ME 2307 – DYNAMICS LABORATORY

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS 1. Free Transverse Vibration – I – Determination of Natural Frequency 2. Cam Analysis – Cam Profile an !um"#s"ee C$aracteristics %. Free Transverse Vibration – II – Determination of Natural Frequency &. Free Vibration of '"rin( )ass 'ystem – Determination of Natural Frequency *. Com"oun Pen ulum – Determination of +a ius of ,yration an )oment of Inertia -. .ifilar 'us"ension – Determination of +a ius of ,yration an )oment of Inertia /. Trifilar 'us"ension – Determination of +a ius of ,yration an )oment of Inertia 0. 1$irlin( of '$aft – Determination of Critical '"ee 2. .alancin( of +otatin( )asses 13. Determination of ,yrosco"ic Cou"le 11. Turn Table 12. 4artnell ,overnor 1%. Free Vibration of '"rin( )ass 'ystem – Determination of Natural Frequency Beyond the Syll !"# 1&. '"ee +atio of 5"i#cyclic ,ear Train 1*. '"ee +atio of 1orm an 1orm 1$eel

59"erimental stiffness < 1=δ N#mm an T$eoretical stiffness < 1=δ <%5I=l% N=mm P+o-ed"+e$ 1.itc$ at cal "osition an turn t$e "otentiometer till is"lay rea s * -.ei($ts to fin t$e natural frequency .$ere (< acceleration ue to (ravity in m=s2 an δ < eflection in m.&cm T !"l t(on$ 'l. 2. A""ly t$e loa (ra ually in (rams 0.ill be in mm. 2.s C3D /. Bee" t$e s. 8ne en of t$e beam is fi9e an t$e ot$er en is $an(in( free for :ee"in( t$e .*cm nd 4ei($t<3."(+ed$ Dis"lacement measurin( system 6strain (au(e7 an 1ei($ts De#-+(*t(on$ 'train (au(e is boun on t$e beam in t$e form of a bri (e. Connect t$e sensors to instrument usin( connection cable. '. T$is is"lacement causes strain (au(e bri (e to (ive t$e out"ut in milli# volts.+ *h$ Dra.rea t$<-.itc$ a(ain in rea "osition an ensure at t$e is"lay s$o. Bee" t$e s. Plu( t$e main cor to 2%3v= *3$> su""ly %. t$e c$aracteristics curves of loa vs is"lacement? natural frequency Dra.itc$ in t$e rea "osition an turn t$e "otentiometer till is"lays rea s C3D *.$ile a""lyin( t$e loa on t$e beam. A""lie No. mass m 6:(7 Deflection δ 6mm7 T$eoretical 59"erimental eflection 'tiffness δ T 6mm7 : 6N=mm7 T$eoretical 'tiffness : 6N=mm7 Natural frequency fn 64>7 .itc$ on t$e instrument &. T$eoretical eflection δ < 1l%=%5I 1$ere? 1< a""lie loa in Ne.ton? @< len(t$ of t$e beam in mm 5< youn(As mo ules of material in N=mm2? I< moment of inertia in mm& <b$%=12 %. t$e c$aracteristics curves of is"lacement vs natural frequency Re#"lt$ O!#e+/ t(on$ Cantilever beam imensions$ @en(t$<%3cm0 . Bee" t$e s. +ea t$e eflection in mm . Natural frequency < 1=2π √ 6(=δ 7 4> . +ea in( of t$e i(ital in icator . Fo+)"l e "#ed$ 1. A** + t"# +e.EX NO$%$ TRANS&ERSE &IBRATION ' I A()$ To fin t$e natural frequency of transverse vibration of t$e cantilever beam.

