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TM 54/50-63 LMSC /HREC A783963

LOCKHEED MISSILES & SPACE COMPANY HUNTSVILLE RESEARCH & ENGINEERING CENTER HUNTSVILLE RESEARCH PARK 4800 BRADFORD DRIVE, HUNTSVILLE, ALABAMA

Volume II NONLINEAR DYNAMIC ANALYSIS March 1967 Contract NAS8-20387

by

R. O. Hultgren

APPROVED BY:

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^^ Z-L

R. E. Bieber, Manager Structures & Mechanics Department

LMSC/HREC A783963

FOREWORD
The work described in this report was carried out by Lockheed

Missiles & Space Company, Huntsville Research & Engineering Center, for the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA/MSFC), in accordance with the requirements of Contract NAS8-20387. This report is Volume II of three volumes which comprise the Final Report under Contract NAS8-20387, as follows: Volume I - "Synthesis of Structural Damping," by C. S. Chang and R. E. Bieber (LMSC/ HREC A783975) Volume II - "Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis," by R. O. Hultgren (LMSC/HREC A783963) Volume III - "A Study.of Hereditary Springs in Relation to Hysteretic Damping," by G. A. Ramerez (LMSC/HREC A783201) The work was administered under the direction of the Aero-Astrodynamics Laboratory, NASA/MSFC, with Dr. George F. 'McDonough as Contracting Officer Representative.

ii

LMSC/HREC A783963

SUMMARY This memorandum analyzes the lateral plane vibration characteristics of a simple structure possessing hysteresis damping. This damping is taken to exist in an interstage between a nonuniform, flexible beam and a nonuniform, rigid beam. The equations of motion are developed and the numerical techniques employed in their solution are presented. A user's manual and a sample problem for the developed computer program is also included.

iii

LMSC/HREC A783963 CONTENTS Section FOREWORD SUMMARY NOTATION 1 2 3 4 5 Page ii v 1 3 15 19 30 INTRODUCTION ANALYSIS NUMERICAL TECHNrQUES COMPUTER PROGRAM RECOMMENDED ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS I iv .

&) k1J elements of (K) matrix V .LMSC/HREC A783963 NOTATION mass matrix `n) elements of [A] matrix ill] dij d E F(t) Fr f damping matrix elements of (D] matrix deflection modulus of elasticity forcing function force at hysteresis spring motion reversal arbitrary function first moment of inertia of flexible beam cross section first moment of inertia of rigid beam cross section indices (x.Kutta-Gill integration routine nonlinear interstage spring force-deflection function for ith spring J K LKi Kii Ki(.j J second moment of inertia of flexible beam cross section second moment of inertia of rigid beam cross section linear spring constant stiffness matrix functions in Runge . Y) I I i.

deflection at one end (x=L l ) of flexible beam vi . [MII] m(x) MOO coefficient matrices = = mass distribution of flexible beam mass distribution of rigid beam N = number of deflection functions interstage lateral force index generalized force matrix generalized force components Pp .LMSC /HREC A783963 L 1 = L2 = M M Mp . Pp = r p (Q) = = Qi = qi. Mr length of system flexible beam length of system rigid beam mass of system flexible beam mass of system rigid beam = = = interstage moments interstage moment due to ith spring [MIII] = Mi [MI] . = arbitrary. unknown functions of time radius to ith interstage spring ri = S T t At = dummy displacement variable = = kinetic energy functional time deflection at one end (x=o) of &iexible beam = time increment U 1 - U2 .

= "primed" variables = derivatives of the variables with respect to the length coordinate "dotted" variables = derivatives of the variables with respect to time vii .LMSC/HREG A783963 U(x) V gW l hW 2 x `x xf x = = = = = = = = = = = = = deflection of flexible beam potential energy functional virtual work associated with flexible bears virtual work associated with rigid beam position coordinate of flexible beam position coordinate of rigid beam position coordinate of forcing function limit of linear force-deflection hysteresis spring relation parameter of hysteresis spring force-deflection relation deflection history of a hysteresis spring linear displacement between ends of the interstage difference between rigid beam slope and flexible beam slope at the interstage slope of rigid beam polar angular coordinate to ith spring of the interstage ith displacement function a A d 9 1^ ^ i = i .

the flexible beam is assumed to move in one plane. the sprint. damping.. . and the attached rigid bc. and generalized force matrices are then written in their elemental form. motion is restricted to a single plane. i. especially with regard to the interstage configuration. . When the spring force -deflection curve slope decreases with deflection. however. A nonlinear interstage. . ysteresis g as used here. As assumed for the beam. force . Hysteresis effects in the interstage are included by monitoring the deflection hi%tory of each spring in the interstage. In this monitoring process. The mass. y may rotate in relation to the beam end. of arbitrary length connected by a nonlinear interstage to a rigid mass. this brief outline is more fully explained. These equations are derived using L-agrange ' s equation after determining the system kinetic and potential energy functionals. With this established. In this analysis.LMSC/HREC A783963 Section 1 INTRODUCTION The analysis and computer programs presented in this report treat the class of structures which can be characterized by a flexible lean. and it may also be displaced.deflection curve is reversed whenever the deflection velocity changes sign. Beam elastic and mass properties are considered variable with respect to the beam 'Length. denotes an interstage $ having g hy spring damping and nonlinear conservative springs. stiffness. The displacement s and rotations at various points on the system are determined by numerically integrating the equations of motion of the system. the kinetic and potential energy funcliio nals are written and the equations of motion presented. e. In the following sections. Deflections are assumed to be small so that the beam is always elastic. The mathematical model employed is first defined. energy dissipation by hysteresis occurs. a "soft^ning" spring.

