 1930s and used consistently through to the 1960s.1 These are estates of varying sizes including some infill development. The larger estates were often built around major road junctions.8 1950s-1960s housing estates Picture 4. Areas: 4.000. They comprise a variety of housing types such as. semi-detached. Limited off-street parking though front gardens are now turned over to hardstanding.7. Gabled and timbered front or pebbled dashed fronts are common. small balconies. Brown plain or clay roofing tiles. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 34 The Watford Context 4 Key Characteristics Roof forms Windows Materials Typically pitched roofs. Red brick. Double height symmetrical bay windows a common feature.2 .'Building New Homes'.

roof pitch. Materials include red and yellow brick. some timber cladding or white render on upper storey. scale of windows and doors and details. Loose urban grain created by large front gardens and green open space. clay tiled roofs.35 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Front gardens 5m-10m deep. Pitched roofs and chimneys a feature. Generally 30 dwellings per hectare.5m -10m. Mix of timber.8. Porches and front extensions which are not in keeping with the character of the street. tower blocks (Meriden Estate) and bungalows (Kytes Estate). Often generous street widths with landscaping elements generous roadside verges and communal greens. Little off-street parking provided.longer rear gardens. Predominantly two storeys but some four storey blocks.being replaced by fences. Variety of spacing between buildings c.some variation introduced through repeated pattern of setbacks. Residential Design Guide SPD. Larger building to plot ratio than Victorian/Edwardian development . . Plot sizes Streetscene Building lines/setbacks Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Car parking Gardens 4. Extensions that do not respect the character and scale of the host building in terms of size. Privet hedges and low walls a boundary feature . materials.3 Detractors: Verges and greens encroached on for car parking spaces. metal and UPVC. Street blocks of varying sizes 140m x 170m. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context 6A Holywell housing estate (1950/60s) (including an industrial estate to the west of the area) 6B Croxley view (1960s) 6C Meriden Estate (1957-1967) 6D Garston Park Estate (1950s/1960s) 6E Hemmingway / Goodrich Close (1950s/1960s) Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure 1950s-1960s. Rear gardens 20m-25m deep. Layout generally through routes. Generally continuous building lines .

9 Late 20th Century (1970s to mid-1990s) Picture 4. cul-de-sac layouts. lack of enclosure. 4. 40-60 dwellings per hectare. taller buildings and use of standard building designs. Residential Design Guide SPD. poor legibility. Some common characteristics include: off-street parking provision.9.000 4. Use of cul-de-sacs creating poor pedestrian permeability. Varying heights from two storey terraces to higher blocks of flats of 4-5 storeys.2 Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure Plot sizes 1970s-90s. fronts of dwellings that do not always address the street. townhouses and smaller terraced housing. Smaller plots for semi-detached and terraced housing 7m x 30m. larger scale blocks of flats. poor permeability. and ‘left over’ space with a lack of apparent function. Large plots for blocks of flats set in landscaped grounds 60m x 180m. Areas: 7A Scammell/Hodges Way 7B Orbital 7C Monica Close/Octavia Close 7D Pinewood Close 7E Fairlawns 7F North east of North Orbital Road. Variation in plot sizes.9.1 Late 20th century housing development encompasses a variety of housing types and styles such as. . Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 36 The Watford Context 4 4.'Building New Homes'.12 Scammell Typical late 20th Century housing layout 1:10. Often developments are of a poor layout with inconsistent building lines.

Lack of legibility. Varied landscape treatment. Volume 1 4 The Watford Context Key Characteristics Streetscene Poor quality paving and street furniture. Varied design and proportions. some flat roofs to blocks of flats. Predominantly pitched roofs (no chimneys). Poor public transport accessibility. Lack of integration with context (an “anywhere” design). Residential Design Guide SPD.9. Predominantly lower quality materials used including red and buff brick and clay roof tiles. Typically large areas of landscaping with no identifiable function. Limited architectural decoration Parking often dominates the environment. Poor detailing. Integral garages.3 Detractors: Lack of natural surveillance. Building lines/setbacks Mix of continuous and fragmented building lines Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Car parking Poor definition between public and private space. Car dominated environment. . Gardens 4.37 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Front gardens 5m-6m deep. Typically no front boundary. Poor differentiation between public and private spaces. parking forecourts and separate areas of garaging a common feature. Provision of private rear gardens 15m-20m deep and communal gardens of varying sizes.

'Building New Homes'. 4. townhouses and small scale terraced housing. Good quality paving and street furniture. Watford. Plots containing terraces 5mx20m. with more imaginative design solutions including reducing the dominance of roads and parking.10 Higher density: mid-1990s onwards Picture 4.10. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 38 The Watford Context 4 4.10. the grounds of existing buildings. Well-defined building lines. Generally street trees a feature. Example of layout from a mid-1990s development. 1:10. Higher densities.1 Housing development from around 1995 onwards tends to be higher density and often utilises sites within existing built up areas.2 Areas: 8A Cassio Metro 8B Old Sun Printers Redevelopment 8C The Reeds (industrial development to the south) 8D Woodgate Mews 8E Beechfield Court Key Characteristics Period Heights Density Block size/ structure Plot sizes Streetscene 1995-2006. Varied block sizes. and development within. 50-120 dwellings per hectare. Developments consist of a mixture of large scale blocks of flats. Street blocks forming grid pattern.000. Scale approx. Stand-alone. From two to seven storeys. Varied plots sizes. The Reeds is a good example of this approach. A mix of uses is also a feature. Landscaped streets and spaces. A feature of recent redevelopment in Watford has been the conversion of. Plots containing flats 20m x 60m. single storey bin and cycle storage units are also a feature. Building lines/setbacks . Residential Design Guide SPD. Generally recent development has attempted to pay more regard to local context and character. 4.13 Cassio Metro.

Varied rooflines and profiles. grey metal. rubbish and recycling facilities. Cohesive landscaping in both shared and private amenity space. Small front gardens 2m-3m. Varied window treatment and proportions. Materials generally used to create a unifying element. use of different coloured brick.3 Detractors: Use of poor quality materials and building techniques. Red and buff brick.10. Residential Design Guide SPD. Car parking Gardens 4.39 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. . Volume 1 4 The Watford Context Key Characteristics Front boundaries Roof forms Windows Materials Generally well-defined public and private spaces. Some detailing in brickwork. Poor design of interface areas including servicing. rainwater goods. Lack of “pepper potting” of housing tenures (social housing concentrated together). slate tiles. terracotta tile panels that reflect local detailing. Provision of private rear gardens 15m-20m deep and communal gardens of varying sizes. Off-street parking provided through garages. render. courtyard parking and underground parking.

Have the guidelines of Secured By Design been taken into account? Have the principles of Inclusive Design and Mobility been taken into account? Has Best Practice from Part M of the Building regulation been taken into account? Have ‘Lifetime Homes’ standards been considered in the design of the building (such as the adaptability to changing life circumstances of the occupants of a home in its life cycle. and vehicular and pedestrian routes through it. i. from a wider neighbourhood.1 Context appraisal 5. from a town-wide . Residential Design Guide SPD. Public transport facilities.0. xii. The people living on or near the site. vii. iv. Existing key frontages. Existing street networks. Topography of the site and local area.0. ecology and archaeology.'Building New Homes'. positive aspects of local character and identity may not be especially evident or there may be few positive features upon which to build. xiv. forms of buildings and spaces. key views and vistas.e. Surrounding land uses. Key pedestrian and cycle routes and linkages. It will help to create a place of distinction by building on local identity rather than creating ‘anywhere places’. Understanding context will ensure a development integrates successfully with its surroundings. see also criteria Hea 4 in the ‘Code for Sustainable Homes’)? 5. Landmark buildings. xiii. environments within which there is no indication of belonging to an identifiable place. ii. In such instances. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 40 Site and Context Appraisal 5 5 Site and Context Appraisal 5. xi.0. and the way their communities are organised are also important considerations. development on larger sites needs to begin to set a standard for the area by creating a distinctive place in its own right.4 5. To successfully integrate new development within an established area particular regard needs to be paid to existing communities.1 A key aspect of achieving good quality design is through gaining a thorough understanding of both the development site and its wider context. thus enhancing or preserving local character. x. iii. Existing local facilities and community infrastructure. The context of a proposal site is the character and setting within which that site exists: its natural and human history. vi. v. viii.3 Understanding a site’s context is essential to ensure that the proposed development reinforces local characteristics. location. and. 5.2 5. Positive features could be taken from surrounding streets.1 Context appraisal looks beyond a site’s boundaries to ensure that positive features of an existing place are used to inform the design process. In some cases. Prevailing building heights. Built heritage assets within the site or in the local area. townscape and landscape in terms of: i. settlement forms.0. Natural features of the site and local area.1. ix.

Residential Design Guide SPD. colours and detailing prevalent in surrounding development. Street and road hierarchy. Ages of surrounding buildings. Settings of historic buildings and conservation areas. 3. within and out of the site. Activity/ Uses Movement Table: Context Appraisal Considerations . Local building methods and craftsmanship. plot size and amount of open space .materials. finishes. 2. The local vernacular .of the area. 2. buildings and streets. and. 1. Scale. The geography and history of a place and how it has developed over time (county or town-wide scale). 4. Built Environment 1. Important townscape views into. 7. 8. public transport and private vehicle accessibility. ecology. Linkages to surroundings including pedestrian. Mixture and distribution of uses/active frontages. 4. The table below summarises those aspects of the wider context that.41 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. height. existing built heritage. 2. water features and proximity to rivers (county and town-wide scale). and landmarks in the surrounding area. cycling. street patterns and widths . geology. Existing community provision in the area. The social dynamics and socio-economic profile of the area. floor heights of proposed buildings should be considered in relation to those of adjoining buildings. if applicable. 3. Existing access points. Development density. urban structure. street furniture and lighting. Considerations in a Context Appraisal Natural Environment 1.urban structure and grain of existing neighbouring development including block size and shape. Volume 1 5 Site and Context Appraisal scale or a county scale and could include: building traditions and materials. The "pattern" . spacing. Established building lines/spatial enclosure/location of building entrances along streets and onto public spaces. 3. 6. 11. Important landscape views into. landscape structure. 5. 3. existing landscape structure. 12. massing. within and out of the site. 2. Design and materials for hard and soft landscaped areas.plot to dwelling ratio. 9. textures. Townscape setting. micro climate. 10. need to be considered when formulating development proposals. size. Hierarchy of spaces. Connectivity and integration with neighbouring developments. focal points. 1. The topography. width.

enabling a sense of place to be created. The site may have a former use. 1. 5. or historical connection. Use to be retained or enhanced. 2. 2. Existing parking arrangements. 2. 2. An analysis of the visual and physical character of the site and its visual and physical relationship to its townscape context. Activity/ Uses 1. The creation of new views and juxtapositions which add to the variety and interest of the setting. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 42 Site and Context Appraisal 5 . Ensuring site specific issues are considered enables opportunities within the site to be used to their full advantage. wind shelter and overshadowing. Or. 3. 6. 4. Boundary features.2 Site appraisal 5. 6. for example. Character and features of buildings to be retained. Solar gain and natural light availability. 2. 5. Existing and potential nodal points within or near the site. Trees: spread. Water courses/features. 1. height and condition. Movement Amenity . Relationship to neighbours.'Building New Homes'. Built Environment 1. Access points to the site. 5. Privacy/daylight/sunlight/overshadowing/overbearing. An analysis of the visual and physical character of the site and its visual and physical relationship to its landscape context. Hedges and boundary features. Wildlife habitats. Existing buildings and structures on and adjacent to the site. 3. 3.2. that could be reflected in the design of the development. 4. Residential Design Guide SPD. Slopes.1 In addition to the consideration of the wider context. The table below summarises the range of site characteristics that need to be considered: Considerations in a Site Appraisal Natural Environment 1. it is important to consider site specific issues and features which will inform an appropriate design solution. 4. Current use of the site. Rights of way within the site. the topography of the site could be exploited to ensure the layout of the development capitalises on views/aspect and sunlight availability.

How do buildings.have informed the design of the proposed development. structures and natural features contribute to a feeling of enclosure or openness? 9. buildings and streets? 7. 5. Volume 1 5 Site and Context Appraisal Functional/ Services 1. Checklist for the Context Appraisal Natural Environment 1. Are building lines of neighbouring properties continuous? Are there gaps between properties or irregular setbacks? 11. 5. 4. Does the area have a general scale of building that should inform the scale of buildings within the new development? 8. and which materials are available/prevalent in the region? 4. lakes. Table: Considerations in a Site Appraisal Wayleaves and easement strips that cannot be built upon. street patterns and widths? 6.43 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Is there a hierarchy of spaces. streams.both.3 Checklists for context and site appraisal 5. 3. semi-detached or terraced? 10. What sort of landscape does the area have? What are the levels/slopes? How did it develop? What sort of climate does the area have? Is a micro climate formed by the topography or neighbouring structures? What is the ecology (flora and fauna) of the area? Where is there water and how does it move (including rivers. 2. The following checklists can be used to structure a site and wider context appraisal as part of a Design and Access Statement. What distinctive colours and textures are found on buildings. 2. Are there any focal points or landmarks in the surrounding area? Have views to these (or from these to the site) been identified? 5. What is the urban structure and grain of existing neighbouring development including block size and shape. What is the history of the area? How has the area developed? What are the ages of surrounding buildings and structures? Are there any listed buildings? Are there any conservation areas neighbouring the site? 3.1 An application for planning permission will be required to demonstrate that a detailed analysis of a site’s existing context . ponds and swampy or floodable ground)? Are there culverted or covered watercourses that could be opened up and renaturated? Built Environment 1. What is the size and shape of surrounding residential plots? What is the plot to dwelling ratio in existing development? Are properties predominantly detached. structures and surfaces in the area? . Residential Design Guide SPD. Clearly not all of the following questions will be applicable to a particular site. What buildings/materials are used traditionally in the area.3. site and surroundings .

Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 44 Site and Context Appraisal 5 Checklist for the Context Appraisal 12. porches. doors. tree preservation orders)? What are the boundary features of the site? Is the site liable to flooding? What is the site’s development history? Does the site need to be investigated (through records or by excavation) for possible archaeological value? Is the site contaminated? Are there any wayleaves or easement strips that cannot be built upon? . 3. 8. 6. 4. 2. cornices. Is there a mix of uses in the area? How are the uses distributed? What is distinctive about the way local people live and have lived here in the past? What aspects of local history may be relevant to future development (local events/festivals. string courses. species. Built Environment 1. Residential Design Guide SPD. Are there any locally distinctive ways of detailing buildings such as windows. information from the census)? Are there any community facilities such as parks in the area? Where are they? What public transport routes and stops serve the area? What is the area’s road hierarchy? What current proposals for roads. 2. size. What distinctive types of building elevations are there in the area? How wide are the frontages? 13. Checklist for the Context Appraisal Checklist for the Site Appraisal Natural Environment 1. What is the shape of the site? Which way does the site slope or face in relation to the sun? What is the micro climate of the site? Are there wind funnels/frost pockets/damp hollows? What are the prevailing winds in summer and winter? What living things (flora and fauna) are to be found on the site? What do they depend on? Should they be conserved? What trees and hedgerows are to be found on the site (location.'Building New Homes'. roofs and chimneys? Activity/ Uses 1. Movement 1. 3. bargeboards. right of ways or public transport might be relevant to future development? 4. 3. 5. local place names. 4. 2. 2. 7. condition. 3.

4. if any. 5. Volume 1 5 Site and Context Appraisal Checklist for the Site Appraisal 5. cars and service vehicles) and pedestrians (including those with restricted mobility)? What are the access points to the site? Are there existing rights of way through the site? Are there existing or potential nodal points within or near the site? What is the relationship of neighbouring buildings to the site? Do neighbouring properties overlook the site? Are levels of natural light to neighbouring properties likely to be affected by development on the site? Will there be any impacts such as noise from neighbouring uses? 6. 3. Checklist for the Site Appraisal 5.4 Consideration of the questions outlined in the checklists above will help define those constraints that will limit the potential development of the site and the opportunities that can be exploited in drafting a proposal. Movement 1. are the existing and potential means of getting to and around the site for vehicles (bicycles. Residential Design Guide SPD. shrubs or hedges be planted or kept to provide shelter. soften or screen unattractive buildings and other structures. rivers and canals? Are there any opportunities to reduce water run-off and flood risk? How can Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) be introduced (see Chapter 8 Sustainable Development)? Are there opportunities to use underground energy sources or wind as an energy source? Are there any streams or rivers (on the surface or underground in pipes or culverts) that could be made more of? 2. The possible opportunities may include: Checklist Opportunities Opportunities 1. . 2.45 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.3. provide seasonal variety and attract wildlife? What opportunities are there for development to exploit the site’s topography/levels? Are there places where green corridors (for people and/or wildlife) could be created along natural features or roads. Are there existing buildings and structures on the site? Are they positive features? Should they be retained? What are their characteristics? What buildings and structures within the site can be seen from local or strategic points in the surrounding area? Should these views be protected? Are there existing or potential “gateways” to the site? What. 6. Where can trees. 3. 2. give spaces a sense of enclosure. Neighbouring Amenity 1. 3. 7. 4.

'Building New Homes'. solar panels or photovoltaic technology? Are there any pedestrian desire lines? What routes would pedestrians like to take if they were available? Is there a clear point of entry to the site? Can it be defined by buildings? Is there a clear identifiable “heart” to the site that could form the development’s focal point? Are there other opportunities to retain and enhance native fauna and flora on the site? Table: Checklist Opportunities 5. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 46 Site and Context Appraisal 5 7. 10. . Are there distinct skylines (or opportunities to create them) that development should respect? Are there any views/vistas which should be respected/created? What opportunities are there for the orientation of development to make use of solar gain. 13. 9. 12.3. Residential Design Guide SPD. 11.5 The following chapters provide a more in-depth consideration of how site opportunities can be harnessed in the design of residential environments. 8.

47 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.1.3 6. vii. on the other hand. If this is overlooked.0.1 Response to context 6. In most cases the site’s context. or a response is misjudged.this section of the Guide need not be referred to. roads. make efficient use of land. layout or character of a surrounding area or establish its own character is an important first step in responding to the context. roads and spaces will be formed. the degree of coherence or dislocation between the site and its surroundings and the size of the site will determine the extent to which proposals need to directly draw upon the character. industrial areas). and provide facilities for car parking and waste/recycling storage.1.1 Deciding the extent to which new development should perpetuate the form. the Council will seek to ensure schemes: i.1.2 6. ii.1. However.4 . integrate with the character of their surroundings. In assessing proposals for housing development in the borough. layout and the form of the surroundings. namely the arrangement and inter-relationships between streets. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles 6 Layout Principles 6. Where housing development does not involve changes or additions to the structure of Watford . vi. v. and where appropriate. It provides a set of strategic principles to be applied to housing schemes where new streets. reduce the overall need for private car journeys. and. albeit approaches used elsewhere need to be tempered to suit Watford. gardens.2 6. houses. iii. Section 3 and the following section. the need to respond to context is greatest for small infill sites or where larger schemes adjoin existing development. x. minimise opportunities for crime. proceeding work may be abortive. If the context has a strong pattern and character. are environmentally sustainable and energy efficient. provide adequate levels of amenity and open space. viii. it may be preferable to establish a strong and independent pattern of development based on the principles in this Guide. 6. by railway lines. provide a mix of housing types and tenures. ix. the surrounding area lacks distinctive character or the proposal site is dislocated from its surroundings (i. places for leisure and areas for car parking.1 This section considers the “structure” of residential environments. 6. Residential Design Guide SPD. Generally.as is the case where infill development is proposed . iv. are of high quality design. the new scheme should take clues from the character of the existing and seek to preserve or enhance it. If. need to be taken into account.e.0. for major schemes the principles outlined in both. In larger scale schemes it may be appropriate for developers to draw upon good examples of either contemporary or past development elsewhere as a means of responding to the challenges of a particular site. accommodate people with disabilities. uses.

