in Isabel Cristina Ferreira Fernandes (Coord.), As Ordens Militares. Freires, Guerreiros,Cavaleiros.

Actas do VI Encontro sobre Ordens Militares, Vol. 1, GEsOS / Município de Palmela, Palmela, 2012.

Jochen Schenk
German Historical Institut, London

The military orders were unique religious institutions in very obvious ways, but one characteristic feature that has so far attracted little attention is the fact that of all the regular religious orders and communities that existed during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries only they wore the cross, which was the sign of the crusader, permanently on their habit. At a time of heightened crusade activity and spiritual refocusing on Christ the potency of the cross symbol could not have been lost to those who saw or wore it. It marked the bearer as a participant in Christ’s suffering, and at the same time projected on him the penitential and spiritually elevated status of the pilgrim and armed crusader. More than that, the symbol associated the bearer with the actual relic of the True Cross itself, which was at the core of crusader identity1. The Templars were from the start closely connected with the localities of Christ’s Passion; yet they do not seem to have added the signum of the cross to their habit until after the composition and translation of their original rule, but before 1139, when Pope Innocent III mentioned it in his bull Omne datum optimum2. As part of the Templar habit it is frequently mentioned in the Templar statutes, the retraits, which provided detailed regulations on how and where the cross should be worn (§ 141), and when it should be removed (§§ 470, 489, 496, which show that by not wearing the cross the penitent was visually, spiritually as well as factually excluded the community of the brothers)3. These references further added to the already very diverse Christological imagery of the Templar
1 See generally CONSTABLE, Giles, ‘The cross of the crusaders’, in id., Crusaders and Crusading in the Twelfth Century, Aldershot, 2008, p. 45-91, and MURRAY, Alan, ‘ “Mighty against the enemies of Christ”: the relic of the True Cross in the armies of the kingdom of Jerusalem’, in John FRANCE, and William G. ZAJAC, The Crusades and their Sources. Essays Presented to Bernard Hamilton, Aldershot, 2008, p. 217-38. 2 DEMURGER, Alain, Les templiers: une chevalerie chrétienne au moyen âge, Paris, 2005, p. 296 3 Taken from CURZON, Henri de (ed.), La Règle du Temple, Paris, 1886, p. 112, 251, 259, 262-3.


The Debate on the Trial of the Templars (1307–1314). Sebastián. 40. These the Templars had sometimes commissioned themselves. which have survived in large number in many western archives but of which only a few have so far been edited. who were from the outset exposed to the spiritual climate of Mount Moriah. ‘The Templars and the Hospitallers. GUERREIROS. 1997. As argued by Licence (who follows the lead of Sylvia Schein) the Templars. 105-15 8 SALVADÓ. ‘Icons’. 5 4 208 . in a second step. who in an earlier article regarded the cross as the most prominent element in the Order’s iconography5. Aldershot. in the Holy Land the Templars were _______________________________________________  LICENCE. and. 191–2 and 193 for the quotation. ‘Consideracions sobre l’ús de la Creu en l’ordre del Temple’. by investigating more closely what the Templars’ association with these relics can tell us about the Templars’ religious culture. however. 2010. Crusades . 1984. Christ and the saints’. is a first-class example of how such an investigation is to be conducted. 9 LICENCE. 6 SALVADÓ. CAVALEIROS rule recently described by Tom Licence4. El temps sota control: homenatge a Francesc Xavier Ricoma Vendrell. Tom. 2005. p. It is also in line with Sebastián Salvadó’s more recent observation that the Templars in the Crown of Aragon made extensive use of True Cross relics and devotional icons from the East to express their association with the Holy Land and ‘recreate the spiritual homeland of their order’6. Tarragone. CRAWFORD and Helen J. including relics. esp. ‘The trial inventories of the Templars’ houses in France: selected aspects’. 4. FUGUET I SANS. His observation seems to find subtle support in the research of Joan Fuguet i Sans. In this article I intend to follow in particular the lead of Salvadó by expanding the list of True Cross relics associated with the Order of the Temple. Joan. which also infiltrated their western commanderies9. p.). in Jochen BURGTORF. Moreover. p.ORDENS MILITARES FREIRES.’ Traditio. crosses and the liturgical objects of Templar chapels in the Crown of Aragon’. Christ and the saints’. Sylvia SCHEIN. in BURGTORF. developed a heightened awareness of their significance as soldiers of Christ in the land of Revelation. Tom. which have led him to conclude that even in the intensely Christocentric period of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Templars’ ostensive identification with Christ stood out.7 In the inventories are recorded the Templars mundane possessions but also. Debate. 2005. p. ‘Icons. 45-6. CRAWFORD and NICHOLSON. 39-57. 175-95. The sources that are most relevant for this kind of research are the Order of the Temple’s inventory lists. p. more often. their liturgical instruments and religious objects. 295–308. albeit to a more limited extend. 4. 7 An excellent introduction to the historical value of these inventories is BURGTORF. p. ‘Between Mount Moriah and the Holy Sepulchre: the changing traditions of the Temple Mount in the central Middle Ages. Crusades . they were the result of royal decrees during and after the trial of the Templars to have the Order’s mobile and immobile belongings catalogued. NICHOLSON (eds. Paul F. Jochen. And it is from these entries that first conclusions on the religious culture of the Order of the Temple can be drawn8. ‘The Templars and the Hospitallers.