First the integration technique is presented and.LMSC/HREC A783963 The computer program which performs the necessary lengthy calculations is then briefly explained. Recommended Additional Developments. It is hoped that the mathematical model analyzed h-sre will be only a first step toward the more sophisticated efforts outlined in Section 5. The report ends with a section indicating a few of the areas into which this investigation should be expanded. This section ends with a sample problem and a user's manual for the developed program. a more detailed explanation of how the hysteretic effects are accounted for is included. finally. 2 . it should be remembered that the analytical and computational tools concerning the hysteretic effects have a far wider application than for the rather simple vehicle model used in this analysis.

It can move only in a plane. which has been used as a developmental tool for the hysteretic analysis consists of a flexible beam. rX 1 X a L2 _L^ x F(tj Flexible Beam Static Position Nonlinear Interstage (Fig.1tical in ©del.LMSC/HREC A783963 Section 2 ANALYSIS Figure 1. Rigid Beam U2 Ux () 11w Ina tile 1n. In the following text the conservative springs will be referred to simply as springs. an interstage possessing springs with hysteresis damping. The beam is assumed to have mass and stiffness properties which vary with the beam position coordinate. 2) Figure 1 Defining the interstage more specifically. and a rigid mass. while the springs with hysteresis will be referred to as dampers. The interstage is assumed to consist of conservative springs which may have nonlinear forcedeflection curves and springs with hysteresis which are necessarily nonlinear in character. the springs and dampers are assumed to be arbitrarily distributed about the beam center as shown in Figure 2 where r and 4 i are polar coordinates which locate the point where either a 3 .

It is now necessary to derive the kinetic and potential energy functionals of this system. 9 is the difference between the rigid 4 . Hence. Figures 1 and 2 present the nomenclature which will be used in the following equations. The rigid beam is permitted to move only in the plane of the flexible beam motion. U 1 and U2 are the displacements of the flexible beam ends and U(x) is the displacement function of the beam where x is the length coordinate of the flexible beam. The lengths of the flexible and rigid beams are L 1 and L2 . U 1 = U(o) U2 = U(L1) (1) The displacement of the rigid beam is U(R) where R is the length coordinate and A is the slope of the rigid beam.LWC/HREC A783963 A^ Pitch Plane Flexible Beam Rigid Beam yaw Plane b e SECTION A-A A Figure 2 spring or a damper are attached to the flexible beam. respectively.

LMSC/HREC A783963 beam slope and the flexible beam slope at x = L 1 . discounting any rotation effects. It is now possible to derive the kinetic energy of the system using the relation fLL2 m(x) U2(x)dx 0 2T = +f 0 m(3I) U2 (X)dA (4) 5 . N U(x) = U 1 + U U1 L1 x + qi 0. The U(x) displacement function may be considered to consist of a rigid body motion defined by the displacements U 1 and U 2 plus a flexible motion defined by the sum of the products of N arbitrary functions and their respective generalized coordinate time varying amplitudes. q i . b denotes the distance that the rigid beam moves away from the flexible beam. Hence.(x) (2) i=1 The displacement of the rigid beam is N U(x)=U 2 +Ax +E g(L1) i=1 N = U 2 + i=1 qi ^i ( L l ) + U2_Ul N L 1 + i=1 qi ^ i (L) + 9 x (3) where the "prime" on Oi denotes differentiation with respect 'to the spatial length variable x.

The two "primes" denote two derivatives with regard to the length variable x. the dots represent differentiations with respect to time. N U2-IIl m(x) U 1 + L x + 2T = 1 i=1 0 L2N 0 m(x) LT + q ^ i (L) + Ll 2 k. dx (5) u2-01 L+ N qi x 0 I(LI) + B z 2+ i=1 i-1 \ Ll^ dx Leaving this equation. of course.LMSC/HREC A783963 where T is the kinetic energy and m(x) and m(x) represent the :Hass distributions in the flexible and rigid beams. it is necessary to determine the potential energy functional and the generalized forces. into the kinetic energy expression ( 4) yields the desired kinetic energy functional. For this analysis. 6 .V = f EI C u" (x)1 2 dx O JJ L1 = O EI N i=1 qi 0 2 i (x) dx (6) where E is t _a modulus of elasticity and I is the moment of inertia of the beam cross section. Hence. the potential energy functional V of the entire systein can be written as L1 ?. The rigid beam. As customary. Substituting the displacement functions (2) and (3). differentiated with respect to time. respectively. cannot possess flexural potential energy. the potential energy is taken to be stored only in the flexible beam. The spring forces of the interstage will be included in the generalized forces of the equations.

Pp and Pp are equal (but opr posite in sign) forces which will be seen to negate in the ultimate generalized . x f. U F(t) „L U 1 r PP Mp Mp Pr UZr = UZ xle f ible F x Beam Rigid Beam Figure 3 In Figure 3. beams. Mp .orce expressions. The virtual work of the flexible beam can be written as 6W 1 = F(t)6U(xf) + Pp6U(Ll ) + Mp6UI (L1 ) (7) 7 . respectively. M are the equal moments which are applied by the interstage springs r to the flexible and rigid. from the end of the flexible beam.LMSC/HREC A783963 The generalized forces can be written using the concept of virtual work in relation to Figure 3. F(t) represents a time dependent forcing function which is applied at some arbitrary distance.

^ qi ^.LNISC/HREC A783963 Substituting the displacement function (2) yields 6W 1 = F(t) 6 U 1 + UL U1 N N xf + i =1 qi 0i(xf) + P p 6 U 2 + i=1 qi O i(L1) + Mp L U 2 -U 1 N 1 + E qi i(L1) i=1 (8) Proceeding in the same fashion with the rigid beam yields 6W 6U 2 = -P pr 2r M 6IN pr N U _ U (9) ^N` 6W 2 = -P 6 U 2 + E qi i(L) _ M 6 2 1 + L. (L) + 9 Pr pr L i=1 i=1 where Pp =-Pp and Mp p =M Pr r The equations of motion can now be derived using Lagrange's equation d ( 8T \ aV dt 8` )+ TS .Q i (10) where S is a dummy coordinate and Q i are the components of the generalized force associated with the coordinate S. These equations can be written in the matrix form A) (6) + D] (S) + K (S) = (Q) 8 ( 11 ) .

respectively. the following notation is used L1 M = J m(x) dx 0 (13) LZ M = r m(x) O d—x (14) L1 J = r x m(x) dx 0 (15) 9 . (K) . U1 Tj2 8 (S) = ql q2 q (12) The mechanical derivation of the elements of the [A) . In the development of these elements.LMSC/HREC A783963 where (S) represents the unknown generalized coordinate column matrix (lZ) and (S) and (S) represent the column matrices of the first and second time derivatives of the generalized coordinates. and (Q) matrices is accomplished in a straightforward fashion and only the final form of the matrix elements will be presented here.