!um"#s"ee N 6+P)7 .it$ a surface of contact so esi(ne as to (ive a "re etermine motion to anot$er element calle t$e follo.er. %. All cam mec$anisms are com"ose of at least t$ere lin:s vi>G 1.er? "ull ro an (ui e of "ull ro .er an t$e cam "rofile. Follo. A** + t"# +e.er Eum"s off is observe .n usin( a "olar (ra"$ c$art. T$is Eum"#s"ee is observe for ifferent loa s on t$e follo.$ic$ (ui es follo.ell "erio < 103 Ty"e of follo. ."(+ed$ Cam analysis system an Dial (au(e De#-+(*t(on$ A cam is a mac$ine element suc$ as a cylin er or any ot$er soli . S*e-(1(.t(on $ Diameter of base circle <1*3mm? @ift < 10mm? Diameter of cam s$aft < 2*mm Diameter of follo.n t$e "roEecte len(t$ of t$e "ull ro 2.+ *h$ Dis"lacement ia(ram an also t$e cam "rofile is ra. 2.n. 2")*'#*eed$ 1.Cam? 2. Also to stu y t$e Eum"#s"ee c$aracteristics of t$e cam F follo. Re#"lt3 T !"l t(on$ %3C ) *+o1(le 'l.er. T$e Force Vs !um"#s"ee curve is ra. @oa on t$e No.$ic$ t$e follo. t$e is"lacement ia(ram for t$e follo.er.A cam is a rotatin( bo y im"ortin( oscillatin( motor to t$e follo. +otate t$e can t$rou($ 13H an note o. 'et t$e cam at 3H an note o. T$e cam is run at (ra ually increasin( s"ee s? an t$e s"ee at . rotation 6 e(rees7 23 2")*'#*eed3 'l.er an %.er s$aft < 23 mm? Diameter of roller < %2mm? D.er motion < '4) 6 urin( ascent F escent7 P+o-ed"+e$ Cam analysis system consists of cam roller follo.n t$e "roEecte len(t$ of t$e "ull ro above t$e (ui e Calculate t$e lift by subtractin( eac$ rea in( .er an cam. Follo.it$ t$e initial rea in(.er? F 6N7 1. An(le of @ift in mm @ift I base circle ra ius 6mm7 No.er mec$anism. Frame .EX NO$2 A()$ CAM ANALYSIS To stu y t$e "rofile of (iven can usin( cam analysis system an to ra.

natural frequency 'tiffness e9"erimental? B < loa = eflection <1=K < m(=K N=mm 'tiffness t$eoretical? B < 1= KT < &05I=l% for center loa ? < %5Il=a2b2 for offset loa ? < %0&5I=*l% for uniformly istribute loa ? D( 4+ )#$ 'im"ly 'u""orte beam . Defection at t$e center? δ T< *.+ *h#$ 1. )ass a e No. Determine t$e eflection of t$e beam for various . loa 6N7 from t$is (et stiffness 6(ra"$7 2. Deflection Vs. 2.it$ t$e (iven loa an "arameter.ei($ts a e . A** + t"# Re."(+ed$ Trunnion bearin(s? beams? . Natural frequency %. m ? :( <? l<?5< 59"erimental T$eoretical T$eoretical 59"erimental T$eoretical Deflection Deflection Nat.i t$ of t$e beam? < e"t$ of t$e beam? l < len(t$ of t$e beam. Fo+)"l e "#ed$ Defection at t$e center? δ T< 1l%=&05I for central concentrate loa . @oa in N Vs. Defection at t$e loa "oint? δ T< 1a2b2=%5Il for offset concentrate loa . Deflection Vs.ei($ts. freq. Fi9 t$e beam into t$e slots of trunnion bearin(s an ti($ten. A t$e concentrate loa centrally or offset? or uniformly istribute . %.EX NO$3 TRANS&ERSE &IBRATIONS ' II A()$ To stu y t$e transverse vibrations of a sim"ly su""orte beam subEecte to central or offset concentrate loa or uniformly istribute loa . . O!#e+/ t(on#$ b < ? T !"l + -ol")n$ 'l. I < b %=12J b < . Set'"*$ P+o-ed"+e$ 1. 'tiffness 'tiffness fn ? 4> B? N=m B? N=m δ ?m δ T? m .l&=%0&5I for uniformly istribute loa .$ere (< acceleration ue to (ravity in m=s2 an δ < eflection in m. Natural frequency of transverse vibrations? fn < 1=2π √ 6(=δ 7 4> .

