CIRCULAR 3 4 - ~ ~ / 2 9

CIRCULAR

THE CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT IN SERVICE METHODS OF HANDLING AIRCRAFT DEFECT REPORTS

P r e p a r e d by the S e c r e t a r i a t and published by a u t h o r i t y of the S e c r e t a r y G e n e r a l

I N T E R N A T I O N A L C I V I L A V I A T I O N O R G A N I Z A T I O N MONTREAL CANADA

This Publication is issued i n English, French and Spanish.

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In A r g e n t i n e c u r r e n c y : f r o m E d i t o r i a l S u d a m e r i c a n a S. A. , C a l l e A l s i n a 500, Buenos A i r e s , Argentina. (Cable a d d r e s s : LIBRECOL) '

Circular 3 4 - ~ ~ / Z 9

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T A B L E O F CONTENTS
Page Foreword

................................. 1 .. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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.. Reporting of Defects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.. Analysis of and Action on Defect Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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....................... 5 .. Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.. Exchange of Information

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~ ~ / 2with incorporated. The information received f r o m Contracting States was considered to be However. 3 4 . . of general interest to all Contracting States.~ ~ / 2 9 3 THE CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT IN SERVICE METHODS OF HANDLING AIRCRAFT DEFECT REPORTS Foreword In o r d e r to a s s i s t the Air NavigationCommission of ICAO in a study regarding the maintenance of continuing airworthiness of a i r c r a f t in service. - This Circular contains the material originally issued in Draft Circular 9 the suggestions for amendments and amplifications No. i t was circulated with 9 the request that in 1953 in the f o r m of Draft ICAO Circular 3 4 . Contracting States have been asked to forward to ICAO information on the practices they employ in matters concerning the methods adopted for reporting. since the information submitted was not originally intended for general publication.~ ~ / 2 Contracting States suggest any amendments o r amplifications that they would like to s e e incorporated in the final text of an ICAO Circular.Circular 3 4 . analyzing and taking appropriate action in c a s e s of recurring failures o r defects on a i r c r a f t in service.

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. This i s particularly t r u e of l a r g e r and mechanically more complicated aeroplanes. Thus the problem of mechanical dependability in service is not solved by the initial issue of a certificate of airworthiness and adherence to the initial maintenance code issued early in the life of an aeroplane.~ ~ / 2 9 5 THE CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT IN SERVICE METHODS OF HANDLING AIRCRAFT DEFECT. The detailed methods of taking such action must of course v a r y f r o m State to State according to the organization of civil aviation in each particular State. a c c e s s o r i e s and equipment. problems that he cannot always solve with complete confidence. and others may cause undue wear and t e a r that shorten the period between inspections and complicate maintenance operations. This process does not end with the f i r s t few y e a r s in s e r v i c e but extends throughout the total operating life. In fact. taking appropriate action and exchanging information on recurring failures or defects on a i r c r a f t in service. the next and extremely important step in making an aeroplane Baf e throughout its operating life is the correction without delay of-any developing defects and mechanical difficulties. to the many d i f f e t ent types and methods of operation and to the size and state of development of the national aviation industry. . when the aeroplane enters service.REPORTS 1. The following text summarizes information f r o m Contracting States regarding their methods for reporting. The aeroplane presents to the designer a multitude of problems regarding dependability of i t s various components. The generally accepted procedure of controlling such mechanical difficulties involves reporting. the motor c a r . manufacturers and appropriate government agencies.Introduction Practically every new type of aeroplane introduced into s e r v i c e i s subject to miscellaneous mechanical difficulties. for example.Circular 3 4 . there a r e revealed mechanical difficulties of which some may critically affect safety of operations. This action is normally closely co-ordinated between operators. No matter how much c a r e is exercised i n the initial design t h e r e a r e nearly always some weaknesses that can only be revealed after the machine has been put into service. classifying and analyzing them and taking appropriate corrective action. As a result. In this r e s p e c t the aeroplane does not differ f r o m other complicated machines. some may cause delays in scheduled operations.

specific periods of time within which a report should be submitted. the number and types of a i r c r a f t . . These r e p o r t s normally a r e required by States on a mandatory basis. the maintenance and inspection procedures adopted and on the general organization and development of civil aviation in a particular country. circumstances under which they occurred and were detected. responsible maintenance personnel. opinions a s to the causes. The defects and malfunctionings a r e reported in individual l e t t e r s o r on special f o r m s 'established by large operators o r by the State of Registry. One i s the analysis of reports of accidents and forced landings. They provide information such a s the following: date and place of occurrence. In some States those summary reports a r e compiled by the State of Registry and in others by the operators. The third means consists in collecting r e p o r t s on those incidents of mechanical malfunctioning that may not be individually hazardous. The detailed procedures adopted by the various Contracting States for the submission by a i r c r a f t operators of defect and malfunctioning r e p o r t s however appear to vary widely. while minor defects a r e those which a r e rdgarded a s being significant only when a g r e a t e r number of the same type of defect occurs.Reporting Methods There appear to exist three principal means of collecting information on defects and failures that occur on aircraft during operation. but that caused a delay in departure o r otherwise interrupted a flight. The latter r e p o r t s a r e normally required only for a i r c r a f t engaged in scheduled a i r services. In addition to the reports on each individual defect monthly o r three monthly r e p o r t s a u m m r i z i n g and classifying individual reports a r e required. A second means i s the reporting and recording of defects and malfunctioning detected in flight o r on the ground that a r e considered to be hazardous. They may depend on the number of operators. In AUSTRALIA a i r c r a f t defects a r e classified a s tlmajor" o r "minor". suggestions a s to the prevention of recurrence. In general. Circular 34-AN/Z~ - . In some States provisions exist for the collection of such reports for non-carrier aeroplanes also. for all accidents of air c a r r i e r and non-air c a r r i e r aircraft. a i r c r a f t registration. Below a r e given some specific examples of reporting procedures. for this purpose.6 2. Major defects a r e those defects which in themselves reflect on safetv and warrant individual study. immediate action taken. overhaul history. operators a r e required to t r a n s m i t the defect reports t o the appropriate government authority a s soon as possible after the detection of an incidence. Some States prescribe. These reports a r e normally required on a mandatory basis f o r all a i r c r a f t engaged in commercial a i r services. description of defect o r difficulty.

Such for. The accident is investigated by the Aircraft Accident Investigatio Board and reported on the two f o r m s shown in Figures 3 and 4. The defect r e p o r t s a r e then immediately transmitted onwards to the departmental head office. Minor defects a r e reported on monthly s u m m a r i e s i n a statistical f o r m a r e c o r d of the total number of defects o r non-scheduled removals happening to each item of equipment. On s o called Daily Mechanical and Delay Report f o r m s & Figures 5 and 6) any defects and delays a r e notified to the Aeronautical Inspectorate. In c a s e s where the mechanical delay exceeds 30 minutes.ms must be co. defects. Immediately after a n accident the operator o r the owner of the a i r c r a f t involved submits a notification of the accident to the Director of Civil Aviation on the f o r m show in Figure 2.mpleted in all c a s e s of forced landings o r accidents due o r partly attributable to failure of any p a r t of the a i r c r a f t o r engine.i. In addition to the above procedure.~ ~ / 2 9 7 Major defects a r e reported to departmental regional offices within 24 o r 48 hours (according to the type of operator). Together with those r e p o r t s . Major defects on a i r f r a m e and on engines a r e reported on f o r m s shown i n Figures 7 and 8 respectively. m e r e l y a s In CEYLON it is mandatory for all a i r c r a f t operators t o r e p o r t delays. . The procedure in INDIA r e q u i r e s a l l a i r c r a f t operators t o r e p o r t defects of a i r c r a f t to the Director General of Civil Aviation on the f o r m s shown in Figures 9 and 10. the special f o r m shown in Figure 11 h a s to be completed in addition to the interim reports. a i r c r a f t incidents and accidents as soon as possible after the detection of same to the Director of Civil Aviation. . i n interim r e p o r t s on a monthly basis. In INDONESIA a l l operators submit on a mandatory basis reports on forced landings. e. the defective p a r t s should be forwarded to the Controller of Aeronautical Inspection of the Area concerne Reports of the occurrence of other m a t e r i a l defects detected on inspection and not resulting in a n accident o r a forced landing should a l s o be forwarded together with the defective p a r t s . on accidents and on defects o r malfunctionings that directly affect the airworthiness of the a i r c r a f t . engine failures.Circular 3 4 . Scheduled a i r c a r r i e r s a l s o report mandatorily each defect and malfunctioning that affected the regularity of the operations. India requires that all mechanical delays occurring in scheduled airline operations be reported to the Office of the Director General of Civil Aviation. (see Figure 1) . Major defect reports a r e published in a weekly summary which is circulated to a l l operators.

In ITALY. Special arrangements and agreements between airlines and the RAI ensure that a l l m a t t e r s affecting the safety of a i r c r a f t in service come immediately to the knowledge of such RAI staff. Incident reports a r e prepared by the local office of the RAI on incidents of malfunctioning that a r e considered t o constitute a potential hazard t o flight safety. A category "A" defect is one which is of such character that the immediate safety of the a i r c r a f t is impaired.8 Circular 34-AN/Z~ Non-air c a r r i e r s and non-scheduled a i r c a r r i e r s in addition submit on prepared f o r m s monthly reports on m a t t e r s concerning continuing airworthiness. All category "Av defects must be reported a s soon as possible and in any case within 24 hours to the appropriate Regional Aircraft Surveyor. Category "B" defects must be reported in writing to the appropriate District Aircraft Surveyor within seven days. with& this definition defects a r e into two catego. the operator o r pilot-in-command i s required to report immediately any defect o r malfunctioning of a civil a i r c r a f t to the Registro Aeronautic0 Italiano (RAI). The latter category includes a l s o such defects a s might a r i s e f r o m abnormal wear o r circumstances. frequency of inspection o r major modification of a n a i r c r a f t . mechanical delays a t take-off exceeding 15 minutes a r e considered a s incidents. and particularly at airline maintenance bases. A category "Btrdefect.ies. which consists in keeping a s m a l l staff of RAI personnel a t the most important centres. In NEW ZEALAND a defect in relation to an a i r c r a f t is defined as any failure o r malfunctioning of an a i r c r a f t o r a i r c r a f t component whether i n flight o r on the ground. though not affecting the immediate safety of the a i r c r a f t . This original notification i s immediately forwarded to Head Office. the RAI has adopted a s y s t e m of ftcontinuous supervision". This normally takes the f o r m of a completed Defect Report f o r m on which the operator states t$e nature of . In scheduled airline operations. Any defect o r malfunctioning and any removal of a p a r t o r unit for reasons other than completion of service t i m e must be reported to the RAI which endorses the report. F o r commercial transport a i r c r a f t . is one which necessitates a change in maintenance procedure. The Air Navigation Regulations require the reporting of a l l defects as defined above and the civil Airworthiness Requirements of New Zealand state that the operator is responsible for ensuring that defects a r e reported within the specified time limit. He i s a l s o required to r e p o r t a l l occasions on which the a i r c r a f t was operated under conditions f o r which that particular category of a i r c r a f t h a s not been certificated. All operators submit on a non-mandatory b a s i s r e p o r t s on defects and malfunctioning that a r e not covered by the mandatory r e p o r t s .

