The primary goal of therapy for the client with pulmonary edema or heart failure is increasing cardiac output

. Pulmonary edema is an acute medical emergency requiring immediate intervention. Enlarged cirrhotic liver impinges the portal system causing increased hydrostatic pressure resulting to ascites. Weight gain due to retention of fluids and worsening heart failure causes exertional dyspnea in clients with mitral regurgitation. Nicotine (Nicotrol) is given in controlled and decreasing doses for the management of nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Raynaud’s disease is characterized by vasospasms of the small cutaneous arteries that involves fingers and toes. The lumen of the arteries can be assessed by cardiac catheterization. Angina is usually caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries. Myoclonic seizure is characterized by sudden uncontrollable jerking movements of a single or multiple muscle group. Decerebrate posturing is the extension of the extremities after a stimulus which may occur with upper brain stem injury. Perfusion can be best estimated by blood pressure, which is an indirect reflection of the adequacy of cardiac output. Ileostomy - Sudden decrease in drainage or onset of severe abdominal pain should be reported immediately to the physician because it could mean that obstruction has been developed. Urine testing provides an indirect measure that maybe influenced by kidney function while blood glucose testing is a more direct and accurate measure. The use of electronic toothbrush, irrigation device or dental floss may cause bleeding of gums, allowing bacteria to enter and increasing the risk of endocarditis. Most peptic ulcer is caused by Helicopter pylori which is a gram negative bacterium. Hodgkin’s disease - Assessing for an open airway is the priority. The procedure involves the neck, the anesthesia may have affected the swallowing reflex or the inflammation may have closed in on the airway leading to ineffective air exchange. Neutropenic client is at risk for infection especially bacterial infection of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tract. Common signs and symptoms of fracture include pain, deformity, shortening of the extremity, crepitus and swelling. Protamine Sulfate is used to prevent continuous bleeding in client who has undergone open heart surgery. Complications of acute appendicitis are peritonitis, perforation and abscess development.

Osmosis is the movement of fluid from an area of lesser solute concentration to an area of greater solute concentration. Streptomycin is an aminoglycoside and damage on the 8th cranial nerve (ototoxicity) is a common side effect of aminoglycosides. Wheat cereal has low sodium content. To maintain adequate oxygenation post – op. Positioning the client laterally with the neck extended does not obstruct the airway so that drainage of secretions and oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange can occur. Hepatitis A : Clay colored stools( should be reported by physician) are indicative of hepatic obstruction The left side of the body will be affected in a right-sided brain attack. By the 2nd day of hospitalization after suffering a Myocardial Infarction, Clients are able to perform care without chest pain NGT - Semi-fowlers position will localize the spilled stomach contents in the lower part of the abdominal cavity. The most frequent side effects of Cascara Sagrada (Laxative) is abdominal cramps and nausea. When diuretics are taken in the morning, client will void frequently during daytime and will not need to void frequently at night. Administration of Intravenous Nitroglycerin infusion requires pump for accurate control of medication. Cholecystectomy : It may take 4 to 6 months to eat anything, but most people can eat anything they want. Morphine is a central nervous system depressant used to relieve the pain associated with myocardial infarction, it also decreases apprehension and prevents cardiogenic shock. Cardiac Catheterization - Blood pressure is monitored to detect hypotension which may indicate shock or hemorrhage. Apical pulse is taken to detect dysrhythmias related to cardiac irritability. Seeing yellow spots and colored vision are common symptoms of digitalis toxicity. GERD – After meal rest in sitting position. Gravity speeds up digestion and prevents reflux of stomach contents into the esophagus. Forearm muscle weakness is a probable sign of radial nerve injury caused by crutch pressure on the axillae. Excessive bubbling indicates an air leak which must be eliminated to permit lung expansion. Discomfort or pain is a problem that originates in the kidney. It is felt at the costovertebral angle on the affected side.

12 to 24 hours after subtotal gastrectomy gastric drainage is normally brown, which indicates digested food. Left sided heart failure causes fluid accumulation in the capillary network of the lung. Fluid eventually enters alveolar spaces and causes crackling sounds at the end of inspiration. After nephrectomy, it is necessary to measure urine output hourly. This is done to assess the effectiveness of the remaining kidney also to detect renal failure early. Typical signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock includes systolic blood pressure of less than 90 mm Hg. Beta-carotene and Vitamin E are antioxidants which help to inhibit oxidation. Vitamin E is found in the following foods: wheat germ, corn, nuts, seeds, olives, spinach, asparagus and other green leafy vegetables. Food sources of beta-carotene include dark green vegetables, carrots, mangoes and tomatoes. Aspirin containing medications should not be taken 14 days before surgery to decrease the risk of bleeding. Metabolic acidosis is anaerobic metabolism caused by lack of ability of the body to use circulating glucose. Administration of insulin corrects this problem. A client with acute pancreatitis is prone to complications associated with respiratory system. Icteric Phase of viral hepatitis - Liver inflammation and obstruction block the normal flow of bile. Excess bilirubin turns the skin and sclera yellow and the urine dark and frothy. Gastroscopy : Abdominal distension (complication) may be associated with pain, may indicate perforation, a complication that could lead to peritonitis. After eye surgery - Watching TV is permissible because the eye does not need to move rapidly with this activity, and it does not increase intraocular pressure. The constituents of CSF are similar to those of blood plasma. An examination for glucose content is done to determine whether a body fluid is a mucus or a CSF. A CSF normally contains glucose. Restlessness is an early indicator of hypoxia. The nurse should suspect hypoxia in unconscious client who suddenly becomes restless. Penile Implant : After 24 hours of surgery - Elevation increases lymphatic drainage, reducing edema and pain. Laryngectomy - Patent airway is the most priority; therefore removal of secretions is necessary. Progression stage is the change of tumor from the preneoplastic state or low degree of malignancy to a fast growing tumor that cannot be reversed.

When mitral stenosis is present, the left atrium has difficulty emptying its contents into the left ventricle because there is no valve to prevent back ward flow into the pulmonary vein, the pulmonary circulation is under pressure. Urine output provides the most sensitive indication of the client’s response to therapy for hypovolemic shock. Urine output should be consistently greater than 30 to 35 mL/hr. The osmotic diuretic mannitol is contraindicated in the presence of inadequate renal function or heart failure because it increases the intravascular volume that must be filtered and excreted by the kidney Crutch with tripod gait : The palms should bear the client’s weight to avoid damage to the nerves in the axilla. Aging process involves increased capillary fragility and permeability. Older adults have a decreased amount of subcutaneous fat and cause an increased incidence of bruise like lesions caused by collection of extravascular blood in loosely structured dermis. Good source of vitamin B12 are dairy products and meats. Tubercle bacillus is a drug resistant organism and takes a long time to be eradicated. Usually a combination of three drugs is used for minimum of 6 months and at least six months beyond culture conversion. Aplastic anemia decreases the bone marrow production of RBC’s, white blood cells, and platelets. The client is at risk for bruising and bleeding tendencies. BPH : distention of the lower abdomen. This indicates that the bladder is distended with urine, therefore palpable. ARF - In the diuretic phase fluid retained during the oliguric phase is excreted and may reach 3 to 5 liters daily, hypovolemia may occur and fluids should be replaced. Tracheostomy tube has several potential complications including bleeding, infection and laryngeal nerve damage During blood transfusion, patient complains of lumbar pain: The blood must be stopped at once, and then normal saline should be infused to keep the line patent and maintain blood volume. In spinal shock, the bladder becomes completely atonic and will continue to fill unless the client is catheterized. RA (convalescent stage) - Active exercises, alternating extension, flexion, abduction, and adduction, mobilize exudates in the joints relieves stiffness and pain. 1st 24 hours thrombotic stroke - It is crucial to monitor the pupil size and papillary response to indicate changes around the cranial nerves