Existing attributes of an area can be built upon. The core should be connected to the primary movement network and should be capable of allowing residents to congregate. Residential Design Guide SPD. imaginatively and pay regard to the detailed guidance set out in the following paragraphs they will contribute positively to the character and quality of new residential development. The following provide a set of potential aspects of layout design that can create character. where new buildings adjoin countryside.2.2 Creating character 6. to establish varied character within the overall development. Such an area may take the form of a square or garden and be associated with community uses (such as e. Nodal points 6. a public house and/or a bus stop. London. a number of nodal points can be introduced. (1) 1 DETR & CABE (2001) Better places to live: By design. a school or community hall). Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 48 Layout Principles 6 6.6 Where positive (as defined by the ‘objectives of urban design’ set out in ‘By Design’ ) and appropriate built fabric already exists. shops.g. and the layout of buildings and spaces. higher residential densities. These may be urban spaces formed at junctions between routes. the principles for “layout and form” set out below should be employed. or a non-residential use such as a convenience shop or pub. Key buildings or groups of buildings. major roads or areas of open space. or where two character zones meet.'Building New Homes'.4 Through the use of different types of space. this should determine the “urban grain” of a proposal. street patterns and widths.5 New development often creates “edges”. If edges are treated sensitively. housing types.1 As noted above. a variation in character between different parts of a development can be achieved in large-scale residential schemes. This focal point could form the most suitable location for higher residential densities. for medium to large-scale developments there may be opportunities to build upon the characteristics of a site’s context to create a new identity or “sense of place”. Urban grain refers to the structure of a new development including. If the neighbouring development is not of high quality. block size and shape. Character zones 6.2 A layout will often benefit from a central focus that forms the core or “heart” of the development. Edges 6.2. interest and “place”.2. surrounding a new development. Thomas Telford Publishing. Establishing areas of distinctive character can reinforce local identity or raise the profile of a particular place. for instance. or new themes added.3 In addition to a central core. .2.2.2. building forms or materials. The core 6. could delineate nodal points. Urban grain 6.

towns. and.g. landmarks and focal points. for instance. However. Such networks play a crucial role in defining the character of a new development by establishing: a sense of place. can also be useful for orientation. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles Landmark buildings. and find their way around. and. other distinctive buildings. vistas and focal points 6. 6. spaces or structures placed at points throughout the development.3 .primarily roads . A well-defined image can be achieved by: a strong urban edge.3. taller) buildings help to emphasise the hierarchy of a place. away from the central core or nodal points. a coherent skyline and roofscape (taller buildings within the development designed to be seen over a wider area will aid orientation and structure the external view). roads. Residential Design Guide SPD. a building terminating the view along a street.3 Creating a movement network 6.3. permeability. opportunities for walking and cycling.3. 6. the requirements of vehicular traffic should not be allowed to dictate the character of a development.8 The external image of the development from the surrounding area is also important. or a retained mature tree. legibility. vistas and focal points make it easier for people to orientate themselves within. a sense of security through natural surveillance. These could be in the form of.2 Where innovative rather than standardised approaches to the layout of movement networks are employed there is often greater scope to make best and efficient use of land. a site's "connectivity" to surrounding areas.49 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. cycle-ways or pedestrian routes) into or through a site. External image 6.1 Most medium to large-scale housing developments will involve the provision of new movement networks (streets. a property jutting forward of the building line within a street.7 Landmark buildings or structures. cities and new neighbourhoods. 6.g. through distinctive buildings or pinch points). This can be achieved by respecting existing views towards landmarks or focal points in neighbouring development or adding new views.are often the main generator of the layout of housing developments. as these are often best placed in the central core or at entrance points. Movement networks need to take into account the needs of pedestrians and cyclists as well as the social and environmental needs of the occupiers of properties that border streets. clear gateways into and within the development (e.2.2. Whilst movement networks . Landmarks in the form of distinctive (e.

better long-term scope for adaptation and change. Such techniques are described in greater detail in the publication Manual for Streets (DCLG/DfT (2007). except in circumstances where a segregated route may be more direct.8 Segregation between pedestrian/cycle routes and within thoroughfares should be avoided. Shared routes 6. Such traffic calming techniques enable the creation of less standardised housing layouts and reduce the need for unsightly traffic signage and street furniture. or forms part of an open space/ green corridor (also see paragraph 6. In such circumstances the layout of streets and location of principal nodes of activity and/or higher density housing should be integrated with the location of bus stops.'Building New Homes'.47). access conditions and local context.6 Larger scale development may provide a sufficient critical mass of new residents to enable the provision or re-direction of a bus service. well-connected and “permeable”. new residential development needs to manage traffic speeds and flows. They should be open-ended. On larger sites the Council will discourage cul-de-sac layouts.3. Public transport integration 6. thus giving residents a choice of routes and modes of transport.3. Where appropriate. Recent developments have used the overall arrangement of buildings and spaces to obstruct the driver’s forward vision and therefore to reduce speeds. A grid or distorted grid form of layout will generally better enable the achievement of a well-integrated.3. speed restraint has usually involved the use of add-on measures such as speed humps and chicanes. shared surfaced streets will be encouraged as a means of reducing the space dedicated to vehicles and increasing social space for residents (see also paragraph to ‘Natural Surveillance’ below) . dispersal of traffic. In the past.3. well-integrated. greater ease of orientation or "legibility". greater pedestrian activity and potential for social interaction. . permeable layouts enable: more convenient and direct routes for pedestrians and cyclists.3. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 50 Layout Principles 6 Integration and permeability 6. 6. permeable development (see also paragraph to ‘Natural Surveillance’ below).5 The pattern of movement networks will primarily be determined by site size.4 Residential layouts should not be introverted “dead-ends”. In addition. better potential for the provision of bus services through the site. more visual interest within a development. and.7 In addition to seeking to discourage car use through the promotion of other forms of transportation. natural surveillance. Traffic-calming 6. Residential Design Guide SPD.

i. will be required. civic and leisure facilities . This can lead to a better balance of community services and facilities. can establish more robust communities. Where it is established that new facilities are required . streets. Non-residential uses can also help prevent new development becoming “dormitory suburbs”.5 Layout and form 6. .2 Structuring a development using perimeter blocks is a tried and tested method of successful place making.4. and maximise opportunities for natural surveillance. Special needs housing should also be provided. For example. A mix of uses is beneficial to residents and users of a new development: they create lively streets.4 6. A mix of tenures. mixed neighbourhood is the provision of a variety of housing types. and encourage activity throughout the day and night.5. and where the size allows. health. 6. Family housing as well as apartments are appropriate in Watford. Mixed housing types. including affordable rent.1 A truly successful neighbourhood is created by encouraging a mixed community comprising people of different ages. densities and tenures appropriate to local need.2 A crucial aspect of creating a successful.51 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. provide good connections to neighbouring development. sizes. Where the structure of a new development cannot easily be determined through building upon an existing pattern. Perimeter development helps to: create a legible place.e. This enables a greater diversity of building forms and scales to be employed.these should be conveniently situated and accessible via safe pedestrian routes. economic status and with different lifestyles.5.this will especially be the case in larger developments where an influx of residents will require associated educational. active frontages. improving community surveillance. blocks and squares.4.4. Mixed uses 6. Townhouses can create formal avenues or squares and frame open spaces. sizes and tenures 6. a mix of uses should be provided within new developments. apartments can add scale to local centres and provide corner buildings with continuous frontages. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles 6.4 Creating a neighbourhood 6.3 Where appropriate. Perimeter development 6. To a certain extent design principles can be employed to ensure a mixed community is created. the following should be considered. create an efficient form of layout.1 Many of the mistakes made in the design of housing areas in the latter part of the twentieth century resulted from designers ignoring tried and tested forms of structuring neighbourhoods.4. The starting point for establishing the need for non-residential uses should be through a review of existing community facilities and uses in the surrounding area. Residential Design Guide SPD. These types of dwellings should be dispersed throughout the development and be indistinguishable from homes for private sale.

A variation in block sizes within a development is a good means of creating variety.9 Residential areas should comprise a mix of public.7 Street widths and enclosure 6.5. 6. and solar panels can provide hot water. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 52 Layout Principles 6 create a clear distinction between the public and private realms. concentric or irregular with a more organic layout. Typically a ratio of 1:1 (height to street width) will produce an adequate sense of enclosure for a street and 1:4 will produce an appropriate scale for a square. This can be regular.5. in many cases. 6. both in relation to the arrangement of gardens and principal habitable rooms and also in enabling the reduction of energy requirements within the home. The use of the street or activity proposed within it will often define its width and the heights of the surrounding buildings. . as should the boundaries separating the different types of spaces. Block size can vary. In some cases landscaping can also help to create enclosure in a street. As established in Section 4. Typical block sizes in Watford range in length from 100m to 250m and in width from 60m to 80m. consideration must still be given to other urban design principles.'Building New Homes'.4 6. Whilst the orientation of buildings is important and can lead to a number of advantages. the local context will. photovoltaic cells can be used to convert solar radiation into electricity. This can be done in a number of ways: good sized and well-located windows can reduce the need for artificial lighting. Public. and. interest and character. private and communal space 6. maximise natural surveillance with windows and doors of dwellings fronting onto the street. such as along principal roads.5. 6. In all instances the function of each space should be clearly defined.5.6 The orientation of dwellings in relation to the sun is important.5. A development does not need to be exclusively one grid form or another. small blocks provide good pedestrian permeability whilst larger blocks are more land efficient.8 Successful streets can be a variety of widths: what is important is the height of the buildings in relation to the width of the street and the creation of a pedestrian scale (streets which pedestrians feel comfortable using). Successful streets create good enclosure. private and communal space (including “semi-public” areas shared by a group rather than open to all such as courtyards). Different forms can create different character areas within a development.5 Solar orientation 6. where wider spacing between buildings is required. passive solar gain reduces the need for internal heating.5. Residential Design Guide SPD.5. be the starting point for defining the width of streets within new development.3 Perimeter development will create a grid system. Ambiguous or ‘left over’ space must be avoided. Design decisions need to be made in the round to reach a considered balance between competing design objectives.

and.5.5. 6. Suitable materials include natural stone paving slabs.53 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Ideally these should vary in size. however. A well-conceived landscape strategy will: assist in the creation of a distinctive sense of place. a hierarchy of other public spaces can be established within a large-scale development.12 Landscaping is a central aspect of the overall design and should be considered early in the design process. especially in pedestrian priority areas where there are no separate pavements. stabilised gravel and block paving. or retained within. In addition.15 A varying palette of pedestrian surface materials can be used to emphasise a hierarchy of streets and to add interest and variety to the street. Where natural screening is required.11 Care should be taken in the design of communal space. and which help to provide screening. provide an attractive focus within new housing areas.5. be robust and resistant to vandalism.14 “Hard” landscaping refers to the man-made elements of a landscape scheme including paving.10 Public open space is an important constituent of good quality housing environments. open space will often be provided at the central core of the community to create a “heart” to the neighbourhood and to provide a sense of identity. size and nature of any existing soft landscaping. shade. colour and provide an organic quality to a site. evergreen species may be preferable. Privacy could be retained by a screened private patio to the ground floor. Alternative surfacing materials can also be used for road surfaces. reduce the visual impact of roads and parking areas. street furniture (streets. particularly in respect of courtyards or gardens provided within higher density housing.5. ‘spiky’ plant species will be appropriate. Hard and soft landscaping 6. provide a suitable interface with adjoining areas. Hard landscaping should be used sensitively and should not over-dominate spaces or result in visual clutter. Native species should be used rather than exotic plants. provide safe and attractive play areas.13 “Soft” landscaping refers to the natural features which are introduced to. walls and fencing. They must. surface dressed macadam e. 6. units that open onto the communal space or a raised ground floor. Careful consideration should be given to the types and species of new planting used within spaces to accord with their functions and the type. Soft landscaping provides a haven for local wildlife. to maintain privacy and amenity at ground floor level. tree grilles. a development. Tree planting along a pavement will add definition to a street and help frame important views and vistas. Where landscaping is intended as a barrier. As established in “Creating Character” above. bollards and railings) and public art. . reinforce local landscape character. character and treatment. with stones. The best landscaping schemes are often those that are understated and restrained.5.g. Residential Design Guide SPD. 6. 6. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles 6.5.

Public areas should have definable boundaries and clear functions. Creating lively and vibrant streets is central to . which provide a high quality of life whilst reducing resource consumption. minimising neglect and anti-social uses. the function of the site within the structure of the townscape should be considered. It is. 6. Encouraging community involvement and ownership.6. walls. where the use or the user of the space is not clear. therefore.3 6. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 54 Layout Principles 6 6. Innovative site layouts and high standards of urban design can be used to create higher density developments whilst maintaining amenity standards and quality of life for residents. trees and hedges and creating spaces which are appropriate to surrounding uses.6.3 Natural surveillance 6. reducing parking provision and narrowing street widths will allow for higher densities and. 6. Safety and security can be achieved through employing a number of well-established design principles. Residential Design Guide SPD. Public spaces.4 Creating a safe and secure environment is crucial to the success of a new housing development.7. such as streets. In addition.7. increasing the number of storeys where appropriate. depending on location and other merits of the site. These are more likely to attract anti-social behaviour. The function and surrounding use of each space should be clearly thought out to support such activity.7. fences.'Building New Homes'. The current Watford District Plan (2000) sets out density standards for residential development in Watford in policy H12. both through the initial design process and as part of the long term management of a development. the depositing of rubbish and general neglect. or places to sit and relax. often unused and uncared for areas. favoured through routes. with careful design provide adequate amenity for residents.uk/planning at time of publication). can be achieved through higher density development subject to a site’s location. Sites within the town centre or neighbourhood centres can accommodate higher densities than those outside of these areas (see Watford Borough Council’s Urban Capacity Study 2005. Building terraces rather than detached and semi-detached houses. result in ambiguous.2 6. parks.6 Density 6.watford.7. Areas.6.1 Creating sustainable places. available from www.gov. Ensuring that new development is of an appropriate scale and density is an important element in the design of residential areas. however.1 Ensuring a clear distinction between public and private areas within the development is an important aspect of safety and sense of security. squares. which are “left over” spaces. can form areas for social interaction for events.2 6.7 Ownership and security Ownership 6. important to consider the existing density of development in an area (see Character Area assessment in Chapter 4) to ensure higher density development does not have a detrimental effect on townscape character and amenity. creates a sense of responsibility. The former can be achieved through the positioning of buildings.

55 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. ‘Secured By Design’ prefers car parking within the curtilage of the property and within clear view of it (e. namely: 6. and. uses. some private space provided as a buffer between the front door and the public realm is preferable and can act as a deterrent to anti-social behaviour. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles this. by: removing front gardens and the opportunities for landscape and planting. v.2 To help to address these issues. over-stretching drainage infrastructure in times of heavy rainfall.8. vi. routes for walking and cycling should not be separated from the main thoroughfares. doors should be provided on flank walls of dwellings adjoining streets and footpaths. Windows should be designed to maximise overlooking of the street whilst maintaining sufficient privacy. Also. housing close to public transport nodes will require lower-levels of parking provision (see Watford Borough Council’s Car Parking Standards. so that owners can monitor their vehicles.8. limiting the opportunities to park on the street.7 6.1 Where and how cars are parked affects the quality of a development and the choices people make in how they travel. with visitor parking accommodated on-street.6 Generally. where possible. The following must be taken into consideration when designing for natural surveillance: 6. which have to cross a pavement to park.7. and.7. Residential Design Guide SPD.8 Car parking 6. A mix of housing types and. i. Blank facades and long boundary walls or fences should be avoided. on front drives). However. Windows and. introducing additional conflicts between pedestrians and cars.5 spaces per dwelling. There are a number of ways to accommodate parking within a development in a manner that minimises car-domination. In recent years. provision for off-street parking should be no more than 1.5 Dwellings should front onto streets.8. to encourage daytime and evening activity should be provided. Cul-de-sacs should be avoided. Principal doors should face the street. blurring the distinction between public and private space by eliminating traditional boundary treatments. Appendix 2 of the Watford District Plan 2000). they should be clearly signposted and lit. if appropriate. 6. 6. 6. thereby enhancing the feeling of safety and encouraging their use.3 . car parking provision should be minimised where possible. iii.g. Streets which are well-used and have activity in them throughout the day and evening benefit from natural surveillance provided by residents and users. ii. providing off-street parking through “car platforms” in front of houses or integral garages facing the street has eroded the quality of the environment.7. As a guide. iv. Where they need to be separated.

the location and design of the entrance must be carefully considered to minimise its impact on the street.8. Should be located at the centre of a street block.8.6 On-street parking: is convenient. 6. Should be overlooked by surrounding houses and/or there should be buildings that are entered from the parking area. trees and planting. is overlooked from surrounding houses and is efficient. However.5 iv.9 . vi. Undercroft parking: can be an appropriate way of providing off-street parking.8.g. Maintain the continuity of the street front by locating entrances to rear courtyards between buildings or through an archway.8. the garages can be concealed as part of the boundary wall. Successful rear parking courtyards should: i. It is advantageous to interrupt on-street parking at intervals through bays demarcated by paving. it separates pedestrians from moving traffic and still allows for boundary treatment landscaping for dwellings. iii. and. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 56 Layout Principles 6 6. 6.7 6.8. however.'Building New Homes'. In-curtilage parking: can be appropriate where a garage or carport is located alongside the house. Residential Design Guide SPD. Their drawbacks are that they widen the street width and therefore reduce the sense of enclosure. The shape of the building above ground must not be dictated by the dimensions of underground parking spaces. Rear courtyard parking: can be designed as an integral part of the overall site layout and can be a useful way of accommodating parking. careful consideration must be given to the frontages of undercroft areas to ensure that active and safe frontages are maintained at street level (e. set behind the building line. They should be limited to use in courtyard developments where development encloses at least three sides of the courtyard. v. It can also have a traffic calming effect. rather than car parks.4 Front courtyards: can provide safe and convenient parking for residents.8 6. Basement parking: is advantageous as it allows the street frontage of buildings to be maintained. ii. Ideally have more than one access point. forming a route across the block. In some locations. Be designed as places with car parking in them. In-curtilage parking to the front of the house should be avoided. to ease the impact. Soft landscaping will also be required to reduce the impact of large areas of hard surfacing. The use of varied surfacing materials or dropped kerbs may be needed to indicate the boundary between public highway and private parking space. 6. Cassio Metro). Remain small and not include more than about 10 parking spaces (if this is necessary the courtyards should be broken up into different spaces to avoid a large expanse of car parking).8.

9 Checklist: layout principles Checklist for Layout Principles Response to Context 1. open space or between character areas)? Have clear design treatments been employed? Does the urban grain either perpetuate the pattern of the surrounding area. vistas and focal points been used to link the new development to existing neighbourhoods and to aid orientation within the development? When viewing the development from a distance has a well-defined image been achieved through the treatment of the urban edge. 6. Street and Movement". 5. set out in "Places. if appropriate? Have different uses. 3. or a need. interconnected. garden or community facility? Have nodal points been introduced into the development. major roads. roads and paths adequately integrated into existing routes? Does the movement network encourage non-car based journeys? Is there a clearly legible hierarchy of safe. 2. 4. to establish an independent identity for the entirety or part of the site? Does the development focus on a core area such as a square. spaces. Residential Design Guide SPD. To what extent does the character and layout of the proposal need to respond directly to its context? Is there scope.57 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. 3. building forms and materials been used to establish a variation in character between different parts of the development? Has thought been given to the variety of edges within the development (edges to the countryside. 7. 2. . 6. well used and overlooked streets and spaces? Is there scope to reduce road widths or provide shared-surface streets? Have opportunities to integrate bus routes into the development been fully utilised? Have the principles of traffic-calming. 2. Movement Networks 1. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles 6. or employ the key design principles for good place making? Have landmarks. 5. been utilised where appropriate? Creating Character 1. 4. establishing clear gateways to the development and creating a coherent skyline? Is the proposed network of streets.

4. Car Parking 1. Safety. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 58 Layout Principles 6 Checklist for Layout Principles Creating a Neighbourhood 1. Does the proposed design encourage a mixed community through the provision of a mix of housing types. 2.'Building New Homes'. private and communal spaces? Has best practice from "Part M of the Building Regulation" been taken into account for access arrangements? Has car parking been accommodated without compromising environmental quality? Has enough storage capacity been provided within the dwelling/ dwelling house for waste and recycling? Have communal storage areas for waste and recyclables been considered. 3. Layout. Residential Design Guide SPD. 3. clearly signposted and well lit? Have public spaces been clearly defined in terms of their boundaries and function? Have the principles of Inclusive Design and Mobility been taken into account in the layout of the public. Waste Storage and Recycling Facilities 1. sizes and tenures? Has a mix of community facilities and other non-residential uses been provided? Is the layout and form of the development appropriate to the context? Does the ratio of building height to street width create a successful sense of enclosure? Was the width of existing streets in the area a starting point for defining the width of streets within the new development? Has each space been clearly defined in terms of its boundaries and its function? Has a hierarchy of public spaces been established throughout the development? Has a hard and soft landscaping strategy been established early on in the design process? Has thought been given to street furniture and surfacing to produce a robust public realm which avoids visual clutter? Have the guidelines for layout of 'Secured By Design' been taken into account in the layout of the public. legible. 2. 4. Inclusive Design and Mobility 1. Layout and Form 1. . that are safely and conveniently accessible by the residents (including considerations of 2. 5. 6. private and communal spaces? Do dwellings front onto the street? Do principal entrances open onto it? Has overlooking of the street been maximised through the positioning of windows? Have blank facades been avoided? Are pedestrian and cycle routes. 2.