12 FOLDA. M. Bulletin de la société d’études et de recherches historiques du pays de Retz. 15 BOURG. 2006. p. 16 CORSON. and Corbins. ‘Icons’. which also includes an excellent guide to the archival evidence. Guillotin de. no 23. 19 DURU. 188 14 The best study of the subject of Templar crosses in the Crown of Aragon is SALVADÓ. Nantes.. ‘Templiers’19. p. 1984. p. Templar convents in the Order’s western provinces were by the end of the thirteenth century swamped with pieces of the lignum Domini. ‘La Cámara’20. 174. 4. Toulouse. XI. Les Templiers en Bretagne et les hospitaliers de Saint-Jean de Jerusalem.] = unconfirmed Acre [Biais] [Bray. La Règle. Templiers en Bretagne16. Angiola Maria (ed. 1902. 141-2. 1883. 11 vols. A. pp. which they guarded when it was transported away from Jerusalem or carried into battle10. 41 _______________________________________________  CURZON. Notice18. 17 ROMANINI. cf. Cambridge. Toulouse had altogether four pieces. St-Nicola] Cantavieja Cross Reliquaries 1 [1] [1] 1 Fragments of lignum Domini 4 [1] [1+] 1 Reference FOLDA. and generally BOUYER.. hospitaliers et vrai croix de St. p. 141-2 CORSON. p. Crusader Art. Barcelona. 265-7. 2005. At this time I know of thirty-six reliquaries – six of them likely but not certainly Templar . Guia de la España Templaria. Paimboeuf. Notice sur la relique de la Vraie Croix de Saint-Père en Retz.‘Templiers. p. p. Père-en-Retz’. perhaps even four pieces of the Cross in its treasury11. 1985. DURU. reprint: Yoran Embanner. 101. Templar house [. 1991-. Enciclopedia dell’Arte Medievale. although they may include a few duplicates. SALVADÓ. du. 64 MARTÍNEZ. p. 105. no 32. ‘Icons’.. xvi. This very physical association of the brethren with the relic combined with exposure to the increasingly Christocentric liturgy and cultic activity on the Temple Mount described by Licence surely must be seen as one reason why. § 122. André. See table below. J. as a survey of the published Templar inventories indicates. Crusader Art in the Holy Land: From the Third Crusade to the Fall of Acre. Ordre de Malte.). 11 10 209 . the True Cross of Jerusalem. Histoire du grand prieuré de Toulouse.. New Temple London had two. encased in two reliquaries15.Prática Religiosa e Espiritualidade Militar also in frequent contact with the holiest relic of Christ’s passion.with forty-six or more fragments of the True Cross. Limaye and Venice had at least one each. Rome. 18 BOUYER. The extant inventories show that Peñíscola had three. And the four-armed Templar reliquary crosses of Acre12 and Pontoferrada (now in the cathedral of Astorga)13 contained four splinters of the Cross each14. Juan. p. 1187-1291. Jaroslav. 13 ATINEZA. Grasse. 1898. Enciclopedia17.