While there a r e no official forms for defect r e p o r t s . 9 In NORWAY the Air Navigation Act requires a l l owners of a i r c r a f t to report damage which has a n effect on airworthiness. - In PAKISTAN a notice by the Government requires that any defects found on a i r c r a f t . possibly a s a result of inspections called for in approved maintenance schedules must be reported to the Aeronautical Inspection Division Figure 12) is used for reportin€ a t the earliest opportunity. As f a r a s scheduled a i r s e r v i c e s a r e concerned the m e a s u r e s adopted a r e also based on failure statistics compiled every three . . months. Specimen f o r m s of the usual reports notifying defects a r e reproduced in Figures 13 and 14. An example is the one of SAS (see Figure 14) which is used in the three Scandinavian countries. and the remedial action taken. S. the results of his investigation into the cause.Circular 3 4 . Major airlines maintain their own defect investigation unit and a r e granted the concession of reporting their category "B" defects i n the f o r m of a monthly summary. In addition a l l persons engaged i n commercial air s e r v i c e s a r e required to r e p o r t a l l failures o r defects occurring on their a i r c r a f t to the Board. malfunctioning o r other defect detected in flight o r on the ground i n a i r c a r r i e r a i r c r a f t that may reasonably be expected by the a i r c a r r i e r to cause a serious hazard in the operation of any aircraft. A special f o r m accidents to a i r c r a f t .~ ~ / 2 9 the defect. ii) Daily Mechanical Reports covering any failure. some operators have established their own f o r m s . (Figures 15 and 16). In the UNITED STATES the operators of civil a i r c r a f t submit to the Civil Aeronautics Board o r to the Civil Aeronautics Administration: a) on a mandatory basis: i) Accident Reports covering a l l accidents that occur to U. iii) Flight Interruption Reports covering a i r c r a f t occurrences due to known o r rsuspec ted malfunctioning o r mechanical difficulties that result i n a n interruption t o a scheduled flight. Air c a r r i e r and non-air c a r r i e r aircraft. Accidents a r e reported on a special form. This includes a l l accidents and serious defects. such defects which include a l s o incidents In SWEDEN all owners of a i r c r a f t a r e required to submit accident r e p o r t s to the Board of Civil Aviation. Commercial operators a l s o m u s t r e p o r t all other defects.

They a r e transmitted to the accident- . and briefly the nature or circumstances surrounding the accident.or delivand 16). The original and one copy of such a report is then ma ered to the office or representative of the Civil Aeronautics Board o r Civil Aeronautics Administration nearest to headquarters of the operator who will immediately transmit the original copy of the report directly to the appropriate office. structural hazards. o r in the case of a i r c a r r i e r aircraft if the accident was not incident to flight. and defects in design or quality of parts and materials found installed on airci-aft o r intended for such installation. Subsequent to this notification written accident report is prepared by the operator involved. malfunctioning o r other defect i s detected i n flight or on the ground i n an aircraft of a scheduled a i r c a r r i e r that may reasonably be expected to cause a serious hazard in the operation of an aircraft. The report must be made a s soon a s possible and in the absence of a good cause for a delay must be submitted within ten days after the accident i n the case of an a i r c a r r i e r aircraft and within seven dayr in the case of all other aircraft. aircraft identification including registration number. The failures and malfunctioning or other defects that a r e reported comprise generally the following basic items: fire hazards. operator. date. Such written accident reports a r e normally not required for occurrences involving minor injuries o r minor damage. injuries to each. time of day. number of persons involved. aircraft make and model. This report i s made on a report f o r m furnished by the Civil Aeronautics Board or Civil Aeronautics Administration see Figures 15 ( T I ed . The reports cover the 24-hour period from midnight to midnight of each day. unsafe procedures or conditions.~ ~ / 2 9 b) on a voluntary basis: Malfunctioning and Defect Reports for other than scheduled a i r c a r r i e r aircraft covering difficulties experienced with a i r craft structures . Such notification includes the following information as far a s immediately available: location. Daily Mechanical Reports Whenever a failure. names of crew members.10 Circular 3 4 . Aircraft Accident Reports Immediately after an accident the operator o r owner of the aircraft involved submits by the most expeditious means of communication available a notification of the accident to the Civil Aeronautics Board o r Civil Aeronautics Administration. notice thereof i s transmitted through the air c a r r i e r 's principal maintenance agent to the Civil Aeronautics Administration maintenance agent -in-charge. serious system or component xnalfunctioning or failure. engines p o p e l l e r s and eqLipment of other than scheduled a i r c a r r i e r aircraft (see Figure 17).

As soon as the additional information i s obtained.determination of s e r i o u s n e s s etc. Such daily reports a r e not withheld pending presentation of a l l specific details pertaining to the above-mentioned i t e m s of information. apparent cause of trouble (wear. The r e p o r t s a r e transmitted in a manner and on a f o r m convenient to the a i r c a r r i e r ' s s y s t e m of communications and procedures. it will be submitted a s a supplement to the report. name of operator and date of occurrence of the items reported. . disposition (repaired. etc. replaced. Flight Interruption Reports Air c a r r i e r s normally p r e p a r e daily summaries on any mechanical malfunction o r suspected malfunction occurring in flight o r on the ground during scheduled operation that r e s u l t s in a change in tFe a i r c r a f t schedule. etc. The daily s u m m a r i e s include the following data: i) identification of the daily surnmary including a consecutive number of the summary. Saturdays and Sundays m a y be submitted not l a t e r than noon of the following Mondays. ).Circular 3 4 . They may a l s o include such items as corrective action. Each summary is identified numerically to maintain continuity.) identification of p a r t and system involved.~ ~ / 2 9 11 maintenance agent of the Civil Aeronautics Administration before noon on the following working day. personal e r r o r .structural failure. brief narrative summary to supply any other pertinent data required for a m o r e complete identification. nature of condition. regardles of cause. and recommendations. e m e r gency procedure affected. They normally include the following information: identification of a i r c r a f t . extraordinary conditions. ). ii) type of registration of a i r c r a f t to which each i t e m pertains. (fire. a i r craft grounded. Such statements identify the p a r t s and s y s t e m involved and any available related information. iii) brief s t a t e m e n t describing o r identifying the difficulty experienced. The period covered by each daily summary is the preceding 24 hours during which r e p o r t s of pertinent occurrences a r e received by the a i r c a r r i e r Is main base. except that reports on Fridays. airline and t r i p number. c r a c k s . whether o r not difficulty was induced by personal e r r o r o r other extraneous occurrence. that can reasonably be expected to add to the value of the r e p o r t f r o m an informative o r analytical standpoint. Copies of such daily s u m m a r i e s of mechanical delays a r e submitted by the scheduled a i r c a r r i e r to the assigned aviation safety agents of the Civil Aeronautics Administration. where possible. design. etc. No such daily s u m m a r i e s a r e submitted for those periods during which no interruption to schedule were experienced.

In order to facilitate the determination of such remedial action and to estimate trends in mechanical reliability of aircraft. The results obtained from the collection and analysis of data concerning defects and mechanical malfunctioning ace in most cases acted on through the co-operative effort of the government agencies concerned. etc. mechanics. inspectors and investigators in reporting mechanical difficulties experienced with aircraft structures. 3. propellers and equipment of non-air c a r r i e r a i r craft. . A copy of such a malfunctioning and defects report i s reproduced in Figure 17. The analysis of individual o r daily reports and the summary report determine the nature of necessary remedial action. the manufacturers and the operator. In countries with a limited number of major airlines that have an aeronautical engineering staff approved by the Government with the authority to approve major repairs and modifications. operators. Airlines o r government agencies that have the responsibilities of making such analysis normally have established a special office for this purpose. Classification of defects varies greatly from chronological filing of defect reports to the breaking down of the items and factors of interest by means of punch cards. Such reports a r e made on a special f o r m and mailed to the Civil Aeronautics Administration. pilots. if necessary. for approval o r confirmation. In this case.Analysis of and Action on Defect Reports The characteristics and causes of defects a r e so numerous a s to render the dvties of categorization of details and analysis of reports a highly specialized and skilled technical activity. corrective action i s usually determined directly by the airline. in obtaining adequate information through the State of origin and may disseminate instructions to other airlines concerned. the type of failure and t h e part of the aircraft concerned (airframe. hydraulic system.Circular 34-A~/29 Malfunctioning and Defects Report of other than a Scheduled Air Carrier In order to provide information that will enable the Civil Aeronautics Administration to take steps to prevent the recurrence of mechanical difficulties on other than air c a r r i e r aircraft the Civil Aeronautics Administration requests the co-operation of all owners. The Government may assist airlines. power-plant. Safety Analysis. . the defect analysis offices include sometimes a statistics unit which classifies the data collected and establishes failure statistics. brake system. ). A procedure between these extremes i s to classify defects according to the type of aircraft. the airline normally i s expected to consult the manufacturer or other airlines with similar flight material and to nbtify the government of the action taken. engines.

in fact. Minor defects a r e only investigated in detail wbep the statistical monthly r e t u r n s ( s e e Figure 1) indicate any disturbing trends. this facilitates the study of trends in major defects. The investigations a r e t h e s c a r r i e d out in the same way a s for major defects. o r in the case of urgent o r potentially hazardous defects. The results of these investigations a r e also reported briefly in weekly s u m m a r i e s of major defects' together With a c r o s s reference to the initial defect r e p o r t to which they refer. most governments maintain o r supervise an inspection organization. Minor defects a r e not normally classified o r recorded except when a detailed investigation i s made.Circular 3 4 . the issuance of "Service Bulletinst1by manufacturers. Inspectors regularly receive all the Airworthiness Directives and check implementation a t appropriate times. .~ ~ / 2 9 13 Remedial action for potentially r e c u r r e n t defects i s taken through the accomplishment of revised operating o r maintenance o r inspection procedures. the issuance by the Government of "Airworthiness DirectivesI4 o r "Notices to Airmen" that a r e mandatory upon the operators of the a i r c r a f t involved. F o r the purpose of checking that this h a s been proper implementation of the action determined. the information resulting f r o m their investigation i s a l s o recorded on Hollerith punch-cards in the accident and incident statistical system. whether proposed by the a i r c r a f t manufacturer o r operator on the b a s i s of defect r e p o r t s have to be approved by the Director of Civil Aviation ( s e e F o r m s in Figures 21 and 22). Other action that sometimes r e s u l t s i s revisions to airworthiness requiremdnts o r the specification of special training and educational programmes . all modifications both major and minor. The action determined i s notified to all interested p a r t i e s and in particu l a r to the operators and responsible maintenance personnel concerned. a r e often the subject of incident reports. As major defects a r e closely allied to a i r c r a f t incidents and. In CEYLON in o r d e r to maintain continuing airworthiness of a i r c r a f t in service. Some examples of the action taken on defect r e p o r t s by individual States a r e given in the following paragraphs. o r by those airline engineering sections which have been approved f o r this purpose. - Major defects (see -examples of major defects in Figure 18) a r e classified according to type of a i r c r a f t and type of failure and a r e then recorded on c a r d s (examples in F i g u r e s 19 and 20) under this appropriate classification. operators o r government. In AUSTRALIA major defects a r e investigated either by Departmental Surveyors. In addition any concession that i s required e b operator i s approxed on the F o r m shown in Figure 23.

remedial action i s determined. A card index i s used for classifying the defect reports. g. the Department of Civil Aviation has no specific methods for recording and analyzing recurring failures o r defects. each section being allotted to a major part of the aircraft. In certain cases the defective components are forwarded to them for investigation.14 Circular 3 4 .Hydraulic Systems . This unit studies the reports of the opirator's investigations and where necessary submits proposals for preventive action. In INDIA defect reports a r e examined and analyzed by the Civil Aviation Department. The sections a r e arranged alphabetically. If necessary.Airframes . Section A Section B Section H Section P . On the other hand the analysis of defect reports i s substantially carried out by the operator himself. the analyzing i s done by the operator. On receipt of their report and recommendation. In NEW ZEALAND the responsibility for reporting and investigating of defects i s placed on the operator.~ ~ / 2 9 In INDONESIA aircraft accident reports a r e drawn up and analyzed by a special organization in the Directorate of Civil Aviation. Defect and malfunctioning reports filed with local offices a r e routed to the Head Office where they a r e analyzed. more or l e s s on an ad hoc basis by the Department of Civil Aviation a s far a s possible in co-operation with the operator. the matter i s taken up with the manufacturer of the particular part involved.Powerplants . The index i s divided into sections. The NETHERLANDS regulations require an owner of a registered aircraft to report all major defects and repairs of an aircraft to the Department k of registered aircraft in the etherl lands being of Civil ~ i i a t i o n . A sample of the coded form used for this purpose i s attached (see Figure 24). if necessary in close co-operation with the Directorate of Civil Aviation. F o r all other aircraft the failures a r e investigated. If the cause of a defect cannot be conclusively established.Brake Systems . e. In ITALY the 'lRegistro Aeronautico" i s responsible for the examination of defects and for the investigation of their causes. F o r aircraft owned by that a i r transport operator. ~ h number small and the major part of all transport aircraft being operated by one a i r transport operator. a further analysis of the failures or defects i s performed by the Department of Civil Aviation in close co-operation with that operator. while the recording and analysis i s done by tn v e s t i ~ a t i o &it n a t the head office of the c i v i l Aviation Branch of the ~ e f e c~ the Air Department.