Residential Design Guide SPD. For shared facilities. 6. Enclosures. and ‘Residents Only’ recycling centres for larger blocks. 6.10 Waste Storage and Recycling 6.3 For high rise residential developments (dwelling houses with flats above the 4 floor) are recommended: A shared single waste container for non-recyclable waste fed by chute (separate storage (storage compounds/rooms) for recyclable waste). It also explains minimum internal and external storage capacity requirements for waste storage. 4. explain minimum requirements for waste and recycling storage in new developments and set out Best Practice examples under consideration of health. like access and parking.2 Building Regulations.4 External storage areas should be away from windows and ventilators.10. site access and further access issues for local residents (including considerations of disabled access) and the waste/recycling removers. but there needs to be always enough space for at least two waste bins for waste disposal and additional bins should be considered for the collection of recyclables. not interfering with pedestrian or cycling routes and preferably in shade or under shelter. site requirements might be reduced.10. Part H6.10. Table: Checklist for Layout Principles 6. Volume 1 6 Layout Principles Checklist for Layout Principles disabled access) and the waste disposal officers and their waste disposal vehicles? Have storage requirements and site layout been checked with the relevant Waste Manager in Environmental Health? Where external communal waste and recycle storage areas have been considered.59 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. such as large containers / bottle banks. is there enough space for the different types of waste bins? Has there been an allowance for possible future changes to recycling requirements? Is the publicly accessible and visible storage area enclosed by a shelter or enclosure that is sympathetic to the character of the development and right for its location? 3. a design consideration from an early design stage and should influence design and layout of the development.10. Capacities and site layout for waste collections and recycling should always be checked with the relevant Waste Manager in the Environmental Health Service of the Council. compounds or storage rooms provided should: th . 6.1 Waste storage and recycling facilities in residential development should be.

5 Communal storage areas should have provision for washing down and draining the floor into a system suitable for receiving a polluted effluent (gullies with a trap & seal device).10. 6. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 60 Layout Principles 6 provide a clear space between and around the containers. and should have a paved impervious floor.'Building New Homes'. have a minimum height. Residential Design Guide SPD. allow enough space for filling. 6. planting or a combination of those). . A publicly accessible and visible storage area should be enclosed by a shelter or enclosure that fits into the site and is sympathetic to the character of the development (walls.10.6 Open storage areas should be secured to prevent access by vermin unless the waste is to be stored in secure containers with close fitted lids. emptying and sufficient opening of the lid. fencing. should be permanently ventilated at the top and bottom.

In considering the form and siting of individual buildings within a proposal. however.1. boundaries should remain strong to give definition to the street and to ensure public and private space is clearly defined. sunlight and overshadowing.2 7. The setback of dwellings from a street is a key consideration. Continuous frontages are most easily achieved with terraced housing and flats.2 Where there is a strong building line. the capability of a building to be adapt over time. The following principles can be applied to both individual parts of a major housing scheme or to smaller scale infill development where only a single new building or terrace may be proposed. determine the degree of privacy to ground floor rooms and can accommodate storage and service requirements at the front of the dwelling. it is possible to maintain continuity by bridging over at first floor level. width.3 7. there is a need to consider the form and siting of individual buildings within it. 7. this can add interest and variety to a street. Volume 1 7 Building Form and Siting 7 Building Form and Siting 7. in particular its relationship to property boundaries and existing or proposed streets. emergency and delivery vehicles. the following issues need to be taken into account: building lines and setbacks.1 A strong building line creates continuity of frontage and provides definition and enclosure to the public realm.1.1. building size and scale. semi-continuous enclosure can be provided through the appropriate use of garages and walls. Where space for vehicular access to rear parking is required between buildings.1 Building line and setbacks 7. It can define the character of the street. residential amenity space.1 Having defined the overall physical layout. any new development should be in keeping with this.61 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.3 7. Where buildings have varied setbacks.0. privacy and outlook.4 1 This will be subject to the height and width of refuse. Where detached and semi-detached dwellings are included in a street. boundaries. Building form relates to the physical dimensions of a building. Residential Design Guide SPD. (1) 7. depth and roof profile. daylight. and.0. namely its height. Where dwellings can be serviced from the rear there may be opportunities for shallow setbacks or for building frontages to follow the back of pavement line (see "Roads in Hertfordshire: A Guide for New Development" for guidance on servicing and 7.1. Siting refers to the location of a building within the wider development or its plot and.0. .

Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 62 Building Form and Siting 7 access). Not only does enclosure improve the streetscape. In addition. are crucial to distinguish between public and private space. The photographs on this page show a range of quality approaches that define the front boundaries of residential properties. setbacks should generally not be more than 3m from the pavement unless there are clear reasons why a greater set back would be appropriate. 7.1.1. The use of recessed porches can help to enhance the threshold to the dwelling. Careful thought needs to be given. it reduces forward visibility ensuring that drivers reduce their speed. Residential Design Guide SPD. particularly front boundaries adjacent to pavements.5 The smaller the distance by which a dwelling is set back from the highway. the amount of set back should be determined by the surrounding character and road hierarchy.6 7.'Building New Homes'. achieving adequate privacy and creating character. to the design of front doors and threshold areas. . it also gives residents and pedestrians a greater sense of safety and security.1 The height and form of boundaries to properties. Where there is a lack of any existing pattern to follow.2 Boundaries 7. In urban areas. especially in relation to security. in this instance. The absence of clearly defined boundaries can lead to neglected and poor quality spaces between buildings and streets. the greater the sense of enclosure created within the street.2. 7.

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Picture 7.1 Leavesden Road, Watford. Building frontages positioned at the back of the pavement providing no setback.

Picture 7.2 Mildred Road, Watford. Shallow setbacks providing small front garden.

Picture 7.3 Cassiobury Estate, Watford. Larger front gardens create a different street character.

7.3 Building size and scale 7.3.1 In existing areas, particularly in the case of infill or backland development, it is important that proposals respect - but not necessarily in all instances replicate - the height and scale of adjoining or nearby buildings. In most locations in Watford the prevalent building heights of two or three-storeys will need to be mirrored in new development. However, where appropriate, on town centre sites, in locations adjacent to transport nodes and within major development sites, denser and taller forms of development may be acceptable. In such instances, the effects of a proposal on amenity and townscape will be the primary issues in determining the appropriate height of development. The variation in height of a few carefully placed buildings such as at the entrance to developments, on corners, at the end of vistas or around parks, can help add variety to a development. Taller buildings will also stand out as landmark features and will aid the legibility of the area.

7.3.2

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7.4 Privacy and outlook Privacy is an important aspect of residential environments. Extensions or two-storey or taller outbuildings (more than 3m/4m high ) in private gardens should not result in any significant loss of privacy to neighbouring houses or gardens.
(2)

The best way of ensuring privacy between houses is to ensure that within proposals for extensions there are no windows to habitable rooms directly facing a window in a neighbouring property or its garden area. More problems can occur if a two storey extension has been planned and then it can be more complicated to assess matters of privacy and outlook. Different privacy standards will apply to front, rear and flank elevations: a) Front elevation: The separation distance between front elevations will be determined by the street layout and the size of the front gardens. b) Rear elevation: i. A minimum separation distance of 27.5m should be achieved between rear elevations of new homes/houses and existing houses, when unobscured and directly facing habitable windows at first floor level. Exceptions will be made where it can be demonstrated that adequate privacy standards can be achieved. The ‘privacy arc’ and the 10m-rear-boundary rules will be applied. ii. In some circumstances, the distances between new homes in a new development can be reduced to minimum 22m. iii. The ‘privacy arc’ shows and inappropriate [x] locations for new development. Habitable room windows will only be accepted within this 27.5m arc if a proposal is at right angles to an existing habitable room window (Figure 2: Privacy arc at 27.5 metres). iv. The 10m-rear-boundary rules requires that a minimum direct distance between upper level habitable rooms on a rear elevation (not extensions) and rear boundaries of 10m should be achieved to minimise overlooking of private gardens.
Picture 7.4 Measures to maintain privacy in Flank elevations.

v. Rear extensions must not compromise the privacy of adjacent properties. Balconies, terraces or roof gardens will not be allowed in circumstances where they enable neighbouring properties to be overlooked. In all instances the level of impact on neighbouring properties will be one of the
2 [Permitted maximum height of the outbuilding depending on if it has a flat roof or a pitched roof (in accordance with GDPO)].

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principal criteria against which the planning application / proposal will be assessed. The neighbour’s permission will also be required if there should be a need for altering a party wall, if any building work overhangs onto their property or if access is required for construction or future repair or maintenance works. The Privacy Arc The privacy arc is a rule-of-thumb to prevent unreasonable overlooking between the rear of properties. It is based on the assumption that a neighbour needs a minimum privacy distance in order not to feel too overlooked and on the assumption that a person standing directly inside in front of the window looking outwards normally can overlook to a certain degree an area that is within a view-angle of 45° towards both sides of the window. How to use the privacy arc rule is explained below in more detail. (I) How to calculate the privacy arc: To use the privacy arc for the assessment of the effects on the privacy of an existing property, a small drawing would need to be carried out in order to find out how far the privacy arc for a window in this property stretches: Draw a reference line in a right angle through the middle of the habitable room window towards the rear of the existing (E) property (or reference property). Then construct two boundary lines both at an angle of 45° towards both sides. Then draw a circle from one boundary line to the other boundary line with its middle point the same as the middle of the habitable room window and a radius that does represents the minimum privacy distance (27.5m for an existing property [or, in some circumstances, 22m for new houses in the same development]).

Figure 7.1 How to construct the privacy arc.

Picture 7. .'Building New Homes'. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 66 Building Form and Siting 7 (II) The privacy arc to assess locations for development: Once the privacy arc for a window within the existing property has been found out. Proposal D is not acceptable as the unobscured window is at an angle less than 90° (such as in the example at an angle of 76°).5 Box 1 The privacy arc to prevent unreasonable overlooking between the rear of properties Proposal A would be acceptable as the unobscured window is at an angle of 90° (or more than 90°). Residential Design Guide SPD. the privacy arc should show appropriate and inappropriate [x] locations for new development (proposals A-D) in relation to this window: In general. Proposal B is not acceptable for an unobscured window as it directly faces the property and would be within the minimum privacy distance. habitable room windows (unobscured) will only be accepted within this arc if a proposal is at right angles or at an angle greater than 90°. Proposal C would be acceptable as it is outside of the minimum privacy distance.

this may be allowed if there is at least 2m between properties and obscure glazing has been used. 7. For adequate levels of daylight and sunlight to be maintained (where a window faces within 90° of due south).5.5 Daylight. However. The effect of proposed extensions and outbuildings on daylight and sunlight should be assessed using the ''45 Degree Rule of Thumb''. however. store-room). bedroom etc). The overshadowing of amenity spaces. c) Flank elevation: i. this process would need to repeated for every individual window at a rear elevation of the property. sunlight and overshadowing 7. There are no fixed criteria for assessing effects on outlook.5. Residential Design Guide SPD. hall. Proposed dwellings should be laid out so as to maximise the penetration of sunlight to main rooms and gardens. a proposal may be deemed unacceptable. plan and elevation) projected from the centre point of any adjoining properties' nearest ground floor habitable room window. Volume 1 7 Building Form and Siting (III) Completing the assessment with the privacy arc: Overall. living room. d) Balconies: Planning law does not provide a right to views over land outside an individual’s ownership.g.1 Care should be taken in the design of residential environments to ensure that adequate levels of natural light can be achieved within new dwellings and unacceptable impacts on light to nearby properties are avoided.7m above internal floor level. if this property has more than 1 window and/ or a glazed unobscured door at ground floor level.67 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. bathroom. iii. which is perpendicular to the proposal. In addition. ii.g. 7. Where a side window is necessary as the only window for a habitable room (e. extensions should be designed as not to cross a 45° line (on both.8m in height. or where a proposed window has a cill level in excess of 1. Side windows that overlook adjacent homes or gardens should be avoided. failure to meet daylight/sunlight and privacy guidance is likely to imply unsatisfactory impacts on outlook. this will only be allowed where there is a minimum separation distance of 10m between opposing and un-obscured windows.2 . Where a side window is necessary as the only window for a secondary room (e. where neighbouring development results in a loss of outlook due to “tunnelling” or an excessive increase in the sense of enclosure experienced in a rear garden or rear room of a property. particularly those that are used for outdoor seating should be minimised. a side window at ground floor level may be allowed if there is a permanent fence or wall between adjacent properties that is no less than 1.

when measured in a vertical section perpendicular to the rear wall of an existing property subtends an angle of more than 25° at the centre of the lowest window.5. “If any part of a new building. then daylight and sunlight levels may be adversely affected”.8 .6 Loss of privacy due to a two-storey extension.3 The Building Research Establishment (BRE) guidelines “Site Layout Planning for Daylight and Sunlight: A Guide to Good Practice” (1991) provides guidance on avoiding unacceptable impacts and sets out non-mandatory targets for levels of daylight and sunlight within existing and proposed development. 7. Picture 7. the following rule of thumb guidance can be used. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 68 Building Form and Siting 7 Picture 7. The Council will generally apply the BRE guidance targets where new development affects natural light to existing properties. Residential Design Guide SPD. Picture 7.7 The 45 degree rule of thumb ensures that adequate levels of daylight and sunlight can be maintained.'Building New Homes'. Where new development is parallel to existing properties.

plus 5 square metres per additional unit over five units.g.5. where physically achievable and particularly on the ground floor.1 It is evident that the types of dwellings and/or uses demanded in a particular area can change over time. 7. The following can be used as a guideline: the minimum standard for private garden space for a family dwelling is 50 square metres. Much of the green space provided in the past has been poorly located.2 The Council will expect new housing development. communal open space provided for the exclusive use of occupants of the development may be acceptable as long as its location. for non-family or flatted developments. compact vertical circulation with ready means of escape can make larger houses more suitable for sub-division into apartments or commercial use. 7. website: . by the vertical stacking of kitchens and bathrooms which can simplify the provision of additional services. where a family dwelling cannot be located on the basement or ground floor of the building. or of an inappropriate shape to be useful. 7. is too small (or large).6 Residential amenity space 7. the Council may request the submission of a daylight/sunlight assessment to accompany a planning application. e. Children's play space and public open space standards are set out in Watford's Supplementary Planning Guidance Note 10 (SPG 10) all gardens and communal open spaces should generally enjoy a reasonable amount of sunlight.6.7. Volume 1 7 Building Form and Siting 7. Open space and landscape proposals for new developments should be an integral part of the design. or in instances where higher density development is proposed. Adaptability can be achieved in a number of ways: through the use of steel and concrete frame construction which can create broader spans and make the reconfiguration of internal space easier than where dwellings are built in a cellular form with load bearing walls.7 Flexibility and adaptability 7. the minimum area for usable communal space is 50 square metres.1 Green spaces within residential developments can make a valuable contribution either as a recreational facility or as visual relief within an urban environment. Residential Design Guide SPD.4 Where this is the case.7. either individual private gardens or communal space at a minimum of 25 square metres for each unit should be provided. Joseph Rowntree Foundation 1997. a landscaped area of at least 3m deep along the length of the building). Dwellings and residential neighbourhoods which are designed to be adaptable will prove to be more robust in the long term.69 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. size and shape enable it to be enjoyed by the occupants (the layout and design should offer privacy for dwellings adjoining the space. the use of solid floors can reduce noise. to meet the standards for lifetime homes (see Designing Lifetime Homes.

2. overlooking.org. Boundaries 1. on corners. overshadowing or sense of enclosure been avoided? Has the distance between front elevations been determined by the character of surrounding road widths? Is adequate privacy achieved between opposing habitable room windows? Does the proposal avoid excessive increases in sense of enclosure to surrounding properties? 3. 2. 3. at entrances. 2. 3. Residential Design Guide SPD.g. Privacy and Outlook 1. Has a strong building line been established which creates continuity of frontage and defines the public realm? Where space for vehicular access to rear parking is required between buildings. Building Size and Scale 1. can be catered for over time and is particularly important in catering for reduced mobility needs.8 Checklist: building form and siting Checklist Building Form and Siting Building Lines and Setbacks 1. can a variation in height for a few carefully placed buildings e. 7. Ensuring the home can be adapted to include a stair lift. This ensures the evolving needs of residents. access to a downstairs toilet/shower can be provided. are some of the key features of “lifetime homes”. a room downstairs can be used as a bedroom. daylight and sunlight availability. .'Building New Homes'. at the end of vistas or around open space add variety to the scheme? Have any adverse effects on neighbouring properties in terms of privacy. as a consequence of social and workplace trends. 4.lifetimehomes. 2. can the building line be maintained by bridging over at first floor level? Is there an established building line that should be followed and maintained? Where buildings have varied setbacks is there a strong and continuous boundary treatment? Has careful thought been given to the appropriate setback for the buildings? Has the setback been determined by the surrounding character and road hierarchy? Are boundaries between public and private space clearly defined? Is the type. 4. form or materials used for the boundary appropriate to their context? Do the heights of buildings adequately reflect there context? Has the scope for taller development been fully considered? Where appropriate. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 70 Building Form and Siting 7 www.uk).

71 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. boundaries? Have the principles of ‘Inclusive Design’ and ‘Inclusive Mobility’ been considered? Has best practice from ‘Part M of the Building Regulation’ been taken into account for access arrangements? Have ‘Lifetime Homes’ standards been considered in the design of the building (such as the adaptability to changing life circumstances of the occupants of a home in its life cycle. Residential Design Guide SPD. . Volume 1 7 Building Form and Siting Checklist Building Form and Siting Daylight and Sunlight 1. badgers. Has overshadowing or loss of daylight/sunlight to existing buildings been addressed? Have the Building Research Establishment's guidelines been met? Will new development gain sufficient levels of natural light? Has consideration been given to the construction techniques used to enable adaptability of buildings in the future? Have the principles of "lifetime homes" and "smart" technology been used to ensure dwellings are adaptable to the future needs of the occupiers? Have the guidelines for layout of ‘’Secured By Design’’ been taken into account in the design of building lines. 4. 3.g. 2. Safety. 4. Biodiversity 1. see also criteria Hea 4 in the ‘Code for Sustainable Homes’)? Is there a possibility any protected species of fauna (such e. setbacks. Flexibility. has the Nature Conservation Officer been contacted to check mitigation measures? Are there other opportunities to retain and enhance native fauna and flora on site? Have native species been used in the planting rather than exotic plants? 2. newts) or flora are on the site or the site adjoining it? If so. bats. 2. Adaptability and Change 1. 2. 3. Inclusive Design and Mobility 1.

0. The development should be considered as a whole .0. Individual elements need to be well designed and arranged in a coherent manner consistent with the overall architectural approach. These are the most appropriate for new development. clay tiles and render. Windows should generally be set back in their openings rather than positioned directly flush with the building face: this improves weathering and appearance.2 8. Craftsmanship. Although there is essentially a consistent palette of building materials there is considerable variation in the detailing of buildings. Render: Render is often used on interwar semi-detached housing within Watford. often in conjunction with areas of brick. landscape and interface between them to create a sense of completeness and cohesion. styles and lighting are all integral elements of successful development. 8. Flues and ventilation: these should form an integral part of the design of a building: they should not be “add-on” elements. Using building materials local to an area can help reinforce local character.0.0.the buildings.0.0. building techniques. materials. Entrances: front entrances should be located to open onto or towards the public street. The starting point for architectural detailing should be local context. chimney stacks and the use of dormer windows.6 8. Residential Design Guide SPD. The size and scale of the entrance should be proportionate to the elevation as a whole.1 Attention to detail is crucial when creating quality buildings and places with a sense of character.7 .0. 8. Generally the predominant building materials are brick. with different colors in different areas. the detailing of eaves and gables. The following should be given careful consideration: Roof forms and configuration: are important visual elements within new development and can add variety and interest. decoration. English and Flemish bonding styles are the most appropriate for new developments in the area. The two predominant building styles are terraced housing from the 1830s onwards and interwar semi-detached housing.4 8.5 8. Windows: on the front facades of buildings windows have an important role to play in the appearance and continuity of a dwelling and its response to its local context.3 Architectural details should be appropriate to the form and function of the building. Consideration should be given to the grouping of buildings. Consideration should also be given to the size and amount of window coverage in a new building: new dwellings should seek to respond to prevailing solid to void ratios. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 72 Materials and architectural detailing 8 8 Materials and architectural detailing 8.'Building New Homes'. The following materials are likely to be appropriate for new development: Brick: This is the dominant building material in Watford. Roofing materials: The two dominant roofing materials are clay and slate tiling. roof pitches.

1 Checklist: materials and architecural detailing Checklist for Materials and Architectural Detailing Materials and architectural detailing 1. and the employment of ironmongery and decorative features to front boundaries of dwellings. or groups of buildings.0. hedges. The effect of belongings stored on balconies will be considered in determining the appropriateness of balconies in sensitive locations 8. particularly on street elevations. can be emphasised with lighting. 8. storage for recycling waste. 2. local or regional plant species. Elaborate details should be confined to providing emphasis to an important building.12 Garage doors: where integral garages are proposed. Have appropriate materials been used? Has consideration been given to the building materials used locally? Is there a strong local architectural character in the area or street that should be considered in the choice of materials and design and detailing of the building? What are typical colors or hues for bricks and pointing? What bond has been used? Have clay and slate tiling been considered as roofing material? 3. Where possible pipes should be restricted to side and rear elevations. access for refuse and emergency vehicles. Lighting: places should be lit for people rather than purely for traffic. 8.0. High quality and energy efficient lighting should be considered as part of a coherent approach to the treatment of public spaces.73 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. garage doors can dominate the front of dwellings. Decorative features can add to the visual character of a building but should be used simply and sympathetically rather than to seek to hide poor design. service entries and inspection boxes. storage for home deliveries.0. refuse collection and storage at the rear of properties. fences and gates: local distinctiveness and identity can be strengthened through the use of local materials. pipes and other rainwater details: rainwater goods should be sympathetically designed to minimise their impact. Residential Design Guide SPD.11 Balconies: the impact of balconies on a streetscene should be carefully considered.8 Walls.13 Decorative features: decorative details should be appropriate to the material used and the location.0.0.0.14 Interface areas: the parts/areas of properties that address the public realm (“interface elements”) require careful design and are crucial to the success of a new development. 8.9 8. 8. 8. and.10 Gutters. Volume 1 8 Materials and architectural detailing 8. Consideration should be given to: cycle storage. meter boxes. The design of garage doors should be of appropriate scale and should be architecturally sympathetic to new dwellings. . Individual components of buildings. their size and scale impacting on the proportions of windows and doors.0.