It does invade the central nervous system. Proteins of high biologic value (HBV) contain optimal levels of amino acids essential for life Client under Spinal Surgery – Assess for client’s feet for sensation and circulation. The vital signs are the final check that must be completed before the client leaves the room so that continuity of care and assessment is provided for. Check for prolonged reperfusion of the toes after blanching.An increased in LDL cholesterol concentration has been documented at risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis. diuretic. The peak incidence of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is 4 years of age. Clients with hypertension frequently do not experience pain. . Detection of myoglobin is a diagnostic tool to determine whether myocardial damage has occurred.These devices are more accurate because they are easily to used and have improved adherence in insulin regimens by young people because the medication can be administered discreetly. LDL cholesterol is not broken down into the liver but is deposited into the wall of the blood vessels. Post Aortic Aneurysm Surgery . it tends to precipitate and form deposits at various sites where blood flow is least active. this would indicate the lack of blood supply to the extremity. Uric acid has a low solubility. and the nurse in charge should monitor the client for distended bladder. Intensity is the major indicative of severity of pain and it is important for the evaluation of the treatment. cause of aggravation . prolonged hypotension. the capillaries and small vessels dilate. Other common causes of seizure activity in adults include neoplasms. Uremic Syndrome : Elevation of uremic waste products causes irritation of the nerves. Atropine sulfate is contraindicated with glaucoma patients because it increases intraocular pressure. Hoarseness lasting 2 weeks should be evaluated because it is one of the most common warning signs. In burn. or prolonged aortic cross-clamping during the surgery. or impaired skin integrity. The last area to return sensation is in the perineal area. 9 g of fat. Early warning signs of laryngeal cancer can vary depending on tumor location. Intermittent pain is the classic sign of renal carcinoma. Epidural Anesthesia: after checking vital signs. It is primarily due to capillary erosion by the cancerous growth.There is a potential alteration in renal perfusion manifested by decreased urine output. The substance causes the capillary walls to become more permeable and significant quantities of fluid are lost. which decreases the development of edema. An elective procedure is scheduled in advance so that all preparations can be completed ahead of time. Pen like insulin delivery device . if these occurs notify physician immediately. and cell damage cause the release of a histamine-like substance.The use of fragrant soap is very drying to skin hence causing the pruritus. Trauma is one of the primary cause of brain damage and seizure activity in adults. Myasthenia Gravis : immunosuppressive therapy . The nurse most positive approach is to encourage the client with multiple sclerosis to stay active. Glucocorticoids (steroids) are used for their anti-inflammatory action. and 6 g of carbohydrate. CRF – high biologic protein.These tests confirm the presence of HIV antibodies that occur in response to the presence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Damage to blood vessels may decrease the circulatory perfusion of the toes.Steroids decrease the body’s immune response thus decreasing the production of antibodies that attack the acetylcholine receptors at the neuromuscular junction Flare up pruritus. use stress reduction techniques and avoid fatigue because it is important to support the immune system while remaining active. It is uncommon after 15 years of age. The altered renal perfusion may be related to renal artery embolism. including cartilaginous tissue such as the ears. Positve Elisa and Western blot . 30 mg cholesterol. withdrawal from drugs and alcohol. After long leg cast removal : Elevate the leg when sitting for long periods of time. Meniere’s disease – antihistamine. Managing hypertension is the priority for the client with hypertension. One cup of cottage cheese contains approximately 225 calories. deficient volume. assess for bladder distention. Elevation will help control the edema that usually occurs. antiemetics Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) does not cause gastric distention. and clients experience headaches and vomiting from meningeal irritation. resulting in flapping hand tremors. Alteration in sensation and circulation indicates damage to the spinal cord. To assess for damage to major blood vessels from the fracture tibia. and vascular disease. 27 g of protein. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) has not been found to respond to oral anticoagulants such as Coumadin. It is the asymptomatic nature of hypertension that makes it so difficult to treat.

which reduces pain and provides framework for granulation After right pneumonectomy. After surgery to correct a detached retina. Temporary heterograft (burn patient) – relieved pain and promote rapid epithelialization. Hepatitis A is primarily spread via fecal-oral route. The graft covers the nerve endings. Sewage polluted water may harbor the virus. cold intolerance. the abdominal wall will become tender and rigid. which is concerned with the regulation of extracellular fluid volume. Walking and swimming are very helpful in strengthening back muscles for the client suffering from lower back pain. Assessment of a client with Hodgkin’s disease most often reveals enlarged. no drain – d/t absence of intestinal motility. Peritonitis (abdominal rigidity). thick and immobile tymphanic membrane with or without perforation. all personnel must stand back and be clear of all the contact with the client or the client’s bed. Restlessness indicates a lack of oxygen to the brain stem which impairs the reticular activating system. Tetany may occur after thyroidectomy if the parathyroid glands are accidentally injured or removed. – most serious complication. brittle nails. the nurse should consult with the physician about withholding Warfarin Sodium to avoid occurrence of hemorrhage. fever. Typical signs of hypothyroidism include weight gain. it is lost with vomiting. Otoscopic examnation in a client with mastoiditis reveals a dull. Nursing care after bone biopsy includes close monitoring of the punctured site for bleeding. 24 hours after colostomy.This symptom is caused by stimulation of retinal cells by ocular movement. decreased energy. Position: Right side lying position or supine position permits ventilation of the remaining lung and prevent fluid from draining into sutured bronchial stump. and increasing in frequency. With increased intraabdominal pressure. It is a priority to hyperoxygenate the client before and after suctioning to prevent hypoxia and to maintain cerebral perfusion. swelling and hematoma formation.Last to assess after induction of anesthesia – Respiratory movement. Deep breathing and coughing: Place hand on abdomen and feel it rise. Sodium. This is primarily caused by the trauma of intestinal manipulation and the depressive effects anesthetics and analgesics. Iatrogenic infection is caused by the heath care provider or is induced inadvertently by medical treatment or procedures. if the defibrillator paddles are being discharged. Abdominal breathing improves lungs expansion . dry skin. Tonic clonic seizure: Priority (protect head form injury) . painless lymph node. Chloride. respiration is depressed but present. Bradykinesia is slowing down from the initiation and execution of movement. malaise and night sweats. there is an increased chance of thrombophlebitits owing to the pelvic manipulation that can interfere with circulation and promote venous stasis. fatigue. For the safety of all personnel. apathy. – increasing ICP Signs and symptoms of infection under a casted area include odor or purulent drainage and the presence of “hot spot” which are areas on the cast that are warmer than the others. hyponatremia will accompany. Fractured pain is generally described as sharp. continuous. The adult with normal cerebrospinal fluid has no red blood cells. In preoperative period. Frequent flashing lights (detached retina) . is also lost with vomiting. which balances cations in the extracellular compartments. Dark red to purple stoma indicates inadequate blood supply. Jaundice may be present in acute pancreatitis owing to obstruction of the biliary duct. Isoniazid (INH) interferes in the effectiveness of oral contraceptives and clients of childbearing age should be counseled to use an alternative form of birth control while taking this drug. After a pelvic surgery. because sodium and chloride are parallel electrolytes. red. Hard candy will relieve thirst and increase carbohydrates but does not supply extra fluid. Infection is responsible for one third of the traumatic or surgically induced death of clients with renal failure as well as medical induced acute renal failure (ARF). constipation and numbness. prevention of increased intraocular pressure is the priority goal. Autotransfusion is acceptable for the client who is in danger of cardiac arrest. prior to this stage. There is no respiratory movement in stage 4 of anesthesia. Amylase concentration is high in the pancreas and is elevated in the serum when the pancreas becomes acutely inflamed and also it distinguishes pancreatitis from other acute abdominal problems.Rhythmic contraction and relaxation associated with tonic-clonic seizure can cause repeated banging of head.

Diaphoresis – early sign of insulin reaction (hypoglycemia) Polycythemia vera – headaches. Blood transfusion reaction – stop the transfusion. Calcium chloride – emergency medication for tetany Sickle cell crisis – Priority: hydration oxygenation. and intermittent suction is applied during withdrawal. Trendelenburg position – increase pressure in diaphragm To prevent internal rotation of the legs – use a trochanter roll alongside the client’s upper thigh. Stapedectomy – ensure safety. and/or constipation alternating with diarrhea are the most common symptoms of colorectal cancer. DIC – administer Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) Comatose and Hypoglycemic – administer 50% glucoe IV Exercise for diabetic patient – during exercise the body will use CHO for energy production. SIADH – hyponatremia and low serum osmolality. which in turn will decrease the need for insulin. Meniere’s disease – Hydrochloride (hydro diuril) Acute pancreatitis – steatorrhea. Constipation. severe abdominal pain is the most indicative sign of perforation. Myringotomy – promote drainage from the ear. pressure ulcer – moisture vapor permeable dressing When the client ask for her chart to be viewed – ask her if he/she has concerns about his/her care. The rationale for activity restriction is to help reduce the hypermotility of the colon. the nurse maybe unable to hear bowel sounds at all. Client on seizure . Levothyroxine (syntroid) – HT: call the physician for onset of palpitations or nervousness (signals hyperthyroidism) Hearing aid – amplifies sound buy does not improve ability to hear. Sudden. Suctioning through an ET tube – the catheter is inserted to the point of resistant. ET tube leaking – Sign: client is able to speak Central obesity – long term effect of steroids Coldness around the insertion site – best sign of infiltration Non – narcotic analgesic : inhibits prostaglandin synthesis Stage 2. Liver biopsy. children over 30 should be screen yearly. One assessment for hypoglycemia – feel the client and bed for dampness. diarrhea. After client eye has been anesthesized – do not rub the eye for 15 – 20 minutes. disconnect the blood tubing and begin primary infusion of normal saline solution. TPN – monitor for hyperglycemia and hypokalemia 90 F – water temperature for tepid sponge bath Burning pain upon IM injection – apply warm compress to dilate blood vessels . abdominal pain and fever Metformin (Glucophage) – taken with meals Insulin enhance transport of glucose in cell wall. Ulcerative colitis – Bed rest (reduced intestinal motility). position on left side – help stop bleeding if any occurs. There may be a genetic factor with glaucoma.Positioning the client on one side with head flexed forward allows the tongue to fall forward and facilitates drainage secretions therefore prevents aspiration Loss of gastric fluid via nasogastric suction or vomiting causes metabolic alkalosis because of the loss of hydrochloric acid which is a potent acid in the body. Exopthalmos – fluid edema in the retro orbital tissues which force the eyes to protrude. claudication Client experiencing vertigo – assist in sitting or lying position. Measuring the urine output to detect excess amount and checking the specific gravity of urine samples to determine urine concentration are appropriate measures to determine the onset of diabetes insipidus. Implement fall precautions.A Client with burns is very sensitive to temperature changes because heat is loss in the burn areas Meat provides proteins and the fruit proteins vitamin C that both promote wound healing. dyspnea. When perforation of an ulcer occurs. Pressure applied in the puncture site indicates that a biliary vessel was puncture which is a common complication after liver biopsy. pain management. These effects widen the filtration angle and permit increased out flow of aqueous humor. Miotic agent constricts the pupil and contracts ciliary muscle.