incidents. inaidents. safety i s measured. In NORWAY accident and defect reports a r e sent to the Directorate of Civil Aviation which analyzes them and i s responsible for the appropriate action. but in the cases c) and d) manufacturers a r e notified immediately with a request f o r necessary remedial action. A Division of the Bureau of Safety Investigation i s concerned with the over-all evaluation and analysis of all Aircraft Accident Reports and this group p r e p a r e s the official accident statistics that a r e published yearly. All the relevant information i s summarized on the appropriate card and a c r o s s reference i s made to the detailed r e p o r t held on file. .collected a t the headcruarters of the Civil Aeronautics Board and th6 Civil Aeronautics ~ d m i n i s t r a i i o n . which will not seriously affect safety. considered everyday occurrences. The small number of a i r c r a f t in Norway makes it however impractical to employ statistical methods in the analysis. Thus Section A-2 i s the subsection devoted to Airframe-Lodestar Aircraft and Card A-3-7 indicates Airframe IIDH Herontt-Ailerons.. the daily mechanical reports. in the case d) the controlling airworthiness authority of the country of origin of the aircaaft i s notified. reviews and evaluates f r o m an engineering vi. incidents. but a r e considered likely to re-occur. etc. etc. incidents. the daily flight interruption r e p o r t s and the malfunctioning and defect re~orts are. which may be caused by poor initial design.. Another Division of the Burea:. In the UNITED STATES the accident r e p o r t s . and/or a r e considered likely to re-occur. In additi-on. In the c a s e s a) and b) above no further action i s taken by the Aeronautical Inspection Division.. etc. c) Defects. etc. and recommends corrective action a s indicated. workmanship o r maintenance. In PAKISTAN each defect i s analyzed by a member of the technical staff of the Aeronautical Inspection Division and classified roughly as follows: a ) Defects. These statistics also form the ultimate 'yardstick by which p r o g r e s s in a i r the Technical Division.Gir cular 3 4 . d) Defects. the analysis of these statistics and related m a t e r i a l leads to special studies in the interest of increased safety.ewpoint all accident r e p o r t s wherein airworthiness m a t t e r s a r e involved.~ 29 ~ / 15 Each section i s further subdivided numerically into a i r craft types and each type subdivided numerically into components. b) Defects. . which may seriously affect safety. but a r e considered isolated c a s e s . and in addition.

b) Supplementary information r e f e r r i n g to each such incident is published a s soon as available and includes such information as: apparent cause of the incident. on a n expedited b a s i s . and for study with r e s p e c t t o design c r i t e r i a f o r future a i r c r a f t . i n t e r i m corrective action when n e c e s s a r y . corrective action on a n immediate o r long-range b a s i s . o r by specifying mandatory changes. the number of i t s o c c u r r e n c e . All information related to each reported incident is indexed and r e c o r d e d in a manner which e n s u r e s availability f o r future r e f e r e n c e and analysis. The daily mechanical r e p o r t s submitted by certificated a i r c a r r i e r s a r e t r a n s m i t t e d by the assigned maintenance agent by telegraphic m e a n s . When found advisable. Such s u m m a r y r e p o r t s cover a l l air c r a f t o c c u r r e n c e s due to known o r suspected malfunctioning o r mechanical diffiyulties that r e s u l t i n a n interruption to a scheduled flight o r a change of a i r c r a f t . The daily s u m m a r i e s of the flight interruption r e p o r t s 'eubrnitted by echeduled air c a r r i e r s a r e summarized and recorded i n a montfrly r e p o r t by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. These r e p o r t s a r e analyzed and submitted to specialists within the CAA for initiating appropriate action. they a l s o r e c o r d the number of engines removed p r e m a t u r e l y because of mechanical trouble.~ ~ / 2 9 - The malfunctioning and defect r e p o r t s submitted by other than a i r c a r r i e r s a r e collected and classified by the Civil Aeronautics Administration. The m a t e r i a l in the r e p o r t s i s then c l a s sified s o a s t o p e r m i t a t s h o r t notice the establishment of the h i s t o r y of a defect. p e r m a nent corrective action a s found to be required and any other information which might be of aid t o the o p e r a t o r s . immediate c o r r e c t i v e action is taken on incidents in the daily mechanical r e p o r t s i n the f o r m of telegraphic directives. and the number of propeller feathering6 effected for any r e a s o n .16 Circular 3 4 . etc. listed by make and model. a l e r t bulletins. indicating the flight stage a t the t i m e of - . The action taken on such r e p o r t s involves t h r e e principal functions a s follows: a ) Pertinent information f r o m the r e p o r t s i s edited and dis-tributed to a l l a i r c a r r i e r s operating s i m i l a r types of equipment in o r d e r t o advise the o p e r a t o r s of the occurrence of specific incidents and a s a m e a n s of alerting such o p e r a t o r s t o the possibility of s i m i l a r occurr e n c e on their a i r c r a f t . action already taken. c) All information r e l a t e d to specific hazardous incidents is collected and r e f e r r e d a s n e c e s s a r y to appropriate specialist groups within the CAA and industry f o r analysis. This function is handled on a daily expedited b a s i s s o that o p e r a t o r s m a y be aware of hazardous incidents with a minimum of delay. to the Office of the Air C a r r i e r Maintenance Branch of the Civil Aeronautics Administration where they a r e acted upon daily by a specialized staff.

that pertains t o the continuing airworthiness and the prevention and remedying of r e c u r r e n t defects on purchased material. the cause of which cannot be readily established. the purchasing State t r i e s to obtain regularly any information. A close watch is kept by the Government technical officers at the operators' base that a l l mandatory m e a s u r e s a r e immediately complied with. Airworthiness Directives and Service Bulletins issued by the State~oforigin or by the manufacturers.Exchange of Information A great number of States operate a i r c r a f t purchased in another State. some of the purchasing Governments and operators have made it a rule to submit to the State of origin o r to the manufacturer concerned any information f r o m their defect r e p o r t s that m a y be of i n t e r e s t to the State of origin o r to the manufact u r e r . etc. On receipt of their r e p o r t and recomrnendation. On the other hand.A ~ / 2 9 feathering. Technical information is supplied by the manufacturers directly to the operators. Sometimes the defective components a r e f o r warded to them for investigation.Circular 3 4 . a i r c r a f t or a c c e s s o r i e s involved. climb. Any information received f r o m the manufacturers regarding defects o r f a i l u r e s on their products is circulated through the medium of notices to a i r c r a f t owner s and ground engineer s. The representative a c t s a s the liaison man between the manufacturer and the airline. in particular. These monthly r e p o r t s provide a means for the determination of the efficiency of maintenance procedures and frequently a r e also used a s a basis for statistical evaluation of certain types of failures occur ring in scheduled a i r c r a f t operation. The smaller airlipe s and private operators r e f e r such m a t t e r s normally to their government. This exchange of information i s considered to constitute the best way of keeping imported a i r c r a f t in up-to-date airworthy condition and it appears that States that follow this practice a r e satisfied with the way this exchange of information is accomplished. In INDIA whenever a defect occurs. concerned. In order to maintain their a i r c r a f t on a level of airworthiness similar to the one achieved i n the State of origin. the matter is taken up with the manufacturer of the engine. c r u i s e . The procedure for the exchange of information is somewhat dependent on circumstances. which takes the matter up with the manufacturer o r . . in general the major airlines r e f e r their problems directly t o the manufacturer o r its agencies. All modifications and r e p a i r s to the a i r c r a f t a r e executed only after . such a s take-off. action i s taken t o inform all the operators of the particular type of a i r c r a f t . 17 4. with the national authority of the country. - In INDONESIA there is a special representative of the manufacturer of the principal a i r c r a f t used by the airline attached to the technical department of the airline to handle the problems relating to the particular type of a i r c r a f t . in some c a s e s .

It is thus possible to check whether talian an operators a r e using foreign equipment in accordance with the technical specifications issued for such equipment. In NORWAY nearly a l l a i r c r a f t a r e of foreign manufacture. i s ensured by means of "modification forms". In ITALY exchange of information between manufacturers and operators whether national or foreign i s normally c a r r i e d out through the respective technical and cormnercial agencies which provide for the sending of technical personnel o r informative material.through official technical authorities. and in most c a s e s also manufacturers Service Bulletins. . the airline also reports to i t s office i n the Netherlands a l l the experience obtained with this particular type of aircraft. The Directorate of Civil Aviation receives Airworthiness Directives o r similar publications f r o m the countries of origin. It i s therefore normal for him to take the matter up with the manufacturer if the problem cannot be solved locally. If. In the NETHERLANDS it is the practice for operators to r e p o r t all major defects to the manufacturer. samples of which one for a i r c r a f t and one for engines a r e given in F i g u r e s 25 and 26. In this way the manufact u r e r i s always kept informed of all the work that i s done to the aircraft in Indonesia. . either through direct contact with the technical experts of manufact u r e r s o r . it h a s been the practice of the Civil Aviation Branch in New Zealand t o notify the Civil Aviation authority of the country of origin of the a i r c r a f t involved. and calls the attention of the owners to those which must be incorporated. whenever any modifications a r e introduced. Exchange of information between Italign manufacturers and foreign operators .18 Circular 3 4 . if a foreign manufacturer i s involved. certain information may be of m o r e general interest. The Government keeps in touch with tkiis exchange. Beside this channel. In NEW ZEALAND the responsibility for the investigation of defects r e a t s on the operator. Information concerning one particular American type does not go to the United States directly but goes via the manufacturer's representative in Europe.~ ~ / 2 9 consultation with the manufacturer's representative F o r serious problems contact is usually made with the manufacturer first. When tkere a i e serious difficulties. the airline receives periodical publications issued by the manufacturer. and it is left to that State to check o r complete the information and distribute i t t o a l l Governments concerned. in some c a s e s through a representative. In addition to the cur rent bulletins of the manufacturers . F o r other types of a i r c r a f t the procedures of exchanging information a r e almost the same except that there is no permanent representative of the manufacturer. the Civil Aviation authorities of the State of origin involved a r e given full detailed information. These documents a r e used a s a guide for maintenance and operation of the a i r c r a f t . Exchange of information with other States is still at a minimum. in the opinion of the Department of Civil Aviation.

The UNITED STATES Government furnishes to other States the information on continuing airworthiness m a t e r i a l that r e q u i r e s action of a mandatory nature: Airworthiness Directives.with their Service Bulletins established according to a prescribed system. stating that a l l the pertinent information. which contain this information a r e circulated to m o s t foreign governments through their E m b a s s i e s in the United States Emergency information i s supplied by telegram. modification notices . More details of the practices adopted can often be found in official notices issued by the State concerned.Circular 3 4 .~ ~ / 2 9 19 Defects which a r e thought to be of interest to the State of origin or the manufacturer a r e generally reported to them by l e t t e r . This is inevitable because the nature and scale of operations and other relevant circumstances differ f r o m State to State. A copy of such a statement is reproduced in F i g u r e 2 7 . In SWITZERLAND the registration of a n a i r c r a f t i s subject to the presentation by the applicant of a statement certified by the official authority and issued by the manufacturer of the a i r c r a f t involved. service bulletins and eventually the revision t o the bulletins will be delivered by automatic distribution to the technical section of the F e d e r a l Air Office. p a r t s and equipment a r e held responsible f o r providing all per sons known to be owners of the a i r c r a f t both in Sweden and abroad . . - Conclusion It has nat been attempted to give in this Circular an account of the methods adopted in some Contracting States. In SWEDEN national manufacturers of a i r c r a f t . Service information and o t h e ~ remedial procedures not of a mandatory nature a r e supplied by the manufac t u r e r directly to operators both domestic and foreign. . visits to factories and service representatives. It i s hoped that the information that h a s been collated will give a broad picture of present practices and of how variations in local conditions have been taken into account. there is a steady exchange of information between the manufacturers and the operators by l e t t e r s . Airworthiness Directives for a i r c r a f t manufactured in Sweden a r e transmitted to the aeronautical authorities of the countries to which Swedish a i r c r a f t a r e exported. In PAKISTAN the Aeronautical Inspection Division receives the manufact u r e r Is technical bulletins and steps a r e taken to ensure that local operators concerned comply with the recommendations of the manufacturers. - 5. Besides this. Although the objectives a r e the s a m e and the general principles governing the reporting and analysis of defects and the subsequent action to not v a r y much there i s considerable variation in the detailed procedure followed.