3. Have appropriate roof forms and configurations been used? Do they reflect local context? Has consideration been given to the detailing of building areas such as the size and positioning of doors and windows? Are there balconies and other decorative features used in the locality that could be employed in the new development? Have front entrances been located to open onto or towards the public street? Has it been made sure that garage doors do not dominate the front of dwellings? Is the design of garage doors of appropriate scale and architecturally sympathetic to the new dwelling? Have decorative details been considered that are appropriate to the material used and the location and add to the visual character of a building? Has local distinctiveness and identity been strengthened through the use of local materials for walls. 2. meter boxes. 3. interface and communal areas 2. storage for recycling waste. Residential Design Guide SPD. 5.'Building New Homes'. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 74 Materials and architectural detailing 8 Checklist for Materials and Architectural Detailing Architectural detailing 1. service entries and inspection boxes. 3. fences and gates? Have local or regional plant species been used for hedges? Have locally typical ironmongery and decorative features been used to front the boundaries of dwellings? Has appropriate consideration been given to the design of interface areas and how they look from the street or other communal areas? Has consideration been given to the incorporation and sympathetic design of cycle storage. Design of front 1. gardens. . 4. 4. 2. 5. storage for home deliveries? Have rainwater goods been sympathetically designed? Has access for refuse and emergency vehicles been considered in the design of communal areas? Have areas for refuse and recycling been considered? Is there enough lighting to make the place safe and navigable and to enhance the feel of security? Has high quality and appropriate lighting and lighting posts been chosen for the area? Has energy efficient lighting been considered? Has the place been lit for people rather than purely for traffic? Have the use of soft landscaping and permeable surfaces been considered for private front gardens and communal areas instead of hard landscaping and impermeable surfaces? 6. Boundaries 1.

The achievement of sustainable development is a central aspect of planning policy and guidance. This can be achieved through minimising the amount of energy required to construct and occupy dwellings.0. 9. heat and light. and. using materials which take less energy to produce and can be recycled.2 Key principles: i. iii. waste reduction and management. vi. Residential Design Guide SPD. Layout and building form .0. 9. designing buildings (including access and surroundings to these buildings) that do not contribute to flood risk and improve the quality of both. water conservation and management. The county has produced a guide “Building Futures: A Hertfordshire Guide to Promoting Sustainability in Development” (2003). water saving and natural drainage. vii. by using solar energy.75 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. x. 2 Other issues have been covered in earlier sections of this Guide. which promotes sustainability in new development.1 Housing developments should be designed to minimise energy consumption and to make best use of renewable energy sources. taking into account the long-term maintenance of development. and. providing recycling facilities for waste in the home and neighbourhood.0.g. 9. iv. iii. ii.1. v. landscaping and biodiversity. developing on “brownfield” land rather than “greenfield” sites. The layout and design of housing development can play a key role in supporting sustainability objective particularly in respect of medium to large-scale schemes. energy conservation and efficiency (CO reduction). ix. viii. e.1 Energy conservation 9.3 This section provides guidance on a range of measures by which new housing development can contribute to: i. designing buildings that use less energy to build. ii. Volume 1 9 Sustainable Development 9 Sustainable Development 9. reusing existing buildings where it is practical or economic to do so. 1987). site layout and design to reduce car use. and by maximising the potential of ambient energy.1 Sustainable development has been defined as “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs or aspirations”. (Bruntland. See also the Sustainable Development Checklist at the end of this section and in chapter 5 of the Volume 2 of the Residential Design Guide. designing buildings which are adaptable over time (including the use of ‘smart technology’). using planning policy.

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9.1.2 Energy reduction can be achieved through making best use of the sun. Orientating residential properties so that their main window walls face within 30º of due south enables solar energy to be utilised either passively or actively. The following should be borne in mind in layout design to optimise the benefits of passive solar design: Overshadowing of south-facing façades needs to be avoided where possible; Excessive solar gain in summer can be avoided through the incorporation of brise-soleil or planting of deciduous trees; Harnessing site topography; and, Positioning smaller windows on north-facing frontages. 9.1.3 By ensuring that sufficient levels of natural light (daylight and/or sunlight) are achieved within principal rooms of new housing (kitchens, living rooms and dining rooms), the need for artificial light can be reduced. Sufficient levels of natural light are obtained, provided minimum Average Daylight Factors (ADF) of 2% and 1.5% are achieved, in kitchens and other main rooms (living and dining rooms) respectively. (Guidance on assessing levels of internal natural light are provided in Site Layout Planning for Daylight and Sunlight: A Guide to Good Practice (1991), Appendix C). The design of spaces between buildings and landscaping proposals can help to ensure sheltered micro-climates. Reducing exposure to winds - particularly cold northerly and easterly winds - can help reduce heat loss from buildings. It is therefore important to: i. ii. 9.1.5 Layout buildings so as to avoid wind tunnelling and turbulence; Provide tree shelter belts within, or on the edge, of exposed sites.

9.1.4

The need to provide shelter must be balanced against the need to harness summer breezes for cooling and, as a consequence, reduce reliance on energy consumption for cooling. Building form has an important influence on energy consumption and conservation. Terraced houses, maisonettes and flats have a smaller surface area, retain more heat and are more energy efficient than detached houses and bungalows. In addition, narrow-fronted terraces are more energy-efficient than wide-fronted ones.

Renewable energy 9.1.6 Housing development proposals will be encouraged to incorporate renewable energy sources. This can be achieved in a wide-range of ways, albeit some forms of renewable energy production will not be feasible for small-scale developments. Consideration should be given to the incorporation of the following: Solar water heating panels; Photovoltaics; Wind turbines; Combined heat and power; Biomass; and, Ground or water source heat pumps.

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9 Sustainable Development
Building construction 9.1.7 In addition to ensuring energy conservation is achieved through layout, building form and the incorporation of renewable energy, the fabric of new buildings plays a key role in ensuring the minimisation of heat and energy loss. Where renewable energy and/or passive solar design cannot be incorporated into new development levels of insulation will be sought that exceed the requirements of Part L of the Building Regulations. Means of achieving these goals are provided in “Building Futures: A Hertfordshire Guide to Promoting Sustainability in Development”(2003); current web link: http://www.hertslink.org/buildingfutures [Sep 2008, subject to change]. Available grants and additional information on this subject can be found under: http://www.bre.co.uk and www.thecarbontrust.co.uk/ .

9.1.8

9.2 Water supply and drainage 9.2.1 New housing developments should seek to minimise water consumption, introduce systems to recycle water, manage waste water and incorporate sustainable forms of drainage, as required by the saved policy SE30 in Watford District Plan 2000 or its replacement in the LDF. Means of achieving these goals are provided in “Building Futures: A Hertfordshire Guide to Promoting Sustainability in Development”(2003); current web link: http://www.hertslink.org/buildingfutures [Sep 2008, subject to change].

9.2.2

Water consumption 9.2.3 9.2.4 Domestic water consumption can be minimised through the installation of low flow showers, low or dual flush toilets, spray taps and water efficient appliances. It is estimated that over 5% of water use in Hertfordshire is accounted for by the watering of gardens. The Hertfordshire Guide recommends: Using soils rich in organic matter that are capable of retaining moisture; Choosing drought tolerant plants for private gardens and amenity space; Allowing grass to grow long - thus retaining moisture; and, Using gravel or decking in areas exposed to the sun. Water harvesting and recycling 9.2.5 9.2.6 Rainwater can be harvested and used to supply toilets or for watering gardens. Grey water - from baths and showers- can be used to water non-edible plants. Black water - from toilets and kitchen sinks - requires filtration either biologically, via reed beds, or using membrane filtration technology, before re-use.

'Building New Homes', Residential Design Guide SPD, Volume 1 Watford Borough Council

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Sustainable Development 9
Sustainable drainage 9.2.7 Medium to large-scale housing developments should incorporate the use of Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS). These enable water run-off to be controlled and treated, at or near to source, using natural processes of filtration, sedimentation, absorption and biological degradation. The range of potential available methods of sustainable drainage are set out at Appendix E of PPS25 and in the Hertfordshire Guide. A National Guide on permeable surfaces has been published by the DCLG and the Environment Agency, namely the ‘Guidance on the permeable surfacing of front gardens’ (available at date of publication on www.communities.gov.uk/documents/ planningandbuilding/pdf/pavingfrontgardens.pdf ). In summary, sustainable drainage can be achieved by: i. ii. iii. iv. Maximising areas of permeable surfacing with a permeable fill below; Providing basins and ponds with sufficient capacity to accommodate, store and treat rainwater run-off; Providing engineered drainage solutions such as soakaways, infiltration basins and filter drains; or, By providing swales or filter strips (vegetated surfaces that allow water run-off to flow naturally away from impermeable surfaces).

9.2.8

9.2.9

9.3 Waste storage in new housing 9.3.1 New housing development should incorporate suitable on-site provision for waste storage, collection and recovery for recycling. Dwellings need to be designed so as to incorporate adequate storage for disposal containers and for waste separation for recycling. Consideration should be given to the reuse of demolition materials, produced locally or on-site, during the construction of new housing developments. In addition, consideration needs to be given to minimising waste and maximising the recycling of waste generated during the construction period. The design of waste storage in residential developments should be well integrated in the design of the site from the on-set of the proposal and must comply with Building Regulations (Part H6) and local guidance.

9.3.2

9.3.3

Waste Site Management Plans 9.3.5 9.3.6 A Site Waste Management Plan (SWMP) must be written before construction commences for projects over £300,000. DEFRA published a 'Non-statutory guidance for site waste management plans' in February 2008. More guidance on Site Waste Management Plans is also available on the website from Envirowise.

2. have terraced houses been used to minimise heat losses from dwellings? Is the development suitable for the incorporation of renewable energy sources? If so. 4. 7. Residential Design Guide SPD. Have measures been considered to minimise energy consumption and maximise recycling during construction? Does the layout of development take best advantage of passive solar gain whilst ensuring sufficient shading during summer months? Are sufficient levels of internal natural light likely to be achieved to prevent the need for artificial light within main rooms? Has exposure to prevailing winds been minimised whilst retaining sufficient cooling breezes in summer? Subject to context. 4. 6. 5. . 3. Volume 1 9 Sustainable Development 9. Checklist for Sustainable Development . 2. 2. have these been incorporated? Will the development meet or exceed the insulation requirements of Part L of the Building Regulations? Will the development incorporate measures to minimise water consumption? Has consideration been given to types of planting that minimise the need for watering? Is there scope for recycling grey or black water? If so.4 Checklist: sustainable development Checklist for Sustainable Development Energy Conservation 1. has this been incorporated? If development is of a sufficient scale. 3.79 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. have suitable sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) been incorporated? Has sufficient and adequate space been provided for the recycling of domestic waste? Has consideration been given to the minimisation of waste produced during construction? Water Supply and Drainage 1. Waste 1.

an application will still require a basic level of information on these issues.1.1.1 Clear and informative plans. Together with a blue line drawn around any other land owned by the applicant close to.'Building New Homes'. the correct fee (if required). 10.3 For applications for full planning permission. scale. Inevitably larger and high profile projects are liable to attract greater interest and scrutiny from the latter groups. 10. an agricultural holdings certificate. nature and complexity of the proposal and its potential environmental. access arrangements or siting. social or economic impacts. iii. drawings relating to matters that are intended to be determined “unreserved”. e. details on the use and amount of development including drawings showing the maximum envelope of proposed buildings to demonstrate that the intended floorspace can be accommodated within the site.g.0. Models and computer-generated representations are particularly useful to illustrate complex proposals. ii. a location plan based on 1:1250 or 1:2500 Ordnance Survey mapping that shows the application site outlined in red. ii. the following will be required: . For outline planning applications where some or all of the details of a scheme are intended to be “reserved” for consideration at a later date information will always be required on use and amount of development. scale and access are reserved. and. In addition. local residents and amenity groups. and. or adjoining the application site.0. except for householder applications outside of a conservation area. There are a number of compulsory submission requirements and a range of potential additional requirements. v.2 On 10 August 2006 new legislation stated that reserved matters now consists of layout. access and landscaping. 10. which are from 10 August 2006. completed ownership certificates and the notice.1 All planning applications must comprise: i. a planning submission may be reviewed by Councillors (on planning and other committees). Residential Design Guide SPD. completed and signed application forms including a concise description of the scheme.2 The precise requirements for a planning application submission will be largely dependent upon the size. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 80 Planning Application Requirements 10 10 Planning Application Requirements 10. a compulsory requirement for most planning applications. In addition to development control officers' assessment of the scheme. the following will be required: i. Pre-application consultation should take place on most medium-large scale or sensitive schemes. drawings and reports must be submitted with planning applications to ensure that the scheme can be properly assessed. 10. Of key relevance to the achievement of good quality housing design is the preparation of Design and Access Statements. iv. Therefore. appearance.1.1 Compulsory submission requirements 10. even if layout.

roads. none of which apply in Watford at the time of writing this Guide.3. boundary features. have to be dealt with through plans and conditions in the usual way.3. aspects contained in a DAS requiring control. and.uk/index. Widely used guidance on Design and Access Statements from CABE: http://www. older people and young children will be able to use the place to be built. The regulations provide a checklist of matters to be considered for inclusion in the Environmental Statement and require the developer to describe the likely significant effects of a development on the environment and to set out the proposed mitigation measures. Part M of the Building Regulations set out the minimum requirements for accessibility that all new homes are statutorily obliged to meet and shows possible design solutions to meet those .g.) Watford Borough Council planning officers will be able to advise whether a site is within a designated area. 6 and 8 of this Guide. e. 1 Available under http://www.1 The Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 1999 (SI 1999 No.asp?id=1144644.2. any design and access considerations that are crucial to the development must be secured through conditions on the outline permission. This is important for outline applications.2 Environmental Statements 10. a good practice guide.2 Design and Access Statements are documents that explain the design thinking behind a planning application.gov. footpaths levels. but do not form part of an application. iii. Therefore. iv. Residential Design Guide SPD.3. (1) 10. including disabled people. 10. unless they are householder applications and they are not in a conservation area. What is set out in a DAS is not binding in the way that approved drawings and conditions are. ii.com/ Documents/Disability/Services/ Access%20Statements. www. 10. sectional drawings at 1:100 or 1:50 showing cross-sections through the proposal and existing and proposed site levels.cabe. elevations at 1:100 or 1:50 clearly showing the proposal in the context of neighbouring buildings. a site survey plan of the site at between 1:500 and 1:200 showing existing features within and adjoining the site. These should show proposed materials and finishes.uk/assetlibrary/8073.1 All planning applications must be accompanied by a "Design and Access Statement" (DAS) . trees. 293) require a developer to prepare an Environmental Statement (required for Schedule 1 projects and for some Schedule 2 projects) to enable the LPA to give proper consideration to the likely environmental effects of a proposed development.pdf.3 Design and Access Statements 10.equalityhumanrights. a site layout plan showing proposed features including landscaping. buildings.org. DCLG (2003) Planning and Access for Disabled People. The structure of the document should be based on the checklists included within Chapters 4. floor plans at 1:100 or 1:50 showing existing and proposed buildings on the site and adjacent buildings in outline. (a DAS may be required for householder development in other types of designated area. 10.3 Design and Access Statements accompany.communities. 5. They should also demonstrate how everyone. and/or a planning obligation.81 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Volume 1 10 Planning Application Requirements i. v.doc.

SPD or development briefs.4 The Statement should also explain how crime prevention has been taken account of in the design.3. Applicants are therefore advised to liaise with the Council prior to the submission of an application to ascertain what is required. Subject to the type of application.'Building New Homes'. site features and scheme size. A drainage strategy is likely to be required as part of medium/larger schemes. Draft Travel Plan Planning Obligations Flood Risk Assessment Drainage Strategy (3) 2 3 Potentially part of an Environmental Statement Potentially part of an Environmental Statement .these maps are available from the Environment Agency. This could include brief draft heads of terms for a Section 106 agreement or unilateral undertaking.1 In addition to the information that must be submitted with a planning application. a separate statement on community involvement may also be appropriate. It should also include details of consultations with LPA and wider community/statutory consultees undertaken prior to submission. social and economic impacts. subject to scheme location.4 Additional information 10.4. It should describe and analyse existing transport conditions. A draft travel plan should outline the way in which the transport implications of the development are going to be managed in order to ensure the minimum environmental. this additional information will be considered to be a compulsory requirement and applications may not be validated if such additional information is not provided. there is a likelihood that the Council will require further information to properly assess a scheme. including footpaths and cycle ways. 10. Additional information could include: Additional Information Planning Statement To demonstrate how the proposed development relates to and accords with policies in the development plan. However. Residential Design Guide SPD. A flood risk assessment may be required if a development falls within an Indicative Flood Plain or ‘Flood Zone’ . Applicants should clarify the LPAs requirements in pre-application discussions and confirm any planning obligations that they agree to provide in brief heads of terms. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 82 Planning Application Requirements 10 10. (2) Transport Assessment This will include all existing and proposed vehicular and pedestrian movements to and from the site. and how the development would affect those conditions and any measures proposed to overcome any problems.

SuDS and green roof systems and other flood risk / climate change adaptations etc. Design and Quality Standards: As a minimum.2. which explains what sustainable design features are proposed as part of the development.1) and would outline the elements of the scheme that Sustainability or Environmental Statement (7) 4 5 6 7 Potentially part of the Design and Access Statement Potentially part of the Planning Statement Potentially part of the Planning Statement Potentially part of the Design and Access Statement . the Appraisal principles of and justification for the proposed works and their impact on the special character of the listed building or structure. or the floor space of habitable areas of residential units. and/or the floor space of the units. the mix of units with numbers of habitable rooms and/or bedrooms. Residential Design Guide SPD.83 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. the numbers of residential units. history and character of the building/structure. its setting and the setting of adjacent listed buildings may be required. (4) Affordable Housing Where plan policies require the provision of affordable housing Statement and Design the LPA may require information concerning both the affordable and Quality Standards housing and any market housing.g. plans showing the location of units and their number of habitable rooms and/or bedrooms. 'Secured by Design' certification. (5) Open Space and Landscaping (6) Plans should show any areas of existing or proposed open space within or adjoining the application site. and any particular design or specification requirements laid down by the RSL involved in providing or managing the scheme. Sustainability Statements should not be confused with Environmental Statements that are a legislative requirement for certain applications accordingly with the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) Regulations 1999 (see also paragraph 10. Applications may be accompanied by landscaping details and include proposals for long term maintenance and landscape management. such as renewable energy and water saving measures. Sustainability Statement (sometime mistakenly referred to as Sustainability Appraisals) is a statement by the developer (which could be produced as part of the Design and Access Statement). Volume 1 10 Planning Application Requirements Additional Information Listed Building Appraisal A written statement which includes a schedule of works to the and Conservation Area listed building(s) and an analysis of the significance of archaeology. all affordable housing schemes (however they are funded) will be expected to meet: the essential requirements set out in the Housing Corporation's Design and Quality Standards (and other requirements as may be introduced by the Housing Corporation from time to time). e.

roots and position of trees should be illustrated accurately on the site plan. Supporting information may include plans showing historic Archaeological Features features that may exist on or adjacent to the application site including listed buildings and structures. Further advice is available in PPS 23: Planning and Pollution Control. Nature Conservation/ Plans should show any significant wildlife habitats or features Ecological Assessment/ and the location of habitats of any species protected under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. Air Quality Assessment (10) Contamination Assessment for the Treatment of Foul sewage Utilities Statement 8 9 10 Potentially part of an Environmental Statement Potentially part of an Environmental Statement Potentially part of an Environmental Statement or Transport Statement . A site investigation report would be required. quantities and means of disposal of any trade waste or effluent. Conservation (Natural Habitats Natural Beauty etc. Historical. The location of any trees within adjacent properties that may be affected by the application should also be shown.'Building New Homes'. historic parks and gardens. Further guidance is also provided in BS5837:1991 ‘a guide for trees in relation to construction’. A statement in relation to the measures to be adopted during construction works to protect those trees shown to be retained on the submitted drawings may also be necessary. Residential Design Guide SPD. Environmental Statements would not be specifically mentioned as an additional information requirement for an application by the Local Planning Authority (LPA). Tree Survey/Arboricultural Statement Where the application involves works that affect any trees within the application site. This must indicate any trees which are to be felled or affected by the proposed development. the species. Proposals that potentially impact upon air quality should be supported by an air quality assessment indicating the change in air quality resulting from the proposed development and outlining appropriate mitigation measures as necessary. spread. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 84 Planning Application Requirements 10 Additional Information address sustainable development issues. This should include a description of the type. This should include how an application connects to existing utility infrastructure systems. (8) Noise Impact Assessment (9) Proposals that raise issues of disturbance or are considered to be a noise sensitive development should be supported by a Noise Impact assessment prepared by a suitably qualified acoustician. including the positive environmental. social and economic implications.) Regulations 1994 or Protection of Badgers Act 1992.