A client with full-thickness burns on the chest has a skin graft. pulsating vesels. Special application with drug (Vaginal Suppository) – ask client to void prior to inserting suppository Fractured rib – paradoxical respiration Vaginitis – intensive vaginal and perineal itching Pemphigus vulgaris – skin lesions Ovarian cancer – early symptoms of cancer of the ovary are vague Bilateral lumbar sympathectomy – sudden drop in BP & no signs of bleeding (d/t reallocation of blood supply) Fluid overload – moist rates RA – stiff. The nurse should assist the client to turn from side to side. During the 1st 24 hours after a skin graft. dark brown stools. A pinguecula (yellow plaque deposited in conjunctiva). assess for head injury Fracture of the neck of femur – desirable position. Migraine headaches – dilation of cerebral arteries: The vascular theory best explains migraine and often diagnosis is confirmed through a trial of ergotamine. internal rotation with extension of the knee Neostigmine (Prostigmin) – blocking the action of cholinesterase Knee amputation (prone position) – prevents flexion contractures Exsanguination – most serious problem in external shunt Antihypertensive drugs – S/E: delayed ejaculation Undescended testicle – risk for testicular cancer Intramedullary nailing – fracture of shaft of the femur Urine specimen for ketones should be removed from a client’s retention catheter. is the most commonly affected CN in acoustic neuroma although as the tumor progresses CN5 and Ventricular fibrillation is 15 times more likely to occur during the first hour of an acute MI than the following twelve hours which is why it is vital to decrease the delay between onset of chest pain and arrival at a medical facility. which constricts the dilated. An oropharyngeal airway that is too long may push the epiglottis into a position that obstructs the airway. crushing pressure. Chest pain does not always accompany an MI. It is often use with an ETT to prevent biting and occlusion. After BMA. cleansed catheter Angina – bleeding oral ulcerations TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation) – Adjust the TENS dial until the client perceives pain relief and comfort Vaginal Irrigation (Douche) – nozzle is inserted downward and backward within the vagina Ear surgery – inability to wrinkle the forehead (early response that may be associated with possible damage to the motor branch of the facial nerve) Scleroedema – autoimmunity Prostatectomy: to limit painful bladder spasm . An oropharyngeal airway should be used in an unconscious patient.encourage client not to contract his muscle as if he were voiding. First degree heart block is not a lethal arrhythmia. scaly lesions (Treatment: topical application of steroids) Jaundice – light amber urine. Testicular carcinoma – high incidence of early metastasis Myasthenia Gravis – decrease functioning ACE receptor sites Cystectomy – view of urethra and bladder Psoriasis – shiny. briefly apply pressure over the aspiration site. This is especially true of patients with diabetes. . small amount of yellowish green oozing. yellow skin CBI following prostate surgery – keep drainage to light pink Stationary thrombus – leg cramps During peritoneal dialysis the nurse observes that drainage of dialysate from the peritoneal cavity has ceased before the required amount has drained out. care of the donor site includes immediately reporting. sore joints (1st symptom that leads to seeking healthcare) Mafenide (Sulfamylon) – Disadvantage: causes lactic acidosis Pelvic traction – level with iliac crest Acute MI – may have a normal ECG. In a conscious or semiconscious patient its use may cause laryngospasm or vomiting.Maxillary sinus – palpate below the cheekbones Before placing an MVA patient in modified trendelenburg position. A targeted history is often crucial in making the diagnosis of acute MI.' CN8. 'like an elephant sitting on my chest. Which is why a normal ECG alone cannot be relied upon to rule out an MI. The chest pain associated with an acute MI is often described as heavy. using a sterile syringe to remove it from clamped. which is normal slightly raised fatty structure under the conjunctiva that may gradually increase with age. the acoustic nerve or vestibulocochlear nerve.

Thus. LICS @ LSB) is caused by the aortic and pulmonic valve closure. The skin is more sallow or brown as renal failure continues. hormonal changes. Polyuria. dyspnea. Thus alteration in drug schedule and dosage is necessary for safe care. The left ventricle does not hypertrophy in mitral stenosis. Often there is an aura. Moreover. Pull the tube back and listen again. and thoracoplasty is the removal of ribs or sections of ribs. 7-9 cm from the MSL or at. As ICP increases. Serum potassium levels should be monitored periodically in clients on digitalis and diuretics. Migraine is usually unilateral and described as pounding. Usually the client comes from a family that has migrated. LDH (3 -4 days) Verapamil usually decreases blood pressure. vital signs may vary considerably. which predisposes the client to ventricular arrhythmias. which is why it is sometimes used as an antihypertensive agent. S3 and S4 are generally considered abnormal heat sounds in adults and are best heard at the apex. right heart failure would cause abdominal discomfort and peripheral edema. Pulmonic closure is best heard at the 2nd LICS. because of the crossover of the motor fibers. However the client cannot do this at home. Heart block and atrial arrhythmias may also be seen post-MI but ventricular arrhythmias are more common. SGOT (24 – 36 hours). as potassium balance is essential for prevention of arrhythmias. EOA (esophageal obturator airway) should not be used with a conscious person. Oliguria is seen in chronic renal failure. Stress. decortication is the removal of a fibrous membrane that develops over the visceral pleura. occipitally. and fatigue may all be implicated in migraine. Postoperatively clients who have undergone craniotomy usually have their heads elevated to decrease local edema and also decrease ICP MI – CK peaks (12 – 24 hours). Pneumonectomy is removal of entire lung. fluorescein stain is used to focus on layers of the cornea and lens looking for opacities and inflammation. Slit lamp is most often used to detect corneal lesions. The sound created by closure of the tricuspid valve is heard at the 5th LICS at the LSB. MVP – pain may be cause by papillary muscle ischemia and dysfunction. and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea – pulmonary HTN. the MCL. Metabolic changes and alterations in excretion put the client with uremia at risk for development of toxicity to any drug.a small yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision. Intubation. Tonometry for glaucoma Many factors may contribute to migraine. orthopnea. polyphagia are signs of DM and early diabetic ketoacidosis. as ICP continues to rise. The PMI is the impulse at the apex of the heart caused by the beginning of ventricular systole. Most likely you have a right main stem bronchus intubation. pericardial thickening does not occur. LSB. an early sign of CHF. The warning sign or aura is associated with migraine although not everyone with migrane has an aura. Aortic closure is best heard at the 2nd RICS. Often bladder control is diminished following CVA. pruritus is secondary to presence of urea in the perspiration. Mr. Ventricular irritability is common in the early post-MI period. Fruity smelling breath is found in diabetic ketoacidosis. S2 (2nd ICS. Snellen test is a test for visual acuity using snellen’s chart. or in the neck & bandlike tightness around the neck. In right-handed persons the speech center (Broca’s area) is most commonly in the left brain. Vomiting and aspiration are possible complications of insertion and removal of an EOA. However. polydipsia. Wedge resection is removal of part of a segment of the lung. the pulse rate decreases and the BP rise. or just medial to. Liberatore will probably have some speech disturbance and rightsided paralysis. when auscultated only the right lung has breath sounds. which may have been called “sick headache” due to accompanying nausea and vomiting.It is usually inserted upside down and then rotated into the correct orientation as it approaches full insertion. Blood pressure measurement is also helpful. EOA insertion should only be attempted by persons highly proficient in their use. Visual field loss is a common side effect of CVA. or patient who have swallowed caustic substance. a CVA in the left brain will produce a right-sided hemiplegia. It is generally located in the 5th left ICS. Verapamil may be lethal if given to a patient with V-tach. providing the client has the right size cuff and he or she and/or significant other understand the technique and can interpret the results meaningfully. S1 is caused by mitral and tricuspid valve closure. Pulling the tube back a few centimeters may be all you need to do. Weakness and anorexia are due to progressive renal damage. diet. Daily weights may make the client alert to fluid accumulation. pediatric. . since visualization is not required the EOA may be very useful in patient’s when intubation is contraindicated or not possible. Tension headache – feeling of tightness bitemporally. the digitalis should be held and the physician consulted. RSB. Pulmonary congestion secondary to left atrial hypertrophy causes these symptoms. hemoptysis. therefore it should not be given to a tachycardic patient with a wide complex QRS. If the pulse rate drops below 60 or is markedly irregular. Mitral valve closure is best heard at the PMI landmark (apex) Macular area . Gliomas are malignant tumors.

