Shaft Loading

Lecture 17 Engineering 473 Machine Design

Shaft Design Issues
Material Se Sut Shaft: Rotating machine element that transmits power. Loads Stationary Rotating Interfaces Press Fits Keyways Splines Bearings Assembly Stiffness Shafts are one of the most commonly encountered machine components.
Mott, Fig. 5-1

K IC Syt RC
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Environment Temperature Corrosion Magnetic Tolerances

Parallel Shaft Gear Box Shaft design spans most topics taught in a Machine Design Course. Fig. Mott. 15-7 .

Mott. 15-5 . Fig.Design Detail Needed to Specify a Shaft Significant detail is required to completely specify the geometry needed to fabricate a shaft.

Common Shaft Loading Mechanisms Spur Gears Chain Drives Unbalanced Mass Helical Gears Spiral Bevel Gears Belt Drives .

12-3 .000 ⋅ P n T Wt = D 2 Wr = Wt ⋅ tan! n ≡ rotational speed [rpm] T ≡ shaft torque [in ⋅ lb] D ≡ pitch diameter [in ] ! ≡ pressure angle P ≡ transmitted power [hp] Mott.Spur Gear Loads T = 63. Fig.

Helical Gear Loads Mott Fig’s 10-3 & 10-4(a) .

Helical Gear Loads (Continued) ! n ≡ Normal pressure angle ! t ≡ Transverse pressure angle " ≡ Helix angle Wn ≡ Resultant normal force Wt ≡ Transmitted force Wr ≡ Radial force Wx ≡ Axial force tan! n = tan! t ⋅ cos" Mott Fig’s 10-4(a) .

Helical Gear Loads (Continued) Mott Fig 10-4 .

000 ⋅ P T Wt = D 2 n Wr = Wt ⋅ tan ! n /cos " Wx = Wt ⋅ tan " Mott Fig 10-4 .Helical Gear Loads (Continued) T = 63.

Chain Drive Loads # Mott Fig 12-4 .

Belt Drive Loads Net Driving Force Fn = F$ − F2 T D 2 Total Bending Force Fn = Fb = F$ + F2 Mott. 12-5 . Fig.

5 Fn FB = 2.0 (V-belts) (Flat-belts) FB = $.Belt Drive Loads (Bending Force) Net Driving Force Fn = F$ − F2 T D 2 Total Bending Force Fn = FB F$ + F2 C= = Fn F$ − F2 5F2 + F2 C= = $.0 (Flat-belts) 3F2 − F2 Fb = F$ + F2 Tension Ratio F$ F$ F2 F2 = 5.0 Fn (V-belts) (Flat-belts) .5 (V-belts) 5F2 − F2 3F2 + F2 C= = 2.0 = 3.

Stationary Loads F2 F2 F$ F$ F2 F2 F$ F$ .

Bending Stresses Due to Stationary Loads 3 M3 c2 M 2 c 3 M 3c 2 %b = − I 22 I33 c3 M2 # 2 M 2 r sin # M 3 r cos # %b = − I I Eq. $ I 22 = I 33 = I c 2 = r cos # c 3 = r sin # ∂% b M 2 r / sin # / cos # M 3 r = + =0 I I ∂# / / M2 tan # = M3 Eq. 2 .

3 Combining with Eq. c3 # 2 M2 sin # M = tan # = M3 cos # M − M2 %b = M 2 r sin # M 3 r cos # − I I Eq.2 M3 Eq.Bending Stresses Due to Stationary Loads 3 M3 c2 2 M = M2 M + 2 3 Eq. 4 M tan # = . $ sin # = − M2 M3 M Eq. 2 cos # = M . 2.

$ Eq.3 M3 c2 Bending Stresses Due to Stationary Loads Combining Eq’3 $. 3 Eq’s 4 2 M2 r M 2 3r %b = − − I I sin # = cos # = − M2 M3 M 2 M2 M + 2 3 ⋅r %b = − I M . and 4 c3 # 2 M2 M 2 r sin # M 3 r cos # − %b = I I M r sin # M 3 r cos # − %b = 2 I I 2 + M = M2 M 2 3 Eq.3.

Bending Stresses Due to Stationary Loads % b. 5-3(e) .min 2 M2 M + 2 3 ⋅r =− I Mott.max 2 + M2 M 2 3 ⋅r = I % b. Fig.

.Torsional Stresses Due to Stationary Loads 3 M3 M $r &= J r 2 M2 & M$ time The torsional stress at a point will be constant under steady state conditions.

the axial stress from these loads will be constant. and spiral gears will generate axial loads in the shaft.Axial Stresses Due to Stationary Loads Helical. Under steady state conditions. worm. Wx %x = A Mott Fig 10-4 .

In practice. .Unbalanced Mass Loads Bending stresses in a shaft due to in-balance loads are complicated by whether the rotational speed is lower or higher than the critical speeds of the shaft. the in-balance loads are minimized by balancing the shaft and attached components as a system. Rotordynamics theory is required if the magnitudes of the stresses at a particular operating speed is required.

! ) 2 ys = 2 (k − m' ) + (c') 2 2 me' 2sin ('t .Synchronous Whirl (Due to Unbalanced Mass) m=unbalanced mass e ! xs = (k − m' ) + (c') 2 2 me' cos('t . 3. Fig.4-2 .! ) 2 OS = x + y = 2 s 2 s (k − m' ) + (c') 2 2 me' 2 2 c' tan ! = k − m' 2 Thomson.

Fig. The teeth are of the 20o. Compute the torque delivered to the shaft and the tangential and radial forces exerted on the shaft by the gear. Mott. 12-20 . involute form.Assignment (Problem 1) The shaft rotating at 550 rpm carries a spur gear B having 96 teeth and a diametral pitch of 6. full-depth. The gear receives 30 hp from a pinion directly above it.

Assignment (Problem 2) The shaft rotating at 200 rpm carries a 20-in-diameter flatbelt pulley at A that receives $0 hp from below. Fig. Mott. Compute the torque delivered by the pulley to the shaft and the force exerted on the shaft by the pulley. 12-21 .

(c) draw the shearing force and bending moment diagrams for the shaft in both planes.5 hp through a flexible coupling. Fig. The power is delivered to an adjacent shaft through a single helical gear B having a normal pressure angle of 20o and a helix angle of $5o. 12-29 .$4$ in Mott. (b) find the magnitude of the forces shown.Assignment (Problem 3) The shaft is rotating at 650 rpm and receives 7. DB=4. (a) draw free-body diagrams for the shaft in both the vertical and horizontal planes.

Mott. Resolve the force into its horizontal and vertical components. Compute the torque delivered to the shaft by the sprocket and the total force exerted on the shaft by the sprocket. and show the net forces acting on the shaft at C in the vertical and horizontal directions. 12-22 . Fig.Assignment (Problem 4) The shaft rotating at 480 rpm carries a 10-in-diameter chain sprocket at C that receives 11 hp from a mating sprocket below and to the left as shown.