These provide useful background information and can help to show how large developments can be satisfactorily integrated within the street scene.85 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Volume 1 10 Planning Application Requirements Additional Information Energy Statement The statement should show the predicted energy demand of the proposed development and the degree to which the development meets current energy efficient standards. Residential Design Guide SPD. Photographs should be provided if the proposal involves the demolition of an existing building or development affecting a conservation area or a listed building. Applicable for all applications where there is a potential adverse impact upon the current levels of sunlight/daylighting enjoyed by adjoining properties and building(s) .further guidance is provided in the Building Research Establishment’s (BRE) guidelines on daylighting assessments. Sunlight/Daylight Assessment (11) Photographs and Photomontages (12) 11 12 Potentially part of an Environmental Statement or the Design and Access Statement Potentially part of the Design and Access Statement . Further advice is available in PPS22: Renewable Energy and its companion guide.

London. Robert (2005): The Dictionary of Urbanism. 18. Hertfordshire County Council (2003-2008): Building Futures: A Hertfordshire Guide to Promoting Sustainability in Development. York. London. Tisbury. 16. DCLG/Environment Agency (2008): Guidance on the permeable surfacing of front gardens. E&FN Spoon. CABE. London. DETR & Urban Task Force (1999): Towards an Urban Renaissance: Final Report of the Urban Task Force. 17. London. CABE (2004): Housing Audit: Assessing the Design Quality of New Homes. DCLG (2006): Planning Policy Statement 3 (PPS3): Housing. 10. 5. London. 23. HMSO ODPM (2004): Planning Policy Statement 22: Renewable Energy. 19. DCLG/DfT (2007): Manual for Streets. London ACPO. HMSO DETR & DTi (1999): Planning for Passive Solar Design. Thomas Telford Publishing. 3.'Building New Homes'. Design for Homes. Watford. Streetwise Press Limited. 11. 6. HCC. London. London. HMSO 22. London. DETR & CABE (2001): Better places to live: By Design. TSO. 13. 12. English Partnerships. ODPM (2001): Planning Policy Guidance 13: Transport. Hertfordshire County Council (2001): Roads in Hertfordshire: A Guide for New Development. . London. DETR & CABE (2000): By Design: urban design in the planning system towards better practice. Residential Design Guide SPD. ODPM (2003): Planning and Access for Disabled People: A Good Practice Guide. 14. 24. London. Hertfordshire County Council ODPM (2005): Planning Policy Statement 1: Delivering Sustainable Development. ODPM. London. Thomas Telford Publishing. 15. DETR (1998): Planning for Sustainable Development: Towards Better Practice. English Partnerships and the Housing Corporation (2000): Urban Design Compendium. Hertford. London. Cowan. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 86 Bibliography 11 11 Bibliography 1. J. Design for Homes Popular Housing Research (2003): Perceptions of Privacy and Density in Housing. TSO. 7. Thomas Telford Publishing. 9. 4. (1997): Designing Lifetime Homes. Brewerton. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. 21. 20. D. London. & David. BRECSU & BRE. Thomas Telford Publishing. BRECSU & BRE. London. 2. Association of Chief Police Officers (1999): Secured by Design Standards. DCLG. Watford. London. London. London. ODPM and the Home Office (2004): Safer Places: The Planning System and Crime Prevention. HMSO ODPM (2003): Sustainable Communities: Building for the future. 8. Planning Policy BRE (2003): Site Layout Planning for Daylight and Sunlight: A Guide to Good Practice. ODPM (2005): Planning Policy Statement 9: Biodiversity and Geological Conservation. DETR.

read and use them. sport and recreation.87 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. BSI British Standards DCLG (2006): Planning Policy Guidance 17: Planning for open space. Watford. Practice Guide. TCPA Town and Country Planning Association et al. Statutory Instrument No. London. 37. DCLG (2008): Planning Policy Statement 12: Local Spatial Planning. London. HMSO DfT (2002): Inclusive Mobility: A guide to best practice on access transport infrastructure. TCPA ODPM (2004): Planning Policy Statement 12: Local Development Frameworks. 30. HMSO Watford Borough Council (2001): SPG10: Open Space Provision. 32. WBC DCLG (October 2008): Code for Sustainable Homes. DCLG (2006): Planning Policy Statement 25: Development and Flood Risk. (2004): Biodiversity by Design. Residential Design Guide SPD. Statutory Instrument No. A guide for sustainable communities: A TCPA ‘By Design’ Guide. How to write. 34.418. London. London. London. 26. HMSO DoE (2006): Planning Policy Guidance 15: Planning and the Historic Environment. (2006): sustainable energy by design: a TCPA ‘by design’ guide for sustainable communities. Department of National Heritage ODPM and DTI (2005): Planning for Renewable Energy: A Companion Guide to PPS22. 36. 41. London. 28. London. 39. London. London. TSO. 38. London. HMSO DEFRA (February2008): Non-statutory guidance for site waste management plans. London. CABE DCLG (2003): Planning and Access for Disabled People. HMSO ODPM (2008): Planning Policy Statement 25: Development and Flood Risk. London. 43. 27. TCPA Town and Country Planning Association et al. 44. OPSI The Secretary of State (1995): Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995. (2007): climate change adaptation by design: a guide for sustainable communities. 40. Volume 1 11 Bibliography 25. HMSO DCLG (February 2008): The Code for Sustainable Homes: Setting the Sustainability Standards for New Homes. Watford Borough Council (Saved Policy until replaced by new policy). London.2362. London. DoE. HMSO CABE: Design and Access Statements. London. Explained and illustrated. a good practice guide. London. . London. 33. HMSO Town and Country Planning Association et al. HMSO The Secretary of State (2008): Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (Amendment) Order 2008. 29. London. 42. 13th edition . 35. HMSO BIP 2133 (2007): The Building Regulations. TSO. 31. London. Technical guide.

cfm See also for further links: http://www.co.securedbydesign.gov. 26.uk/ Natural England http://www.uk Secured By Design www.gov.gov.udal.com Sustainability Works www.english-nature.uk Design for Homes www.equalityhumanrights.udg.uk/transportforyou/access/tipws/inclusivemobility Disability & Human Rights http://www.org. 6.co.uk Urban Design Group www. 18.uk/buildingfutures/links. 7. 30.uk Urban Design Alliance www.org/buildingfutures Building Sustainable Homes www. 23.uk/assetlibrary/8073.uk and http://www.jrf.sustainablehomes.org.uk/item/250 .est.cabe.hertslink.uk/pages/design. 29.Pdf DCLG & Planning and Access for Disabled People www.0.org. 3.sustainabilityworks. 2.gov.uk/ English Partnerships became part of the Homes and Communities Agency: http://www.dft. 15. 20. 17.org.hertscc.org Building Futures: A Hertfordshire Guide to Promoting Sustainability in Development http://www.homesandcommunities. 13. 4. Inclusive Mobility http://www.1 Useful websites 1.uk/ Environment Agency www.html Joseph Rowntree Foundation www.org.uk CABE (Commission for Architecture & the Environment www.co.'Building New Homes'.uk English Partnerships http://www.org.uk Civic Trust www. 24.rtpi. 10.communities.uk/ Dft.org.uk/ English Heritage http://www.english-heritage.englishpartnerships.lifetimehomes. 28.uk Lifetime Homes www. 14.org EcoHomes www.communities.org. 27. 16. 25.chpa.org/ DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government) www. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 88 Bibliography 11 11.uk Combined Heat and Power Association http://www.uk/ Home Builders Federation www.co.buildingforlife.environment-agency. 8. 12.uk/index.asp?id=1144644 See also for further links: http://enquire.uk/ecohomes Energy Saving Trust www.org.org.gov. Residential Design Guide SPD.uk/ DEFRA http://www.microgenerationcertification.doc Design and Access Statements from CABE http://www.rtpi.civictrust.designforhomes.defra.org. 11.hbf.bre. 5.uk Clear Skies Programme http://www.cabe.org. 19.org.gov. Building for Life www.co. 22.com/Documents/Disability/Services/Access%20Statements.co. 9. 21.

Residential Design Guide SPD. Volume 1 11 Bibliography .89 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'.

'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 90 Appendices 12 12 Appendices .

91 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. Volume 1 12 Appendices Appendices Appendix 1: Key Design Principles Appendix 2: Master Checklist Appendix 3: Glossary .

Residential Design Guide SPD.'Building New Homes'. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 92 Key Design Principles 1 .

finishes. parking for disabled people. streets and spaces in relation to the whole development or existing development. Cars subordinate . size. Composition.site and surroundings (including buildings and landscape).93 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. vegetation to be retained on the site. Places for people. gateways. scale. detailing. Size and scale of window and door openings. Scale. Legibility. massing. Creation of landmarks. Harmony with surrounding buildings and impact on the streetscene. Attractive and successful public spaces. materials. Rhythm.relate to human proportions. Priority for pedestrians and cyclists over cars. texture and colours. colours. Existing buildings. landscaping. For a site large enough to have its own distinct identity within itself whilst responding to 'appropriate' local context. not dominating street scene. . Architecture suitable for uses. Quality Quality architecture. including streets and squares. Volume 1 1 Key Design Principles Appendix 1 Key Design Principles Table: Key Design Principles Umbrella Objective Character Key Principles to Achieve Objectives Responding to 'appropriate' context . Details Connectivity and integration with neighbouring developments. trees. views and vistas. materials. geology. textures. such as. Quality of the public realm. Carefully designed servicing/access/car parking. focal points. Scale: height . existing landscape structure. A place that has a clear image and is easy to understand. Residential Design Guide SPD. Height. urban structure. Clear hierarchy between types of buildings. ecology.adequate parking. Materials. Topography. urban grain. Create a place with its own sense of identity. Craftsmanship.

facilities and public transport in close proximity encourages walking and cycling and vibrant places. Continuous building line around a street block with private space or courtyards within. signing and lighting avoiding clutter (fulfilling inclusive mobility guidelines). Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 94 Key Design Principles 1 Umbrella Objective Key Principles to Achieve Objectives Details Harmonious street furniture.shops. Security Continuity and enclosure. Residential densities should be higher the closer they are to the neighbourhood centre or town centre. Natural surveillance . Interconnected street network. Diversity and vitality. Clear distinction between town and country. with fronts addressing streets/public areas. Routes connecting to existing development.'Building New Homes'. Direct routes to encourage walking and cycling. High densities encourage viable services . Optimise land use and density. Ease of movement into and through the site. dwelling types and tenures (including affordable housing). Location of dwellings. Allowing for living. Active frontages from shops at ground floor. bus routes. public and private space. High levels of activity reduces risk of crime and creates a sense of safety. employment and leisure in close proximity. Mixed range of uses. Inclusive access for all. Clear fronts and backs of buildings. . Primary access to buildings facing the street. Proximity to public transport. schools. Sustainability Access and permeability. Active ground floor uses. Residential Design Guide SPD.building frontages overlooking public space. employment) should be clustered together on routes from surrounding residential areas. community facilities. Careful arrangement of buildings on the street. Facilities (shops. minimises the need for car parking.

Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 95 Master Checklist 2 .'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD.

structures and natural features contribute to a feeling of enclosure or openness? 9. lakes. 3. What is the urban structure and grain of existing neighbouring development including block size and shape. Are building lines of neighbouring properties continuous? Are there gaps between properties or irregular setbacks? 11. street patterns and widths? 6. What sort of landscape does the area have? What are the levels/slopes? How did it develop? What sort of climate does the area have? Is a micro climate formed by the topography or neighbouring structures? What is the ecology (flora and fauna) of the area? Where is there water and how does it move (including rivers. semi-detached or terraced? 10. streams. 4.'Building New Homes'. Are there any focal points or landmarks in the surrounding area? Have views to these (or from these to the site) been identified? 5. and which materials are available/prevalent in the region? 4. How do buildings. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 96 Master Checklist 2 Appendix 2 Master Checklist 1 The master checklist below summarizes all checklists from the previous chapters 5 [Site and Context Appraisal] to 9 [Sustainable Development]: Master Checklist [1] Context Appraisal Natural Environment 1. What distinctive colours and textures are found on buildings. Is there a hierarchy of spaces. ponds and swampy or floodable ground)? Are there culverted or covered watercourses that could be opened up and renaturated? Built Environment 1. structures and surfaces in the area? . Residential Design Guide SPD. 2. What buildings/materials are used traditionally in the area. 5. What is the history of the area? How has the area developed? What are the ages of surrounding buildings and structures? Are there any listed buildings? Are there any conservation areas neighbouring the site? 3. 2. What is the size and shape of surrounding residential plots? What is the plot to dwelling ratio in existing development? Are properties predominantly detached. Does the area have a general scale of building that should inform the scale of buildings within the new development? 8. buildings and streets? 7.

local place names.97 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. 4. 4. Residential Design Guide SPD. doors. What is the shape of the site? Which way does the site slope or face in relation to the sun? What is the micro climate of the site? Are there wind funnels/frost pockets/damp hollows? What are the prevailing winds in summer and winter? What living things (flora and fauna) are to be found on the site? What do they depend on? Should they be conserved? What trees and hedgerows are to be found on the site? (location. 3. 5. . condition. string courses. Built Environment 1. 5. [2] Site Appraisal Natural Environment 1. 2. Are there any locally distinctive ways of detailing buildings such as windows. tree preservation orders?) What are the boundary features of the site? Is the site liable to flooding? What is the site’s development history? Does the site need to be investigated (through records or by excavation) for possible archaeological value? Is the site contaminated? Are there any wayleaves or easement strips that cannot be built upon? Are there existing buildings and structures on the site? Are they positive features? Should they be retained? What are their characteristics? 7. cornices. size. Volume 1 2 Master Checklist Master Checklist 12. right of ways or public transport might be relevant to future development? 4. Movement 1. What distinctive types of building elevations are there in the area? How wide are the frontages? 13. 3. roofs and chimneys? Activity/ Uses 1. 2. porches. 2. species. information from the census) Are there any community facilities such as parks in the area? Where are they? What public transport routes and stops serve the area? What is the area’s road hierarchy? What current proposals for roads. 6. bargeboards. Is there a mix of uses in the area? How are the uses distributed? What is distinctive about the way local people live and have lived here in the past? What aspects of local history may be relevant to future development? (local events/festivals. 3. 2. 3.

What opportunities are there for development to exploit the site’s topography/levels? 3. Movement 1. Neighbouring Amenity 1. Is there a clear point of entry to the site? Can it be defined by buildings? 12. Are there opportunities to use underground energy sources or wind as an energy source? 6. 4. cars and service vehicles) and pedestrians (including those with restricted mobility)? What are the access points to the site? Are there existing rights of way through the site? Are there existing or potential nodal points within or near the site? What is the relationship of neighbouring buildings to the site? Do neighbouring properties overlook the site? Are levels of natural light to neighbouring properties likely to be affected by development on the site? Will there be any impacts such as noise from neighbouring uses? 7. Is there a clear identifiable “heart” to the site that could form the development’s focal point? . 2. What buildings and structures within the site can be seen from local or strategic points in the surrounding area? Should these views be protected? Are there existing or potential “gateways” to the site? What. provide seasonal variety and attract wildlife? 2. rivers and canals? 4. Are there distinct skylines (or opportunities to create them) that development should respect? 8. Are there any views/vistas which should be respected/created? 9. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 98 Master Checklist 2 Master Checklist 6. soften or screen unattractive buildings and other structures. What opportunities are there for the orientation of development to make use of solar gain. solar panels or photovoltaic technology? 10. if any. Are there places where green corridors (for people and/or wildlife) could be created along natural features or roads.'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. Are there any streams or rivers (on the surface or underground in pipes or culverts) that could be made more of? 7. give spaces a sense of enclosure. shrubs or hedges be planted or kept to provide shelter. Are there any pedestrian desire lines? What routes would pedestrians like to take if they were available? 11. Are there any opportunities to reduce water run-off and flood risk? How can Sustainable Drainage Systems (SuDS) be introduced (see Chapter 8 Sustainable Development)? 5. are the existing and potential means of getting to and around the site for vehicles (bicycles. 2. Where can trees. Opportunities 1. 3. 3.

have clear design treatments been employed? Does the urban grain either perpetuate the pattern of the surrounding area. 5.99 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Volume 1 2 Master Checklist Master Checklist [3] Layout Principles Response to Context 1. Neighbourhood . Street and Movement been utilised where appropriate? Does the proposed design encourage a mixed community through the provision of a mix of housing types. interconnected. 7. or employ the key design principles for good place making? Have landmarks.edges to the countryside. 4. building forms and materials been used to establish a variation in character between different parts of the development? Has thought been given to the variety of edges within the development . well used and overlooked streets and spaces? Is there scope to reduce road widths or provide shared-surface streets? Have opportunities to integrate bus routes into the development been fully utilised? Have the principles of traffic-calming set out in Places. vistas and focal points been used to link the new development to existing neighbourhoods and to aid orientation within the development? When viewing the development from a distance has a well-defined image been achieved through the treatment of the urban edge. open space or between character areas . 6. To what extent does the character and layout of the proposal need to respond directly to its context? Is there scope. 5. 2. Residential Design Guide SPD. 2. Movement Networks 1. 2. Creating a 1. to establish an independent identify for the entirety or part of the site? Does the development focus on a core area such as a square. 4. major roads. 3. spaces. roads and paths adequately integrated into existing routes? Does the movement network encourage non-car based journeys? Is there a clearly legible hierarchy of safe. 6. sizes and tenures and through a mix of community facilities and other non-residential uses? Creating Character 1. or a need. establishing clear gateways to the development and creating a coherent skyline? Is the proposed network of streets. garden or community facility? Have nodal points been introduced into the development. 3. if appropriate? Have different uses.

Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 100 Master Checklist 2 Master Checklist Layout and Form 1. Car Parking 1. Residential Design Guide SPD. . 3. 2.'Building New Homes'. 5. Is the layout and form of the development appropriate to the context? Does the ratio of building height to street width create a successful sense of enclosure? Was the width of existing streets in the area a starting point for defining the width of streets within the new development? Has each space been clearly defined in terms of its boundaries and its function? Has a hierarchy of public spaces been established throughout the development? Has a hard and soft landscaping strategy been established early on in the design process? Has thought been given to street furniture and surfacing to produce a robust public realm which avoids visual clutter? Do dwellings front onto the street? Do principal entrances open onto it? Has overlooking of the street been maximised through the positioning of windows? Have blank facades been avoided? Are pedestrian and cycle routes. 5. legible. clearly signposted and well lit? Have public spaces been clearly defined in terms of their boundaries and function? Have the guidelines for layout of 'Secured By Design' been taken into account in the layout of the public. 4. Safety. that are safely and conveniently accessible by the residents (including considerations of disabled access) and the waste disposal officers and their waste disposal vehicles? Have storage 3. Ownership and 1. 3. private and communal spaces? Has best practice from "Part M of the Building Regulation" been taken into account for access arrangements? Has car parking been accommodated without compromising environmental quality? Has enough storage capacity been provided within the dwelling/ dwelling house for waste and recycling? Have communal storage areas for waste and recyclables been considered. Inclusive Design and Mobility 1. 2. 2. 6. private and communal spaces? Have the principles of Inclusive Design and Mobility been taken into account in the layout of the public. Layout. Security 2. Waste Storage and Recycling Facilities 1. 4.

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requirements and site layout been checked with the relevant Waste Manager in Environmental Health? Where external communal waste and recycle storage areas have been considered, is there enough space for the different types of waste bins? Has there been an allowance for possible future changes to recycling requirements? Is the publicly accessible and visible storage area enclosed by a shelter or enclosure that is sympathetic to the character of the development and right for its location?

3.

[4] Building Form and Siting Building Lines and Setbacks 1. 2. Has a strong building line been established which creates continuity of frontage and defines the public realm? Where space for vehicular access to rear parking is required between buildings, can the building line be maintained by bridging over at first floor level? Is there an established building line that should be followed and maintained? Where buildings have varied setbacks is there a strong and continuous boundary treatment? Has careful thought been given to the appropriate setback for the buildings? Has the setback been determined by the surrounding character and road hierarchy? Are boundaries between public and private space clearly defined? Is the type, form or materials used for the boundary appropriate to the context? Do the heights of buildings adequately reflect there context? Has the scope for taller development been fully considered? Where appropriate, can a variation in height for a few carefully placed buildings e.g. on corners, at entrances, at the end of vistas or around open space add variety to the scheme? Has the distance between front elevations been determined by the character of surrounding road widths? Is adequate privacy achieved between opposing habitable room windows? Does the proposal avoid excessive increases in sense of enclosure to surrounding properties?

3.

4.

Boundaries

1. 2.

Building Size and Scale

1. 2. 3.

Privacy and Outlook

1. 2. 3.