J L1 .L1 (21) a (22) (23) 1 (24) a23 = + L a 33 = 10 .L1 .L1 of the mass matrix (19) (20) 2 + L 2 + 2 J a 2 = M+ I L1L 1 L1 I 13 = .2 j + I + 12 Ll L l Ll J I I a 12 _ .L1 .LIaC/HREC A783963 L2 _ 0 3 L1 Z m (x) dR (16) I =f 0 rL2 -J 0 x 2 m(x) dx (17) I x2 m(R) dR matrix (18) The elements of the upper triangular [A] art all = M.

3+p o m(x) 0p (x) dx + ^M ^ p ( L 1 ) + J ^p (L 1 i 1 O p (L1) JJ + l ¢ p ( L l ) + I Op (L l )1 O p ( L l ) (28) a 3+p.LMSC/HREC A783963 (for i going from 1 to N) L1 i k a + a l.L1 ^i(L1) .(x) dx (26) a3.J O i ( L 1 ) + 1 Oi ( L I ) (27) (for p going from 1 to N) L1 a3+p. i+3 . i+3 . i +3 ( L 1 ) + = (M + L1 ^ i ( L 1 ) + ^^ + L 1 Oi m(x) L 0. 3+p+i .L1 Oi ( L 1 ) 0 m(x) (1- L1 O i (x) dx (25) Ll a2.LM 0p (Ld +7 ¢p ( L I ) 1 ¢ i (LI) + [ Y O p (L 1 ) + I 0 p (L1 ) ] 0i (L) + f 0 L1 m(x) O p (x) # i (x) dx (29) 11 .

The elements of the generalized force matrix are Q l = L1-xf L 1 x F( t) (32) Q 2 = If F(t) 1 (33) 03 = . since this matrix is symmetric. = +3+p - Jf EI Oi (x) 0 p (x) dx (31) 0 where ( 31) will be zero if the input mode functions. i+3 o Ll 2 f -L1 (xj EI C^ J dx ` i J (30) Ki+3. the input mode functions Oi are orthogonal. 0 i . the integral appearing in these elements will be zero.LMSC/HREC A783963 Only the upper triangular matrix is presented here.M P (34) 12 . are orthogonal. 3+p+i If. however. Thus the non-zero elements of this matrix are (for i going from I to N) a K i+3. the first three rows and the first three columns will be zero. Note that the full expression (29) is given for 3+p. since the rigid body displacements do not influence the potential energy of this system. In the generation of the P. matrix.

depend on the analyzed system. Numerical Techniques.[A] -1 [K] (S) + [A] _ 1 (Q) (37) and a numerical integration of (37) using a Runge-Kutta-Gill routine is carried out. however.LMSC/HREC A783963 (for i going from 1 to N) Qi = 0 i ( xf) F (t) (35) Physically. The numerical values of these elements . K i (A) depends on the entire deflection (Q) history of the spring. Only the elements d i+3. i+3 are filled since the rigid body deflections do not participate in this form of damping. This general method is amplified in Section 3. this relation depends only on the deflection at the particular time instant. For a spring with hysteresis. For a conservative spring. The final matrix of equation (11) is the ED) matrix which represents the damping in the flexible beam associated with each of the input deflection functions O i . the moment M can be written in terms of the individual springs composing the interstage. the matrix equation (11) is rewritten in the form [A] -1 [D] (t) . To carry out the solution. NS P M = i=1 NSP Mp = i=1 Ki (A) 1d + ( ri sin 4o i) t9 C r sin (b il Mi L J (36) Ki (A) is the relation between the spring deflection and force. 13 .

In the generalized force matrix Q 1 and Q2 must be zero for the cantilevered flexible beam. al 1 and a22 must be 1 for this case. of course. has a free-free flexible beam. To make the analysis applicable to a system having the flexible beam cantilevered at x=o. both U1 and U 2 must be suppressed. with the exception of al 1 and a 22 . represent the system of Figure 1 which.LMSC/HREC A783963 The foregoing coefficients. equal to zero. 14 . This may be accomplished by setting all the elements in the first two rows of the (A] matrix. essentially.

only two require some explanation. Equation (37) may be rewritten in the form (S) = [ MI] (S) + [ MII] (S) + [min] (Q) (38) A time increment for the integration is chosen. y). l5 . Hence. . y) (39) based on the fact that if y is known at one x. the previous values of y. The second general numerical technique involves the treatment of the hysteretic effects. but must be included for completeness. based on the forcing function frequency and the natural frequencies of the system. only a brief outline follows with a reference to the basic paper on which this technique is based. if the system is expected to have a large number of oscillations in a short time. The Rnnge-Kutta-Gill technique (Reference 1) integrates a differential equation of the form d = f(x. Naturally.LMSC/HREC A783963 Section 3 NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES Of the numerical techniques used in the computer programs for the foregoing analysis. the integration time increment should be very small. its value at x + Ax may be determined from the relation 1F2] Ki 2 + 1/6 K 3 (44) 12 —] Ki l + 1/3 [1 +4_ yx+Ax = yi + 1 /6 Ki U + 1/3 11-47 The K id depend on the function f(x. and the time increment. The first is the integration method which is not unique.