analgesics for pain. If straining on defecation produced the valsalva maneuver and rhythm disturbances resulted then antidysrhythmics would be appropriate. Shortening of a leg is a sign of developmental dysplasia of the hip. While touching with cold hands can startle the infant it does not pose a safety risk.L. The other options are secondary effects of purse-lip breathing The non-rebreather mask has a one-way valve that prevents exhales air from entering the reservoir bag and one or more valves covering the air holes on the face mask itself to prevent inhalation of room air but to allow exhalation of air. Isolation can be self imposed or can occur as a result of the inability to express feelings. When the intercostal muscles and diaphragm become involved. Adolescent . Any activity that involves straining should be avoided in clients with glaucoma. Assertive communication respects the rights and responsibilities of both parties. Warming medications and fluids is not indicated. At this stage of development it is important to achieve a sense of identity and peer acceptance. instruct the client to alternately contract and relax muscles without moving the affected part. Domestic violence victims may be immobilized by a variety of affective responses. The specific antidote for overdose from verapamil. Clients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease have difficulty exhaling fully as a result of the weak alveolar walls from the disease process . Signs and symptoms include sudden paralysis. Membranes ruptured over 24 hours prior to birth greatly increases the risk of infection to both mother and the newborn. Explaining illness to 10 years old – able to think logically in organizing facts. Verapamil may cause hypotension. Mobility reduces the risk of deep vein thrombosis in the postsurgical client and the adult at risk. the respirations become shallow and coughing is ineffective. extreme irritability or fatigue.e. altered speech. During the working phase alternative behaviors and techniques are explored. Such activities would increase intraocular pressure. is capable of mature thought when allowed to manipulate and organize objects.S. Polycythemia occurs as a physiological reaction to chronic hypoxemia which commonly occurs in clients with Tetralogy of Fallot. according to Piaget. A filter can be placed transvenously to trap clots before they travel to the pulmonary circulation When using a warming device the neonate’s temperature should be continuously monitored for undesired elevations.Verapamil is a calcium channel blocker and may actually cause PEA if given too fast intravenously or if given in excessive amounts. hydration. The main general objectives in the treatment of a sickle cell crisis is bed rest.The isolation may occur gradually resulting in a loss of all meaningful social contacts. one being self-blame. . is calcium.. There are many possible causes for a childhood seizure. When a tight seal is achieved around the mask up to 100% of oxygen is available. If constipation occurs then laxatives would be necessary to prevent straining. The victim believes that a change in their behavior will cause the abuser to become nonviolent. which is a myth. This statement is an honest expression of concern for safe practice and a request for clarification without selfdepreciation. This is the major reason to use it. The client should also be instructed to do active range of motion exercises for every joint that is not immobilized at regular and frequent intervals Bronchopulmonary dysplasia is an iatrogenic disease caused by therapies such as use of positive-pressure ventilation used to treat lung disease. These include fever. toddlers struggle to assert independence. They often use the word “no” even when they mean yes. Alveolar collapse can be avoided with the use of pursed-lip breathing. i. or any other calcium channel blocker. The nurse and the client discuss the meaning behind the behavior. In Erikson’s theory of development. blood replacement and antibiotics to treat any existing infection. central nervous system conditions. Polycythemia and the resultant increased viscosity of the blood increase the risk of thromboembolic events. and seizures. The use of heat lamps is not safe as there is no way to regulate their temperature. A. Cerebrovascular accidents may occur. The child in the concrete operations stage. electrolyte replacement. metabolic alterations and idiopathic (unknown). It reflects the right of the professional to give and receive information. The nurse should instruct the client on isometric exercises for the muscles of the casted extremity. Administering stool softeners every day will prevent straining on defecation which causes the Valsalva maneuver. is a chronic progressive disease that involves degeneration of the anterior horn of the spinal cord as well as the corticospinal tracts. Clients with contraindications to heparin.Cricoid pressure may prevent gastric inflation during ventilations and may also prevent regurgitation by compressing the esophagus. This stage is called autonomy versus shame and doubt. recurrent PE (pulmonary embolism) or those with complications related to the medical therapy may require vena caval interruption by the placement of a filter device in the inferior vena cava. BVM . trauma.

Anxiety is triggered by change that threatens the individual’s sense of security. the nurse should remain calm. If left untreated or undetected blindness results in the affected eye. which may lead to death. IVF . young children have a tremendous capacity to withstand other stress. with surface exposed to the air. Such behaviors include clinging to parent. Stimulation of the breast during nursing releases oxytocin. fear of strangers becomes prominent beginning around age 6-8 months. In response to anxiety in clients. and have a great need to exercise control or power-over partner. Logical reasoning and social skills are developed through play. crying. There is progressive inflammation of the small vessels which progresses to the medium-sized muscular arteries. The structural defects associated with Tetralogy of Fallot include pulmonic stenosis. such as thromboembolic disorders. if needed. As the adolescent gains weight. Heartburn is a burning sensation caused by regurgitation of gastric contents that is best relieved by sleeping position. The purpose of play for the 7 year-old is cooperation. Rules are very important. the obstruction has increased or worsened. they need to call the health care provider immediately if the level of alertness changes. PTCA . metallic taste and fine hand tremors are common side effects that usually subside within days. PTCA is performed to improve coronary artery blood flow in a diseased artery. and turning away from the stranger. circumcision is not done in order to save the foreskin for surgical repair.The child should be turned every 2 hours.Sitting in a chair or resting in a bed in high Fowler''s position decreases the cardiac workload and facilitates breathing. Suppression is willfully putting an unacceptable thought or feeling out of one’s mind. With no evidence of secretions no support exists to indicate the need for suctioning. potentially damaging the walls and leading to coronary artery aneurysms. right ventricular hypertrophy and overriding of the aorta. and is considered as a noninfectious renal disease.Bowel prep is important because it will allow greater visualization of the bladder and ureters. have a low self-esteem. The use of oral contraceptives in a pregnant woman who smokes increases her risk of cardiovascular problems. minimize stimuli. Therefore. Batterers are also manipulative. beginning with strained cereal Prickling sensation is an indication of compartment syndrome and requires immediate action by the nurse. The nurse should help the parents see the negativism as a normal growth of autonomy in the toddler. Batterers are usually physically or psychologically abused as children or have had experiences of parental violence. muscle relaxant Yellow urine with mucus – normal for a client with ileal conduit Spinal anesthesia – assess the degree of response to pinpricks in the legs or toes (whether the client is recovering or not).The guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend that one new food be introduced at a time. They can best handle the negative toddler by using patience and humor. These fears/behaviors extend into the toddler period and may persist into preschool While parents should report any of the observations. Nephrotoxicity is a common side effect of calcium disodium edetate. or may be performed in stages. more secure/safe setting. . It is the greatest stress imposed on a toddler by hospitalization. which contracts the uterus. Oculogyric Crisis – involuntary muscle spasm of the eye. Conservative management in herniated disk – C. in addition to lead poisoning in general. and move the client to a calmer. and not eating before bedtime. AGN is generally accepted as an immune-complex disease in relation to an antecedent streptococcal infection of 4 to 6 weeks prior. This indicates anoxia. the more narrow the airway. During normal development. If separation is avoided. Lithium . This contraction is especially important following hemorrhage. CHF . Hip cast . Kawasaki Disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome) involves all the small and medium-sized blood vessels.I. Even if mild hypospadias is suspected. Surgery is often delayed. ventricular septal defect. A deliberate exclusion "voluntary forgetting" is generally used to protect one’s own self esteem.Procedure that compresses plaque against the wall of the diseased coronary artery to improve blood flow. Separation anxiety if most evident from 6 months to 30 months of age. Intraocular pressure becomes elevated which slowly produces a progressive loss of the peripheral visual field in the affected eye along with rainbow halos around lights. Aorta coronary bypass Graft is the surgical procedure to repair a diseased coronary artery. Intraocular pressure becomes elevated from the microscopic obstruction of the trabeculae meshwork. It is performed during a cardiac catheterization.Nausea. there is a lessening sense of self esteem and poor body image The higher pitched a sound is. eating small meals.

10 -15 mmHg The main difference between chronic and organic brain syndrome is that the former is progressive and irreversible. Meniere’s disease – feeling of ear fullness (before an attack).Reduce production of Aquesous Humor Chalazion . and ESRD. flashes of lights.lessening of the effective powers of accommodation Cataract – contact MD if experiencing pain. . 10 seconds – maximum time for suctioning At risk for osteoporosis – cushing’s disease. Avoid hot weather to prevent heat strokes.Replacement of normal bones by spongy and highly-vascularized bones and the stapes become fixed with the oval window Presbyopia . Sclera buckling for a detached retina – avoid abrupt movements of the head. Primary problem: blurring vision Enucleation – removal of the eyeball The primary reason for performing iridectomy after cataract extraction is to prevent secondary glaucoma.primarily caused by exposure to dust Aqueous humor produces in ciliary body Foreign body protruding in the eye – irrigate with NSS timolol [timoptic] . Expressive aphasia is prominent on clients with right sided weakness Acute close angle glaucoma – Pain Open angle glaucoma – no pain Wall unit suction – 100 – 120 mmHg Portable suction .Suspend the irrigant 45 cm above the stoma. restricted fluid intake Postural hypotension – common SE of Levodopa Lomotil – report for urinary incontinence Liquid iron – dilutes the medication and drink with straw Hypocalcemia – depressed reflexes Nitroglycerin ointment – remove previously applied ointment Hip fracture – leg shortened. Characterized by irreversible blindness. hyperthyroidism.disease would Probanthine exert the much needed action for control or treatment . 18 inches (maximum height of irrigation solution) Probantheline Bromide (Probanthine) – Reduces secretion of the glandular organ of the body.This indicates an intact and working vestibular branch of CN VIII Cane – hold 6 inches at lateral side of the foot Pterygium . Hodgkin’s – (young adults : 21 – 40 years old) Disorientation – organic psychosis (bizarre behavior) 6 – 12 months after –most hazardous period for development of clinical disease (TB) TB maintenance phase treatment – 4 months NGT – irrigate tube with saline as ordered Comparing equality of hand grasps – best to assist motor strength in a neurologically injured patient Cholecystitis/cholelithiasis – nausea after ingestion of high fat foods. progressive constriction of vision in one area. Levodopa – increase dopamine availability Ethambutol – not likely given during maintenance phase Normal IOP: 8 – 21 mmHg Instilled a cold water in the client’s right ear and he noticed that nystagmus occurred towards the left ear.Sterile chronic granulomatous inflammation of the meibomian gland Hyperopia – convex lens Retinal detachment – floating spots before the eyes.Theophylline ethylenediamide (COPD) – relax bronchial smooth muscle. Diet: Low Sodium. adducted & externally rotated 10 mm induration – (+) for TB Mantoux test not routinely done in the Philippines because almost all Filipinos will test positive for Mantoux Test. Rinne’s test – compare air conduction with bone conduction Otosclerosis . furosemide & phenytoin. the obstruction to the flow of aqueous humor is caused by displacement of the iris. Brick red – normal color of stoma Colostomy irrigation . Insert tube 3 – 4 inches. & least likely to experience pain In acute glaucoma. PUD .