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Daylight and Sunlight 1. Has overshadowing or loss of daylight/sunlight to existing buildings been addressed? Have the Building Research Establishment's guidelines been met? Will new development gain sufficient levels of natural light? Has consideration been given to the construction techniques used to enable adaptability of buildings in the future? Have the principles of "lifetime homes" and "smart" technology been used to ensure dwellings are adaptable to the future needs of the occupiers? Have the guidelines for layout of ‘’Secured By Design’’ been taken into account in the design of building lines, setbacks, boundaries? Have the principles of ‘Inclusive Design’ and ‘Inclusive Mobility’ been considered? Has best practice from ‘Part M of the Building Regulation’ been taken into account for access arrangements? Have ‘Lifetime Homes’ standards been considered in the design of the building (such as the adaptability to changing life circumstances of the occupants of a home in its life cycle; see also criteria Hea 4 in the ‘Code for Sustainable Homes’)? Is there a possibility any protected species of fauna (such e.g. bats, badgers, newts) or flora are on the site or the site adjoining it? If so, has the Nature Conservation Officer been contacted to check mitigation measures? Are there other opportunities to retain and enhance native fauna and flora on site? Have native species been used in the planting rather than exotic plants?

2. Flexibility, Adaptability and Change 1. 2.

Safety, Inclusive 1. Design and Mobility 2.

3.

4.

Biodiversity

1. 2. 3. 4.

[5] Materials and Architectural Detailing Materials and Architectural Detailing 1. 2. Have appropriate materials been used? Has consideration been given to the building materials used locally? Is there a strong local architectural character in the area or street that should be considered in the choice of materials and design and detailing of the building? What are typical colors or hues for bricks and pointing? What bond has been used? Have clay and slate tiling been considered as roofing material? Have appropriate roof forms and configurations been used? Do they reflect local context?

3. Architectural Detailing 1.

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2. 3. 4. 5. Has consideration been given to the detailing of building areas such as the size and positioning of doors and windows? Are there balconies and other decorative features used in the locality that could be employed in the new development? Have front entrances been located to open onto or towards the public street? Has it been made sure that garage doors do not dominate the front of dwellings? Is the design of garage doors of appropriate scale and architecturally sympathetic to the new dwelling? Have decorative details been considered that are appropriate to the material used and the location and add to the visual character of a building? Has local distinctiveness and identity been strengthened through the use of local materials for walls, fences and gates? Have local or regional plant species been used for hedges? Have locally typical ironmongery and decorative features been used to front the boundaries of dwellings? Has appropriate consideration been given to the design of interface areas and how they look from the street or other communal areas? Has consideration been given to the incorporation and sympathetic design of cycle storage; meter boxes; service entries and inspection boxes; storage for recycling waste; storage for home deliveries? Have rainwater goods been sympathetically designed? Has access for refuse and emergency vehicles been considered in the design of communal areas? Have areas for refuse and recycling been considered? Is there enough lighting to make the place safe and navigable and to enhance the feel of security? Has high quality and appropriate lighting and lighting posts been chosen for the area? Has energy efficient lighting been considered? Has the place been lit for people rather than purely for traffic? Have the use of soft landscaping and permeable surfaces been considered for private front gardens and communal areas instead of hard landscaping and impermeable surfaces?

6.

Boundaries

1. 2. 3.

Design of Front Gardens, Interface and Communal Areas

1. 2.

3.

4.

5.

[6] Sustainable Development Energy Conservation 1. 2. 3. Have measures been considered to minimise energy consumption and maximise recycling during construction? Does the layout of development take best advantage of passive solar gain whilst ensuring sufficient shading during summer months? Are sufficient levels of internal natural light likely to be achieved to prevent the need for artificial light within main rooms?

5. Has exposure to prevailing winds been minimised whilst retaining sufficient cooling breezes in summer? Subject to context. 4. have suitable sustainable drainage systems (SuDS) been incorporated? Has sufficient and adequate space been provided for the recycling of domestic waste? Has consideration been given to the minimisation of waste produced during construction? Water Supply and Drainage 1. Waste 1.'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. have these been incorporated? Will the development meet or exceed the insulation requirements of Part L of the Building Regulations? Will the development incorporate measures to minimise water consumption? Has consideration been given to types of planting that minimise the need for watering? Is there scope for recycling grey or black water? If so. 2. 3. 6. has this been incorporated? If development is of a sufficient scale. . have terraced houses been used to minimise heat losses from dwellings? Is the development suitable for the incorporation of renewable energy sources? If so. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 104 Master Checklist 2 4. 7. 2.

'Building New Homes'. Residential Design Guide SPD. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 105 Glossary 3 .

e. A house frontage that has more functions than just to be a dwelling or an office. as particular nodal point or a specially design public space. and the closeness of the property to the location of schools. Active frontages are usually along main pedestrian routes and around major squares in town and neighbourhood centres. In urban design and planning terms. If different levels or types of affordability or tenure are proposed for different units this should be clearly and fully explained. the mix of units with numbers of habitable rooms and/or bedrooms.'Building New Homes'. Entry situation into a certain area or (building) site within the urban framework of a town or settlement or formation of building at such a site. This is based on predicted exceedence of levels of nitrogen dioxide and particular matters (PM5. which set out the minimum standard for an accessible environment in regard to physical barriers. garden or garage.g. See also front elevation. Amenity or amenities are any tangible or intangible benefits of a property. those with children and those encumbered with luggage. Access Statement accessibility active frontage activity adaptability affordable housing Affordable Housing Statement Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) Air Quality Management Strategy (AQMS) amenity . Residential Design Guide SPD. legibility or the understanding of the pedestrian network by its users can also play a role in accessibility. Permeability.g. activity will be encouraged through active frontages and a good mix of uses over different times of the day. See also linkages. Housing for sale. particles or dust of a certain size that have be identified to be most adverse to breathing health) for identified areas within a LPA on the basis of annual measurements of air quality. the numbers of residential units. gateways. A designation made by a local authority where an assessment of air quality results in the need to devise an action plan to improve the quality of air. Statement by the developer. In some cases the local planning authority may require information concerning both the affordable housing and any market housing e. and/or the floor space of the units. such as for wheelchair users or physically impaired people. parks or other facilities. by one or more landmark buildings. in perpetuity. which explains how the developer will meet the affordable housing requirements as set out by policies in the local development plan and the regional development plan. This will attract people and therefore there will be less opportunity for crime. An Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) must be declared where monitoring and modelling indicates that the objectives in regard to EU air quality standards are not likely to be met. Access Statements are a Building Control (BC) function that does not necessarily involve the Local Government Building Control team. Amenity in the RDG mostly refers to the intangible benefits such as sufficient level of daylight. plans showing the location of units and their number of habitable rooms and/or bedrooms. rent or equity sharing provided with one element of subsidy in order that it is accessible. if those requirements have not been adopted by the local development plan yet. to people whose income are not sufficient to enable them to afford adequate housing locally on the open market. Access Statements would explain how a development complies with Part M of the Building Regulations. commercial buildings and community facilities that attract frequent visitors. technological or economic needs and conditions. See also Design and Access Statement. i. public transport. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 106 Glossary 3 Appendix 3 Glossary Terms access points Explanations An urban design term. Tangible amenities might include fitting and features in the house. privacy and sense of enclosure. Accessibility (in urban design terms) refers to the ability of people to move around in an area and to reach places and facilities. Urban design and planning term. such as retail. including elderly and disabled people. or the floor space of habitable areas of residential units. The affordable housing statement should also include details of any Registered Social Landlords acting as partners in the development. such as WC. especially those which increase the attractiveness or value of the property or which contribute to its comfort or convenience. An access point could be marked e. Adaptability (in sustainable design & the context of the RDG) is the capacity of a building or space to be changed so as to respond to changing social.

called bonds. brickwork and fencing etc. A city block. A barge-board is an inclined board (often decorated) above a gable-end. Alternative bricks (with the long side (stretcher) and short side (header) outwards) create a stronger wall. City blocks may be subdivided into any number of smaller lots or parcels of land usually in private ownership. See also loggia. and species and habitat action plans. An assessment of the potential archaeological interest of a site or building. This can be either a desk-based assessment or a field assessment. boundary features. This should include (list not exhaustive): a location plan based on 1:1250 or 1:2500 Ordnance Survey mapping that shows the application site outlined in red. with doors that open to a railing with a view of the courtyard or the surrounding scenery below. mostly residential buildings.g. City blocks are the space for buildings within the street pattern of a city. a list of priority species. sources of finance and advice. doors. they form the basic unit of a city's urban fabric. involving ground survey and small-scale pits or trial trenching carried out by professionally qualified archaeologist(s) looking for historical remains. and under the barge-course (and gable roof) and covering the barge-couples (the structure holding the gable-end in place) or sometimes used instead of the last. it may be other forms of tenure. See also grid street pattern. and creates pattern. urban block or simply block is a central element of urban planning and urban design. that have a mostly decorative character and usually relate to the architectural period of the building and the vernacular style of that area.107 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. A balcony is a kind of platform projecting from the wall of a building. Direction removing some or all permitted development rights. and a long term monitoring programme. See also under vernacular. A non-statutory plan (and an ongoing process) to support objectives for nature conservation at a local level. Article 4 directions are issued by local planning authorities. drawings and reports that must be submitted with planning applications to ensure that the scheme can be properly assessed. A unit with a regular balcony will have doors that open up onto a small patio with railings. A bond is the system the bricks are set within a wall. See under Air Quality Management Area. footpaths levels. roads. Residential Design Guide SPD. for example within a conservation area or curtilage of a listed building. See under Biodiversity Action Plan. See under block. Additional details on windows. Waste water that is highly contaminated (usually more contaminated than grey water) such as water from toilets and kitchen sinks. The Borough relates to the administrative area of Watford Borough Council and covers the entire development plan area. Volume 1 3 Glossary application drawings Clear and informative plans. identifying partners. Victorian or Edwardian. tiles. The layout of a residential or city quarter in block structure. trees. such as the Flemish bond or English bond. New houses built in the back (garden) of existing. buildings. e. though in some cases. Most cities are composed of a greater or lesser variety of sizes and shapes of urban block. and enclosed with a balustrade. and a site survey plan of the site at between 1:500 and 1:200 showing existing features within and adjoining the site. An architectural detail. Larger volumes of grey or black water can be recycled together using systems that that treat water the same way as sewage treatment works. AQMA Archaeological Assessment / Evaluation architectural detailing Article 4 Direction backland development balcony BAP (or LBAP) bargeboard Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) black water block block layout bond (of bricks) borough . floor plans at 1:100 or 1:50 showing existing and proposed buildings on the site and adjacent buildings in outline and with the proposal in the context of neighbouring buildings. The traditional Maltese balcony is a wooden closed balcony projecting from a wall. City blocks are usually built-up to varying degrees and thus form the physical containers or 'streetwalls' of public space. See also distorted grid structure. supported by columns or console brackets. and sectional drawings (1:100/ 1:50) with cross-sections. A French balcony is actually a false balcony. A Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) should contain (not exhaustive) an overview of the current local knowledge about the biodiversity resources and threats at the area. A city block is the smallest area that is surrounded by streets.

Also referred to as Conservation Area Character Appraisal or Conservation Area Appraisal. promoting design and architecture to raise the standard of the built environment. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 108 Glossary 3 BRE (Building Research Establishment) BREEAM standard A world leading company for research. the government published the Code on the website of the Department for Communities and Local Government [http://www. and power. An architectural detail. identity or decoration. materials and building form. this is a very efficient use of fuel and reduces overall carbon emissions. or sole-piece or -plate) at the bottom of a timber-framed wall. See under Code for Sustainable Homes. An area with a uniformity of character and where certain architectural and urban design elements (such as building lines. Also referred to as sill. In April 2008.gov. sole or sule. such as a fabric covered gazebo or cabana. which confirms that planning permission. Lower horizontal part of a door-or window-frame or horizontal timber (usually called a cill-beam. The combined production of heat. but also to the appearance of any rural or urban location in terms of its landscape or the layout of streets and open spaces. The government's advisor on architecture. The BREEAM standard for residential development did set the basis for the 'Code for Sustainable Homes' standard that had been adopted by the Government in December 2006 first time. Phase 1 of BRE's Low Carbon Buildings Programme will run over four years and replaces the previous DTI Clear Skies and Solar PV programmes. a more detailed Technical Guide to the Code was published. urban design and public space. ground-cill. Building Futures guide building line CABE canopy Certificate of Lawfulness Change of Use character (of the area) Character Appraisal Character Area Character of the Area Appraisal CHP cill Clear Sky Programme Code for Sustainable Homes Combined Heat and Power (CHP) .org. Character Area. testing and certification delivering sustainable design solutions and innovation across the built environment and beyond. A certificate. In February 2008. consultancy. Code for Sustainable Homes is a new national standard for sustainable design and construction.communities. usually in the form of steam. Planning permission is usually necessary in order to change from one 'use class' to another. roof and window forms. Residential Design Guide SPD. A term relating to Conservation Areas or Listed Buildings.uk/ . A canopy is an overhead roof or structure that is able to provide shade or shelter. by not less than two stanchions (upright support posts). See also renewables. often giving places their own distinct identity. Canopies can also stand alone. is not required for a proposal. A change in the way that land or buildings are used (see Use Classes Order). front boundary treatments. Launched on 1 April 2006. See also under http://www. The Clear Sky Programme is a low carbon building programme by the previous Government Department for Transport and Infrastructure. The Hertfordshire Sustainable Design Guide as published on http://www. and form and size of gardens) determine the character. Usually it will define character areas where the character has uniformity although it is possible to state that an area's character is mixed.org/buildingfutures . usually in the form of electricity. training. A canopy comprises a structure over which a fabric or metal covering is attached.hertslink. Although not a renewable energy technology. An imaginary line up to which the ground floor façade can be built. and is supported by the building to which it is attached and a ground mounting. A planning tool usually used in Design Codes. A canopy (building) is an architectural projection that provides weather protection.uk] and made it mandatory. A document which sets out to describe what the character of a place is like. See also Character of the Area Appraisal.'Building New Homes'. See under Combined Heat and Power. a published document defining the special architectural or historic interest that warranted the area being designated.cabe.

References to the Council refer to Watford Borough Council. can be constructed of brick. See also LDF. Layout that uses mainly cul-de-sacs in its street layout to avoid trough-traffic (as opposed to grid or distorted grid layouts). Successful rear parking courtyards should be designed as places with car parking in them. As pure cul-de-sac layouts create poor pedestrian permeability. to allow enjoyment of the surrounding landscape while being sheltered from adverse weather conditions such as rain and wind. See under Character Appraisal. Rear courtyard parking: can be designed as an integral part of the overall site layout and can be a useful way of accommodating parking. All other Development Plan Documents must conform to the Core Strategy. Requirements attached to a planning permission to limit. Semi-public areas shared by a group rather than open to all.uk/ . The setting of a site or area.org. promoting design and architecture to raise the standard of the built environment. classified in the use classes order.109 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. wood. along with the core policies and proposals that will be required to deliver that vision. planning permission. A required development plan document within the LDF. built and natural environment. block layout. including factors such as traffic. development plan document (DPD). such as in the area around Jelicoe Road/Vicarage road In Watford and in the Rookerery area on the boundary to Three Rivers. breeze block. usually. the character or appearance of which it is desirable to preserve or enhance. Context (or site) appraisal context (site context) Conversions Core and Feeder Public Transport Network Core Strategy cornice courtyard parking Council cul-de-sac layout . such as courtyards. activities and land uses as well as landscape and built form. Feeder networks link into the core networks. they should be avoided. vehicle quality. development brief. the knee stock. The base. to another use. times of operation. A conservatory is a structure which is built onto the side of a house. such as a post office. Areas of special architectural or historic interest. A detailed analysis of the features of a site or area (including land uses. and social and physical characteristics) which serves as the basis for an urban design framework. See also under http://www. Decorative projection along the top of a wall. Generally means the physical work necessary to change of use of a building from a particular use. which sets out the long-term spatial vision for the Borough. See also enforcement. See for other types/ possibilities for parking in section 6. Can also mean the sub-division of residential properties into self-contained flats or maisonettes. Residential Design Guide SPD. design guide or other policy or guidance. originally used as a means of directing rainwater away. See also amenity. particularly on larger sites. An architectural detail. Conditions (or 'planning condition') consent Conservation Area Conservation Area Appraisal Conservation Area Consent conservatory Consent required for the demolition of an unlisted building within a conservation area.8 'Car parking'. The roof may be of glass panels but is more usually of a plastic material which lets in sunlight. rather than car parks. urban design and public space. levels of bus priority and passenger information. Cul-de-sac layout can be usually found in relative new urban area (built in the 1970's to the 1990's). glass or PVC. sports or recreational facility. A network of bus routes serving major destinations/corridors often having standards for frequencies. Approval of planning permission by the relevant LPA (Local Planning Authority). pharmacy or doctor’s surgery. A facility that serves the wider community. Volume 1 3 Glossary Commission for Architecture and the Built Environment communal space community facility The government's advisor on architecture.cabe. control or direct the manner in which a development is carried out. See also layout.

railroad track. planning and local government. It was created on 5 May 2006. Local Government and Regions) and the DoE (Department of the Environment. urban regeneration. as well as responsibility for housing. which replaced the offices of the former DETR (Department for Environment. layout and service provision). See also habitable rooms. it covers the same offices replaces the offices of former ODPM. etc. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 110 Glossary 3 culvert A conduit. including disabled people. esp.2001) • Department of the Environment (DoE) under the Secretary of State for the Environment (1970 . footpath. The DCLG is a Government department. 1970 – 1997). good quality housing to meet identified needs in places where people want to live. older people and young children will be able to use the place to be built. with a powerful remit to promote community cohesion and equality. The DCLG is a Government department. or through an embankment. Transport and the Regions. 2. Internal environment (includes size. urban regeneration. a measurement of either the number of habitable rooms per hectare or the number of dwellings per hectare. demarcated or maintained by somebody. A design statement can be made at a pre-planning application stage by a developer. it covers the same offices as the former ODPM. Transport and the Regions (DETR) under the Secretary of State for the Environment. 2000). mostly when the joint larger watercourses as contributories. The prime expectation of the HCA is for Affordable Housing Providers to produce well-designed. or metal.1997).'Building New Homes'. with a powerful remit to promote community cohesion and equality. DAS daylight strategy DCLG defensible space DEFRA (Department for Environment. It may also be submitted in support of a planning application. character. concrete. Public and semi-public space that is 'defensible' in the sense that it is surveyed. except for householder applications outside of Conservation Areas (or other designations that are currently nonexistent in Watford Borough Council). A set of illustrated design rules and requirements which instruct and may advise on the physical development of a site or area. as a pipe-like construction of stone. indicating the design principles upon which a proposal is to be based. Department for Environment. Design Code Design Statement desire line . and development pattern. that passes under a road. Its predecessors have been:• Department for Environment. In the case of residential development. 1970 – 1997). The graphic and written components of the code are detailed and precise. and build upon a design vision such as a masterplan or other design and development framework for a site or area. Sustainability (includes assessment through the Code for Sustainable Homes) and 3. Food and Rural Affairs) density Department for Communities and Local Government Design and Access Statement Design and Quality Standards (D&QS) The Design and Quality Standards (D&QS) sets out the HCA’s (Homes and Communities Agency's) requirements and recommendations for all new homes which receive Social Housing Grant (SHG). usually used to either to pass smaller watercourses through urban areas or replace open watercourses by closed watercourses until they come onto the surface. a drain. Strategies that aim to use natural light to minimise the use of artificial lighting during the day (Mendler and Odell. Transport and the Regions (1997 . Design and Access Statements (DAS) are documents that explain the design thinking behind a planning application and demonstrate how everyone. The extent to which this objective is achieved is assessed against the following standards: 1. 1997 – 2001) and before that the DTLR (Department of Transport. 1997 – 2001) and before that the DTLR (Department of Transport. Transport and the Regions. A Government Circular made Design and Access Statements a requirement for most types of planning applications. See pedestrian desire line. It was created on 5 May 2006. Local Government and Regions) and the DoE (Department of the Environment. See under DAS. Residential Design Guide SPD. Widely. as well as responsibility for housing. Food and Rural Affairs is a current Government Department (2008). Defensible space is also dependent upon the existence of escape routes and the level of anonymity which can be anticipated by the users of the space. Widely. which replaced the offices of the former DETR (Department for Environment. The external environment (includes assessment against the Building For Life Criteria). planning and local government.