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Assembly Wing Flap B. Booster Pump and Motor F/W Shut-off Valves Filter Caps and Gaskets D.~ ~ / 2 9 21 FIG. Auto-Pilot System Dir. Hydraulic System Accumulator Cowl Flap Actuator Brake DeBooster E.Circular 3 4 .Aircraft Ailerons and Wing Flaps Aileron Tab and Cont. Main Gear Shock Strut I11 Instruments A.Aircraft Accessories A. - . Gyro Unit Servo Unit B. Engine Instruments Fuel Flow Transmitter illanifold Pressurc Gauge Thermocouple Installation Oil Temperature Gauge A. De-icer and Anti-icing System Alcohol Tanks and Filter Anti-icer Pump and Motor B. Landing Gear Main Brake Assy. Fuselage Cabin Doors Cargo Doors Door Locks Inspection Doors Nose Wheel Doors Cabin Windows Fuvelage Skin C. 1 MONTHLY STATISTICAL ANALYSISDEFECTS AND UNSCHEDULED CHANGES DOUGLAS DC-4 Component Total Defective or Changed I -. Wings Wing Skin Main Gear Doors I1 -. Electrical System Batteries Inverters Voltage Regulators Fuel System (aft of F/W) C.

APPENDIX 100.8.4.1.4 C. Flight Instruments Air Speed Indicator Altimeter Flux Gate Compass Gyro Horizon Turn and Bank Indicator IV Power Plant A. Cowling Accessory Cowling Carb. Scoop Oil Cooler Door B. Ennines

-

C.

D.

E.

F.
G.

K

I,

Intake Pipes and Gaskets Push Rod Housing and Gaskets Misc. Seals and ~ i s k e t s Oil Lines Engine Accessories Starter Generator Hydraulic Pump Vacuum Pump Fuel Pump Engine Controls Blower Controls Carb. Mixture Controls PropelIer Controls Exhaust System Ball Joint Assy. Collector Rings Tail Pipes Attach. Brackets Fuel System (Fwd. of F/W) Carburettor Primer System Miscellaneous Oil System Oil Coolers Oil Temp. Regulator Oil Tanks Ignition System High Tension Leads Ignition Harnesa Magnetos Sparlr Plugs Prapellers and Accessories Dome Assembly Propeller Assembfy Propeller Governor

cylinders

Circular 3 4 - ~ ~ / 2 9
F1g. 2

23
CA. F o r m C a s e Ref:

I M M E D I A T E REPORT OF FLYING ACCIDENT Message r e c e i v e d f r o m T i m e of Receipt

..............................................................

....................................Date ...........................

................................................................. Name of n e a r e s t railway station .......................................................
LocalityofAccidcnt Date and T i m e of Accident Nature of Accident

............................................................

.................................................................. .....................................................................................

..................................................................... Identification L e t t e r s o r Numbers ....................... . , ............................
Type of A i r c r a f t Owner of A i r c r a f t ) or S e r v i c e Unit Name of P i l o t

...................................................................
(Killed, S e r i o u s l y o r Slightly Injured, Uninjured. 1

Other Occupants of A i r c r a f t and Nature of I n j u r i e s

..................................................................................... .....................................................................................
.................................................................... ..................................................................................... ..................................................................................... P o l i c e S t a t i o n i n charge .............................................................. Telephone Number ...................................................................
Further Remarks Action Taken (Give t i m e Inspector of Accidents notified)

..................................................................................... ..................................................................................... .....................................................................................
M e s s a g e taken down by Signature : Designation:

.....................................
....................................

P a s s e d on to Inspector of Accidents f o r f u r t h e r action.
l Actg . D i r e c t o r of C l v ~ Aviation

Circular 3 4 - ~ ~ / 2 9
Fig, 3 A.I.D. No. 32. AERONAUTICAL INSPECTION DTRECTORATE. PRELIMINARY REPORT ON A DEFECT OR AN INCIDENT OR ACCIDENT T O A CEYLON REGISTERED AIRCRAFT. Registration M a r k s R e g i s t e r e d Owner Type of A i r c r a f t Type of Engine
C . of A. Number

.................................................... ...'....,..*............................,...........'....*......................*..... Brief details of Occurrence ............................................................ ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... ...................................................................................... Was f i r e aaaociated with the o c c u r r e n c e ? Give detail8 if known ............................
f Occurrence Place, Time andDate o

............................ ............................ ............................. ............................ ............................

......................................................................................
DAMAGE T O AIRFRAME: DAMAGE TO ENGINE: AIRCRAFT: H a s Been: *Undamaged: *Undamaged: I s Being: Minor: Minor: Transported:

Serious:*
Seriouo:* Flown To:*

..........

NOTE: Any additional information ahould be given overleaf:

Signed

..................................., Designation ..........a,....,........,.....

C r o a s out the words which a r e not applicable. HW.

*

.. 4 Confidential GOVERNMENT O F CEYLON AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION FORM 25 F o r m C..............................................................................~ ~ / 2 9 Fig........ ....... d) Object of flight: ..................... d) Certificate of r e g i s t r a t i o n No....................... .... 2............................... AIR CRAFT INFORMATION: ..................... c) Type of Flying: .. and date of e x p i r y ........ ACCLDENT DETAILS: ............................................. b) A i r c r a f t type and m a k e r ' s S e r i a l No:............. a) Registration Marking: c ) Engine types.. b) Date and time: e ) Date and t i m e of r e c e i p t of notification by investigator: f ) Date and t i m e of a r r i v a l of investigator at scene: ................................. .............................. ....... ......... and Flight Manual No: f) Certificate of ..............A......................................... 39 ( ~ e v i s e d ) (LR...... a i r f r a m e positions and m a k e r ' s S e r i a l Nos:......Circular 3 4 ................... ............ 292) 1.................. safety date and t i m e of i s s u e and period of validity: ...................... SUMMARY O F ACCIDENT ( C a t e ~ o r A : - 3........... .................. and Validity: e) Certificate of airworthiness No....................

...........................26 Circular 3 4 ............... i) Gross Weights:... k) Airframe history: - 1) Engine history:- m) Accessory history:- ...... .. ...Maximum permitted by C...........Centre of gravity limits in C . and centre of gravity position at accident and commencement flight: .. and at time of accident:............. .............. of A.. ......... of A.............................. for this flight............. h) Name and address of owner : ......~ ~ / 2 9 g) Date of construction of airframe: - ... j) Loading:...

Circular 3 4 .~ ~ / 2 9 4. 27 CREW INFORMATION:a) Particulars: b) Addresses of all crew members: c) History of crew members concerned with accident: d) List of injuries: .

~ ~ / 2 9 e ) Medical investigation: f ) Details of relevant previous accidents: 5.28 Circular 3 4 . PASSENGERS:- a) Particulars: Passenger e' Names Nationality Address J b) List of injuries: F) Medical investigation: .

~ ~ / 2 9 29 6. wind direction and velocity. WEATHER CONDITIONS: a) Ceiling.Circular 3 4 . visibility. dew point. temperature. . etc. a t time and scene of accident: b) Weather f o r e c a s t s and whether pilot was aware of these: c) Actual weather conditions over the route of the flight: d) Conditions which might produce icing: 7. NAVIGATION AIDS: - a) Aide available on this flight: b) Aide fi'tted to aircraft: c ) Aids used and their effectiveness: d) R e m a r k s of investigator: .

I I . Circular 3 4 .~ ~ / 2 9 FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT:a) W a s there any fire? b) Cause of fire: 'c) F i r e fighting equipment used and its effectiveness: 3.30 B. WITNESS: a) Names and addresses of witnesses: Name Address Remarks b) Witnes s e s l etatements: (to be attached) LO. EXAMINATION OF WRECKAGE AND TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION: - a) 1. OTHER STATEMENTS:- Other cltatements which it might be necessary to add to those of witness.ocation of Wreckage: c) Condition of wreckage: .

Circular 3 4 . COMMUNICATIONS: Data on communications and their functioning: 14. RECONSTRUCTION OF FLIGHT U P TO ACCIDENT:- OPINION AS TO THE CAUSE OF THE ACCIDENT:- . DISCUSSION OF EVIDENCE: - 15. GROUND INSTALLATION: - Condition of aerodrome and installation. length of runways used: 13.~ ~ / 2 9 d) Technical examination of wreckage: 31 e ) Parachute equipment: f) Special technical investigation and teats: 12.

............................. PHOTOGRAPHS: - ......32 Circular 3 4 ............................... 18... ..... Date: . RECOMMENDATION ( ): Signature of the investigating Officer: Designation: ..~ ~ / 2 9 17......

. .....~ N / 2 9 Fig............... etc.......... FU............. Tbs word "NIL" should be w r i t t e n acmw whencver then is nothiq to =port....Signatun Date SPECIAL REPORT FROM ENGINEERING T O OPERATIONS ...... (Fater h e n &tail# of any incidents... .........................) CAPTAIN'S BIGNATURE....... AIRFRAMES & RADIO ? i l o t e llrport ~ PORT 1 Englnmr's Corrective Action Signature PORT --IEtute 1) signature Date PORT .. Aim@ CY .............. .............................Circular 3 4 .. No....... ........ 5 - 33 Form ACO I SPECIAL REPORT TO THE OPERATIONS MANAGER Daft:........... PORT MECHANICAL DEFECT REPORT FOR ENGINES... o fPw : .. ....................... .................. M i o n t .. ...... or off schedule operotion" and "Mechanical defects'' which in t h Ca@aIn's view should be taken up by the Oprotions hparhnent with the proper authorlth. ather than "Delay.. No. ..............

..................... ............................. ............................................................. ................................... 6 DIRECTORATE OF CIVIL AVLATION (CEYLON) AIRCRAFT DELAY REPORT (1) ................................. ..............................~ ~ / 2 9 Fig...................... (d) Hours since O/H ................34 Circular 3 4 ................... Mechanic or Engineers Report:.. (c) Serial Number .. ............................................................... ...................... (a) Type (b) P a r t Number ............................................................................ Chief Inspector: (On Behalf of): Date: ................................................................................................... Component Reported Defective: ............................................................. Type of Aircraft: (e) Total Hours . Owner:................................ (2) DefectReported: ............. Date:................................. . ........ Signature: (5) Action taken to remedy Defect or prevent recurrence: ...................................... Registration Marking CY-: ............................................................... Port:.......................................................... ........... (3) Duration of Delay: (4) ............... ..........

......................... ....... Mins: ... l a s t inspection: Licence No: ..................... AircraftEngineerCertifying ( N a m e : .... .......................... 7 C..................... ................................. Date of Accident o r forced Landing: Description: SERLAL NO: ...... ( P a r t Nos...................... ............... Flying time since l a s t overhaul: H r s : .................... ........ Mins: .. o r component Nos: ........................... / ~ i r m *Defective A i r c r a f t p a r t o r p a r t s should be forwarded to the Chief Aeronautical Inspector....... ....... Signature: ..........A........... Date o f .................... Registration Marks CY:....... Date Airline Operating Go............................................................ *Defective P a r t s : .............Circular 3 4 ............... l a s t inspection: ...... Any recommendations t o obviate o r minimiae the r e c u r r e n c e of such f a i l u r e s in the future:- .................... T o t a l t i m e the p a r t o r p a r t s have flown H r s : ...................... Chief E n g i n e e r / ~ h i e fInspector: ................................................. Opinion a s t o the cause of failure: ............ together with a copy of this f o r m duly completed......................... 100 AIRCRAFT DEFECT REPORT AIRCRAFT TYPE: ........................................ .....................~ ~ / 2 9 Fig.............