the nurse should lift rather than slide the client to void shearing. and apocrine glands are involved in bacteria decomposition. performing ROM exercises. The adrenal medulla secretes the cathecolamines—epinephrine and norepinephrine. “Women older than age 40 should perform breast selfexamination monthly (not annually). however. easing anginal pain. TIA aymptoms last no longer than 24 hours and clients usually have complete recovery after TIA. Sebaceous glands lubricate the skin and hairs. Eccrine glands are associated with body temperature regulation. leading to respiratory acidosis. Continuous subcutaneous insulin regimen uses a basal rate and boluses of short-acting insulin. The vitreous humor maintains the retina’s placement and the shape of the eye. painless loss of vision lasting up to 24 hours. The pancreas mainly secretes hormones involved in fuel metabolism. A turning schedule with a signing sheet will help ensure that the client gets turned and thus. and disturbance in memory. Levodopa . Checking the stools. administering oxygen at any concentration dilates blood vessels. elevating the head of the bed to 30 degrees helps minimize the client’s risk of aspiration. Turning should occur every 1-2 hours—not every 8 hours—for clients who are in bed for prolonged periods.CI: Vitamin B6 rich food Hypoxia is the main breathing stimulus for a client with COPD. The nurse should instill the eyedrop into the conjunctival sac where absorption can best take place. and hypotension.or progesteronedependent. no matter how small. hypovolemia. Beet greens and parsley – lessen the odor of colostomy Tonometry –measures IOP Pilocarpine – contract the ciliary muscle Weber’s test . Anginal pain results from a reduced myocardial oxygen supply. Holding the cane close to the body prevents leaning. and polyphagia. A male client should be taught how to perform testicular selfexamination before age 20. or stroke. Injury to the frontal lobe causes personality changes. Leukemia is manifested by an abnormal overpopulation of immature leukocytes in the bone marrow. Injury to the parietal lobe causes . The parathyroids secrete parathyroid hormone Holding a cane on the uninvolved side distributes weight away from the involved side.During colostomy irrigation. help prevent pressure ulcers. which could damage capillaries. When client’s gag reflex is absent. but preventing aspiration through positioning is the priority. in the near future. reasoning. such as metabolism and glucose regulation Excessive of aldosterone in the adrenal cortex is responsible for the client’s hypertension. In a client with COPD.Increased pressure within the portal veins (portal HTN) causes them to bulge. polydipsia. The sclera maintains the eye’s shape and size. Excessive oxygen administration may lead to apnea by removing that stimulus. The most common symptom of TIA is sudden. Esophageal varices . Diabetes mellitus is a hyperglycemic state marked by polyuria. Use of a cane won’t maintain stride length or prevent edema. the louder ear might have a sensory hearing loss and the other side with conductive hearing loss. in profound Testicular cancer commonly occurs in men between ages 20 and 30. Adrenal crisis is undersecretion of glucocorticoids resulting hypoglycemia. A client with COPD may have anginal pain from generalized vasoconstriction secondary to hypoxia. Removing the bag or unclamping it is the only appropriate method for relieving gas. and keeping the skin clean and dry are important. and concentration. not excessive oxygen administration. preferably when he enters his teens According to the ACS guidelines. This hormone acts on the renal tubule.” The hormonal receptor assay is done on a known breast tumor to determine whether the tumor is estrogen. not alkalosis. The nurse should apply lotion to keep the skin moist but should avoid vigorous massage. Cushing’s syndrome is excessive glucocorticoid secretion resulting in sodium and water retention. When moving the client. High oxygen concentrations don’t cause metabolic acidosis. when patient experience cramping – stop the irrigation by clamping the tube. Respiratory alkalosis results from alveolar hyperventilation. where it promotes reabsorption of sodium and excretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. high oxygen concentrations decrease the ventilatory drive. TIA may be a warning that the client will experience a CVA. will destroy the odor-proof seal of a drainage bag. The pupil permits light to enter the eye. leading to rupture and bleeding into the lower esophagus. Neisseria meningitides – droplet precaution The portion of the cerebrum that controls speech and hearing is the temporal lobe. difficulty speaking. Alcohol – not compatible when taking probanthine Atropine Sulfate . Endocrine glands secrete hormones responsible for the regulation of body processes.if one side of the ear hears louder than the other ear.drug should always be available in any case systemic toxicity occurs while patient is under Pilocarpine. Multiple daily injection therapy uses a combination of short-acting and intermediate or longacting insulins Diabetes insipidus is an abrupt onset of extreme polyuria that commonly occurs in clients after brain surgery. Any hole.

For adequate cerebral perfusion to take place. Unless contraindicated. medium. CPP is derived by subtracting the ICP from the mean arterial pressure (MAP). dopamine-related symptoms are severely exacerbated.The client should report the presence of foulsmelling or cloudy urine. They’re classified as fine. Hematuria is common after lithotripsy. Continuous. diffuse osteoporosis can occur. When the mechanical stressors of weight bearing are absent. which can exacerbate palpitations and should be avoided by a client with symptomatic mitral valve prolapse. Nipple retraction —not eversion—may be a sign of cancer. and postural hypotension are adverse reactions to captopril. . High fluid intake helps maintain adequate preload and cardiac output. Because thrombocytopenia impairs blood clotting. Caffeine is a stimulant. and photosensitivity. resulting in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaking through the ears and nose. The MAP is derived using the following formula: MAP = ((diastolic blood pressure x 2) + systolic blood pressure) / 3 MAP = ((60 x2) + 90) / 3 MAP = 70 mmHg To find the CPP. Pleural friction rubs have a distinctive grating sound. epistaxis. Sand-like debris is normal because of residual stone products. such as pruritus. result when air moves rapidly through airways narrowed by asthma or infection or when an airway is partially obstructed by a tumor or foreign body. ABG levels will be checked to assess how the client is tolerating the procedure. hard. Aerobic exercise helps in increase cardiac output and decrease heart rate. occur on expiration and sometimes on inspiration. is a major risk factor for infective endocarditis. if intermittent catheterization for urine retention typically yields 500 ml or more. Any fluid suspected of being CSF should be checked for glucose or has a halo test done. the frequency of catheterization should be increased. called wheezes. Glipizide (Glucotrol) may cause adverse skin reactions. Autonomy ascribes the right of the individual to make his own decisions. A mobile mass that is soft and easily delineated is most often a fluid-filled benigned cyst. they aren’t immediately lifethreatening and thus are less urgent. Also. Erythema. Axillary lymph nodes may or may not be palpable on initial detection of a cancerous mass. if the client does weight-bearing exercises. and immunosuppression Ottorrhea and rhinorrhea are classic signs of basilar skull fracture. musical squeaks. the nurse should assess the client regularly for signs of bleeding. crackles are discrete sounds that vary in pitch and intensity. ineffective airway clearance is the priority diagnosis for this client. A universal concern in the care of donor sites for burn care is to keep the site away from sources of pressure. Therefore. Although imbalanced nutrition:less than body requirements. Protein-rich foods aren’t restricted but high calorie foods are. Wheezes. Because of these concerns. characterized by a brief loss of consciousness and period of confusion. As a rule of practice. HCG is one of the tumor markers for testicular cancer. These sounds develop when thick secretions partially obstruct airflow through the large upper airways. excessive drooling increases the risk of airway obstruction. purpura. 25 dihydroxy vitamin D. Breast cancer tumors are fixed. the minimum goal is 70 mmHg. and swelling are present in both cellulites and necrotizing fasciitis. such as petechiae. Heard during inspiration and expiration. it’s most important to have a baseline ABG levels. the client should be instructed to drink large quantities of fluid each day to flush the kidneys.sensory alterations and problems with spatial relationships. Loud. such as a mitral valve replacement. or coarse. A client who is confined to bed during a crisis is at risk for aspiration and pneumonia. Other risk factors include a history of heart disease (especially mitral valve prolapse). virtually immobilizing the client. During the weaning process. like gurgles. he third cranial nerve (oculomotor) is responsible for pupil constriction. Injury to the dura commonly occurs with this fracture. these breath sounds result when inflamed pleurae rub together. impaired urinary elimination and risk for injury also are appropriate diagnoses for this client.least serious form of brain trauma. Severe pressure-like pain out of proportion to visible signs distinguishes necrotizing fasciitis from cellulites. Before weaning a client from mechanical ventilation. leukocytosis. In Parkinson’s crisis. low-pitched sounds resembling snoring are called gurgles. Damage to the occipital lobe causes vision disturbances. highpitched. coarse. Percutaneous lithotripsy . and bleeding gums. disuse complications can be prevented Peripheral edema is a sign of fluid volume overload and worsening heart failure. Coup . chronic debilitating disease. subtract the client’s ICP from the MAP. IV drug abuse. but the don’t indicate that therapy isn’t effective. and poorly delineated with irregular edges. dry cough. Indwelling catheterization is less preferred because of the risk of urinary tract infection and the loss of bladder tone. PTH stimulates the kidneys to reabsorb calcium and excrete phosphate and converts vit D to its active form: 1 . A skin rash. Crackles result from air moving through airways that contain fluid. A heart valve prosthesis. As the name indicates.