” The demolition of a building is included as development. on. otherwise it may amount to a mere licence. Flat roof dormer. as 'the use of any building or other land within the curtilage of a dwellinghouse for any purpose incidental to the enjoyment of the dwellinghouse as such' not to be taken to involve development of the land. Transport and the Regions. appearance (materials and details) and landscape of development. Types of dormer window are Gable fronted dormer. An easement must exist for the accommodation and better enjoyment of the land to which it is annexed. to create usable space in the roof of a building by adding headroom and usually also by enabling addition of windows. mining or other operations in. ODPM and DCLG. by formal deed) or prescription.3. DETR detractor development development form Development Plan development plan document (DPD) DfT (Department for Transport) Disabled Access distorted grid DoE dormer (window) DPD DTLR dwelling & dwelling house easement strips . scale (height and massing). and Local Plans prepared under transitional arrangements. rights of support. flat. bungalow. See also Right of way. They are subject to independent examination by a Government appointed Inspector.111 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. The layout (structure and urban grain). ODPM & DCLG. An easement is a right enjoyed by the owner of land over the land of another: such as rights of way. Structure. Any Local Development Document that forms part of the Development Plan. Residential Design Guide SPD. engineering. in particular railway franchising and a range of executive agencies. Development Plan Documents include the Core Strategy and Area Action Plans. A layout with a more or less irregular block structure. and the 'servient tenement' is the land over which the right is enjoyed. Development is defined by Section 55 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 as “the carrying out of building. See under ODPM and DCLG. See under DEFRA. or the making of any material change in the use of any buildings or other land. and usually housing a single household. importance. Volume 1 3 Glossary determination The process by which a local planning authority reaches a decision on whether a proposed development requires planning permission. A Government Department. See under Department for Environment. A self-contained building or part of a building used as a residential accommodation. rights of light. A dormer is a structural element of a building that protrudes from the plane of a sloping roof surface. For Development Control purposes defined under Class C3 By s55(2) of the 1990 Act. which is responsible for transport issues (except when devolved). or quality of the building. A document setting out the local planning authority's policies and proposals for the development and use of land and buildings in the authority's area. locality or neighbourhood and can affect the sense of place negatively. Hipped roof dormer. They are subject to independent examination by a Government appointed Inspector. A dwelling may be a house. over or under land. An architectural component or detail that does reduce the value. It includes Unitary. Most forms of development require planning permission (see also "permitted development"). Dormers are used. Development Plan Documents include the Core Strategy and Area Action Plans. Shed dormer and Wall dormer. (see also under paragraph 2. The means by which disabled people (as defined in the Disability Discrimination Act 1995) can conveniently go where they want.e. The 'dominant tenement' is the land owned by the possessor of the easement. rights to a flow of air or water. Any Local Development Document that forms part of the Development Plan. either in original construction or as later additions. where streets do not sit in a right angle to each other etc.1 in volume 1 of the Residential Design Guide). density. and maisonette or converted farm building. Easements are created by express grant (i. It also includes the new-look Regional Spatial Strategies and Development Plan Documents prepared under the Planning & Compulsory Purchase Act of 2004.

which was developed by the Building Research Establishment (BRE). One of the most powerful tools in the arsenal of those opposing adverse developments. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 112 Glossary 3 eave The line along the sidewall formed by the intersection of the planes of the roof and wall. See also text under Sustainability Statement. The legislation relating to Environmental Assessment comes from EC Directive 85/337EEC Domestic Legislation comes into effect with the Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (England and Wales) Regulations 1999. natural (biotope) and physical environments (habitat). and DETR Circular 02/99. terraced houses from the Edwardian years are generally of similar plans to Victorian terraces though the smaller types were no longer built.2. English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture. particularly.1) and would outline the elements of the scheme that address sustainable development issues. or a plan showing the drawing of a facade. Roofs had prominent chimneystacks and were slate covered . energy saving. Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. Eaves usually project beyond the side of the building generally to provide weather protection. EcoHomes is a system.'Building New Homes'. social and economic implications. Environmental Statements would not be specifically mentioned as an additional information requirement for an application by the LPA. The building period immediately after the Victorian Period (around 1905 until the interwar period (1920)). The edge of site sometimes need special treatment or design consideration to embed new development within neighbouring areas or sometimes for nature conservation reasons. The EST gives consumer level advice on climate change. Science about fauna and flora and how they exist in their environments. The boundary of a development site. EcoHomes ecology edge of site Edwardian (architecture) Edwardian terrace EIA elevation enclosure Energy Saving Trust enforcement action English Heritage Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Environmental Statement (EA) The result and report for an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). Gables may have Mock Tudor timber details. as was the use of darker red bricks and natural colour rough render. Energy Saving Trust is a non-profit organisation jointly funded by the British Government and the private sector in order to help fight climate change by promoting the sustainable use of energy. albeit that it does not cover every development. English Heritage is responsible for advising the government on the listing of historic buildings. The houses typically have front projecting bay windows or gables. The use of a building to create a sense of defined space. See under EIA. The actual facade (or face) of a building. or that development carried out without planning permission is brought under control. Environmental Statement is a legislative requirement for certain applications according with the EIA Regulations 1999 (see also paragraph 10. It is generally similar to the Victorian period in that it is essentially a vernacular style but there are differences in the use of materials the size of the buildings/ window details and to interiors. Government advisors with responsibility for all aspects of protecting and promoting the historic environment. In Watford. a street or a city square. affordable housing built by Registered Social Landlords (RSLs) with Housing Corporation funding. to minimise the environmental impact of. including the positive environmental.later often with decorative ridge tiles. See under EST. energy conservation and to cut carbon dioxide emissions in the United Kingdom. Residential Design Guide SPD. such as a courtyard. Their appearance is similar though original more complex glazing bar patterns were common. Procedures by a local planning authority to ensure that the terms and conditions of a planning decision are carried out. domestic power EST . EcoHomes has been now further developed into the Code for Sustainable Homes and been adopted by the DCLG.

e. A point that attracts attention and therefore serves as a reference point and the visual orientation in an urban environment (see also under legibility). PPS 25 is the official document that regulated the assessment of flood risk and seeks to control development in flood plains. The front elevation of a building. also referred to as site/development related flood risk assessment. house extension) fauna first floor extension Flood Plain (functional flood plain) The definition of “house” in the guide includes bungalows but excludes flats or maisonettes. is a report that outlines the main flood risk to a development site and presents recommendations for mitigation measures to reduce the chance of a flood risk event and the impact of flooding to the site and surrounding areas. Similar to definition of open spaces. extension (i. The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (Amendment) (No. Gateways are in high profile. Zones 2 and 3 are shown on the Environment Agency Flood Map with Flood Zone 1 being all the land falling outside Zones 2 and 3. also referred to as functional flood plain or Flood Zone 3b. A landmark or particular structure in an entrance situation. A gable could be at the end of a roof. Volume 1 3 Glossary generation. waste. such as civic squares or water surfaces. which would be constructed above a previously built ground floor extension. comprises land. Residential Design Guide SPD. "Extension" means all additions to the house whether attached or not and includes garages. classified as permitted development (rights) as defined by Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995. and water conservation and manages phase 1 of the Low Carbon Building Programme which provides grants for the installation of microgeneration technologies in a range of buildings. In England. Zone 3a (high probability) and 3b (the functional flood plain). See under General Permitted Development Order (GPDO). The Flood Zones are the starting point for the sequential approach for development site selection. A gable is the generally triangular portion of a wall between the edges of a sloping roof. These Flood Zones refer to the probability of river (and sea) flooding only. Amend/ updates regulations on permitted development rights as defined by Part 1 of Schedule 2 to the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995. therefore subject to wide public exposure and influence. where water has to flow or be stored in times of a flood event. A set of regulations made by the government which grants planning permission for specified limited or minor forms of development. Extension. but not including areas that do not have vegetation. PPG17 states: Green spaces in urban areas perform vital functions as areas for nature conservation and biodiversity and by acting as 'green lungs' can assist in meeting objectives to improve air quality. Entity of all plants. A focal point could be a landmark or landmark building. SFRAs should identify this Flood Zone (land which would flood with an annual probability of 1 in 20 (5%) or greater in any year or is designed to flood in an extreme (0. of a gablet or a gabled dormer window (or gable fronted dormer). heavily travelled locations and.113 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. an important square or a particular urban situation. A FRA. ignoring the presence of existing defences. Entity of all animals. Areas with a higher probability of river flooding are falling into the Zone 2 (medium probability). Flood Risk Assessment Flood Zone flora focal points frontage gable gateways GDPO GDPO Amendment General Permitted Development Order (GPDO) Green Belt green space . 2) (England) Order 2008’ General Permitted Development Order (GPDO). or at another probability to be agreed between the LPA and the Environment Agency (including water conveyance routes)). The Flood Plain. A policy area forming a ring some 30 to 40 kilometres wide around London (and other major cities) designed to prevent urban sprawl and the merging of settlements. Their design requires a very thorough treatment that engages and enlists public support.1%) flood.

'Building New Homes'. The grid plan (or gridiron plan) is a type of city plan in which streets run at right angles to each other. the inclusive design tries to avoid separation (of different needs) and restrictive choice. This would require basic disinfectant and microbiological treatment. the investment functions of the Housing Corporation. grid (plan) grid street pattern ground floor extension ground source heat pumps GSHP habitable room hard landscaping HCA hierarchy of roads Highway HMSO Homes and Communities Agency householder development Housing Corporation human scale Inclusive Design . and key housing and regeneration programmes previously delivered by Communities and Local Government. The Housing Corporation is now called the Homes and Communities Agency. such as an extension. roof conversion or conversion of a conservatory to a room as part of the house or ground floor flat. Primary and Non-primary A-roads. The development or application for development to a residential property (as defined under the The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995). In that way. the basic hierarchy comprises Motorways. tree grilles. This approach embeds the need for wheelchair accessible homes in mainstream provision. The Homes and Communities Agency joins up the delivery of housing and regeneration under one roof. including the Thames gateway. Residential Design Guide SPD. Extension. eating or sleeping. See under ground source heat pumps. bring land back into productive use and improve quality of life by raising standards for the physical and social environment. See under grid (plan) and block (layout). Her Majesty Stationary Office. wash basins and air conditioning condensate. such as the ground or a body of water. laid out in perfect right angles. Man-made elements of a landscape scheme including paving. The grid plan dates from antiquity and originated in multiple cultures. B and C roads. bollards and railings) and public art. However a conversion of a house to flats or erection of new houses is NOT householder development. bringing together the functions of English Partnerships. which solely covers the ground floor (and does not extend into an upper floor). together with footways and verges. is a householder application. Heat pumps convert low grade thermal energy from a constant temperature source. and which can be treated for reuse as potable water for uses such as toilet flushing. While sources differ on the exact nomenclature. Decent Homes. The hierarchy of roads categorizes roads according to their functions and capacities. A room such as a living room. Inclusive design is based on a social model of disability and shifts from a solely special needs orientated approach to one of accommodating different needs by designing in flexibility. A publicly maintained road. usually with Crown copyrights. sustainable places. the Academy for Sustainable Communities. Each block might be subdivided by small lanes. baths. some of the earliest planned cities were built with blocks divided by a grid of straight streets. See under Homes and Communities Agency. The role of the HCA is to create opportunity for people to live in high quality. running north-south and east-west. forming a grid. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 114 Glossary 3 grey water Waste water that is collected from showers. walls and fencing. The use within development of elements which relate well in size to an individual human being and their assembly in a way which makes people feel comfortable rather than overwhelmed. study. and local collector roads (tier 1 . the publication Centre of the Government (central government). Housing Market Renewal.3) and neighbourhood streets (side streets or cul-de-sacs). to provide funding for affordable housing. to high grade energy that can be used for space heating or hot water. See under Homes and Communities Agency. street furniture (streets. It should include all such rooms in a basement and attic accessed by fixed stairs and naturally lit and any kitchen providing space for sitting or eating over and above that required for the preparation of food. See also under Public Right of Way. dining room or bedroom intended for sitting and sedentary work. the Secretary of State and the Queen.

The development of a relatively small gap between existing buildings Infrastructure typically refers to the technical structures that support a society. power grids. sense of place. for example. there is no stop notice procedure. and human elements such as structures. See also Inclusive Design. Refers to any activity that modifies the visible features of an area of land. flood management systems. See under Local Development Framework. Buildings protected under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as buildings of special architectural or historic interest. or what is commonly referred to as Gardening. water. older people and many but not all disabled people. or bodies of water. Many local authorities. Listed building consent needs to be obtained for Statutory Listed Building works (or alterations). homes can be adapted in response to the changing needs of their occupants. A building or structure that stands out from its background by virtue of height. S7 of the LBCA Act 1990 makes it a criminal offence to carry out works or demolish a listed building without consent In addition s38 allows for the issue of a 'Listed Building Enforcement Notice'. This flexibility benefits parents with small children. Lifetime Homes' standards go further than Part M with the idea that. otherwise similar provisions apply as they do to other enforcement notices. including but not limited to living elements. telecommunications (internet. designs that satisfy their requirements also meet the needs of many other people. such as flora or fauna. Legibility is the degree to which the design of an urban area is easy to understand and therefore navigable for pedestrians. Relationship between mostly two different buildings (or more buildings) or other tree dimensional urban design elements. Basic services necessary for development to take place. sewerage. water supply. including access and mobility issues. Good legibility can support the accessibility of an area. gates and entrance situations. cyclists and other modes of transport. Visible features of an area of land. Residential Design Guide SPD. and abstract elements such as the weather and lighting conditions. buildings. Lifetime Home standards have been included as one of the criteria in the Code for Sustainable Homes and are currently under review for incorporation into BS 8300:20018 so are likely to be incorporated into any future revisions to Part M. routes and open spaces are placed in relation to each other. For such a building further restrictions apply to the type of works that can be undertaken without planning permission or Listed Building Consent. Type of architectural detail. and human elements such as structures. or bodies of water.115 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. Type of planning consent. See also legibility. electricity. the way buildings. as an example the notice can require that the building is restored to its former state. usually used for fencing. infill development infrastructure ironmongery juxtaposition landmark (and landmark building) landscape landscaping layout LDF legibility Lifetime Homes' standards Listed Building listed building consent Listed building enforcement notices: . buildings. telephone lines. The Joseph Rowntree Foundation first introduced the standards in 1991. the art and craft of growing plants with a goal of creating a beautiful environment within the landscape but natural elements such as landforms. (especially following the introduction of the London Plan in 2004) have incorporated them into their planning policies. broadcasting). such as roads. As an urban design term. fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans. roads. terrain shape and elevation. due to the criminal proceedings provisions. Volume 1 3 Glossary Inclusive Mobility Inclusive Mobility provides the standards and guidance for the external built environment. See also Inclusive Design and Part M (of Building Regulations). terrain shape and elevation. education and health facilities. fences or other material objects created and/or installed by humans. including but not limited to natural elements such as landforms. that needs to be obtained in addition to planning permission. by careful design. Although the main purpose of these guidelines is to provide good access for disabled people. wastewater. with a more stringent sting. Inclusive Mobility standards are set out in a DfT publication ‘Inclusive Mobility: A guide to best practice on access transport infrastructure’ 2002. size or some other aspect of design.

loggia LPA major development material considerations mixed-use development Mock Tudor movement movement network natural surveillance nature conservation . In planning terms. draft plans. Residential Design Guide SPD. These models rely on the ability to influence offender decisions preceding criminal acts. The loggia has the advantage of being more sheltered from wind and rain than a balcony. Potential offenders feel increased scrutiny and limitations on their escape routes. Local Planning Authority: the local authority that decides all types of planning applications and prior approval applications.g. comments from statutory and non-statuary organisations. such as Hertfordshire County Council. Mixed-use development is the practice of allowing more than one type of use in a building or set of buildings. roads. office. this can mean some combination of residential. management and promotion of wildlife habitat for the benefit of wild species. leisure. The loggia can also be an alternative architectural element to the portico. For applications relating to ‘county matters’.'Building New Homes'. on the facade of a building and open to the air on one side. as a recessed portico. institutional. active frontages or clever design or measures. by details of public transport services. The range of matters that can be considered as "material" is very wide and can include e. would not be considered a material consideration. See also Victorian architecture / terrace. The movement network can be shown on plans. The protection. such as Watford Borough Council. by space syntax analysis. See also Victorian terrace. The positive features of a place and its communities which contribute to its special character and sense of place. industrial. people and vehicles going to and passing through buildings. the local authority would be the relevant county council. For planning applications for a ‘normal’ development proposal’ this would be typically the Local Authority. cycle-ways and pedestrian routes. by highway designations. A document setting out the programme for the preparation of the different documents that makes up the LDF. representation made by the public. In planning. It is reviewed on an annual basis. Natural surveillance occurs by designing the placement of physical features. but not a DPD. by desire lines. A material consideration is a planning matter that is relevant to an application in its determination. A portfolio of policy documents which will provide the framework for delivering the spatial planning strategy for Watford. An office development (B1 – Use Classes order 1987) of 1. specifically DPDs. The replacement for Local Plans. for example. through data on origins and destinations or pedestrian flows. such as ‘Minerals and Waste’ applications and prior approval applications. activities and people in such a way as to maximize visibility and foster positive social interaction. or sometimes higher.See also under movement and hierarchy of roads. as well as the communities that use and enjoy them. where it is supported by columns or pierced openings in the wall on the other 3 sides. also known as 'Secured by Design'. SPDs and the SCI. places and spaces. Loggia is the name given to an architectural feature. Natural surveillance is enhanced by e. or other land uses. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 116 Glossary 3 Local Development Document (LDD) Local Development Framework (LDF) Local Development Scheme (LDS) local distinctiveness Some of the documents that form part of the LDF. The Tudorbethan Style of the 20th century (also called Mock Tudor or Tudor Revival). first manifested itself in domestic architecture beginning in the United Kingdom in the mid to late 19th century based on a revival of aspects of Tudor style. It is part of the LDF. such as Development Plan Documents (DPD). by walk bands or by details of cycle routes. The loss of property value or a loss of a view. commercial. which is often a gallery or corridor generally on the ground level. cinema. design issues and development impacts. Network of streets. The LPA will decide how much weight to attach to each material consideration. Natural surveillance is a term used in "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design" (CPTED) and "Defensible Space" models for crime prevention.500 square metres or any retailing.g. by figure and ground diagrams. conference and education developments with high trip generation rates that also exceed the floorspace thresholds as set out in Annex D of PPG13 (2001). See also balcony .

if other functions have been added to e. A amenity quality or performance standard of a dwelling. An extension that already existed on 1 July 1948. set out the minimum requirements for building insulation and air tightness of new builds and extensions. and thermal mass). They are established by the local authority in consultation with English Nature and are subject to management plans. All space of public value. or impact on local amenity and character. A common example of passive solar design is a solarium towards the south or south-west of a building. set out the minimum requirements for accessibility that all new homes are statutorily obliged to meet. cause air-movement for ventilating. A window with frosted glass or similar. which replaced the offices of the former DETR (Department for Environment. Residential Design Guide SPD.117 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. playing fields. “Original” means a 'dwellinghouse. The Building Regulations. including public landscaped areas. Transport and the Regions. However. Such technologies convert sunlight into usable heat (water. with its focus on ensuring disabled people can visit new homes and does not facilitate full independent living for all disabled people. Urban design element that connects two or more areas (such as a street as a major nodal point in citywide and neighbourhood terms) and mostly acts at the same time as a core or central core within a neighbourhood or a town centre. canals. that is obscured for reasons to maintain privacy in neighbouring properties. as it existed on 1 July 1948 including any extensions completed before that date. or a property completed after 1 July 1948 excluding later additions. often causing loss of privacy. that dominate(s) its (their) surroundings too much. See also Part L under 'Principles of Energy' in the 'Building Futures Guide'. having an unobstructed view usually from habitable / main room windows measured by the dimensions / distances to neighbouring walls of the same or neighbouring buildings (measured at a right angle to the exterior face of each storey of the building). building adaptations and standards in regard to other impairments or disabilities. 1997 – 2001) and before that the DTLR (Department of Transport. overlooking overshadowing Part L (of Building Regulations) Part M (of Building Regulations) passive solar pattern of (existing) development . such as signage and lighting (for visual impaired people) are not covered by Part M of the Building Regulations. Passive solar technologies are means of using sunlight for useful energy without the use of active mechanical systems (as contrasted to active solar). or store heat for future use. air. 1970 – 1997). the quantity of buildings or intensity of use) that is excessive in terms of demands on infrastructure and services. in 'Approved Document Part M (2004)'.g. lakes and reservoirs. A place where activity and routes are concentrated often used as a synonym for junction. The effect of a development or building on the amount of natural light presently enjoyed by a neighbouring property. It makes only a basic provision for inclusive design. nodal point obscured window Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM) Open Space original original extension outlook overbearing feature / building over-development An amount of development (for example. with little use of other energy sources. in 'Approved Document Part L (2006)'. See under development form. resulting in a shadow being cast over that neighbouring property. The Building Regulations. but also areas of water such as rivers. A term used to describe the effect when a development or building affords an outlook over adjoining land or property. and also including not just land. Volume 1 3 Glossary Nature Reserve Land managed for the purpose of protecting flora and fauna. A Government Department. Feature(s) or building(s). parks and play areas. the transport function. which can offer opportunities for sport and recreation or can also act as a visual amenity and a haven for wildlife. Local Government and Regions) and the DoE (Department of the Environment.