............. 101 ENGINE DEFECT REPORT AIRCRAFT: .. .............. ... Total t i m e the p a r t o r p a r t s have run : H r s ... Date of l a s t inspection: ................. Engine Type: ........................ * (Defective Engine p a r t o r p a r t s should be forwarded to the Chief Aeronautical Inspector.... Position: ............ .........................36 Circular 3 4 . 8 C............... *Defective P a r t e : ( ( P a r t Nos: ...... / F i r m Date: ............................................... S e r i a l No: Certifying l a s t Inspection Licence No:.. A i r c r a f t Engineer Name :...................... Any recommendations to obviate o r minimize the r e c u r r e n c e of such f a i l u r e s i n the future: - Signature: .......A.. Mins .. ................. Date of Accident o r forced landing ....... Mins....... together with a copy of this f o r m duly completed).. ....~ ~ / 2 9 Fig..................... ( Description: ................... ................... A i r c r a f t Type: ENGINE: ...... Running t i m e since l a s t complete overhaul: H r s ...................... Registration Marks CY-: .. Opinion a s to the cause of the failure:- ......... ................................. .................... Chief ~ n g i n e e r / ~ h i e Inspector f Airline Operating Co...

. 3 LPRC RAFT DEFECT REPORT Serial No. Mins. After completion the form should be signed - a t (place) (a) In the case of aircraft operating companies by the senior member of their engineering personnel. Date of last inspection Gr~und Engineer certifying last impecLicence NO. Forced lanatng I Defect { l~otifiable ~ccideng on (date) I A oopy of this form should be filled in i n respect of accidents or forced l a n d i q s due t o failure of any part of the aircraft. In many cases it is considered desirable for the Civil Aviation Directorate t o inspect the paas responsible for such failures. whereafter the form should be folwarded t o the Civil Aviation Directorate. -2- . New Delhi/Simla. --31-5-48--650. ) E.II 1 . 0. directly responsible for the maintenance o f the aircraft. Component Nos. they should be addressed t o Civil Aviation Directorate. 1 Any recommendation t o obviate or minimize the recurrence of such failure in the future State how defective parts have been disposed of Remarks Ceaified that the above puticulan are correct in every respect. T. hawever. by the owner of the peaon in chaxge of the aircraft. 3 1 INSTRUCTIONS C. (if any) Total time the paxt or parts have flown: Hrs. Flying time since last overhaul: Hrs. I I (was found on inspection by Gmund Engineer (name) OF. Aircraft Type Owner Registration Marks C. A. Mins.P.A. (date) (Dexripion Defective Parts Part Nos. such pa* are submitted. or failures of a less serious nature which owing t o the frequency of such occurrences may indicate the desirability of taking steps to obviate or mini* them. Ltd. W. When. aircraft instruments or installation. Date: Signature Designation (P. and i (c) In the case of aircraft operating under other conditiom. Opinion as to the cause of failure tion @) In the case o f Flyiqg Clubs. It is requested that this form should also be beed for mtifying the Civil Aviation Directorate of any serious structural or mechanical fail-. by the Secretary of the Club. New Delhi/SimLa. but the forwarding of such pam is left in the first imtance to the discretion of the persons submitting the forms. for instructions.

- Any recommendation t o obviate or minimize the recurrence of such failure! in the future: State how defective parts have been dispsed oft 1 Remarks: Celtifizd that the above particulan are correct in every respect. and - (c) in the case of ainsrafr operating under other conditions. In many cases i t is considered detQ&lebcthe Civil AviationJ3irectorate 1 inspect the parts responsible for such failures. Mins. by the senibr member of their engineering penonecl. whereafter the form should be forwarded to the Civil Aviation Directorate. (F:C. - S .: . Mins. they should be addressed to Civil Aviation Directorate. Opinion as to the cause of the fai Ute. NO. or failures of a less serious nature which owing to the frequelicy of d c h occurnnees may indicate the desirability of taking s t e p to obviate or minimile them. After completion tbe form should be signed: (a) in the case of aircraft operating companies. but the fomrarding of such parts Is left i n the first i n s t a c e to the discretion of the persons submitting the forms When. such parts are submitted. however. Sigriature: Date: Desigution: @. 0. directly responsible f i r the maintenance o f the aircraft. New Delhi/Simlr. Total time the part orparts have run: H I Rum~ng time since last complete overhaul: Hrs.rectore of m y serious structural or mechanical failurek.A. Description Defective Parts. Part Nos. ) A copy of this form should be filled in in respect of accidents or forced landings due t o failure of any pzt of the engine. Date of last inspection Ground Engineer certifying last inspection. and 3h INSTRUCTIONS C.C. by the Secretilrytof the Club. Mins. N& Delhi/Simla. for instructions. It is requested that this form should also be used for notifying the Civil Aviation Di. Running time since last top overhaul: Hrs. Form 32 ENGINE DEFECT REPORT AIRCRAFT Aircraft Type: Registration Marks: r r c e d landing at (place) resulted in Minor Accident Defect Notifiable Accident on (date) was found on inspection by GmmdEngineer(name) 1 on (date) ENGINE Engine Type Serial No. engine instruments or installation. A. T. @) in the case of Flying Clubs.. ) -1- . by the owpcr or the person i n charge of the aircraft.

. D a t e and time of d v a l of .KEPORT ON MECHANICAL DELAYS OCCURRNC ON AEUNES.T.don. Aircraft R~@-wtiop Owners of Afrcraft Issuing Office granted or requested in respect o f such repais or replacemenfs. Signature 7. I I 1 . Total delay involved. 1 3. 6. Office Serial No.. if pmibh. Ud.rircnft at .... W. .. . I I . E.O. Action taken to m d e r aimaft Designation dm r r e r i d ( s ) used o r operations ctnicd on. Opinim as to cvlrc o f defect. Date. Descriptim ca puo affected. Place a t which delay originated. ) 5...O. Scheduled date and time d I 4.. Nature o f defect I I I I Date Certified that the abwe entries are correct in every respect.--2300--214-48-- -1- P. 2. Time.P. ( P u t No.

31 P R E L I M I N A R Y REPORT O N A DEFECT OR A N I N C I D E N T O R A C C I D E N T T O A P A K I S T A N REGISTERED AIRCRAFT.~ ~ / 2 9 FIG. of hours flown Type of engine -- If engine defect. Registration Marks Registered 0wner Type of aircraft Total No.4C Circular 3 4 . Signed Date . -- Details of Occurrance - Brief description of damage What action is being taken for repair --- NOTE :-Additional information should be given on other side of this page. 12 AERONAUTICAL INSPECTION DEPARTMENT. C. of hours since last major ove~haul Place. Time and Date of occurrance --- -. A. give no.

. 13 Bwcimen a/ I 41 To t h e Royal Board of Civil Aviation Division of Civil Aviation Inspec t i o r Stockholm 12. The defect occurred on the ground landing Ser.-equlp~mnt ) a I 5.. No. oom.. 1 a f t e r overhaul Operating time hr0 a hrr. Action token *__I_ (3. f a i l u r e h a 00aurred which mceaaitatea a ahange I n a t'li ht plan or reduces tb a i r v g r t d l r s .Landing a t a t take-off climb 0 c r u i r i n g m 3.el. Heport from the teohnioal head. 6 . a f t e r l a s t inspeotion 1 1 0t e Slmxt description of t h e oharaoter and probable oaure of the d e f e o L - -- 7. This r e rt s h a l l be eent i n ad Boon a~ p o s s g l e a f t e r a. 1 9 - I Remarks made by the Board . Remrt on Failures a d Defeote. The defeot affeotod (type of alraraft. of the a i r c r a f t i m ~ p i o f i v e of vhetber the defect i s of a mechanical o r radiotechnical c k r a o t e r o r othervise a f f e c t s the equipment rsquired f o r aafety i n flying.lento- 9. boos notfollow f ollara I date . engine. 4. Alrcraf t SEOperator I I 1 .~ ~ / 2 9 FIG. Suggastiotle f o r nafety measwee 'Co prevent re-oaowrenas. Nature of f l i g h t Pilot from to date 192. radio. pop.. Conatruotional d e t a i l N o t o t a l hra.Circular 3 4 .

att n the d d e o t affeoted .ir c u l e r 3 4 .~ 1 ' ? / 2 9 FIG.4 /2( -- :. on Failures and Defects To akcraft nature of f l i g h t f son aircraft type pilot to operator SAS date landing at n thcr defect occurred an the gro*&* . 14 - SCANDINAVIAN AIRLIlIES SYSTEM Report.wrcoft noUmb nonrising ndescent nlanding 0does not follow CANDI1UVIAM AXRLIIlFS SYS?IEM .