Eugène. first published in Provence Historique. 68. 61-75. 21 Jordi RUBIÓ. 1956. 684 Inventaire Ste-Eulalie26. Anuari. 11. ‘Els béns del Temple’.. Anales y Boletín de los Museos de Arte de Barcelona. Madrid. p. 194 MARTÍNEZ. 1895. 1911. 24 MIRET Y SANS.. no 7. 255-62. Geneva. p. no. Institut d’Estudis Catalans. p. 385-407.). ‘Inventaris inèdits de l’ordre del Temple a Catalunya’. 136 _______________________________________________  MARTÍNEZ FERRANDO. Vannes. 2004. no 75. 136). Les commanderies du Grand Prieuré de France. p. p. 1979.). Giuseppe Aldo di. Templiers en Bretagne. 27 DURBEC. II. 29 Evidence of a Holy Cross relic in the church of Lantiern dates from 1643 (CURSON. 2. no 91. Arlette. 25 MANNIER.. 124 CORSON. Paris. Templiers en Bretagne. Templiers et Hospitaliers en Provence et dans les Alpes-Maritimes.ORDENS MILITARES FREIRES. Provence27. 1959. 23 RICALDONE. Templari e Gerosolimitani di Malta in Piemonte dal XII al XVIII secolo. p. 114. 22 VILAR BONET. 190–1. 26 HIGOUNET-NADAL. p. Exuviae sacrae Constantinopolitanae. ‘Inventaris inèdits’21. VILAR BONET. 56 G. p. p. Joseph-Antoine. Els béns del Temple22. Annales du Midi. reprint: Grenoble. Cartulaire général du Morbihan. 2001.). 258 DURBEC. reprint: Brionne. Els béns del temple a la Corona d’Aragó en suprimir-se l’ordre (1300-1319). 2 vols. Barcelona.. no 234. Templiers en Bretagne. reprint: Paris. ‘Inventaris’24. p. 70 MANNIER. p. 2 vols. See ROSENZWEIG. But the Templars held property at Lantiern in the late twelfth century and a connection of the Order with the church is possible. 1953–4. ‘La Cámara’. 42. 1875. 398-9 VILAR BONET. Ramón d’ALÓS and Francesc MARTORELL (eds. p. Mariá.] = unconfirmed Catalonia Catalonia Catalonia Carentoir [Chieri] Corbins [Douai] Ste-Eulalie Grasse Italy [Lantiern]29 Cross Reliquaries 4 1 1 1 [1] 1 [1] 1 1 1 [1] Fragments of lignum Domini 5 2 1 1 [1+] 1 [1+] 1 1 1 [1] Reference RUBIÓ. ‘La Cámara Real en el reinado de Jaime II (1291–1327): Relaciones de entradas y salidas de objetos artísticos’. Joaquim (ed. p. CAVALEIROS Templar house [. 1872. I. Louis (ed. MIRET Y SANS. Exuviae28. p. 28 RIANT. Ordre de Malte25. p. p. 161-2. 1987. 263 RIANT.). GUERREIROS. 9.. 2000. RICALDONE. II. Paul (ed. Boletin de la real academia de buenas letras de Barcelona. p. Ordre de Malte. 434. 20 210 . 1907. Jesús Ernesto. Templari23. ‘Inventaris de les cases del Temple de la corona d’Aragó en 1289’. 2 vols. ‘L’inventaire des biens de la commanderie du Temple de Sainte-Eulalie du Larzac en 1308’. de CORSON.

105. 457 Ogier d’ANGLURE. Misc. 467 CORSON. 441 VILAR BONET.. Enrolled Accts. Frolow. no 53.. Ecclesiae Venetae antiquis monumentis nunc etiam primum editis illustratae ac in decades distributae. Jeux et sapience du moyen âge. ‘La Cámara’. Procès34. 1987. Els béns del Temple. p. 37 CORNELIUS. 2 vols. II. pp. 54. no. Berlin. m 3. 32 SCHOTTMÜLLER. Vraie Croix36. 51. Discorso intorno la città di Lecce. p. in Albert PAUPHILET (ed... p. 116-17 VILAR BONET. 12. no 22. Paris. Paris. p. 1887. Konrad. 35 ANGLURE. Templiers en Bretagne. 76. 386. ‘Le saint voyage de Jherusalem’. reprint: Paris.. 1924. Ordre de Malte. Untergang32. Infantino.). 16. London. MARTÍNEZ. 33 WILLIAMSON. p. CORNELIUS. 1841-51. La relique de la Vraie Croix. 393-6 Enciclopedia. (later Rhodes) Peñíscola I Peñíscola II Peñíscola III Perticano Pontoferrada Sulniac Toulouse Venice Total (27) Cross Reliquaries [1] 1 2 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 30 [36] Fragments of lignum Domini [1+] 1 2 1+ 2 1 1 3 1 [+] 4 1 4 1 (+) 41 [46] + Reference SCARDINO. John Bruce. 213 SCHOTTMÜLLER. Discorso30. Flaminius. 175. London. 34 MICHELET.Prática Religiosa e Espiritualidade Militar Templar house [. II. 247 _______________________________________________  SCARDINO. p. Venice. XI. 122. xv-vii. no 619. Paris. p. Le procès des Templiers. 31 30 211 . Ogier d’. no. Ecclesiae Venetae37. WILLIAMSON. Bari. p. ‘Saint voyage’35.] = unconfirmed [Lecce] Limaye London Mas Deu N. 2 vols. 1951. 1607. 36 FROLOW. Der Untergang des Templerordens mit urkundlichen und kritischen Beiträgen. Peregrino. ‘Inventaris inèdits’.R. 1634. Giulio Cesare. Temple London33. Els béns del Temple. 73 MICHELET. Lecce. 1961. 128-9 RUBIÓ. 4. Jules (ed. 140. L. Lecce sacra.N. 16 vols. no 20. 430 Exch.T. Anatole. p. BOURG. no 4. INFANTINO. Lecce sacra31.). p. p. The history of the Temple. 1749. p. p. cf. p.