Permission to carry out certain limited forms of development without the need to make an application to a local planning authority. PV systems) pitched roof plan plan depth Planning Agreements Planning Gain planning obligation planning permission . The GPDO also identifies a range of householder alterations for which planning permission does not peppledash pergola perimeter block perimeter development permeability permeable surface Permitted Development (or Permitted Development Rights) photovoltaic systems (photovoltaic technology. A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walk or passageway of pillars that support cross beams and a sturdy open lattice (network of beams). Photovoltaic systems use cells to convert sunlight into electricity. The degree to which an area has a variety of pleasant. 40 to 45 degree angles and sometimes 60 degree angles depending on local craftsmanship and tradition (and typical weather conditions for an area). either permanently or during such period as may be prescribed by the agreement”. They are usually between 4 and 7 storeys in height. that ensure that certain extra works related to a development are undertaken. The greater the intensity of the light is the greater the flow of electricity will be. PV cells are referred to in terms of the amount of energy they generate in full sunlight. usually silicon. Planning obligation. A scale diagram of a room or building drawn as if seen from above. A pitched roof is a roof with an angle / pitch of at least 15 degrees. as has been specified by the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995 (the GPDO). Also referred to as 'pervious surface'. Pebbledash is a popular surface coat. When light shines on the cell it creates an electric field across the layers causing electricity to flow. planning obligations are legal agreements between a planning authority and a developer. Such provisions may sometimes be made by way of a unilateral undertaking. the finish is known as a peppledash surface. rather than an agreement between two parties. ideally 17 degrees to allow for an air-permeable roof construction. Depth of a building. Residential Design Guide SPD.'Building New Homes'. Planning permission is permission or consent given by the LPA to carry out a specific 'development' proposal or a ‘material operation’. as granted under the terms of the Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order. The PV cell consists of one or two layers of a semi conducting material. secured by way of a planning obligation as part of a planning approval and usually provided at the developer's expense. consisting of a thick cement base coat covered with a thin coat of render and small stones. also known as pebble dash/render dash. convenient and safe routes through it. or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer. In larger developments they often form part of a planning permission. affordable housing. Perimeter blocks are a key component of many European cities and are an urban form that allows very high urban densities to be achieved without high-rise buildings. planning gain or section 106 agreement. If small stones or chippings are thrown onto the sand and cement mix already applied to the wall surface. Urban design concept that should be considered in the design of pedestrian ways and connections (including pedestrian crossing points). PV cells. and therefore desired connection between two points for a pedestrian. See under block (development). An agreement normally made under section 106 of the Town and Country Planning Act 1990 whereby the Local Planning Authority (the Council) may “enter into an agreement with any person interested in land in their area for the purpose of restricting or regulating the development or use of the land. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 118 Glossary 3 pedestrian desire line Shortest and barrier free way. and may contain a mixture of uses. typically with roof tiles. A perimeter block is a type of city block which is built up on all sides surrounding a central space that is semi-private. community facilities or mitigation measures. also referred to as planning contributions. For example. often for community benefit. The benefits or safeguards. known as kilowatt peak or kWp. Typical roof pitches are 30 degree angles. is a surface or paving material that allows water to penetrate to the ground below. with commercial or retail functions on the ground floor.

waves and other heat sources. home etc. The concentrating and collecting of rain falling on roofs and grounds for direct use or storage. which cannot be exhausted and are usually sourced from the sun. regardless of gender. such as 'Transport' (PPG13).gov. Energy obtained from natural resources. Water is collected or harvested from patios. Open space that is usually privately owned and is not usually accessible by members of the public. such as white. The privacy arc is a rule-of-thumb to assess the effect of new rear extensions on the privacy of direct neighbours. This includes streets. PPG PPS pre-application advice Previously Developed Land privacy privacy arc privacy standards private open space protected species public realm public space rainwater harvesting Renewables/ renewable energy residential amenity . town or city (whether publicly or privately owned) available. as published after the introduction of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. PPGs are getting gradually replaced by PPSs. on issues such as 'Delivering Sustainable Developments' (PPS1). Those parts of a village. Residential Design Guide SPD.uk/planning under the heading “Types of Planning Applications”. Advice that is can be obtained from the LPA (the Council) before making a planning application. for everyone to use. Criterions on privacy required to be maintained for neighbours in the event of development. An area or place that is open and accessible to all citizens. Conservation (Natural Habitats etc) Regulations 1994 or Protection of Badgers Act 1992. driveways and other paved areas.119 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. and 'Development and flood prevention' (PPS25). thereby increasing rainwater harvesting possibilities. 'Local Spatial Planning' (PPS12). such as the former PPGs on 'Development Plans' (PPG12) and 'Development and flood prevention' . A Human Right that ensures that no one is subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy. Planning Policy Statement pointing (in a wall) See under PPS. Planning Policy Statements are guidelines set out by the Central Government. Non-government-owned malls are examples of 'private space' with the appearance of being 'public space'.watford. age or socio-economic level. grey or yellowish colours. Buildings can be designed to maximise the amount of catchment area. to explain statutory provisions and provide guidance to local authorities and others on policies and the operation of the planning system. 'Planning and the Historic Environment' (PPS15). ethnicity. It is based on the assumption that a neighbour needs a minimum privacy distance in order not to feel too overlooked and on the assumption that a person standing directly inside in front of the window looking outwards normally can overlook to a certain degree an area that is within a view-angle of 45° towards both sides of the window. Pointing can have different colours. family. One of the earliest examples of public spaces are commons. wind. Information on types of planning permission is available from the Council’s website www. as published before the introduction of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. tides. Volume 1 3 Glossary need to be sought from the Council. squares and parks. Species which are rare and protected under the Nature Conservation/ Ecological Assessment/ Natural Beauty Could Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981. The pointing are the areas between the bricks (or stones) filled with cement in a wall. The definition covers the curtilage of the development. race. Also harvested is the flow of water from the roof and from catchments such as gutters. Land that is or was occupied by a permanent (non-agricultural) structure and associated fixed surface infrastructure. such as ground heat or thermal heat. See under amenity. Planning Policy Guidance (Notes) are guidelines set out by the Central Government.

A public right of way is called a highway. eating or storage purposes under a certain size). Section 106 agreements are legal agreements between a planning authority and a developer. including those in the field of planning and land use. RSLs are independent. the carrying out of consultations. Since the late 1980s almost all new social housing has been provided by RSLs. can raise private finance for new schemes and for investing in stock transferred from local authorities outside the constraints of Public Expenditure control and the Public Sector Borrowing Requirement. the taking into account of the environmental report and the results of the consultations in decision making and the showing that the results of the environment assessment have been taken into account. or undertakings offered unilaterally by a developer. Public Right of Way roof light roof slope roof-scape (or roofscape) RSL SA Safer Places (initiative) Saved Policies / Saved Plan scale SEA secondary extension secondary room section Section 106 Agreement Secured by Design . hallways. Enclosed spaces such as bath or toilet facilities. The concept is a difficult and ambiguous one: often the word is used simply as a synonym for 'size'. One of the main reasons for this is that RSLs. not for profit private sector organisations. security measures and security standards for a range of applications. Policies within unitary development plans. See also under application drawings. ‘Secured by Design’ is the UK Police flagship initiative supporting the principles of "designing out crime" by use of effective crime prevention. including Secured By Design. Sometimes it is the total dimensions of a building which give it its sense of scale: at other times it is the size of the elements and the way they are combined.g. A public right of way is a highway over which the public have a right of access along the route. particularly as experienced in relation to the size of a person. An extension that did not exist on 1 July 1948 and is additional to an original extension. utility rooms or similar spaces (and sometimes rooms for cooking. See under Sustainability Appraisal. An environmental assessment of certain plans and programmes. local plans and structure plans that are saved for a time period during replacement production of Local Development Documents. A roof light is a structural element of a building that does not protrude from the plane of a sloping roof surface. Angle (slope. Safer Places is a Government publication by the Home Office and ODPM that builds on and complements Government urban design and crime reduction objectives and guidance. service rooms. or the size of parts of a building or its details. Type of drawing that shows a building or site as it would look like if cut through. being in the private sector. pitch) in which the roof is raised from the horizontal line of the roof floor. For a pitched roof this angle has to be above 15 degrees. A legal agreement under section 106 of the 1990 Town & Country Planning Act.'Building New Homes'. A right of way is either public or private. The environmental assessment involves the preparation of an environmental report. local authorities were given the option of transferring their stock to RSLs. In addition. laundries. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 120 Glossary 3 Right of Way A right of way is a right of passing over the land of another.1 in volume 1 of the Residential Design Guide).. which complies with the EU Directive 2001/42/EC. that ensure that certain extra works related to a development are undertaken. For a flat roof this angle would be typically below 15 degrees but at least 2 degrees to allow for efficient drainage of the roof. (see also under paragraph 2. on foot only or by foot or by vehicles etc. corridors. Residential Design Guide SPD. The impression of a building when seen in relation to its surroundings. Rights of way are of various kinds and may be for limited purposes only: e. A private right of way is either an easement or a customary right. Skyline that taller buildings create within the development and that are designed to be seen over a wider area and will aid orientation and structure the external view).3.

to be used to create a plaza or an urban square within the layout of a new development. such as flood plains. See under Supplementary Planning Guidance. the security alarm can turn the lights on or off. taking into account future climate change predictions. Health & Safety Executive. A Supplementary Planning Document is a document that gives supplementary advice to a development plan. Examples of statutory bodies include: Countryside Agency. See under SEA. such as central heating. a setback is relating to a step-like recession in a street frontage. such as in the step pyramids of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. or bodies of water. surface water. Solar thermal collectors use the sun's energy to heat water or another fluid such as oil or antifreeze. setback setback (in architecture) setback (in land use & planning) setback (in urban design) Smart Homes soft landscaping solar gain Solar panel Supplementary Planning Guidance documents SPG statutory Statutory Body Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) Strategic Flood Risk Assessment (SFRA) A Strategic Flood Risk Assessment is a study that helps to assess all forms of flood risk from groundwater. In land use. a river or other stream or between buildings and the building line. and Sport England. to help the LPA to use this as an evidence base to locate future development preferably in low flood risk areas. The ‘Smart Home’ model is based on the Joseph Rowntree Foundation demonstration sites in York and replications of that model. The modern home contains a variety of systems. A government-appointed body set up to give advice and be consulted for comment upon development plans and planning applications affecting matters of public interest. urban design or land use terms (see below). In urban design. usually through an Act of Parliament. terrain shape and elevation. English Heritage. SPG4 on 'Privacy Guidelines. fire and security alarms.121 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. The Watford District Plan (the local development plan for Watford) has a number of SPGs. before the steel frame structural system had been invented (in the late 19th century. either used to create more variety within a street scene or in case of a larger set back (mostly appearing in front of an important building or at a nodal point). as published before the introduction of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. sewer and river sources. In the smart house. a setback is the distance which a building or other structure is set back from a street or road. in relation to those characteristics that make a place special or unique. Regional Development Agency. Volume 1 3 Glossary sense of place A characteristic that some geographic places have and some do not. such as the Teppe Sialk ziggurat or the Pyramid of Djoser or as used in many sky-scrapers in the late 18th century until the mid 19th century (see New York Daily News Building). and devices. Setback has different meanings in architecture. In some instances they might also provide protection to vulnerable areas. such as SPG7 on 'Conversions' and SPG14 'Designing for Community Safety' (that were saved after the full introduction of the LDF in 2007). The use of natural heat and light (either direct or as stored energy) to reduce the energy consumption of a building via the conventional mains supply. a setback is relating to a step-like recession in a wall either vertical (see also under loggia. such as flora or fauna. SPG5 on ‘Private Gardens' and SPG8 'Extensions' were replaced through the Residential Design Guide at point of its adoption. these systems and devices are able to pass information and commands between them so that. as well as to those that foster a sense of identity and authentic human attachment. Living elements. . Required by law (statute). In architecture. and natural elements of a landscape scheme including landforms. Residential Design Guide SPD. English Nature. Here setbacks usually have the function to ensure privacy standards or to prevent fire safety hazards (particularly in the past). A smart home is a house that has a communications infrastructure that allows the various systems and devices in the home to communicate with each other. or any other places which need protection. for example. Environment Agency. such as televisions and lights that usually exist in total isolation from each other. niche) or horizontal. see also Mies van de Rohe). "Solar panel" describes two types of devices that collect energy from the sun: Solar photovoltaic modules use solar cells to convert light from the sun into electricity.

A requirement for all DPD. PPG 25 provides specific guidance on the need to manage surface water drainage and proposes a risk-based approach to development and flood risk. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 122 Glossary 3 street furniture Structures in and adjacent to the highway which contribute to the street scene. thematic or site specific. urban planning. and relates people with the natural environment. such as renewable energy and water saving measures.1. It also advises that new development should not increase runoff from the undeveloped situation and that redevelopment should reduce run-off. Sustainable design is often viewed as a necessary tool for achieving sustainability. and ecological sustainability. The aim of sustainable design is to produce places. car showrooms and petrol stations. lighting. such as bus shelters. social. An old-style development plan. SuDS and green roof systems and other flood risk / climate change adaptations etc. urban design. street furniture. street hierarchy streetscape structure plan SuDS (also SUDS or SUD system) sui generis (use class) Supplementary Planning Document (SPD) Sustainability Sustainability Appraisal (including Environmental Appraisal) Sustainability Statement Sustainable Design . is the capacity to maintain a certain process or state indefinitely. A Supplementary Planning Document is a Local Development Document that may cover a range of issues. An appraisal of the economic. In an ecological context. sustainability is defined as the ability of an ecosystem to maintain ecological processes. the built environment and services to comply with the principles of economic. It is a growing trend within the fields of architecture. swales and green roofs. seating. Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) are management practices and physical structures designed to drain surface water in a more sustainable way than conventional systems. such as the Core Strategy. whereas arterials in a traditional grid plan are connected by dozens of through streets. Sustainability Statements should not be confused with Environmental Statements that are a legislative requirement for certain applications accordingly with the EIA Regulations 1999 (see also paragraph 10. railings and signs. graphic design. Sustainability.'Building New Homes'. It can be seen as a hierarchy of roads that embeds the hierarchy (importance of different roads) in the network topology (the connectivity of the nodes to each other). In planning terms. The environment of the street. launderettes. Residential Design Guide SPD. The street hierarchy is an urban design technique for separating automobile through-traffic from developed areas. telephone booths and buildings. See also under Environmental Statement. biodiversity and productivity into the future. products and services in a way that reduces use of non-renewable resources. in a general sense. interior design and fashion design. The street hierarchy completely eliminates all straight-line connections between arterial roads.g. Sustainable design (also referred to as 'green design' or 'eco-design') is the art of designing physical objects. due to transitional provisions under planning reform. minimizes environmental impact. These plans will continue to operate for a time after the commencement of the new development plan system. which explains what sustainable design features are proposed as part of the development. for example theatres. A term given to the uses of land or buildings. Sustainability Statement (sometime mistakenly referred to as Sustainability Appraisals) is a statement by the developer (which could be produced as part of the Design and Access Statement). ditches. pavements. The concept of sustainability applies to all aspects of life on Earth and is commonly defined within ecological. Examples of SuDS include source control using pervious surfaces. the East of England (Regional Development) plan defines Sustainability Objectives and Indicators to be used in the assessment of planning documents. engineering. and provides further detail of policies and proposals in a 'parent' Development Plan Document. made up of pedestrian walkways. Also compare with Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA). functions. lighting. landscape architecture. environmental and social effects of a plan from the outset of the preparation process to allow decisions to be made that accord with sustainable development. not falling into any of the use classes identified by the Use Classes Order. litter bins. industrial design.2. social and economic contexts. utilities e. which sets out strategic planning policies and forms the basis for detailed policies in local plans.

See under SuDS. To carry out any works on the trees. Most commonly used as axial symmetry (also referred to as mirror symmetry. Residential Design Guide SPD. such as the Zwinger Palace in Dresden or Blenheim Palace in Woodstock. and planning and urban design frameworks. Urban design is a planning discipline that concerns the arrangement. social justice and economic success to go hand-in-hand. symmetry The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) (Amendment) (No. urban design or garden layouts. a Tree Work Application Form has to be filled out and a Tree Preservation Consent has to be obtained from the Local Planning Authority. such as noise. It has traditionally been regarded as a disciplinary subset of urban planning. A TPO can apply to a single tree. India’s Taj Mahal and typically baroque architecture. prune or damage or destroy the protected trees. See also Tree Preservation Consent.123 Watford Borough Council 'Building New Homes'. such as the St. Also. architecture and design uses objects with rotational symmetry quite often. See under Tree Preservation Order. landscape architecture and architecture. which would be constructed on the ground and first floor at the same time. Typical examples are the Greek Parthenon. These are objects that look the same after a certain amount of rotation. A document which forms the preparation of development plan policies. Also referred to as General Permitted Development Amendment Order (2008). such as in dome-like cathedrals. Extension. TPO traffic-calming Tree Preservation Consent Tree Preservation Order Tree Work Application Form two-storey extension urban design urban design framework . trees and fruit trees. The UK's strategy for sustainable development "A better quality of life" was published in May 1999 and highlights the need for environmental improvement. Measures to reduce the speed of traffic and with those other negative effects of traffic. appearance and functionality of towns and cities. This in general makes it an offence to cut down. 2) (England) Order 2008 topography A description or representation of artificial or natural features on or of the ground. including urban design strategies. See also under General Permitted Development Order (GDPO): The Town and Country Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995. An application form for obtaining Tree Preservation Consent to carry out any works on the trees covered by a Tree Preservation Order (TPO) and any trees and hedgerow in Conservation Areas. Symmetry is a mathematical concept of likeness through geometric transformations such as scaling. mirror-image symmetry. area development frameworks. a group of trees or woodland. such as mixed-traffic streets. or sets out in detail how they are to be implemented in a particular area where there is a need to control. and in particular the shaping and uses of urban public space. See under GDPO Amendment. Peter’s Basilica in Vatican City. See also under landscape. It can include hedgerows. Paul’s cathedral in London and the St. pollution and street safety. bended streets or framed with buildings placed in a way that allows no fast traffic. uproot. reflection symmetry or bilateral symmetry) in architecture. spatial masterplans. Volume 1 3 Glossary sustainable development Defined by the Brundtland Commission (1987 and quoted in PPG1) as 'Development which meets present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to achieve their own needs and aspirations'. For more information contact the Arboricultural (Tree) Officer. Area development frameworks are also called a variety of other names. reflection. sustainable drainage system swift bricks Bricks that facilitate nesting for swifts. A modern example of a complex use of various symmetries is Australia’s Sydney Opera House. and rotation. Traffic-calming (measures) could include speed humps or traffic islands or less tangible design features. guide and promote change. Swift bricks are often used as a mitigation measure if semi-open roof spaces (often previously occupied by swifts) are being replaced by a different type of roof or being made air-tight for purposes of heat insulation. A Tree Preservation Order (TPO) is an Order made by the Local Planning Authority (LPA) in respect of trees.

1901). An enclosed view. 2nd edition. 2006'. Roofs had prominent chimneystacks and were slate covered . See also under Right of Way. water and sewage. although they have some features in common. Public utilities are subject to forms of public control and regulation ranging from local community-based groups to state-wide government monopolies.) in which fauna and flora exist in a particular area. use class Utilities (Statutory Undertakers / Statutory Utilities) UVPC vernacular Victorian terrace view vista water source heat pumps Watford District Plan 2000 wayleaves Wheelchair Accessible Homes wildlife habitat . A right of way over or through land for access to infrastructure. mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings. are homes. are different to Lifetime Homes. usually a long and narrow one. making use of local styles. and the degree to which an area's pattern of street-blocks and street junctions is respectively small and frequent. built to the standards detailed in 'The Wheelchair Housing Design Guide. or to replace older single glazed windows. terraces with small front yards. The term utilities can also refer to the set of services provided by these organizations consumed by the public: electricity. Wheelchair accessible homes allow either immediate occupation by a wheelchair user or easy adaptation if the need arises. natural gas. such as wires on pylons or the like or the carriage of minerals from a mine or quarry. and more usually.'Building New Homes'. UPVC or Rigid PVC is often used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material. "straight-in off the street" railway built terraces. Wheelchair Accessible Homes. A view is defined by what is visible from a particular point. The way in which ordinary buildings were built in a particular place. A public utility (usually just utility) is an organization that maintains the infrastructure for a public service (often also providing a service using that infrastructure). techniques and materials and responding to local economic and social conditions. The earlier houses had minimal architectural decoration but later. See under ground source heat pumps. Compare 'Vista'. microclimate etc.later often with decorative ridge tiles. The material comes in a range of colours and finishes. The 1890s often saw low level front roofs covering both bay window and front door. Physical environments (soil. two-downs" (originally). Telephone services may also be included. Residential Design Guide SPD. water. and is used as a substitute for painted wood. particularly in the UK. Relate to classes of uses of buildings or land defined in the Town and Country Planning (Use Classes) Order 1987 (as variously amended). contrasting brickwork and small front bay windows were included. See also under development plan and Saved Policies. or large and infrequent. A terrace in one of the dominant of the Victorian styles (1837 . The previous development plan (as prepared before the Planning & Compulsory Purchase Act of 2004). Decorative stone and timber work became more common. There is a considerable heritage of Victorian terraced house architecture in Watford including early "two-up. Volume 1 Watford Borough Council 124 Glossary 3 urban grain The pattern of the arrangement and size of buildings and their plots in a settlement.

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Large print versions of this document can be produced on request: Tel 01923-278970 Planning Policy. WD17 3EX strategy@watford.gov.uk www. Watford Borough Council.gov.uk/planning .watford. Watford. Town Hall.