RADIAL TYRE BUILDING PROCESS

a) Green Tyre Forming The first stage of building a radial tyre is to locate the beads onto a cylindrical flat forming drum, followed by a series of components which will form the base structure of the tyre and link the two beads together. The tubular shaped carcass is then transferred to the second stage. b) Green Tyre Shaping The second stage of construction begins by loading the tyre carcass onto a second drum, the tyre is the shaped and breaker belts are applied, followed by the sidewall and tread components. At each stage of the construction great care is taken to apply pressure, with the view to expelling all air between each layer and to consolidate the assembly.

Radial tyre building methods
1-Stage Assembly The tyre carcass is built on an assembly drum. Components can be added for example in the following order: 1. sidewalls 2. chafers 3. innerliner 4. ply materials 5. belt materials / tread rubber The assembly drum used in 1-stage assembly consists of a shaping bladder, turn-up bladders and supporting bladders.
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Beads are fitted onto the drum using specific bead applicators. By inflating the shaping bladder, the stretching of the tyre carcass begins. Whilst this is being done, the distance between the beads shortens. The application of the belt and tread package takes place beforehand, and it is done on a separate drum. With the help of a transfer ring, the package is moved onto the shaping assembly drum. The tyre carcass is stretched and attached to the belt package.

. Changing the machine settings is a slow procedure. In the stage to follow. Stage Building the carcass follows the same procedure as used in the manufacture of cross ply tyres. a reasonably fast method of production.  As far as work stages are concerned. which results in high operating costs.  The tread and belt package is stitched carefully onto the tyre carcass. After the shaping bladder has been deflated. Disadvantages:  Suitable only for the production of open construction tyres. the tyre carcass can be taken off the drum.    The drum required is complex and expensive. The components fitted in the assembly stage:       innerliner ply materials beads insulation rubbers chafers sidewalls The tyre is built on a regular assembly drum. 2-Stage Assembly 1. The bladders have to be made separately. Pressure is aspirated from the turn-up bladders and support bladders.     Advantages:  Suitable for long production batches. when also the chafers and sidewalls are put into their correct places. Turn-up bladders are used for completing the ply turn-up phase. Support bladders are used to ensure that the turn-ups are properly made all the way. the sidewalls and bead area components are stitched.

after which the transfer rings. The stretching pressure is released from the tyre carcass. Ply turnups are made either by stitching or using spring method (selection of method depends on the construction of the building machine). is removed from the drum. and the bead area and the flanges are brought closer together.  Requires more material processing than the 1-stage method. and it is done on a separate drum. Stage: Shaping  The tyre carcass is fastened onto the shaping drum. the package is moved onto to the shaping assembly drum. The tyre carcass is offloaded from the drum and transferred on to the next phase.   Changes between different sizes can be made quickly. and the green tyre is taken off the drum and moved to intermediate storage. The components are stitched together.  Disadvantages:  More space required for the equipment. . With the help of a transfer ring.     2. after which the materials are stitched together. The drums and any other equipment required are cheaper and less complicated than those used in the 1-stage method Possible to apply to the production of a closed construction tyre. The application of the belt and tread package takes place beforehand. The tread and belt package is stitched carefully onto the tyre carcass.  The stretching of the tyre carcass begins and the distance between the beads shortens. The tyre carcass is stretched and attached to the belt and tread package. The chafers and sidewalls are put into their correct places. The process starts with the fitting of the innerliner and is followed by the fitting of the carcass material and bead wires.     Advantages:  Suitable for short production batches.