xvi.g. Among the liturgical artefacts confiscated from Templar houses and chapels in Aragon were two reliquary crosses of impressive size. p. 684. 1973.). p. a lordship which the Templars had gained in 1196. lignum Domini chico del qual minvan . no 32. Barcelona. was in 1311 described as ‘old and made of silver’39. contained splinters of the Holy Cross in two places and which was decorated with forty-five stones of different colours. 430. 1297-1307) of that name43. BOURG. was described as small (parva) and not much longer than half a palm (c. 1908. p.i. The other as ‘a silver cross. 39 38 212 . The relic containers and reliquary crosses found in other churches. MANNIER. with ten stones on the front and seven at the back’44. pietra. 263 (Grasse. CAVALEIROS Some of these reliquaries were of very simple design.ORDENS MILITARES FREIRES. small and big’. DURBEC. 280 cm) respectively. 189. p. p. 40 …une petite crois double. On Cantavieja see FOREY. Ordre de Malte. Alan. p. Aragón. five Spanish piedras (c. London. Toulouse possessed two reliquaries with splinters of the Cross. couverte d'argent quy est dorée. no 23. which.41 As artefacts they were meant to inspire marvel and wonder in the spectator. The Templars in the Corona of Aragón. In 1311 one of the crosses from Peñíscola was described as made of gilded silver. 266. Documents per l’historia de la cultura catalane mig-eval. 41 (1311). 391. p. 265. Tortosa (1286-7) and Zaragoza (1292-4. GUERREIROS. MARTÍNEZ. The reliquary containing another splinter found at Grasse was a small silver cross and the Holy Cross relic from the Templar convent of Cantavieja. The reliquary recorded in a fifteenth-century inventory of the former Templar chapel of Douai was described as ‘a small gilded silver double-cross containing multiple relics of the True Cross’40.i. who seems to have been identical with the Templar preceptor of Villel (before 1286). ‘La Cámara’. Ordre de Malte. The cross containing a splinter of the lignum Domini discovered at Limaye. for example. no 1. with its scogio. 42 See also SALVADÓ. Otro lignum Domini que y fizo fer don Remon Oliver con dies pietra e con su pie d argent…. See RUBIO Y LLUCH. p. One was in 1313 described as ‘a wooden cross covered with silver. no 35.v. 1308). 90. 41 See e. II. p. Provence. 28. The taller of the two crosses was a present from Remon Oliver. p. which each contained a splinter of the lignum Domini. Moreover. I. 278 (1318). Antonio (ed. 44 BOURG. containing two wooden crosses with pieces of the Holy Cross. could be extremely sumptuous. decorated with a figure of the Crucified and forty-eight _______________________________________________  SCHOTTMÜLLER. For Remon Oliver see FOREY. Peñíscola apparently possessed one fragment of the Holy Cross in a reliquary enamelled in the style of Limoges and two silver crosses with splinters of the Cross in 1307. 2 vols. it was said. in appearance and content they constituted a memorable visual link between the relics’ owners and the Holy Land42. ‘Inventaris’. Ordre de Malte. many were enamelled in the style of Limoges. however. II. cruçeta de fulla de plata sobredorada en que ha . others were made from ivory. ‘Icons’. Untergang. 5 cm)38. xvi. 140 cm) and ten Spanish piedras (c. en laquelle a plusieurs reliques de la vraye croie…. no 23. MIRET Y SANS. 43 … . p.

m 3. 69. p. Saint John. Misc. Turnhout. ‘La Cámara’. no 17. in quo est involuta dicta crux48. 360. four stones the colour of emeralds. for example. p. p. Raising arms. p. The vial with the Precious Blood is recorded in Exch. Revue Mabillon. eight stones the colour of sapphires. thereby adding substance and a sense of urgency and immediacy to the brothers’ daily prayer por le saint reaume de Jerusalem49. WILLIAMSON. 2005. No 20. signe pedem dicte crucis et est cum signo magistri mayoris Templi. ‘La règle du Temple et la version templière de l’“Oratio communis fidelium”’. 258. 48 VILAR BONET. 1997. 38-44 (1311). _______________________________________________  VILAR BONET. Liturgy in the struggle to liberate Jerusalem in the late middle ages.47Another reliquary cross that once belonged to the Templars but in 1318 went into the possession of the Cistercians of Valldigna was described as qoddam (sic!) crux argenti cum lingo Domini in qua sunt duo […] lingo Domini et est […] granats seu balays grossi et triginta II perle […] lapides modice sive encastedes et in ila parte dicte crucis est unus crucifixus et beati Johannis et beate Marie et cum IIII evangelistis. ‘Inventaire St-Eulalie’. no 4. p. Its visual reference to Christ Crucified. et in capite dicte crucis deficit aliquantulum lingo Domini […] argenti. Els béns del Temple. Enrolled Accts. p. L.T. p. as did the vial of the Precious Blood guarded at New Temple in London. no 75. LINDNER. no 16. which may have been identical with a similar crystal cross given by James II to Valldigna in 131846. 46 VILAR BONET. no 32. 45 213 . p. p. p. 355. the function of these relics was moreover as a visual reminder of the physical location where Christ endured his Passion and which the Templars had professed to protect and defend. The Crux Sancta in the church of Sainte-Eulalie was described as made of silver and gold and encrusted with precious stones. 177-82. 73. in reliquaries of obvious Frankish-Levantine provenance. Enshrined.Prática Religiosa e Espiritualidade Militar large pearls. Corbins possessed a fragment of the lignum Domini enshrined in a crystal cross. Amon. 114-15 (1300). no 4. no 75. Els béns del Temple. MARTÍNEZ. 47 [Q]uandam crucem sanctam munitam lapidibus preciosis incastratam in auro et argento. sine est […] et in una cruce crocea per medium et unum velum cerici albi cum orlis rubeis. cf. Els béns del Temple. during daily chapter meetings in the Temple of Paris. Temple London. SINCLAIR. Enclosed in this enamelled and richly adorned staurotheka were multiple minor reliquaries containing pieces of the Cross and various relics of saints. as they often were. 194 (1318).. et est […] sunt tribus crucis reliquie diversorum sanctorum. p. As relics associated with Christ’s Passion these splinters also served as constant reminders to the Templars of their origin and allegiance to Christ. and four stones the colour of rubies45. 129-30 (1307). 128-9 (1307). Blessed Mary and the Evangelists and attribution to the grand master of the Temple made it a centrepiece for Templar devotion and in the eyes of outsiders it created a strong link between the sanctity of the object and the Order.R. Keith V. 49 A bidding prayer of this content was recited. 116-17 (1302). 194 (1318).