the velocity (s) is determined at t=At. With M known at.LMSC/HREC A783963 Applying this to equation system (38). Graphically. In the more 16 . this is shown in Figure 4. if (S) and (S) are known at zero time. By a trapezoidal rule integration (9)t=o ± 2 (S)t=At O) Ot At At (41) With (S) known at t=o and t=©t. Hysteresis springs are springs having their loading force-deflection curves different from their unloading force-deflection curves (see Reference 2 for a more complete description). ection Figure 4 where the arrowheads indicate the direction of the deflection. Then. (S) can be calculated. the transient displacements are determined. (S) may be calculated using equation (40).t=o and t=&t. (S) may be determined at t=At from the generalization of the trapezoidal rule integration of (41). By continuing this process along the time line. at the erd of the selected time increment. Figure 4 shows a system oscillating between two fixed values of deflection.

however. the following procedure is used. Hence. Fr Deflection Figure 5 If the force-deflection data for the hysteresis system is available in tabular form to the computer program. Two general methods exist to implement this accounting. in a transient hysteretic analysis. it is constructed and the integration continues using the original time increment. t. and the integration is resumed. the entire deflection history must be taken into account. The integration time increment is decreased by an arbitrary factor. When the displacement at time t+dt is calculated to have a lesser absolute value than the absolute value of the displacement at time.LMSC/HREC A783963 typical case. The new curve construction is accomplished by mathematically moving the 0. in this program the factor is 5. a pattern such as that of Figure 5 occurs. When the requirement for a new force-deflection curve is now sensed. a new hysteresis spring forcedeflection curve may be required. The integration of the system equations of motion proceeds as previously described using the input force-deflection 4pring data to determine the moment (36). 0 point of the original force-deflection data to the force and deflection 17 .

the solution procedure is the same as for the tabular force-deflection data technique. For the second and all subsequent reversals of the spring velocity direction. 18 .Kad in x (42) d <x0 (a) d > xo 0 (b) (43) where K and a are constants and x0 is a constant whose sign is always the same as the sign of d. (Reference-3) is F = Kd F = Kd + Ka (d-xo) . the mathematical movement of the force-deflection curve is accomplish-td as d-b F= 2 f 2 r Fr (44) )+ where Fr. The time increment is now restored to its original size and the integration continues using the moment calculated with the new force-deflection curve. 6 is the point on the force-deflection curve where the velocity reversal occurred. However. presented by Chang and Bieber. With the functional relation available. As can be expected. this latter method is computationally more swift. The second method to account for hysteresis relies upon the existence of a functional relation between the force and deflection for the spring F = f(b) One such relation. The original force-deflection data is also altered by doubling the force portion of the data. the procedure is exactly the same as outlined previously with the single exception of the existing force-deflection data not being subject to the redoubling of the force data.LIMCMREC A783963 recorded at the time increment just prior to the spring's velocity direction change. upon the first reversal of the velocity direction.

A brief function chart of the program is indicated below. the program uses the relation of equation (43) but modification to any desired relation is an easy matter. the use of a functional relation between the force and deflection of the hysteresis spring is computationally much faster than the use of a tabular force-deflection relation. 19 . For this reason. only the program using the functional relation is presented here. As it is written.LMSC/HREC A783963 Section 4 COMPUTER PROGRAM Of the two possible methods to account for the hysteretic effects.

DAMP calculates the damping matrix associated with the flexible beam of the system. Subroutine DEQ is used with INTEGRATE to determine the acceleration column matrix for each succeeding time increment. The manual for the proper input of data follows. 20 . The MASS subroutine calculates or reads in the mass matrix while the STIFF subroutine calculates or reads in the stiffness matrix.LMSC/HREC A783963 The MAIN program reads in most of the data and calls the balance of the subroutines in the proper order. The PLAT PACKAGE consists of a series of subroutines which produce plots of the data on the SC4020 system. INTEGRATE performs the R tinge -Kutta-Gill integration and assures that the hysteresis spring force-deflection curve is correct. With the matrices assembled.

..% x ^ 0^ 3 0 k^ N .0.O .^ .0 0 A ^ 0 0 0 0 F: 0 0.0 . +.: to ^ > .0 0 . Cr' w o O.O .+ 0^ O y u .c k b3a^ U " 41 fa 0 ° 1 fn " 0 N N to 0 .LMSC/HREC A783963 ^. u 0 w" id .^ 4 a ° +.0'0 O vain to 0 'd d ao °o.o ^+ O 0 wuq c y 0. ^ :tip 00 •.^ 0 ^ a a Ow 3 to u d h x . 00 +^ . ^0 b °^ m 4. O O 0(d m O W H 00 0 w 0 0 0 at td 0 .^+ 4) 0 . oft M R! w ^ td m 0 H ^ M tr O 0^ o O O ^+ M ^+ N M eN ^O f^ G N V 00 OG ON 0 M co M c o W N M 44 N W .°n y b 0 p..+ 0 °' ^ 0 a b o a °. U + G. -0 O 'b 0 O ^' ^ `"'^ •r4 0 0 '. "'^ .v^ w 'd^'(d a.H z a 0 Z e 0 21 N 0 M 0 v^ .+ td 04 + .. 0^ 0 0 l^ w. w .a v . a. O b0 0 y M0 a A^ a z 3^ ^b a a'oo o^° 04 0 ^ o O oil ^ w C^ 0 U O w0 0 0.^ m u 1 0 w 4G + '^ 0.O M N N N W W z w a A z 4) v x a a x a x a b U 0 as a a w a..i A . .. Oa^o-E . 4J UI Uu ..^ .b w x Id 0^ U w i+ w t1.m y.^ 4 .. 0 t D O 0 0 Cd ° 0 0 . z z ..n.'r . .