. .... . ... Fill out in triplicate immediately and delrver or mail to the n e a m t CAB Inveatigator. . .. .. . CAA Agent. . . . .... . ...... . .. .. .... . SWCTATORI.. .. . . . . .. . If. . . . . .. .. .. . ... . .. . . .... ... . . . . . . . . I n ~ t r w n e n t... ... and name of the neareat airport .. ... . . Horsepower . .. .. Budmt B u m No.. Age of a ~ r c i a f t 3. . .... .... ... .... . ... . .. . . .. . . .. ... . . . .... . .. . . ... . . Full n a m a ... .. ...... . Who flight-tented you for your prelent pilot certificate? (a) CAA Agent: Name . .. If yes. .. . . .. . . . .. . . . . ......... . dual mtudent. .. .. . ... .. .. . . 8. .. .. . . . . .. .. addnwea.. ... . . . .. .. ... .. . . . .. . . . .... . ... . .. . .... . .. 10.. . . .... . .. .. ... .. .. ... . . .. .. . .. .... . Hi1 Cert.. .. .. .. CAA certificate. .. Present owner (name and address) 4. .. .. .. . . ... .. . . . ... . .... . .. o t h e l d e n o b which) : .. .. . . . ... . ... . Mfr's serlal No. . .: 1. . ... . ... .. .... . . . .... .. .... . ... . . . . . . .. .. .. t. . .. . . . . ... . State .. . Vlslbll~ty ( m ~ l e s ) Temperature . . .. .. ... . . .. Male Female 2.... . .. ... .. . .. . .. .... . .. . --------. .. .. .... form (CAB4681 m i to be ured In reporting all accidents ~ncident to flight involving c~vil aircraft of United Stater regimtry engaged In non-air-carrier operrtionm wherever they may occur if much aeeident rerulta in f a t a l o r lerious injury to any perlon .. .I. .. .. ... .... .. . . . ... . . .... .. . CAA certificate numberr. . .. . . . . .. ... . ..... .. No.. . ... .. .. Snow Were icing cnnditlons encountered? Hail Fog IX.. .. . .....nd/or damage to the a i m r d t of $100 or more.... . . ... Name inmtructor who recommended you tor prerent pllot certificate . ....... . Trade name 2.. .. .. 1 1 1 .. . ... .. .. . . . . Model --... Age . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. ...... .. . .... . ... . . .. . 8. . . . VI.. .. . . . . .. INJUUY TO GROUND CREW.. Medical-Date and clann ... .. . .. .. Total flylng tlme . .----. . . . . CPeW OTRP~ THAN Paam (copilot. .... . . . . . .. .. . .. .. . .... . . .. .. .... . 7. . . .. .. . . ... . . IV.. ..- .. . . .. . .... . . .. ... .. . No.. . ..... ... ... .. ... . . . . .. Aircraft damage .. .... . .. .. .. .. .. . I ~ m u m o non . . . ... . ... . .. crops.. .... .... . (sM(.. . .. ... .. .. . S T U D ~ N T : 1 .. . . .... .. . . . etc.. .. 6. . .. .. . . . ETC.. .. . ..... . .. 1W0119-6 . .. . .. .... ... kind and number . .. .. .. .. ... . .. . power Ilnes.. . ... ... . .... .. ... . . ... . .. . . ..... . . . . .. . ... .. . . .... . . . . .. . .... .... .. . . . . . . . . Ident~fleation No.. . .. . ... . Sou. .. 1 ...... .. WEATHFA CONDITIONS (check items applleable) : Cell~ng(feet) Dew point .. .8-M4. . ....... . .... .... . . . COPY) NON-AIR-CARRIER AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT REPORT The Civil Air Regulationm require that all aircraft accidents be reported on the form provided.. . Date ... .... .. . . . ..... .. . . . . ... . Ratlngm ... . . 1..... PMRENaEns (denote whether revenue or nonrevenue) : 1..--. . .... . 2.. . . T ~ P o E r FLYING ENGAGED I N AT TIME OF ACCIDENT (check or answer each item upplicable) : Day X-C t l Advanced tralning Noncommercial Night Student dual O Pllot check Other speclal program (describe) . ... .. . .. . .. Full name . .. .. . . . . .. .. VIII. . ... .. . . .... .. . . .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .FIG.. . . . . ....... .. .. . .. .... .... . .. .. .... .) : 1.. . .. . .. ... . --. . . . .... .... Now enrolled in approved ~chool? Yer 7. V. . .. . ..... . .. . . . addrealem. . . .. ....... . . .. .. .. .. ..... .. .. . ... . .. .. . . . . .. name same ..... .. .. Flying time: Total ... give name and location of w h w l . 8. City o r place ... AIUCHA~T...... ... .... 1. ... Injurier ... . ... . .... . . . . . ..... No Approved w h w l graduate? Yen No O 6.. PROPERTY DAMAGE (structures. . . . ... . .. ~nlurres. .... .. . give distance (miles). ( 0 ) Date of t e ~ .... . direction.. .. ... . Sleet . Purchased flom (name and address) 6 E n g ~ n emake 6.. ... . . . ... . . . . . . 0. .. . ... .. ... W~nd vetoclty and d~rectlon . . ....... ... Does owner ~ntend to rebu~ld a ~ r c r a f t ? Yes 0 No . . .. . .. .. ..... . . . ... ... .-VII. Names. . . . ... ... . . . . . .... .. .. Deacl be damage rn detall (dollar estlmate necessary) . . . ... .. ..... . . ... .. . .. .. Names. .. .. . . . .... . . .. .. .. . Fmm. . .. .. . . . . .. . .... . . .... .. . . .. . . . ... ... . . . .. . . ... .. . . . ... r a t i n p . . . . . . . . .. . . . ... . . ...... . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. ... . .. . . .. or the S t a b Aeronautleal Inveatiptor for the State in which the accident occurred.. . ..... . . . ..... . . . . . . . .. .......... . LOCATION AND TIME O r ACCIDENT: 1 . .. . .. . .. . Thi. . ... 15 ADDIOV~I . ... injuries . . . . . . If on airport.. . .. injuriea . . .. . ... ... KROl1. . ... .... .. . . .. . . .... . .... .. . . . ... . .. . . Night ..---- . . . .. (b) Delimatad examiner: Name ... .. .. .. ..... . . . ... . . ... . .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .. ~ ~ ~~ Model .... . . . Certlflcate No. . .. .... ...... .. . .. ... .. . . ... . . . . .. Ilvestock... .. . ...... .. .. .. . . .. . .. . .1~1r. If off airport. ...... .. . . . .. .. . Name your inmtructor in thim type alrcraft in lamt year . ... . .. . Hour . .... ..... . ... addresses. .. .... In type involved . .. .. . .. . Loeal Student solo Commerc~al Deseklbe purpose of f l i ~ h t . .... ...... . .. . .. ..... .. .... . .. .. .. .. . .... . . .. 1. . .... ..... . . . . ... .. .. . ... . .

. . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . Mailing address for next 30 days XV.. . .. . . . . .... .. If pilot ia incapacitated. S~gnature of owner or operator Type o r print name . .. .. . . . . . . a w e v e r e . . .. . . . .-. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . .. complete (c). . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . .. . . . .. .-. I have read the pilot's statement above and belleve that it ia nubetantially correct. Date of thl8 statement: Mailing address for next 30 days -. . . . . . . . ... . . .. 2. . .... . . ... . .. altitude.. ... . . . . . . .-. . . .. . .fr--fw ture. 1st-flrst aid.. TYPE:-prain. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . o r ( d ) if such item ie dtrectly involved. . . . .. . 4 1 .. (b) Enpine. lac--laceration. . . . . CAA number . . . . . . . . . . - . . .. . .. . Draw diagram if necesssry for clarity. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . COLLISION ACCIUENTS (if accident involved coll~s~on w~th other ancraft complete following inioimatian pertarnlng to other aircraft) : 1 . . . .. . . . . tr-trunk.. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . .. XI.. . .. .. . . . . . .. . . ... . (4. S~gnature of p ~ l o t. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . .____ _ . . . .. . . . T Eouu BINCZ OIIlUUL TOTAL TIIZ ( 8 0 ~ ~ ) . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . o r State Investimtor. .. .. Cam lete if mechanical failure occurred prior to impact with ground or objectr.. . . .. . . . . . -----------. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C n l s n . . .. . . . . . . . PlIm'B DESCRIPCSON OP ACCIDENT: Give detailed a c s u n t ineluding flight or maneuvera immediately preceding the accident. .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . 8 Z U L aND P A ~ NO. . .. .. ... . . . . . .. . . . . . .. .. .) .. . . . . . . . . . . i d f a t a l . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. . .. . . . . . . . .Letoh o r photomuphr of failed part if practicable) . . .... . . . . ... . .. . . hobhospital. . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . .hould complete other items of report and forward pilot's derription of accident a t earliwt pwaible d a t a -. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . a . . . . . . . . .. 1T. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . .. Coroner1# report: Km-LOCATION:hd-hed. . ... . Type or p r ~ n t name . 6. . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . .... . . . . . .. . . . . . . ... ... . . ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . I disagree with the pilot's statement and have attached a statement of my own. . . .. . . . . XII.. . . . I I I I I I 2. . .. .. .. . .. . . . . . . . . e k . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . Coplea dlstrlbuted to CAB 0 CAA C] State by . . . . . . .t. . . . . .. .. . . . . . - .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . TllCATMZNT: 0-none. . . . . . . . . bn-burn. . .. . . . Complete (a)in all such eaeea.. . ... . . .- -. . .. . .. . OWNER'S OR OPERATOR'S STATEMENT: 1. . . .-e. .. . . . .. . . . (a) Aircrolt. . . . . . . .. . . ----. .. . . . speed.. . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . .. . . . involved in aumcient detail to identify failure pwitively. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (Attach . . .. . Attach aketch showing flight paths and pornt of coli~slon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . Mental o r phyaical INIVZT (suKEY) BTlDCNll SZAT condition of pilot: O O D U P U ~ 'NAY%# OAUrna Pa-0~ ~ l p m a *at. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . .. . Deacribe rpeeiflc part. . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . Are failed parta held for examination? Yea No If yen. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . CAA Anent. . . . . . . . . . Dwsa: ml--mild.. . . 1g-leg. . . . . . . . (e) Propeller.. . . . . . . . -. . . . . . (Name) -. . . .. . 8. --- ---. . . . .... . . . . _. . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .... . . . . ..--- .. .. . . . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . . 0 0 . . . .(d) Acmeariea. .- Date of t h ~ statement: s --.. . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . MEEAANICAI. .. .. . where? . . ... . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . .. . . . . . . .u M A K E AND MODZL . . . . . . . . . --. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . ... . . . . FAILUUE LE. . .. . .. . . . . . . ... . . . . . . .XIV.. . . . ..... . . . . . .. ... . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. . . .. . .. . -. . . . . . . -. . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . .. 1 I ----- .a n n . . . DIETRIBUTION (Thls space lesewed for Agency or State use).. . . . . . .. . . . .. . nature of difficulty. . . . . . . . . . .. owner or operator . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .X. . . .. . . . . . . . . ... . X I I I ..I ~ ~ u a Du m m : To be comuleted by CAB Investinator. .. . . .. . . . . ...

p u t 62.LOCATION AMJ T I 1 6 I 1 . D. ~ame of operator .b a r clock) d ACCIDBNi 3. Type of operation t h i s flight a L (check a p p r o p r i a t e i t e r a ) 0 Passenger b OLlail c 0 Cargo d 0 Company 0Revenue 0 Nonrevenue 5. D a y 2. Date I 2. Location of l a s t takeoff - 1 . W a s flight plan f i l e d ? 16.FIG. helicoptern. State 4. 1 uile 0 Within a milea 0 Within 3 miles h 0 Within 4 miles Landing i j Within 5 miles Beyond 5 miles 6. Eract location of accident I SeCtiW I1 1 . -- . and a l l A l a ~ l r s nair c u r t e r a i r c r a f t regardleas of weight.) I 5. I F R CONDITIONS OF FLIGHT 15. neadquarters I 3. Identify airport E n route 8 . Phase of Takeoff operation 7. the airport 0 Within 1/4 mile c 0Within 1/2 mile d Within 3/4 mile e f aWithin. Origin of flight Destination I List en route stops..IDEMIIFICATIM OF PLIOHT 2. Hour (Check on. C. Nearest c i t y ( 2 4 . that -defined he reported on the Porm provided. Type of clearance 1 I 4. . Night 3.36 o'i the Civil Air Regulations reouirm a11 aircraft accidents a s . Class of Operator: a (Check a p p r o p r i a t e i t a m a ) 0scheduled O Irregular c d 0Contract e 0 Business f 8 0Other (Smcifr) b a Intrastate e 0 Charter 1 0 Teat 0Industrial g 0 Training h 0 Other i j 4. Proximity t~ airport: a b a 0. Pi1 1 out a l l pertinent i t e m and moil or deliver (in duplicate) to the Civil Aeron u t i c s b a r d office nearest your cornpany'a headauarters. AIRCRAFT A C C I D E N T REPORT (Submit in duplicate) Section I I I I This CAB Porn ISI i s to he used i n reportina a11 c i v i l a i r c r a f t accidents involvina a i r c r a f t that exceed 12. 16 BUUEAU OP S A F E T Y INVEETIaATIffl W A S H I N G T O N . VFR 0yes O NO . -. if aqy I Section I 1 1 6.500 w i n g m t ~ ~ e o rm f mt.

. Rest periods (hours) i n 24-hour period p r i o r to t h i a f l i g h t . Main door... number injured and extent of i n j u r i e s : BBr ious ltem patal a... and r a t i n g ) t o t a l hours of flying time and hours i n tme of a i r c r a f t involved i n the accident. ~dentifg a . .. S e c t i o n VII - EVACUATION W AIRCRAFT 1 .. CM c e r t i f i c a t e (includink type. Hours flown by p i l o t . c o p i l o t .. copilot.... Other f s p e c ~ f y ) ... usad) 0Outside persons Auxiliary l i g h t i n g c d 0S l i d e 0 Rope e i 0Ladder 0Other ( ~ p e c f f r ) Belly Other Cookpit 2..... Houm flown by p i l o t .. f u l l name. .... Number of takeoffs on t h i s f l i g h t by crew involved i n the accident B . Total number i n crew Number injured and I Fatal extent of i n j u r i e s Item Pilot (8) - Cop i 1o t (b) Plight eagineer (c) 3..... held by following: a. 7. d.MllER PERSON5 Patal Serious rinor 1. 2........PMSEWBBRS Minor NWb 2.... C. copilot.... and f l i g h t engineer i n last 24 hours.Nonrevenue b. age... etc. ground crew.. b.... Ravenue .... Copilot c.. P l i g h t engineer Section V 1. give t i t l e s .. .. Revenue b . Number aboard a. Method Of e x i t (State approximate lumber of persons using each of t h e following): Aft Porrard a. Duty time ( f l i g h t and stand-by) of p i l o t .... Aft Aft of wing Forward Over wing bergency e x i t ... A t what pointen route wascrew change effekted ( I / any) 8.. Nonrevenue Section V I ... P i l o t b.. occupants of vehicles o r residences. such as svectators. ... S t a t e wording of CM physical wniver......... LIST O N SEPARATE SHEET A m ATTACH: Por each member of thecrew..... and f l i g h t engineer involved i n t h i s accident during 24-hour period p r i o r t o t h i s f l i g h t ... b. number.. i f any. and f l i g h t engineer during t h i s flight... Auxiliary door.... Number injured and extent of i n j u r i e s t o o t h e r persons a s a r e s u l t of t h i s accident..46 Circular 34-AN/Z~ _ Sectioa I V CUE1 EIBgRS 1. address.. 4.. d. exclusive of cabin attendants. 6... Assistance received: a b (Check method... 5. serioua uinor 2..