Mary and the apostles. 55 SALVADÓ. et quidam pes argenti superaurati dicte crucis…. 124 (1318).. fragments of the lignum Domini52. Through these relics the Templars in Europe. 97-100.. que pertitur. no 130. item quandam crucem parvam argenti duplicem cum IIII brachiis. Another reliquary containing a splinter of the Cross eventually came into the possession of the Franciscans of Vilafranca. et videtur quod in ea fuerit de lingo Domini. Cambridge. in quibus sunt octo lapides minimi valoris. et quedam crux parva lingo Domini. The third reliquary (which has also already been described by Salvadò) was a complex arrangement of three richly decorated double-armed crosses formed into one reliquary depicting Christ. It seems by their description that the design of all three reliquary crosses followed an artistic style first developed in Jerusalem workshops51. et videtur quod in ibi sit de lingo Domini. which were after 1313 recorded among the former Templar possessions now in the hands of James II of Aragon. in quo est forma trium angelorum embotits. Ibid. in cuius parte quadam fermata est quadam parva crux cum quatuor brachiis. 188. 52 [I]tem quandam crucem cum folio argenti superaurato et cum IIII brachiis in qua sunt reliquie. enclosed in which were two more reliquaries of the True Cross set into one another53. no 91. 76-7 (1313). quinquaginta quinque perle enfilate54. 167-8. among other relics. et eciam in dicta cruce quadam pecia reliquie nigre grossitudinis unius favete. 1995. GUERREIROS. Likewise. p. 194 (1318). et in alia parte dicte crucis est quadam media crux fixa. et in una parte dicte crucis que pertitur est quidam cruxifixus. p. ‘Icons’. ‘La Cámara’. p. p. visitors to Templar churches or chapels who had seen any of the three reliquary crosses. Transcribed by Martinèz it reads as follows: [I]tem Minorisis Villefranche quondam … … hiis cohoperta filio argenti et est in branchio inferiori quedam crux modica … … ibi inter ambas partes quadraginta unus ? lapides sive doblex fixi et … lignum Domini. seems to have been designed in the shape of the Byzantine double-armed cross. 51 FOLDA.ORDENS MILITARES FREIRES. and in particular in the Crown of Aragon. ‘demonstrated a pronounced veneration for the True Cross’55. et est crucis ligni Domini. Els béns del Temple. 180 (1323). plates 3 and 4 and p. et sex lapides virides. too. Jaroslav. As mentioned _______________________________________________  50 ‘[U]num pedum argenti de super deauratum. This reliquary. et ista medi crux cohopertur cum alia in qua est una pecia de lingo Domini. MARTÍNEZ. et ex alia parte in medio crucis est ymago Virginis gloriose [te]nentis filium suum in brachio. CAVALEIROS The Cistercians of Valldigna for one hardly could have failed to notice the importance of the Cross in Templar devotion. In medio autem dite cruces fecimus poni de lingo Domini. et viginti sex perle. The Art of the Crusaders. VILAR BONET. 54 Ibid. no 75. et in quolibet quatuor brachiorum dicte crcis medie sunt singule imagines. est eciam intus cruce preditam quadam modica croeta rotundiatis unius denarii. no 53. would have been left in little doubt over the spiritual yearning of the Templars for Jerusalem. queque deaurata est. See also ibid. et ymago crucifixi. no 53. Two were described as gilt double-armed crosses in the Greek style with mounted semiprecious stones and containing. but unfortunately its description is riddled with lacunae and unreadable passages. 53 [Q]andam croetam argenti subtilem. 214 . for they also received from the Order’s possession one gilded silver pedum with the figure of three enamelled angels depicting the scene of the discovery of the True Cross50. 188. p. 76 (1313) and SALVADÓ. medie quatuor evanglistorum. prout fuit inventum’.