l:.a ..^.^ N . x ^. t c +' 1.a b N ld z v 00 0 Ln x .r .+ .•c ^0.4 ° O ^ ^ y q ^' ^ y 1d pp ..4" 'd cd d N ^ ^. w^ a^ a^ 0 .rs la v . +•' O 0-0 .4x x aca0 "^ b x z p.^ O .^ ^^r ^+ ^+ ^':i .a 00 m 'd w ^ i ^G+' cd O O td .4 i . x ^ 4 q • .I: O •. C: 0 >.^ p ^+ Cc M v dQ ..a ' d ^ °Q•. •^ .c^ ° as ^^ a.y .? • ^o u cdw k oo N d d d "^ o . 0.^ M Ill M ^ M .$ m x O ' q 4 d O •^ (d O 0 pC..^ O C w '^ w cd q .. .^ u A x 22 U' u o 14 .•^ 'd' N M ^ .. a^ 7 —0 .-^ N ..o 0 ly Id lo Qr •F+ a ^. O q .O W H O U) P4 u-. N ^ m " 1 o c a d ^ 0 O 4) .17 ^ O y^ M R 9..^ O O b w %. .9.0mm .a ii ±^ ro azW ^:^^ d ^b4 5 z^ 0 •^+ `J O ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ . a x tko 1 W) 0 10 A 0o m b q ^ O r ^+ ^O b . m y .+ .•} .^ •.^'`0 ' ° V • N 1d R . m p 41 ^ O d' ^ mO cd^.y ^ ^ o w m g Abe e^ + •+ s. u . al •oo.0 -^ • i~ ^ 00 cd m d)p> O &I (d " .v0 F' C °^E-1^: ^•a. 'tS L^'. 'b u m X0134 $i o 0 C V1 y 4^ a^i^ m r.r . ...> ^w'^^iS""q4. N i! ^.^r O 'b f" a G' d0 w H —4 . 00 H rn 14 Ou U a^ ^ ^^o A v a^. O ^ i^ 0 ° ' + d c ^ A V a bo O ^ t^' . °.-^ 3^' d^w ( 00 93 O'd cdd '^ O O .LMSC/HREC A783963 •^ v ^ x v x v O cd O G 1 ^ I 1 G M y C CC v O N . a' o N +' r-c Id cd w O 0 O xm dq "'c A + + m 1•c 1 ' G ^f > 4.^ N N ^ OR OR co co co N N N N W W W ^o W %0 O .•: 'd m y 'a'" t^^ ^ "c 1 -1 + .4 .00y° $.

a ^ v 3 Iii Q •r ^ to M R .N i 0 M N W 5 W k 4) x t° .M•1 N ..o q ao 14 a.. ^° a 0 aD o d b 1+ m u to '^ y b +^+ A te a `.b° c. 1°.4 o^ x o 00 .LMSC/HREC A783963 u 0 Gq at N v %0 .0 O b0 ^ vi ^-' °i 5 ^ x (d^' v O ti C 00 C w ^...^ N dl •0 N lw N 1 ul 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 . N r.^ .^ Z0 w b ^ w v U '^ Z ^ N ao o ^ o o .. o N.^+ O . g 4-1 .54 O C ^d 41 p' i 1 C) tV —4 O 4j C G 41 u •1" y Id N -^ 44 14 d 0 . y 4 ) —4 d — ^ i^ 4a IA ao `l^. ^n a a aw ^ 40 0 C 1 +a AHH z C ++ 4-A Aa z x o •.4 ^ •O Ir o •. a: H 23 .4x . R d °' Id w 04. b^ ^e aza ^a. W 4) p 0 U N +' (d b a^ Ir >% •. oc it N U cd 44 w A ^°.. ^4 '. r Hwy.^ Id lod v o co o u V 0 }^ X n I d 0 -0 ^1. W c NNN N N NNN M WWW WW WWW H v S A u.i U 1 1 1 ° N a^ In 4 C 0 a 00 co WOO co 00 1^.^ • d a+ 41 44 o 41 a) co w 4 . 10 a..^ a N 0 ..r . b 00 co co 00 .. Id ..r O ` tr O w O o -4^ N d4 b .O4k 44 i co O 44 box a .^ . oo U 14 l 1-4^w Id 44 ...^ F^ N m mC UIDA .^ > ^ 0o O Id C Ei . o ^' a 6 0 t eo 14 ^.r N .+ ai m a ^' .

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0 0 td m c4 > o 4 u a ti u u o o v 0 O . ^ G w ^ Ob V v O m 0O a.•. ..0 rOi -^ .r ^r of r. i d m u 0 o 'no Cop U -Q b r. .dam`~ y Hw m •^ ^O an d td w u k w d w 4 u u r.4 u G4 a id >^ °' .^ u 0 Q e(d id i0+ ab+ x u Q Q ^' w u O x u N x u x x t^U C4 w ed (dd ed M O ^ ^ Q Oo v M a v v ^ m v' >O q +.. . ed .+ N E+ Q v O ^ 14 y V + 0 m m w •'+ O O y O 0 :° a Cd ^ ...^ .o u 4 4 0 u u r. (d z > .>. u .d O 'd ^" y > 0! W ^ •^ ^ it u d . O d ••+ O 'V `« 0 &' rA Qo O O a O O N n! w- Om O 4 10 w0 . %..V aD cd A td 04A ^ N to .' W d ^' i0.a td O X.4 ld w M 'd 10 CL y "^ +^+ . id ..: O 1 1 N O >••'^ .. u. i+ ^.4 4J tq > '" b O a^ m ^'" •..^ (d ^.b b .6 ao ao ao ao ^x a O 0 ao ^ ^D c! N N N .WO nj N ^ O G ^ .4 ^— u ao Z Id V P4 .O O x m +' N ^O a Ei > .4 O N .a to 0.n x .O o d aD 4.40 & :1 w Li yo ..WO ^ 00 .V4 . r+ •.WO . 1-4 V cd s x W H `` z a (^ Q H wN o14 wu 0 x z x abi •n u a o > • 0 N 044 O go cd v ao a. ++ .. '4 Q Q..+ O o N H p' ao Q w ++ O ^ h ti a ^. ou .4 O . •C4 G id y >.0 o to (d O 4) 014) 0 3. . -+ .^^ O 4J ^.4 Cd w `.^O *a edA a O cd '«+ > d 0 z ao H td y X. -^ of x d 'ti 5 +-+ 0 eD O •r j .WO . 14 ou „ a^ (d N u • ^ O 14 3" •OD.0.C A783963 . x v 0 Gq W Gq .-^ u v^ u N o u N N a Cd" 6a Q$4 0 N ^' to 0 o O u 04 oq o4 aa u 27 .+ O —4 x .Wp OO ^ .^ >• .. 0.