In chronic bronchitis. the relative acidity of the upper GI tract predominates leading to metabolic acidosis. Annual thyroid-stimulating hormone tests and the client’s ability to recognize signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction will help detect thyroid abnormalities early. so can’t transmit. A scale is the characteristic secondary lesion occurring in psoriasis HHNS . Profound intravascular depletion requires aggressive fluid replacement. with more fluid to follow over the next 24 hours. Encourage the client to wear properly fitted dentures to enhance his chewing ability. causes patchy hair loss and circular lesions with healing centers. The presence of glucose is an expected finding in CSF. The client should limit dietary cholesterol because hyperlipidemia is associated with atherosclerosis. HDLs have the lowest cholesterol concentration. CSF = 50 . hypotonic half-normal saline solution. The NG tube shouldn’t be clamped postoperatively because secretions and gas will accumulate. A dry gauze —not a plastic-sheet-type dressing—should cover the wet dressing. the first concern is to maintain a patent airway. not thin liquids. Diarrhea causes a bicarbonate deficit. honey-colored crust. The client doesn’t have active TB. Therefore. Anyone with psoriasis vulgaris who reports joint pain should be evaluated for psoriaic arthritis. and they should never have another skin test. or spread. isotonic normal saline solution and. when the client is stabilized. Anaerobic exercise may exacerbate these symptoms. The nurse can gently irrigate the tube but must take care not to reposition it.Regular follow-up care for the client with Grave’s disease is critical because most cases eventually result in hypothyroidism. To help prevent airway obstruction and reduce the risk of aspiration. rapid fluid resuscitation is critical for maintaining cardiovascular integrity. so this client should eat foods that raise HDL levels. and RBCs typically occur in the first specimen tube from the trauma caused by the procedure. The client with chronic bronchitis should exhale through pursed lips to prolong exhalation. Scabies is a contagious dermatitis caused by the itch mite. Various fluids can be used. Exhalation should longer than inhalation to prevent collapse of the bronchioles. keep the bronchioles from collapsing. A wet-to-dry saline dressing should always keep the wound moist. fatty stools that have a foul odor. However. They can’t be brushed off the hair shaft like dandruff. Glipizide begins to act in 15 to 30 minutes. The artificial airway also prevents the upper respiratory system from humidifying and heating air to enhance mucociliary clearance. the artificial airway impairs the gag and cough reflexes that help keep organisms out of the lower respiratory tract. not dehydration.180 / 70 – 200 mmH2o. manifested by vesicles or pustules that form a thick. . Clients with chronic arterial occlusive disease must reduce daily fat intake to 30% or less of total calories. and applying antiembolism stockings can be appropriate for a client with CVA. A typical fluid resuscitation protocol is 6 L of fluid over the first 12 hours. Gastric decompression is typically low pressure and intermittent. Daily walks relieve symptoms of intermittent claudication. The client should be placed in a recumbent position—not a supine position— when lying down to reduce the risk of aspiration. not every hour. Thickened liquids. Approximately 15% to 20% of individuals with psoriasis will also develop psoriatic arthritis. which can be painful and cause deformity. The head of the bed must be elevated while the client is eating. Repositioning can cause bleeding. fat isn’t absorbed but is passed in the stool. Tight packing or dry packing can cause tissue damage and pain. For clients with increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Tinea capitis. Manipulations of the artificial airway sometimes allow secretions into the lower airways. The light-colored spots attached to the hair shafts are nits. When clients are on mechanical ventilation. Diaphragmatic increases lung expansion. or ringworm. Individuals who are tuberculin skin test converters should begin a 6-month regimen of an antitubercular drug such as INH. which lives just beneath the skin. Suction should be applied continuously. a known cause of arterial occlusive disease. and prevent air trapping. After an individual has a positive tuberculin skin test. the diaphragmatic is flat and weak. breathing—not chest breathing— Tenting of chest skin when pinched indicates decreased skin elasticity due to dehydration. the bacteria. she shouldn’t be quarantined or asked for information about recent contacts. providing pillows for support. decrease aspiration risk. the nurse should position a client with hemiparesis on the affected side. not rapidly. Sacoptes scabiei. depending on the degree of hypovolemia.Regardless of the client’s medical history. Impetigo is an infection caused by Staphylococcus or Sterptococcus. With loss of the relative alkalinity of the lower GI tract. the head of the bed is elevated to promote venous outflow. Although performing ROM exercises. Because celiac disease destroys the absorbing surface of the intestine. although the exact mechanism is unclear. stressing the suture line. Commonly prescribed fluids include dextran (in case of hypovolemic shock). Diaphragmatic breathing helps to strengthen the diaphragm and maximizes ventilation. A pulse that isn’t easily obliterated and neck vein distention indicate fluid overload. Hand veins fill slowly with dehydration. which are the eggs of head lice. subsequent skin tests will cause severe skin reactions but won’t provide new information about the client’s TB status. Steatorrhea is bulky.

and a passive attitude. First-degree burns are superficial and involve the epidermis only. manifestations involving pupillary symmetry. and the Benson Relaxation Response. beliefs. such as illness. Analysis of data is included as part of the assessment. An enterostomal nurse therapist is a registered nurse who has received advance education in an accredited program to care for clients with stomas. and practices and those of others because of strong ethnocentric tendencies . or accentuated risk of enduring severe suffering or possible death . even if the client eventually recovers completely. The outcome of cognitive appraisal is identification of the situation as either stressful or non-stressful. Experiential readiness refers to past experiences that influence a person’s ability to learn. Coughing and incentive spirometry improve oxygenation and should raise or maintain oxygen saturation. When performing a nutritional assessment. Weighing the client daily. using a cooling blanket can lower peripheral oxygen saturation readings. usually businesses. any change in a family member. is a goal for home care nurses. pulmonary edema can develop causing pulmonary crackles. The enterostomal nurse therapist can assist with selection of an appropriate stoma site.refers to the process through which an event is evaluated with respect to what is at stake and what might and can be done. There is local pain and redness but no blistering. for a negotiated fee that often is discounted. When someone in a group of persons sharing a home contracts scabies.a group of behavioral or psychological symptoms or a pattern that manifests itself in significant distress. a comfortable position. Fourth-degree burns involve underlying muscle and bone tissue. Inability of a person to recognize his or her own values. or black and are dry and leathery with no blisters. High pulmonary artery wedge pressures are diagnostic for leftsided heart failure. As neurologic deterioration progresses. maintaining a patent airway is the most critical nursing intervention. Second-degree burns appear red and moist with blister formation and are painful. Third-degree burn may appear white. Beneficence is the duty to do good and the active promotion of benevolent acts Mental disorder . and provide emotional support External fixator – maintains reduction and overall hand function. each individual in the same home needs prompt treatment whether he’s symptomatic or not. placing her on I & O status. Endotracheal suctioning secretions as well as gases from the airway and lowers the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) level. relaxation with guided imagery. Towels and linens should be washed in hot water. In the case of delayed PTSD. Tertiary preventive nursing care. Scabies can be transmitted from one person to another before symptoms develop. A mental device (something on which to focus the attention) relaxation techniques of progressive muscle relaxation. Similar elements also include a quiet environment. teach about stoma care. the initial sign of increasing ICP is a change in the level of consciousness. Ventilatory support is usually needed. The client shouldn’t be permitted to eat as desired. Collaborative problems are physiologic complications that nurses monitor to detect onset or changes and manage through the use of physician-prescribed and nursing-prescribed interventions to minimize the complications of events. and posturing will occur. there may be up to a 6-month period of time that elapses between the trauma and the manifestation of symptoms. breathing patterns. hypotension may result and urine output will decline. In leftsided heart failure. the nurse allows 100 pounds for 5 feet of height and adds 5 pounds for each additional inch over 5 feet The history of the present illness is the single most important factor in assisting the health professional in arriving at a diagnosis or determining the person’s needs. produces role changes in all family members and affects the entire family. Because of superficial vasoconstriction. one of the first things the nurse should do is to assess what the client typically eats. but SaO2 levels wouldn’t be affected. There may be little pain because nerve endings have been destroyed. impaired functioning. focusing on rehabilitation and restoring maximum health function. To calculate the ideal body weight of a woman. PPO’s (preferred provider organization) usually contract to provide health care to subscribers. red. With leftsided heart failure. making adherence difficult Cognitively intact patients who have stress or urge incontinence may gain bladder control through biofeedback Cultural blindness results in bias and stereotyping. and drawing blood to determine electrolyte level aren’t part of a nutritional assessment. With a brain injury such as an epidural hematoma (a diagnosis that is most likely based on this client’s symptoms). When a pair of chromosomes fails to separate completely and creates a sperm or oocyte that contains two copies of a particular chromosome (nondisjunction) Down syndrome results from three number 21 chromosomes. Cognitive appraisal . According to family theory.Because respirations are depressed in myxedema coma. Elderly people frequently have one or more chronic illnesses that are managed with numerous medications and complicated by periodic acute episodes.