Prática Religiosa e Espiritualidade Militar earlier. who wore it openly displayed on their habits. which was also one of the few devotional acts which the Templars performed publicly. ZAJAC. 63. The importance of the Holy Cross reliquary as a defining element of religious perception of the Order of the Temple and as a focal point for devotional attention becomes even clearer if one considers the important function of chapels and churches. where these reliquaries were put on display. the relics pertaining to its archetype must have been among the Order’s most potent tools of recruitment56. 410. p. in the church of the Temple. benefactions delivered and accepted. ‘Picturing the crusades: the uses of visual propaganda. on bended knee.. who were able to describe it to the detail in their depositions. p. The liturgy of the day unfolded in the most solemn manner. remarked that he had only ever witnessed them revering and honouring the Cross with great devotion59. 1095-1250’.. adoring the cross and devoutly hearing mass and other divine offices’57. The Crusades and their Sources. and business transactions conducted. 59 Ibid. 57 GILMOUR-BRYSON. lord of Beirut. It is telling that in Cyprus the most vocal lay advocates of the Templars during the trial were knights. whereas lord Laurentius of Beirut. as places. 69.). c. culminating in the unveiling of the Cross in the chapel to the chants of Ecce lignum Crucis and the response Venite adoremus. in FRANCE. Anne (ed.p. 1998. 60 Ibid. in other words. 64. 56 215 . p. A complete English edition. witnessed the Templars adoring the Cross ‘just as any Christian he had ever seen’58. The trial of the Templars in Cyprus. and the one that Robert de Montgisard may have been referring to. p. and once the Cross was completely unveiled and placed in front of _______________________________________________  For the importance of the cross as visual aid for preachers of the crusade see MORRIS. as arenas for religious and social intercourse. During the singing of the response the assembled brothers kneeled in adoration. The most impressive spectacle of Templar devotion of the Cross. Colin. Rupen de Montfort. the sign of the cross was the most recognisable insignum of the military orders. 197-8.. Leiden. The Good Friday ceremony was regulated for in the Templar retraits and well rehearsed by many Templars. nobles and churchmen who had attended Templar mass and had witnessed the brethren’s devotion to Christ and the Cross. And the vicar Simon Rouss at least agreed that many times he had seen the Templars adoring the Cross ‘honestly and devoutly’60. Thus Robert de Montgisard testified that ‘in Nicosia he saw brothers of the Temple many years ago. was undoubtedly the Adoration of the Cross on Good Friday. 58 Ibid. who by his own account had lived for eighteen years with the Templars as a lay associate. And in the same way that preachers employed the Cross of Christ as visual aid in their crusade sermons. where agreements of confraternity were contracted.

141. passum et mortuum fuisse in ligno sancte crucis pro redemptione humani generis. se habere spem firmam habende salvationis per eum et per neminem alium. home to one of the Order’s Holy Cross reliquaries. 615-16. and II. ut effundant suum sanguinem proprium contra hostes Christi Sarracenos in terra transmarina.dicens eciam quod. 227-8. the Cross was venerated thrice a year. cum ipse peccatum non fecerit. cujus effusione ipse crucem suam sanctissimam insignavit. GUERREIROS. 606. put off their shoes. 446. I. II. Italy. so they would be able to shed their blood against the Saracen enemies of Christ in the land across the sea and all other enemies of the Christian faith62. 63 MICHELET. nec dolus unquam fuerit in ore ejus semper veridico.. II. 62 . when the brothers. non pro culpis nec pro peccatis suis. Brother Gerard de Passagio. p. See also ibid. p. 620. Details of the ceremony crop up in an abundance of Templar testimonies. he and his brothers wore the cross on their habits in reverence of the Cross of Christ. Spain and Cyprus the same solemn celebrations unfolded on Good Friday. 216-17. p. It was ‘in honour and reverence of the Cross on which Our Lord sustained his death and passion for us’ that they wore the symbol of the cross on their mantles61. ob reverenciam crucifixi Domini Jhesu. 366. 446. As some Templars would explain. 64 Ibid. the Cross stood for the Passion of Christ. II. 82-3. according to the knight brother Berenguer de Collo already mentioned. Lotharingia. p. they approached the Cross on bended knees. omnes fratres dicti ordinis portant in clamyde crucem. weapons and head-covers and with washed feet. 230. Burgundy. 326. et alibi contra hostes fidei Christiane. 141. Procès. for one. and on Good Friday. In the words of Berenguer de Collo.. sed pro nostris duntaxat. Picardy and Allemania63. in figuram vel signum sacri sanguinis Jhesu Christi. Ibid. insisted that he and his brethren always venerated the Cross with much reverence on Holy Friday and that he had never seen it done any differently in any of the Templar houses he had visited during his career in Cyprus. 222. I.ORDENS MILITARES FREIRES.. 555-6. p. 612-13. Across France. Like many of his brothers he believed that the red colour of the Templar cross signified the blood Jesus had shed on the Cross for them. 201. 111. they took off their shoes. at the feasts of the Holy Cross in September (Exaltation of the Cross) and May. Here. 609. a brother knight from Mas Deu in Roussillon. 61 216 . which in turn reminded them of their mission to shed their own blood to defeat the enemies of Christendom. Some of the best descriptions of what happened in the Temple on Good Friday come from Mas Deu. as was required for the occasion. p. swords and head dresses (deponunt sotulares quos portant et gladios et cofas lineas et quicquid portant aliud extra caput)64. as some brothers remembered in their depositions. CAVALEIROS the altar. Et sicut Christus Jhesus effudit sanguinem proprium in cruce pro nobis. quam fratres dicti Templi ter in anno adorant reverenter. in illa significatione fratres dicti ordinis portant crucem panni rubei in clamide. 232. p. pro cujus honore ipse et reliqui fratres Templi portant signum venerabilis crucis rubee in mantellis albis vel nigris. His memory is supported by Arnaldus Septembris. Procès. According to him the brothers of Mas Deu _______________________________________________  MICHELET. I. 506: [E]xcepto quod confessus est Christum Jhesum crucifixum verum Deum esse.