0 . W .a ya b0 .' O > N w cd cd V) N "' r.^ td cd H to dl ° > > >^ > w N Ow (D O cd w (A wp Ow 4)N OO cd td 9)to w .^ '4 F+ %t 3 0 .^ P4 Gq ^ .. . to k 4. O O H d0 it >4 k a r. " fU d O ".' C.+ 4-1 m m cd +0. w E O .+ N^ -4 41 w i+ 4) 0° 3 0 to ^^^'d td O d .^ U u u 0 id td w 0-0 O u 0 0 qOw '(d . O cd r„c td cd M Of O..D ^ O -c ^d 0 an t H a an N > O^ m M 4J w va w > rA > O +^ .^ F•i O >• O O w `M v O a^ +' to 04 w x M tp Fa td `^-^ N O O^w tll '.4 m u .0 A.. ^ p cd -4 `'' O O O„[w N M O O y + O p cd . ^] ^. .-4 pq u ^ m u ^ AQ u . O^ NO OO > >> df x .a. uw ° d 3 i u ° to U u .-r ^O 040 -1 to x '° 041+^ cd C GO N N N Op N nj -4 N -4 N N ^ O^ OR N U t7p 00 pp d0 00 00 F %O W ' Id cd OwV ^C ^D W ^O W ^D ^G ^O 4a 'b O O ^'' ^. to $t w w 1-4 to ^ td > r-+ O V O w ` ' 4 •.. cd ^N w o 4. ' -° ^ .-^ a 14 Q >~ O `'' OO O'o tl1 y. 4 cd O a7 q 0 i i i bo 1 cd --4 `^ O O N td O 0 ti O O cd r4 >+ k U td Q of W td .O O >^ > >^ > 111 O •'' 04 d O cd .^•A 14 rV Z d N N N N N N N N M +^ ' F. .^' O 4J w >> >W y of . d O to V] O . Nb ° •^ .n ba .^ 41 m .4 00 oo a' a+ to 4.N N u u 0 O O > td O C4 W ^ N al N O O tO°d cd v -Vy rr v v v v v (d C U (d cd cd td cd cd .'4 (d i.' O^ td td co . Hx4u u 28 ..0 to > > 4 04 ^°^ •'-^ b • 04 ..w N "' {.-4 1.^ A °' o ed $4 Y.^ m u .a V+ .. O >' .^ 4.r N ^+ O .° P4 u .a "' td •^ jy Lt . i -t O to 'd O A y r.LMSC/HREC A783963 u u O 0 Oq W .

The displacements for N points represented by sets of cards 12 and 13 will be stored in YX (7) to YX (7 + N). e. This mass. The Oi are orthogonal functions. The rotations for Nints represented b sets Po P Y of cards 12 and 13 will be stored in YX (7 + N + 1) to YX (7 + N + 1 + N). i. the position in the YX array is determined by the order of the numerical input data of cards 12 and 13. The input displacement functions O i are the modal shape functions generated by a lumped spring analysis and associated computer program (Reference 3) using the parameters of the previously mentioned system. The flexible part of the system represents the three lower stages of the Saturn V system.) The descriptive data printed in columns 16 to 72 for the latter type of data are at the discretion of the user of this program. All of the results and the input data are presented in the Appendix. represents the Apollo payload stages. The Saturn V is assumed to be cantilevered. . The rigid beam is represented by one lumped mass.LMSC/HREC A783963 Start in Column 1 of Card YX (1) YX (2) YX (3) YX (4) YX (5) YX (6) Description (Columns 16 to 72) Time (seconds) Forcing Function (pounds) Theta (degrees) Conservative spring moment (inch pounds) I-Iystcresis spring moment (inch pounds) Total moment (inch pounds) For each point of the system where the deflection or rotation is desired. Two example problems are presented here. the plot cards for the displacement and rotation at the point represented by the second set of cards 12 and 13 when 5 sets of cards 12 and 13 are present are YX (8) YX (13) Displacement at Point 2 (inches) Rotation at Point 2 (degreee. in turn. still on the launching pad. 29 . For example.

Some complication would be added in the generation of the interstage moments but the balance of the modification 30 . The lower beam. to make these modifications as a part of any of the following options. In themselves. an interstage assembly of unknown properties. When the provision is made for different hysteresis spring force-deflection functions. and an upper beam fulfilling the rigidity requirements could be built. a mechanical analog can be built for this analysis. could be a beam of rectangular cross section. They could be modified quite easily to accept a variety of hysteresis system force-deflection functions and forcing functions. the response history of a few points on the system could be recorded. An experimental model consisting of a cantilevered flexible beam of accurately known properties. With an accurately controlled forcing function applied to the flexible beam in compliance with the mathematical model. Introduction. It is desired. it would be possible to determine the hysteretic properties of various materials and/or fabrication techniques in the interstage assembly of the mechanical analog.LMSC/HREC A783963 Section 5 RECOMMENDED ADDITIONAL DEVELOPMENTS As stated in Section 1. the computer programs could be modified to include a flexible second beam instead of the rigid beam now used. the mathematical model used for this program is quite rudimentary. By comparing these recorded histories with those developed by one of the computer programs for a variety of interstage force-deflection curves. however. It has been used here as a developmental model to permit an initial application of the hysteretic experience gained in the present program. for example. The computer programs could also be modified to include bending in more than the single plane used here.