1 2 3 4 8. etc. livestock. 4. Describe weather conditions a t time and scene of accident - 1 F o r m CAB-454 (3-55) I Comm-DC 10801 . F+~senger capacity model Mfg. I Cabin seating configuration (Attach d r a w i n # ) I 6. Date of nuf facture 5. I Total flying time I We Uode 1 mfg. 1 2 Date of manutacture Total timo Hours since last overhaul I 3 4 7.AIPEMPT DATA Address 2. PROPBLLER ASSEYBLIw umber Date of m u f a c t u r e mke mi#. ~ O I N E S Muber NO. Line r i n t a m c e I m. Describe damage to buildings. NO. (Dollar estimate not necessary. Tim since l a s t i ~ p e ~ t i o n i.Circular 3 4 .) - Sectioa X W B A I W R COmITIOTIPI 1. Describe aircraft d w e ' section I X PIIOWBTY DAlUQE 1 .Wor ' b . crops. power lines. Serial CM ~dentification No. Yodel Berial Total time Hours since last overhaul ot reassembly NO. Serial NO.~ ~ / 2 9 6 47 Sectioa VIII Nare of owner . i f f i r e involved) I S. nake 3. Type of f i r e extinguishing system (Including band types.

In accordance with CAR 62. I n the event that any of the foregoing are incapacitated.) - operator Date of this report signature of person filing five or print naM Title I . Gtatement(s) attached Section XIV STAtBIBNtB W PILOT AND OtsIII C R E 1. also total hour8 uid hours since werhaul: Oive W e . statements must be submitted subsequently a t the earliest possible date.a. etc. ahat 18 your analy8is of cruw? (Include M mch avidonce for your analysis M pomihle): s e c t i o n XIII WERATO~*SBTATEIENT 1 . Nnmq of owner Address d. In acmrdmce with cAU 61. powerplant. This does not include engine stoppages caused by lack of fuel or oil. md m r i a l number. instruments. Describe specific p u t in sufficient detail to identify it positively.. b. (Use supplementary sheet i f additional spwe is repuired. Sectioa X I 1 IALPUNCTIONIWB ( I I IlBCMNlCAL FAIUllg WPQT - 1 . Describe circumatwes under which f a i l w e occurred: c. d e l .36. Certif icate b.Circular 3 4 . a. pilot and other crew w&er s t a t e m t s must be attached. Nlue of pilot c.ecident and the prevention of simi!ar ones.36. or i g m p e r use of engine controls c crew. I I b. accessories. In the event of a collision with another aircraft the following Identification data ust be completed for the other aircraft. 8 . Damwe to t h i s a i m r a f t I I : A Form CAB-454 m a t be mbmitted by tbe appropriate operator of each a i r c r a f t involved. Statement(s) will be submitted ( A p p r o x i u t m date) - I 0 Yes 0 NO . describe circrustancea of the accident and m i d e any additional inforution which may assist in the analysis o t t h i s . - - We Yode 1 Address CM Identification No.~ ~ / 2 9 Section XI COLLlSiUN ACCIDENTS 1 . The following is t o be cogleted ONLY i f accident involws ulfunctioaing or meahmica1 failure in the a i r c n f t structure.

and equipment.fire cxtinguirhen.lrion requests the cooptation of all ownen. pilot^.WHICH. Mail immediately. pnmchute~. if shipped parts are Large send these under separate cover proper1 i d c n t i k u item' I and 2 above to: Gvil Aeronautics AdminC. NAMe OF PART - 0 Hourm fllna* Ovorhaui Tolok Tina* (tIGUf4) (Plen~make lreketch showing m n m d failure on other side of page. to ascure appropriate corrective action. DIFFICULTY OCCURRED I DATE ( P U C E (CUlnlW 2. opecaron. Y.. Engine 3.in~pri>pxly inanufacrurrd para. No postage required. U U I C III M I ~11~111 0111cI 0 160041-a . Washington 25. OWNER OF P L A N ~ : P R I ~ A ~ OWNER E a a a C U DEBIONEII 0 CAA INSPECTOR a O CAD INVB. & . inrtrumcnt~. Aircralt Accident Repan. Itr)nrpose is ro provide infor~uationwhich will enable the Civil Acrona~rb Admlai~natbnto rakc 8tcp to pnvenr the recurrenee of rimilu difficulties. SPECIFIC PART W H I C H CAUSED DIFFICULTY. instrument panel design.FIG. mcchaaicc. -. NAME(Pr(nf) - I a PILOT ADDRESS I MECHANIC OAT= OF REPORT -- CHECK . 17 b%rmAGA-lS20 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (MB' C I V I L AERONAUTICS ADMINISTRATION uu@orlu-u For111 n bpmv~d kc. Aircraft Servicc Analysis Staff.) 1 PART NO. propellers. blPke~. ma].porrlble co ~nd~catc basis for analytir of caum. .T~UATO~ a - PmED enss o p r r m A r o ~ IRREGULAR CARRIER Fold and seal. r d u radio. a d moil immediately. DO NOT SUBMIT THIS FORM IF a r e p o n of the u m e incident has been relmncd o n Yorm CAB-453. DESCRIBE I N DETAIL T H E FAILED PART AND THE CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHlCH THE DIFFICULTY OCCURRED. inrpcctorc. @ allI crsu 8.) istration.) - include & lnuch ~ l l f 0 ~ u ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 6. I . (Atrdch photograpl~s which clearly show the failure. A-297. OWNFR OPERATOR 7.-1~6. No postage required. and investigators in reporring on this fonu difficulties expcricnccd with wircmfr rttucturcr. ~ i r c r o f t b. etc. a. a. o r ship hiled an if rucdcrblo. SERVICE T I M E O N PART f Host#) - I I I 4. The Civil Aeronautics Adminiatr. with CAA addroes on the outside. COMPLETE BOTH ITEMS IN THE FOLLOWING TABLE: &fd No. STATE PROBAULE CAUSE AND RECOMMENDATIONS T O PREVENT RECURRENCE.. MALFUNCTIONING AND DEFECTS REPORT (OTHER THAN SCHEDULED AIR OARRIER) I1 INSTRUOTIONS: Fold. if. engine*.

A-297 WASHINGTON 25. . C. D.50 Circular 3 4 . OFFIDIAL B U E I N ~ - C W L W FOR H I V A T L USC TO AVOID PAYMCNT OF WSTAOL. $SO0 (Owl C I V I L AERONAUTICS ADMINISTRATION A I R C R A R SERVICE ANALYSIS STAFF. C. D.~ i ' ~ / 2 9 DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE :IVIL AERONAUTICS ADMINISTRATION WABHINGTON a.

Structures : Cracks in primary structure likely to affect structural strength Serious corrosion of primary structure Failure of undercarriage to retract or extend Hydraulic failure Failure of flight or engine controls or control circuits Failure of actuating system for flaps. 18 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of D e f e c t s As a guide to the classification of defects. hydraulic. (b) Defects revealing s t r u c k ~ r a l hazards such as(i) Structural defects i11 mounting racks and trays. (c) Defects revealing a serious malfunctioning or failure of a system or component such as(i) Incorrect.. pneumatic). or D.C.C. Power Plant: Engine failure Engine feathered Significant quantities of water in fuel Acute fuel starvation in flight Inadvertant reversing of airscrew pitch Failure to feather Overheating Fire warning (false or real) Gross leaks of fuel. power system failure Failure to function of ernerg. undercarriage. (a) Defects revealing fire hazards.g. points or inadequate separa(iii) Exposed high vo!ta!:e tion of them frori surrounding objects. such asRadio: (i) Inadequate protection of circuits. (electric. and any defect not in the list i t h i n the definition given in paragraph 2 of this Section shall be but falling w treated a s a major defect.C i r c d a r 3 4-AN/ 29 51 FIG. (ii) Operation of components or wiring beyond the capacity recommended by the manufacturers. . (ii) Incorrect. (ii) Improper methods of mounting which would give rise to detachment of units under flight conditions. Ancilliary Systems Collective failure of a number of flight i n ~ t ~ u m e n t s . examples of major defects are given below. reciprocal bearings on radio compass equipment caused by incorrect placement of aerial lead-in). and Miscellaneous: Major A. ambiguous or unreliable operation of any combination of switches and controls. The list is not to be regarded as exhaustive. ambiguous or unrelizble operation of any system-particularly navigation systems-as a result of incorrect design or installation (e. ambiguous or unreliable operation of any part of the aircraft radio system -particularly navigation systems-the cause of which has not been definitely established. etc. oil or hydraulic fluid Serious damage to accessory or component.ency equipment Gross failure of electronic equipment Pressurisation failure Bad vision in heavy weather. (iii) Intermittently incorrect. brakes. (iv) Maloperation of co~lt~ols.

2 (d) Defects in design or manufacture of parts and materiala installed in an aircraft.~ ~ / 2 9 APPENDIX 100.52 Circular 3 4 ..8. . such a&(i) Application to components of voltages or currents in excess of ratings (e. or intended for installation.g. 300 volts applied to a capacitor rated to work at' 200 volts maximum).

19 .~ ~ / 2 9 5 '3 FIG.Circular 3 4 .

.

..................................... ..... . Name and Addre s e of Registered Owner: Name and A d d r e s s of Applicant: ...................................... Signature of Applicant: ....................................... AERONAUTICAL INS PECTORATE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AVIATION (CEYLON) APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL OF MAJOR MODIFICATION A i r c r a f t Type: Nationality and Registration Marks: C......Circular 3 4 ... .......................... ........... of A....... Remarks: Date: ................... I hereby d e c l a r e that the above p a r t i c u l a r s a r e t r u e i n e v e r y r e 8 p C t . CHIEF AERONAUTICAL INSPECTOR.. ................. Approval granted f o r modification.......................... LA.. D.......................................... Nature of Modification: Original Drawings affected (to be attached) ........... No.......................~ ~ / 2 9 Fig..... New Drawings introduced (to be attached) Whether amendment to C..................................................... i s necessary: Date:....................... I......................................... 21 55 A..................................... of A...........................

.. Name and A d d r e s s of Registered Owner............................ Remarks: Date: .................... Approval granted f o r modification............. Name a n d Addreaa of Applicant: . of A.... ...............Circular 3 4 . ... Date: ........................................ of A...... 22 AERONAUTICAL INSPECTORATE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AVIATION (CEYLON) APPLICATION FOR APPROVAL O F MINOR MODIFICATION A i r c r a f t Type: Nationality and Registration Marks: C.. Nature of Modilication: Sketch showing modification with apecificrtion of m a t e r i a l ured: Whether amendment t o C.....~ ~ 1 2 9 Fig.............. Signature of Applicant: . No.............................................................................. CHIEF AERONAUTICAL INSPECTOR............... is necessary: I h e r e b y d e c l a r e that the above p a r t i c u l a r s a r e t r u e in e v e r y respect..