told the inquisitors that in Acre and in Cyprus _______________________________________________  The other two feastdays of the Cross were celebrated non tantum discalciatis pedibus. et benedicimus tibi. Guy de Bandes. Christe. p. a knight from Nicosia. but for our misdeeds’ by taking their swords. I. shoes and capes off. and with utmost devotion (cum summa devotione meliori qua possunt)66. the day when Christ died on the Cross for the salvation of mankind. had only positive things to tell about the brothers’ devotion. p. nudis pedibus. but also en presence deu pueple. Ferrier Hoti. who had seen Templar masters and brothers attending mass and celebrating the Divine Office in the Templar church of Nicosia.. Ibid. p. and reciting the prayer: Adoro te. which they did ‘with no less devotion than any other faithful Christian’69. 474.. 386. a merchant from Acre who by the time of the Templars’ arrest was living in Famagusta. son of God died for the salvation of mankind.. sed cultellis et cofis capitum depositis. too. 503: Quamquidem crucem ipse et ceteri fratres ejusdem ordinis cum quibus conversatus est. The Templar Stephen de Cellario. 66 Ibid. 141. II. 69 SCHOTTMÜLLER. The adoration was done solemnly. p. et benesesc te Crist. His observations were confirmed by other laymen. 500 and also p. Often the Adoration of the Cross was performed in front of lay people who had come to the chapel or church to witness the occasion. who remembered that time and time again they had witnessed the Templars attending Mass and venerating the Cross with honesty and devotion70. 65 217 . they recited the prayer Adoramus te. John de Bayes. a frequent commuter between France and the Holy Land. and thus for everyone to see68. et benedico tibi. et idem credit de aliis. cultellis et cofis capitis dimissis. et solempnius in die Veneris sancta. genibus flexis. 245.. 384. adoraverunt et adorant ter in anno. not for his sins. for he never sinned. Christe. p. qui per la sancta tua crou nos resemist! 67 Ibid. also remembered that wherever he was on that day he would adore the Cross with washed bare feet. he remembered that on Good Friday he had seen crowds of Templars entering the Order’s church on bended knees to venerate the Cross.. Untergang. discalciatis pedibus et cultellis dimissis et capitibus discohopertis et flexis genibus. p. In their defence the Templars did not fail to remind the bishops and prelates that the adoration of the Cross on Good Friday was not only done with humility and devotion. cum sit laycus ipse qui loquitur: Ador te Crist. quia per crucem tuam redemisti mundum65. quia per sanctam crucem tuam redemisti mundum. remembered that in accordance with the customs of the Order the brothers of Mas Deu celebrated the Holy Cross of Christ three times a year and that on Holy Friday. with reverence and devotion67. II. dicendo. ‘on which Our Lord Jesus Christ. videlicet in duobus festis Sancte Crucis maii et septembris.Prática Religiosa e Espiritualidade Militar venerated the Holy Cross. 70 Ibid. Called upon as a secular witness in the trial against the Order in Cyprus. 68 Ibid.