Once again the program could be used to generate the interstage properties in the manner described above concerning the mechanical analog. This will lead directly to the improved force-deflection relation. it would then be possible to compare results of this program to the experimental test results generated for the Saturn V system. With this development. using the energy dissipated per cycle in the interstage.LMSC/HREC A783963 would be quite straightforward. Another option which would require a small modification to the existing program is to generate an interstage hysteresis spring force-deflection relation by the method of Reference 1. 31 .

Taylor A. "The Lumped Spring Computer Program. Vol. "A Process for the Step-by-Step Integration of Differential Equations in an Automatic Digital Computing Machine. 1951. pp. E. 3. . 47. Chang. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. Huntsville." Proceedin s 2.LMSC/HREC A783963 REFERENCES 1. Bieber. LMSC/HREC A712616. Huntsville Research and Engineering Center. Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. S.MSGMREC A783975. S. Huntsville. Gill.." L. and R. April 1967. Huntsville Research and Engineering Center.08. 9 . of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. Alabama." TM 54/50-22. November 1965. C. "Synthesis of Structural Damping. Alabama. 32 .

LMSC/HREC A783963 APPENDIX .

0 -37#0 23. the forcing function acts for 13 seconds of problem time and is then set equal to zero.0 23.0 60._ LMSC/HREC A783963 APPENDIX The input data for one example problem and the results of two example problems are presented below.0 -37. This is accomplished by a small program modification.0 37.0 1. For the first problem.0 919196503 -•33091658 0 2100*0 945858617 -. sDATA 3680.00 .0 37.0 83.0 37.00 5 0 60.0 4800000 0.0 100 279C -3790 83.0 37.0 -37.111284E-03-.0 37.0 .36704829 0 3680. The input data and results of this problem are presented below.0 48000.00 1.20 0000001 5000 3.385494E-03 .0 23.00 15.00001 1 6 27.153208E-02 A-1 .0- 27.008 20.190479E-03 •217731E-03-.0 1. permitting the system to vibrate freely after that time.0 83.385494E -03 .175269E-03 •280471E-03-.0 9121811933 -•062402129 0 1080.0 -37.062402129 6 27.0 0020 0.558379 0.153208E-02 9012181193 -.0 83*0 2390 37. In these problems the flexible part of the system represents the empty lower three stages of the Saturn V system.141879E-03 .0 -37.

UCCAWC A783963 1 60*0 1 1 0 5 1000 000 000 000 000 0 1 0&0 0*0 0*0 1 0*0 100 090 000 000 000 000 000 0.9 0 000 000 000 000 000 000 *107712 E 6 *1836722E 4 * 1960223E 4 *1836722E 4 * 2000233E 3 * 3342604E 2 91960223E 4 o3342604E 2 *1378138E 3 000 0*0 000 060 000 000 000 000 000 0*0 0*0 39558378 •01 0 YX(I) YX(2) I YX(I) YX(3) I Yx(l) YX(4) I YX(I) YX(5) I Yx(l) YX(6) I YX(I) YX47) 1 YX(I) Yx(s) 1 YX(I) 0#0 15*4799 •01 000 000 •109154 E 4 000 *1717691E 5 000 TIME (SEC) FORCE (LBS•) TIME (SEC) THETA (DEGREES) TIME (SEC) SPRING MOMENT TIME (SEC) (INCH LBS) HYSTERISIS MOMENT TIME (SEC) TOTAL MOMENT (INCH LBS) TIME (SEC) DISPLACEMENT AT 60 TIME (SEC) DISPLACEMENT AT 1080 TIME (SEC) DISPLACEMENT AT 2100 TIME tsEc) DISPLACEMENT AT 3680 TIME (SEC) RIGID CAPSULE DISPLACEMENT YX(9) 1 YX(I) YX(10) 1 YX(I) YX(II) A-2 .

Again. A-3 .I1SCALREC A783963 1 YX(1) YX(12) 1 YX(I) YX(13) i YX(1) YX(14) 1 YX(1) YX(15) 1 YX(1) YX(16) TIME (SEC) ROTATION AT 60 TIME (SEC) ROTATION AT 1080 TIME (SEC) ROTATION AT 2100 TIME (SEC) ROTATION AT 3680 TIME (SEC) RIGID CAPSULE DISPLACEMENT For the second problem. the forcing function frequency was set equal to the natural frequency of the system determined from the first problem results. The plotted results indicate the response for 20 seconds of problem time. the force was allowed to act for 13 seconds of problem time and then was set equal to zero.

^ij III . j ! i' i 3 ^ I^' j l ! j 3 j. -•-^ + i 11 I 1 I i I I . I I I ^ III I^ JI ^. j I ♦.USC/HREC A783963 ..^ l I r I I I i j fi r I it } I^ f f j ' .room ! 000 000 I I I ^ ^ i t- . ^ j I i! I^. 1 j ' i i l i i .First Example Problem A-4 .. j i! j j I is T I I 1 i t i I I 3 I j I ^ 1 1^7 .. . I + l i I ^ ^^ I 1 ^ ^I l i ( l i I f s i l i i i t fu(l) 1100E iSEU Figure la ...jl' r^ I !!"^ i^ li^ IIi^ jl ..

. . 1x(11 TIME (SEC) Figure lb . .001 { 1 j i +1 ♦ r • • ♦ ♦ 1 } t .♦ t t- 1 j + 1 ♦ - f 4— -s i.006 Up0 .r-i - — ♦ 1 - • l 1 -• +. . 1 .First Example Pi* lem A-S . +- t I f t tt t . .00{ -rte ..- . . . . . . . .004 t n . .'f .UtS HM -C A783963 ^1^n/n ♦ .

t lll . ^ i I+ I.roDID coo DID . . ^ ! II t V '! ! I ! I—^ I ^ i ^ i i 1 i i I i i I^ I f l i I I'' i ' I 1{{ V ! II i ^ I -. I 1 j__ii ^ 1-^ 1 I --r 4- I 11 I -^} ^!I I . 1 ! t ly I + i I . ! i r r l i 1 i I i 1 i i ..004 • 11 . 1 I ^. ^^6 . i . I ^^ I i i 1 ! I 1 i^ i 1 t 1 t t I I `I i E+ I . fi-1 1 I^ .^ X 1 1 t_ i TIME (SEC) t 1 1 t f t ^ I I I Figure lc . I t I t j i ii.-I i ij^ ( i ^ j} I i ^ !. . ^ ^ I.i I ..Go# . I I i I I.^.iii TXII) i t . ^ I r ! !1 1 li' 4 I t i^ I I ^ 1.-+-^. !^.LMSC/1MC A783963 . I II t r . . ^ t I 1 I^ I I ..First Example Problem A-6 . ^ ^ I I i ! 1 I f ! i ^I I }--. t t IiI' G I i I IT 1 1 + 1 . . I1. ^ i . : t .