and acceptance The reasons case management has gained such prominence can be traced to the decreased cost of care associated with decreased length of hospital stay. 2nd intention healing . Chloride is a major anion found in extracellular fluid. hypothermia. coupled with rapid and frequent inter-unit transfers from specialty to standard care units. higher mortality rates in hospitalized patients and community-dwelling elderly are associated with individuals who have low BMI. Stress incontinence . Additionally. Palliation is the goal for care in terminal cancer patients.method of wound healing is one in which wound edges are not surgically approximated and integumentary continuity is restored by granulations. Some Native Americans stare at the floor during conversations. the family and the health care professionals are aware that the patient is dying but all pretend otherwise Physical tolerance usually occurs in the absence of addiction. Nitroprusside (nipride) .Predictions regarding the time of their onset. respirations are above 20.refers to the decrease in lens flexibility that occurs with age. Expression of the BRCA1 gene is an example of inheritance in the development of breast cancer. Although some people take on a sick role identity. The leading health problems of elementary school children are injuries. A disadvantage of nitroprusside is that it causes hypotension. they will be allowed to heal by secondary intention. such as albumin. their extent and eventual severity as well as which treatments or medications are likely to be most effective or harmful are the focus of genomic medicine. An individual who has an autosomal dominant inherited condition carries a gene mutation for that condition on one chromosome of a pair. among other body organs.associated with weakened perineal muscles that permit leakage of urine when intra-abdominal pressure is increased In compensatory shock. the patient’s blood pressure is normal. and pancreas. resulting in the near point of focus getting farther away Tolerance is characterized by the need for increasing dose requirements to maintain the same level of pain relief. It also cause bradycardia. Mu opiods – stimulation. patient experience fatigue and breathlessness with sustained activity. bargaining. In mutual pretense awareness. The naturalist or holistic perspective believes that health exists when all aspects of a persona are in perfect balance or harmony. The stages include: denial. and heart rate is above 100 but below 150. liver. malnutrition. Individuals demonstrating ageism base their beliefs and attitudes about older people based upon chronological age without consideration of functional capacity. conveying respect and indicating that the listener is paying close attention to the speaker. Bereavement is the period of time during which mourning a loss takes place. anger. Patients with orthopnea are placed in a high Fowler’s position to facilitate breathing Septic shock is associated with immunosuppression. infections. extremes of age. (Ashkanazi Jewish) A trochanter roll. provides resistance to the external rotation of the hip. chronic illness. depression. Perioperative period includes the preoperative. Signs of alcohol withdrawal delirium Up to 72 hours after alcohol withdrawal Presbyopia . Distributive or vasogenic shock results from displacement of blood volume.surgery without delay. and invasive procedures. malnourishment. Both genders are affected in vertical pattern. Emergency surgery means that the patient requires immediate attention and the disorder may be life-threatening. (below 24) Stable cells have a latent ability to regenerate if they are damaged or destroyed and are found in the kidney. Hepatitis B is transmitted through contact with infected blood or plasma. then depression (RR). creating a relative hypovolemia . and constipation. and postoperative phases. and cancer. Antimetabolites are cell–cycle-specific (S phase). reducing oxygen demand of the heart. Relief of symptoms associated with cancer. intraoperative. When wounds dehisce. dental disease. the patient. properly placed. most people with chronic conditions do not consider themselves sick or ill and try to live as normal a life as is possible.vasoactive drugs used in treating shock results in reduced preload and afterload. Older adult – increase residual volume. as a result. Oncotic pressure is a pulling pressure exerted by proteins.

In the progressive stage of shock. Albumin (rapidly expand plasma volume) is a colloid that requires human donors. The 60 minute interval is known as “door to balloon time” for performance of PTCA on a diagnosed MI patient. Potassium is a major cation that affects cardiac muscle functioning. Marfan’s syndrome. decreasing the ischemia directly. in the absence of disease of the vasculature.experiencing chest pain more frequently even at rest. Legionnaires’ disease accounts for 15% of community-acquired pneumonias. is limited in supply. The U wave is an ECG waveform characteristic that may reflect Purkinje fiber repolarization. It is usually seen when a patient’s serum potassium level is low. Cricoids cartilage . or severe kyphoscoliosis. A PVC is an impulse that starts in a ventricle before the next normal sinus impulse. *arterial insufficiency) TNR (transmyocardial laser revascu. there is a difference of no more than 5 mm Hg between arm pressures. the exposure to which. HSV : 2 – 12 days incubation period. PAT is often caused by a conduction problem in the AV node and is now called AV nodal reentry tachycardia. (crescendo or pre-infarction angina and indicates the need for a change in treatment. Large cell carcinoma is a fast-growing tumor that tends to arise peripherally. Abrupt withdrawal of tranquilizers may result in anxiety. Angina pectoris is a symptom of myocardial ischemia. the patient may become restless (signs of approaching death). High occurrence during summer or fall.) Clergyman’s sore throat – “chronic granular pharyngitis”. and contractility. the channels close as a result of the body’s inflammatory process of healing a wound and new blood vessels form as a result of the inflammatory process.ECG waveforms characterizes conduction of an electrical impulse through the left ventricle. Within the next few days to months. Pigeon chest (displacement of the sternum) may occur with rickets. Overall. Fentanyl is 75-100 times more potent than morphine and has about 25% of the duration of morphine (IV). cardiac rehabilitation is a complete program dedicated to extending and improving quality of life.Clean-contaminated cases are those with a potential. A high specific gravity indicates increased concentration of solutes in the urine which occurs with inadequate fluid volume.most prevalent carcinoma of the lung for both men and women. tension. Fentanyl (Sublimaze) – neuroleptanalgesic. limited source for infection. Stage I is mild COPD with FEV1 < 70%. and even seizures if withdrawn suddenly. and can cause congestive heart failure. Located below the thyroid cartilage. Urine output of less than 25 ml/hr may indicate a decrease in cardiac output. can be controlled The living will is a type of advance medical directive in which the individual of sound mind documents treatment preferences. . the period of pain is longer. Normally. Automaticity . the mechanisms that regulate blood pressure can no longer compensate.characterized by abrupt onset. and a QRS of normal duration.arization) procedures usually involves making 20 to 40 channels in ventricular muscle. and it takes less stress for the pain to occur. COPD . Mantoux test – redness and induration Adenocarcinoma . and the mean arterial pressure falls below normal limits. afterload. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardia . abrupt cessation. The pharynx is characterized by numerous swollen lymph follicles. Stage II patients demonstrate FEV1 between > 30% and 80%. (induces angiogenesis) Unstable angina . to a large extent. Stage III – surgical anesthesia As the oxygen supply to the brain decreases. Ventricular depolarization. Prostaglandins are believed to increase sensitivity to pain receptors by enhancing the pain-provoking effect of bradykinin.Stage O is characterized by normal spirometry. When PVCs occur at a rate of more than six per minute they indicate increasing ventricular irritability and are considered forerunners of ventricular tachycardia (VT). Intermittent claudication is leg pain that is brought on by exercise and relieved by rest. Bizarre. Stroke volume (amount of blood ejected per heartbeat) is determined by preload. COPD – barrel chest QRS complex .the only complete cartilaginous ring in the larynx. abnormal QRS complex.ability of the heart to initiate an electrical impulse.Stage III patients demonstrate FEV1 < 30% with respiratory failure or clinical signs of right heart failure. Tachycardia is often the earliest sign of malignant hyperthermia. It is thought that some blood flows into the channels.

Daily instillation of dilute heparin flush when a port is not in use will maintain the port. the nurse should apply suction no longer than 10-15 seconds because hypoxia and dysrhythmias may develop. Hyperkalemia is indicated by mental confusion. probably as a result of improved diagnostic methods.Usually the pressure is maintained at less than 25 cm water pressure to prevent injury and at more than 20 cm water pressure to prevent aspiration. leading to cardiac arrest. restlessness. Occurs usually in men. Pulmonary artery wedge pressure . no drains are used for the pneumonectomy patient because the accumulation of fluid in the empty hemithorax prevents mediastinal shift. The border of an ulcer caused by arterial insufficiency is circular. and fissures. The carotid artery lies close to the stoma and may rupture from erosion if the wound does not heal properly.patient who has complex cyanotic congenital malformations. resulting in bleeding between the intimal and medial layers of the arterial wall. weakness. crust formation. High risk for infective endocarditis . however. It is not used in angina and coronary artery disease. Patient who has undergone laryngectomy suffers wound breakdown is high risk for carotid artery hemorrhage. (20 – 25 mmHg) CVP – assess in right atrium.Minipress is a peripheral vasodilator acting directly on the blood vessel. hypotension. and respiratory depression. To ensure patency of central venous line ports. Dissection results from a rupture in the intimal layer. because it induces tachycardia if not preceded by administration of propranolol and a diuretic. In venous insufficiency the border is irregular.When the balloon on the distal tip of a pulmonary artery catheter is inflated and a pressure is measured. In general. reflecting left atrial pressure and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure. Stem cell . When the balloon is inflated. Untreated hypomagnesemia may result in coma. In third degree heart block. usually on the buccal mucosa. especially those who are older and overweight 3rd degree AV block . cardiac arres. Persistent cough may indicate an onset of left-heart failure. consideration of the danger of aspiration must be foremost in the mind of the nurse caring for the patient receiving continuous tube feedings. Stem cells may differentiate into myeloid or lymphoid stem cells. Usually. and dysrhythmias (tall. lethargy. Patients with duodenal ulcers usually secrete an excess amount of hydrochloric acid. the tip of the catheter floats into smaller branches of the pulmonary arty until it can no longer be passed and the pressure is recorded. Acute lymphadenitis is demonstrated by enlarged.lung tissue that has become more solid in nature due to a collapse of alveoli or infectious process Hypermagnesemia . Subcutaneous emphysema occurs after chest surgery as the air that is located within the pleural cavity is expelled through the tissue opening created by the surgical procedure. Enteric-coated tablets are meant to be digested in the intestinal tract and may be destroyed by stomach acids. hyporeflexia. Sinus dysrhythmia occurs when the sinus node creates an impulse at an irregular rhythm.vasodilation. nausea. the patient will be less likely to want to discuss prognosis. when anxiety begins to increase.no atrial impulse is conducted through the AV node into the ventricles.harsh and cracking. Generally. dilute heparin flushes daily when not in use. capable of self-replication and differentiation. Nicotine causes vasospasm and can thereby dramatically reduce circulation to the extremities. red and tender lymph nodes.primitive cell. Normal bowel sounds are heard every 5-20 seconds Mitral valve prolpase is a deformity that usually produces no symptoms and has been diagnosed more frequently in recent years. Prazosin HCl . A pleural friction rub is heard secondary to inflammation and loss of lubricating pleural fluid. apnea. Because of the structural changes. Because the normal swallowing mechanism is bypassed. Leukoplakia is characterized by white patches. Heart rate increases during inspiration and decreases during expiration. A change of form of medication is required by patients with tube feedings.most common symptom of esophageal disease Intrinsic factor combines with vitamin B12. . Dysphagia . hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had also been called idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS) or asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH). Pleural friction rub . sounding like two pieces of leather being rubbed together. Scaling. Obstructive sleep apnea is characterized by lack of airflow due to pharyngeal occlusion. Consolidation . slow gastrointestinal motility (hypoactive bowel sounds). peaked T waves). two impulses stimulate the heart—one stimulates the ventricles and one stimulates the atria.