1330). II. p. was also full of praise72. in expectation of indulgences after they had heard the sermon in the Franciscan convent77. GUERREIROS. ubi est similitude et forma sepulcri Domini.ORDENS MILITARES FREIRES. the Adoration of the Cross in the church of the Temple was done in conspectu totius populi74. on Good Friday. p. Procès. Henry de Bibbio. ‘Liber de laudibus civitatis ticinensis’. See also ibid. thus demonstrating that in public memory the association of the Order with the _______________________________________________  71 72 Ibid. as we know from the deposition of Brother Raynald de Tremplaio. Just how important a centre for popular devotional activity the church or chapel of a military order could become can be glanced from the records of the Hospitaller church of Saint-Jean-de-Guerno in Bretagne. I. nec non ecclesiam Sancti Sepulcri. 423. 74 Item. the Templar chapel of Biais contained a relic of the True Cross that still in the seventeenth century attracted pilgrims from Poitou and Anjou76. CAVALEIROS he had seen Templars entering their churches on that day with their heads uncovered and on bare feet to venerate the Cross and to pray. Les Templiers en Bretagne. they would walk the length of three cannarum (c. At the south-western border of Bretagne. In Paris. p. twenty years after the first Templar arrests. II. xi:1. which they did with more devotion than he had ever seen in any other faithful Christian71. And it is equally telling that in Parma in 1327. II.. The chronicle of Pavia reports that still twenty years after the dissolution of the Order the citizens of the city would on Good Friday gather at the former Templar church. hoc excepto quod. 15m) on bended knees to kiss the Cross73. de contentis in quinto et omnibus sequentibus articulis respondit se nichil scire ultra quod supra deposuit. Città di Castello. 392. 292-4.. ed. p.. depositis ornamentis vel occulatis: visitant illa die loca indulgentiarum devotius et copiosus solito et specialiter loca Hospitalariorum seu Templariorum. which was in the possession of a small silver cross reliquary with a splinter of the Holy Cross. procedentes illuc tota nocte precedenti. 73 Ibid. p. The Adoration of the Cross was a public event that attracted spectators not only in the Holy Land and Cyprus. 76 Ibid. He had never seen anyone adore the Cross with more reverence than the Templars in Acre. during Carnival it was the members of the confraternity of the Holy Cross who dressed as master and knights of the Temple. licet diset ab urbe per mille passus. another knight from Nicosia. See Anonymus TICINENSIS. Rerum Italicarum Scriptores. in the early modern period the small church became so overcrowded with pilgrims on Good Friday that the sermon had to be preached on the cemetery instead75. 395. as was tradition on that day.p. p. Rodolfo MAIOCCHI. Ibid. 77 Procedunt autem tunc mulieres omnes velato capite. MICHELET. 1903. 218 . where. p.. in die Veneris sancta. Frequented by worshippers from neighbouring towns throughout the year. 75 CORSON. 394. Tripoli and Nicosia. 265-7. 40 (c. 128-9.. devote et reverenter in conspectu totius populi adorabant crucem in capitulo.

p. I am grateful to Dr Nicole Hamonic who first drew my attention to these manuscripts. 78 219 . If the Templars’ religion was as transparent as these findings seem to suggest. like all other medieval military orders. and the two fragments of the True Cross set into reliquaries. London.Prática Religiosa e Espiritualidade Militar relic of Christ’s Passion and the devotional cult that had been organised around it was still alive78. Ely and Rochester in England. Elphin and Kildare and Fordensis in Ireland. 2007. and the bull. among them the sword that killed St Thomas Becket. if witnessed by outsiders. Rerum Italicarum Scriptores. 1307-12’. Leighlin. it seems. a well orchestrated one at that. then it makes sense that one inquires about the elements that defined it. At New Temple the pilgrims would have been able to marvel at a great number of relics. whose members engaged in devotional activities. The importance and popularity of Templar churches and chapels as places of public devotion is an important topic worthy of investigation. Helen J. Armagh. 186 (1327). Ossory. for they confirm that the Order was and always had been an Order of Christ and that it was perceived and recognised as such by large parts of medieval society. the vial with the Precious Blood. Lincoln.. 195-207 80 One papal bull and nineteen Episcopal letters from the Cotton manuscript collection at the British Library in London report the promise of indulgences of between ten and forty days to visitors to New Temple in London. was a religious order first and foremost. Waterford. Aldershot. These letters. Essays on the History of the Crusades and the Knights Templar. which would also have registered with those who visited the Order’s sacred spaces. See BL Cotton ms Nero E VI. were issued between 1161 and 1275 (but mostly between 1246 and 1262) by various bishops of Canterbury. as indicated during the trial of the Templars. influenced any assessment of their religious worth. and Bordeaux in Plantagenet Aquitaine. ed Guiliano BONAZZI. which. _______________________________________________  ‘Chronicon Parmense ab anno MXXXVIII usque ad annum MCCCXXXVIII’. In this context the cult of the Holy Cross and the popularity of the Templars’ adoration of the Cross on Good Friday deserve our closest attention. The promulgation of New Temple in London was therefore a thoroughly English endeavour and. The Order of the Temple. Ardagh. the Templars were far less reclusive than they were commonly portrayed and quite willing to open their church doors to the public79. in Norman HOUSLEY (ed. p. 79 NICHOLSON. Knighthoods of Christ. As Helen Nicholson was able to show using trial related material from England. Città di Castello. 1902. York.). 74-93. presented to Malcolm Barber. Achonry. ix:9. ‘Relations between houses of the Order of the Temple in Britain and their local communities. And at least of the Templar chapels of London and Paris it is known that they attracted partial indulgences and were promoted as pilgrim sites80.