.... .I. and is to be embodied subject to compliance with the Ceylon Air Navigations for the time being i n force. The above concession is granted for a period of .A N / Z ~ A. Date: Chief Aeronautical Inspector... Civil Aviation Department..Circular 3 4 .. 27.. 57 TO: S e r i a l No....... Number: Name and address of Registered Owner: Name and addre s e of Applicant: Nature of Concession: Reasons for Application: Length of time o r period: Drawings Introduced t o accompany application: Remarks: I Chief Engineer. of A. Colombo 1. Date: CONCESSION Chief Aeronautical Inspector.... Aircraft Type: Nationality and Registration Marks: C...D..

24 Month Year .Operator -.58 REGISTRO AERONAUTIC0 ITALIAN0 HEAD OFFICE INCIDENT ANALYSIS Type .- Circular 3 4 .~ ~ / 2 9 FIG.

~ ~ / 2 9 BRIEF SUMMARY 59 - REMARKS .Circular 3 4 .

to which modification r e f e r s ) REASON FOR MODIFICATION DESCRIPTION Reference No. .. . .. . I. A. . Date MANUFACTURER MODIFICATION FORM ... etc. .. .. Note: Delete whatever 1s not applicable NOTES and REMARKS SIGNATURES FOR THE MANUFACTURER FOR THE (1) CUSTOMER 1) if apphcable FOR THE R.. B.I. of drawings before nmdification TYPE OF MODIFICATION: A) Urgent . .A. detail. '(1) R. hours after next overhaul of unit ....Customer a ) to be done by the manufacturer b) to be done by the authorised agency c ) to be done by the Operator N.. starting f r o m Serial No. 2) Alrcraft already constructed. Delete whatever i s not applicable not maintained WEIGHT Increase decrease K8. -Manufacturer .AIRCRAFT Identification No. . (1) After modification B) Essential C) Improvement. of drawings after modification . o r future a i r c r a f t ... part.. Before modification GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION SUBJECT (indlcatlon of unit. Reference No. .. requested by - MODIFICATION APPLIES TO: 1) Aircraft under construction..Suspend flights . .

. .suspend flights I After modification B) E s s e n t i a l I C) Improvement MODIFICATION APPLIES TO: 1) Engines under conatructlon.. . of drawings a f t e r I modification .ENGINE il4NUFACTURER I R e f e r e n c e No. e t c . . FORM I MODIFICATION Date . a ) t o b e done by manufacturer b) t o be done by authorized agency c) t o b e done by the Operator I I ON REQUEST BY 71) R. (1) Manufacturer . Before modification GRAPHIC ILLUSTRATION SUBJECT ( ~ n d ~ c a t ~ of o unlt. A. o r future engmes Engines a l r e a d y constructed h o u r s a f t e r next overhaul of unit I 2) . n p a r t . . t o which mod~flcatlon refers) I REASON FOR MODIFICATION I DESCRIPTION R e f e r e n c e No. d e t a i l . . . of drawings b e f o r e modification TYPE of MODIFICATION: A) Urgent .Customer of engine on a i r c r a f t AFFECTS INTERCHANGEABILITY of p r t on unit WEIGHT I n c r e a s e Kg. Decrease \ NOT= and R E 1 ( A P q .R e f e r e n c e No. I.

..... bnghr.id plan..it....... Cene obligation c u r e lonquer a) l'Office f6dCral de l'air informe lm fabricant que tow les aviolu du type en question ont h 6 exmatticulb en SuLae. et cela 1 t e m p voulu. DItel .. toutu lu rurnexer a t bmuld'ernentg panu aprbs k date de finition c t 8C rapportant aux mnnueb de conrignar de vo& d'entretiar....... T h b o b l l g a t h ceuer whew * . L matlodated i o S w i t z e r l d .inlag to th... D~UI ........ctlocr ..kr resrrves conorruing thr rimorzhban of th.....rd in two copirs each if not..... lequel a Ilvri l'avition cI-aprbs dbsigdr Type d'avion~ No de rirler Type du rnotew8 Type dlClicec diclare qu'il soengage D envayer P 1 ..it . ......... rlrcrd't p...opontio...... in that o u r tbr mid officr ...... ud that In duo tinu.nd to ruporvlsb I@ 8ri..officr i n l W the mmufacturot that the p h r s o f the typr Involvod ur umatriculated In S w l t u t l d .. to Inform the fedrral air officr o f PU the rnodiflcationl which might ubb Concrmlng thb rWo~thlhiruu uuJ the operation al rhr raid plane..ad opotuion b W i m which arb wcrruy w judp of the ainvorthinur ai the plum . au motcur.. 1 3 ~ r p b i u r l a n dn p & manuah....infame 1'0ffica fCd6ral de l'air qu'il r ceu6 toute activiti.. thek modificatioru..... 2 7 Attestatton La fabricant sow-sign&....may m.. d'exploitation de l'avlon en quertion.rC. section technique de I'Office fCd6rd & lm& et situs y h e nqutr. an well u thorr rduring to thr rIra...... concetnant le contrble et l'erploitatlw qui rout d c e o a I ? e ~pow Jugar de le&nt de vol et do 1 ..m e n t i o n d a'engage 1Informu lVOffbeiid6ralde lm& & toutu lea modFficationr qd poutrdcnt Lee rpporLCes au certificat de n a v i g a b W a h i qu'aux condition...Ira be f o m d e d In four c@.... m r i n t o n .. P l'hCUce et P l'iquipement auxiliaire importautj les bullctIn~ de service et b u n rnodificatiom.....r nu91 lfat h a s t onr d the $. propeller d UU]OZ equipmarti tho nrvlcr b u l l e t b ..plmr invokrd. ruqrul col 1 A se r6serve Is droit de faire (ventuellement du rberver coracermrnt lm certificat de navigabilitC & l'avlon.. t u hbmwitb t h e r) the federal . l e a bulletid. b) h u e l e fabric...FIG... h i que cellea relotivar P la cellule. ...tywhen apbratad rhrll . de revidon et de dpnratition... Signature du reprhentant du fabricantr Lmautorlt6 officiell aymt artifid l'avion d .. The lmdonignad murufactumr who dellvrred the following aircraft8 Aircraft typer Aircraft rerie Nor he L willing and intends to send by ~utomrtic dirtrlbution to thr technlcd section d thr frderd air &ice all axmexu and unudnuntr publlrhed after the dnte d the completion o f th. b) the manufactwar tnfonnr chr fedrrrl air office that hr h u c b ~ e his d activity. dcuriti pendant loexploitation doivent auni etre envoyb cornme Is reee en 4 exempLPlru rl un a v 3 w au moku e8t dCjP immoaicuU en SuIue e t en 2 ucmplairer ri ce noa8tp a b c a .... Signature of the rnmufactunt'c npnrbntltlvat The officlrl authority which cartiflcated the above mentioned afrcrdt Rater that it L w l l l l q and h b d .. the imp....

for various reasons. Knowledge of any differences between the national realations or practices of Standa State and those established byvan ~nternatknal ard is essential to the safety or regularity of international air navigation. They are prepared in consolidated form. REGIONAL SUPPLEMENTARY PROCEDURES ( ~ P s have ) a atatus similar to that of PANS in that they are approved by the Council. in fact. As in the case o f Recommended Practices. INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDED PRACTICES are adopted by the Council in accordance with Articles 54. as a service to those Contracting States who do not 8nd it practicable. but only for application in the respective regions. operating procedures regarded as not yet having attained a tm5cient degree of maturity for adoption es Inter- ' . the Council has invited Contracting States to notify any differences between their national practices and the PANS when the knowledge of such differences is important for the safety of air navigation. although the Convention does not impose any obligation with regard thereto. Recommended Practices and PANS. regularity or efficiency of international air navigation. ruch as h ICAO Aeronautical Chart Catalogue or the Combined MeteaEcdogicai Tables for International A i r Navigation. They we prepared primarily for the use of personnel engaged in operations in the field. The following publications are prepared by author& of the Secretary General in aceordance with the principles a d policies approved by the Council. ICAO FIELD MANUALS have no status in themselves but derive their etatus from the International Standards. a n d a b o d e s a l b c s national Standards and Recommended Practices. to prepare them for their own use. or is msc~ptibleto frequent amendment. for the most part.ICAO TECHNICAL PUBLICATIONS T h e ~ i n g s u m m a ~ y g i b e s ~ s k r l u s . for convenience.the imptementatb Of which they are designed to facilitateICAO CIRCULARS make availa%le specialized information of interest to Contracting States. the Council has invited Conttacting States to notify such differences in addition t o those relating ta International Btandards. as Annexes to the Convention. Knowledge of differences from Recommended Practices may also be importat for the eafety of air navigation and. under Article 38 of the Convention. It does not include specialized publidwns that & nd fall specijkally within one of the series. an obligation. for which the processes of the Convention would be too cumbersome. a State has. In the event of non-compliance with an International Standard. TECHNICAL MANUALS provide guidance and b formation in amplification of the Internationai Standards. Recommended Practices and PANS from which they are compiled. since certain of the procedures apply to overlapgins regions or are commaa to two or more regions. as well in general tenrw the contents of the mrious aeries of technical pdticutwna issued by the Inter~tional Civil Alriafion Organization. ~ PROCEDURES FOR A I R N A VIGATION SERVICES ( P A N S ) are approved by the Council for worldwide application. The uniform application by Contracting States of the specificatiom oomprised in the International Standards is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation while the uniform application of the specifications in the Recommended Practices is regarded ae desirable in the interest of safety. They comprise. 37 and 90 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation and are designated. as material of a more permanent character which is considered too detailed for incorporation in an Annex. to notify the Council of any differences.

. . . . ... . . .. 46 pp. . ..75 (Cdn... 1 -AN/l The effect of air temperature upon the rate of climb of an airplane equipped with a constant speed propeller. . 15 AN/12 The effects of -AN/13 - atmospheric humidity and temperature on the engine-power and take-off performance of a Hastings 1. . . .. . . . ... . . .. ... .. . . . . . .. .. . . . June 1950. (2nd edition) March 1951 (incorporating amqdrnents 1 to 63) 128 pp. . . . . . .. . . . Addendum to 3rd' edition.. .. .. . . 26 PP. Catalogue sent free on request. . .50 $0... . . . . .. .. . .. 112 pp... .. February 1952. .. . May 1953 (incorporating amendment 84 and Attachment A ) 12 pp. .50 pesos (Buenos Aires) L. . .25 Manual of ICAO Standard Atmosphere. . ... . October 1951... ... Methods of testing at constant attitude (Polar and longitudinal characteristics of aircraft) February 1951...265 (Cairo) 14... . May 1948. .10 $0. .75 soles (Lima) (~elbournej (New Delhi) (Paris) 265 francs . 54 pp.EXTRACT FROM THE CATALOGUE ICAO SALABLE PUBLICATIONS ANNEXES TO THE CONVENTION Annex 6 Operation of aircraft air transport.00 bahts (Bangkok) 10. .!ance should accompany euch order.B. - . . . ..-Cash remit. 36 pp. . . .. 132 pp. 2nd edition (Doc 6920-AN/855). Annex 8 -Airworthiness $1. -Aircraft $0. . . . . . . 16 pp. . 130 pp. (3rd edition) ~ p i i l1952 (incorporating amendments 64 to 83) 150 pp.25 I $0.. . Annex 7 July 1949..45 P R I C E : $0.. . .00 $1.. .. ...... . . - ICAO CIRCULARS $0.. . $0...E. 0.. .. ... . (1st edition) December 1949.60 nationality and registration marks. .. . .. . . . .. . . . . . . May 1954. . of airaraft. . .....10 $0. . . . . .International commercial (4th edition) May 1953 (incorporating amendments 1 to 134) ... . . . $0..25 Manual of aircraft accident investigation... . . . 14 pp. . . (Doc 7488). . . .. N... . . . 72 pp.) (Montreal) Equivalents a t d a t e of publication: 15.. . . .. . .. . 16 $0. .. ... .. ...25 $0. .. . .15 2-ANDA philosophy of aeroplane strength factors.... . . May 1948. . . . .75 $1.20 23 AN/20 Problems associated with the advent of turbine-engined airplanes.