Immediately after the removal of the indwelling catheter. the feces are solid. Most nasoenteric tubes use mercury to carry the tube by gravity to its desired location. decreased bile flow. Choledocholithotomy refers to incision of the common bile duct for the removal of stones (liths). After liver biopsy – right side lying position. Regional enteritis – (Transmural thickeneing) is an early pathologic change of Crohn’s disease. the patient is placed on a timed voiding schedule. Later pathology results in deep. The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the recommended procedure for long-term weight loss. halitosis and a sour taste in the mouth are frequent complaints. The presence of mucus and pus in the stools suggests inflammatory colitis or enteritis. Celiac sprue Mucosal disorders causing generalized malabsorption. creating a gastroenterostomy. In this position. Adhesions (most common cause of bowel obstruction) are scar tissue that forms as a result of inflammation and infection. and feet. Cylindruria – cast in the urine. head. decreased food absorption. swallowing.venous access devices can be used for no more than 30 days in patients requiring parenteral nutrition. Omeprazole (Prilosec) decreases gastric acid by slowing the hydrogen-potassium-adenosine-triphosphatase pump on the surface of the parietal cells. The onset of action of rapid-acting Humalog is within 10-15 minutes.Salivary stones are formed mainly from calcium phosphate. Side effects of Xenical may include increased bowel movements. most commonly the face. Family history of colon cancer or familial polyposis is a risk factor for colorectal cancer. Borborygmus is the term used to refer to intestinal rumbling which accompanies diarrhea. Anal fissure . an x-ray image will disclose an unfilled segment of a vein. Constipation is a reversible cause of urinary incontinence in the older adult. gas with oily discharge. Non tunneled catheter . the patient may complain of tenderness or difficulty in chewing. Anticholinergic agents are considered first-line medications for urge incontinence. With a sigmoid colostomy. Other reversible causes include acute urinary tract infection. Sialolithiasis .exert their primary action by directly stimulating the pancreas to secrete insulin. the liver capsule at the site of penetration is compressed against the chest wall.Tissue hypoperfusion is manifested as cerebral hypoxia (restlessness. Secretory diarrhea is usually high volume diarrhea and is caused by increased production and secretion of water and electrolytes by the intestinal mucosa into the intestinal lumen. decreased fluid intake. penetrating granulomas. usually two to three hours Orlistat (Xenical) prevents the absorption of triglycerides. and decreased estrogen levels in the menopausal women. Orange to amber colored urine may also indicate concentrated urine due to dehydration or fever. recommend that anemia be quantified using hemoglobin rather than hematocrit measurements. As the cancer progresses.longitudinal tear or ulceration in the lining of the anal canal . Urine that is orange may be caused by intake of Dilantin or other medications. regional enteritis and radiation enteritis are examples of mucosal disorders. In this procedure. Because the diverticula may retain decomposed food. a horizontal row of staples creates a stomach pouch with a 1-cm stoma that is anastomosed with a portion of distal jejunum. and the escape of blood or bile through the perforation made for the biopsy is impeded. confusion. Pyelonephritis (renal pelvis) is an upper urinary tract inflammation. In addition to celiac sprue. Contrast phlebography . which may be acute or chronic. infection elsewhere in the body.Classic sign of cardiogenic shock .diagnostic test that involves injection of a contrast media into the venous system through a dorsal vein in the foot. agitation). and decreased absorption of some vitamins. or speaking.scar tissue surrounds the portal areas. Many oral cancers produce no symptoms in the early stages. Alcoholic cirrhosis . The patient with acromegaly demonstrates progressive enlargement of peripheral body parts. Casts may be identified through microscopic examination of the urine sediment after centrifuging. Digestion of cholesterol is aided by amylase. When a thrombus exists. Sulfonyureas . Excess somatotropin. a change in a chronic disease pattern. hands. The 2001 Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative: Management of Anemia Guidelines. as it is more accurate in assessment of circulating oxygen.

as well as for women aged 40 and older. Saline agents use osmosis to stimulate peristalsis and act within 2 hours of consumption. A right angle straightens the urethra and makes it easier to insert the catheter. dribbling.draw water into the intestines by osmosis.4%) The viral set point is the balance between the amount of HIV in the body and the immune response. when less fluid is retained. or a disease process. Agammaglobulinemia (Bruton’s disease ) is a sex-linked disease that results in infants born with the disorder suffering severe infections soon after birth. BSE is best performed after menses. Cytotoxic T cells . It has been shown to identify atypical cells in this population and has been found to be adept at detecting cellular changes within the breast tissue.develop early in life after protection from maternal antibodies decreases. When administering glargine (Lantus) insulin it is very important to read the label carefully and to avoid mistaking Lantus insulin for Lente insulin and vice versa. Cytomegalovirus is a species-specific herpes virus. A negative test result indicates that antibodies to the AIDS virus are not present in the blood at the time the blood sample for the test is drawn. K-Y jelly is water-based and will provide lubrication while not damaging the condom. Interferons are biologic response modifiers with nonspecific viricidal proteins. CD4 T cell count level. difficult. Luteinizing hormone is released by the pituitary gland. is a good choice for short-course therapy of uncomplicated. it cannot be mixed with other insulins because this would cause precipitation. Although specific therapies vary.lyse cells infected with virus.6%) and a high eradication rate for all pathogens (96. Known to cause retinitis in HIV/AIDS A Pap smear is recommended for women aged 19-39 years. counting the first day of menses as day 1. mild to moderate UTI. monitoring of urine output and frequent office visits as designated by the reproductive endocrinologist. divide. Management in mild and moderate cases of OHSS (ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome) consists of decreased activity. Early signs of erythema of nipple and areola.women at higher risk for benign proliferative breast disease. Laparoscopic myomectomy is the removal of fibroids through a laparoscope inserted through a small abdominal incision. . a floroquinolone. Performed in the doctor’s office. or impossible. and proliferate. treatment of HIV infection for an individual patient is based on three factors: the clinical condition of the patient. On day 5 to day 7. A vesicovaginal fistula (opening between bladder and vagina) may occur because of tissue injury sustained during surgery. a microcatheter is inserted through the nipple while instilling saline and retrieving the fluid for analysis. Stimulate production of progesterone. Stereotactic biopsy (use for nonpalpable lesion) utilizes computer location of the suspicious area found on biopsy. Nausea is typically associated with appendicitis with or without vomiting. scaling. and HIV RNA (viral load). Stem cells comprise only a small portion of all types of bone marrow cells. The introitus is the vaginal orifice. urgency.stage of the immune response does the circulatinglymphocyte containing the antigenic message return to the nearest lymph node Once in the node. pylori. vaginal delivery. nocturia.thickening.Saline agents (Milk of Magnesia) . Proliferation . and erosion of the nipple and areola. The nurse must never clamp a nephrostomy tube because it could cause obstruction and resultant pyelonephritis. the sensitized lymphocyte stimulates some of the resident dormant T and B lymphocytes to enlarge. Symptoms of prostatism include increased frequency of urination. Clinical trial data show high patient compliance with the 3-day regimen (95. followed by core needle insertion and sampling of tissue for pathologic examination. Because glargine is in a suspension with a pH of 4. Antibiotics and bismuth salts are given to eradicate H. and a sensation that the bladder has not completely emptied. Levofloxacin. Primary immunodeficiencies . The stem cell is known as a precursor cell that continually replenishes the body’s entire supply of both red and white cells. Play a role in graft rejection Paget’s disease . Proteins formed when cells are exposed to viral or foreign agents that are capable of activating other components of the immune system Peyronie’s disease (buildup of fibrous plaques in the sheath of the corpus cavernosum causing curvature of the penis when it is erect) may require surgical removal of the plaques when the disease makes sexual intercourse painful. Ductal lavage .

the patient is demonstrating severe eosinophilia.When eosinophils make up 50-90% of white cell count. Indicative of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. .