.OW •001 .UIv UUe UI• .: ^ . . .. . ._ -...-. _. :.^.... : . . .. .Val J 1 F 4 A l 0 71* * M L M r r • 1' •. 601 •. ^ .- - . .USC/I WC A783963 Ir L.001 tom: . . . . . . . . .-^-• __ - -_ « . ..Second Example Problem A-7 . .• •• •-•-• . r r• . .003 ^^ t ^ r 1x13 ^ TIME (SEC) Figure 2a . ^. ^-^.. 4 1 + : : . .I r . .--- - _•_•--mo t . . _ _.. . ^ _ .. .. ._ -._ . .. ..

' .. .. . • ••• • ♦ ^. ^: ". . . .IMSC/[ MC A783963 4ruirIV u)I t.._ . ... . • u . • :::: . . t :::: ... --ter. ... -• - 4 Tz(U Figure 2b ..001 f . . .001 .0 111 • 4 .oa f _ . r L A f. ♦.--•-•-.004 -.VO . ♦ .Second -.^-s-t---t-. .acaMle Problem A-3 .. . . . . . •. . ::::^. . ::•:• :: u . . ... ..... t^ ^ r-fir - ^ TIME (SEC) -^-t-^-r.. N 1 A -.00• .0u-1 R 1 1 1 ._ •-. .. . .f .

001 1 1 . v -._ 0 ^ •0 P A E t A i l .00 ♦ 1 -.004 .DECAIRIX A783963 4FLIL.Second Example Problem A9 .004 I ix(I ^ TIME ISEC) Figure 2c .001 r .{i to # to .

1 t• ^:S vt•u .•a u ^r ti y TX(i) TIME (SEC) Figure 2d • Second Example Problem A-10 . A 1• ♦ 1 .IMSC/[{REC A783963 41 X 1.a^ 1 ♦ I V 1 . to E N 1 A 1 i 6 .0! t) r t.

•-. ti_. ♦•. . • _. ._. - -. .♦ -.♦ - ♦...-..-.^_•'_^ -•_• • _• _ ♦_ ._ ♦ . - • 1 . _. YY • i.--. .-_.. . ._: . .Second Example Problem A-11 . • . .• . • • • • « • •♦ -•..-. . ._: • ..• • .. • • t ♦ rte+-i .-. .-. rxUl UNE (SEC) Figure 2e . t • • ••.. .♦ ♦._ --_F-_. ... ..LNSCAMC A783963 fl:L7L 1• a'^ LVV 1 t ..

. . . _. . .01 U - 1 r 0 j' •. ..01 1 . . . _. . . .. . .01 I 1 t . • . «. ._. • • . .-./0 691 to L.Second Example Problem A-12 .-. . . . . - i .. .U4SCAIREC A783963 !Tv(. 7x(I ^ TIME (SEC) Figure 2f .01 v .. . . ' . . . . . .: . . .ol ... . .01 . . . . • ♦ .

"Iv va# 41.. f+-t-r ..GJ .01 1 V 1 D l A P •0 u L C 0 1 r A •. t . r . 07 • •.LMSC/HREC A783963 4?L.Ol l t N • .t-1-f- f-t--t--+ -t--t-r-r --f--+-i--f-.OJ • • ♦ -•• •.•_ «_^ -f°t-r . ^ .OJ 1 1 1 t .V tit • ♦ I• .-f°+-f +t-Y t- -f-• YXII) TIME (SEC) Figure Zg .Second Example Problem A-13 . . Y .

...i... . . . u t O h P -.....1MVI-IMC A783963 47VY10 Uzi lYY .. .. y • .. ...._^...-... .... • ... . . r . . ^ .. +-. ._ .. . ..o... .. •^..64 i . . . •- . ...._. i 1 .i._^ -.....E. -. . .. _. I. .. .. . ... -.. .. .- 7xili TIME (SEC) Figure ?h . .. .±i _ r^^ `t ^ ^ -iii.. ._.G4 • ♦ ♦ ..-. . .Ol l L c t . . j . . .... ..i i ^ i^ -^ -. . .... .. •^tl I .. . ... ♦ .- -: -. .Sewnd Example Problem A-14 . .-1+t h•. -.t. .. . -.^. .. . }... ._. I I V 1 u ^ •0 A P S T. • • i . .... .. ^ ♦ .... •. p.0! .. .. -. . . ..... •-• • _• .. .61 ^.0/ . .

.♦ .Second Example Problem r A•15 . .•_ ♦ ^ -•-' . . . •4! I ^ I ^^ Iy ^ • . . . . j •.0 A u c S u _. ♦_ •. . .• p 1_1_•_x'_ _♦ -^^ -•-.t>d • .. . .02 1 . .'+ _. • . .. . . . . . 1 i 1 .rte s 1 G . .• -1-^-•^• • -•-..i--1--"y ^ ^y -- -•-_^_^-•7 -•--. . {I` .•.UKSC/HRHC A783963 ^/YYIu Y Y YYY f^ . • .01 o . . . .D• • -•_ •-. 41 .0^ . . . . .mot ..i . .~i . . .Oi t t M i ^r^ 1 i A I X I I TIME ISEC! Figure 2i . .+.