e at t$e en of t$e e9citer.ei($t an ma:e t$e s"rin( to oscillate for 13 times Note t$e corres"on in( time ta:en for 13 oscillations an calculate time "erio From t$e time "erio calculate e9"erimental natural frequency C l-"l t(on$ . T$e e9"eriment consists of t. 1it$ t$is etermine s"rin( stiffness Dete+)(n t(on o1 n t"+ l 1+e."(+edG 1ei($ts? T$rea ? +uler? 'to". Fo+)"l "#ed 'tiffness? : < loa = eflection N=m 59"erimental natural frequency? fn6e9"7 <1=t 4> T$eoretical natural frequency? fn6t$e7 < 1=2π L6(=δ 7 4> P+o-ed"+e Dete+)(n t(on o1 #*+(n4 #t(11ne## 1. T$e mass unit is also calle t$e e9citer? an its unbalance mass can create an e9citational force urin( t$e stu y of force vibration e9"eriment. Fi9 t$e to" brac:et at t$e si e of t$e scale an Insert one en of t$e s"rin( on t$e $oo:.n t$e rea in( corres"on in( to t$e "lat form &. T$e ma(nitu e of t$e mass of t$e e9citer can be varie by a in( e9tra .ei($t? .s t$e "ivotal motion of t$e flat an $ence t$e vertical motion of a mass .atc$ De#-+(*t(on$ T$e setu" is esi(ne to stu y t$e free or force vibration of a s"rin( mass system eit$er am"e or un am"e con ition."en-y A t$e .'MASS SYSTEM A()G To calculate t$e un am"e natural frequency of a s"rin( mass system A** + t"# +e. 2.ei($t an observe t$e c$an(e in eflection *.EX NO$5 FREE &IBRATION OF SPRIN. .+ *h$ @oa vs Deflection @oa vs T$eoretical natural frequency @oa vs 59"erimental natural frequency Re#"lt$ T !"l t(on$ 'l n o 1ei($t Deflection a e m δ 6mm7 6:(7 'tiffnes Time for 13 Time "erio s : oscillation T 6sec7 6N=m7 t 6sec7 59"erimental natural frequency? fn6e9"7? 4> T$eoretical natural frequency fn6t$e7? 4> 1. %. A t$e . 2.$ic$ can be mounte at any "osition alon( t$e lon(itu inal a9es of t$e flat.$ic$ can be scre. It consists of a mil steel flat firmly fi9e at one en t$rou($ a trunnion an in t$e ot$er en sus"en e by a $elical s"rin(? t$e trunnion $as (ot its bearin(s fi9e to a si e member of t$e frame an allo.o freely rotatin( unbalance iscs. Note o. At t$e bottom of t$e s"rin( fi9 t$e ot$er "lat form %.

Vertical frame? 2. . Distance @1 6m7 Time for * Time "erio T Natural oscillations 6sec7 frequency t 6sec7 fn 64>7 59"erimental ra ius of (yration 6Be9"7 C l-"l t(on$ . 'us"en t$e ro t$rou($ any one of t$e $oles 2.20--@ Natural frequency fn < 1=T 64>7 an )oment of inertia Im < m:2 :(#m2 Re#"lt$ T !"l t(on$ 'l. A** + t"# +e. Fo+)"l e "#ed$ Time "erio T< t=N sec an also 59"erimental time "erio T < 2π √ 66B2I@127=(@17 1$ere B< e9"erimental ra ius of (yration an B < √66(@1T2=&π 27#@127? @1< istance from "oint of sus"ension to centre of (ravity of ro an @< total len(t$ of t$e ro T$eoretical ra ius of (yration? Bt < @=√12<3."(+ed$ 1. +ectan(ular ro ? %. No. 'teel rule etc P+o-ed"+e$ 1. +e"eat t$e ste" by sus"en in( t$rou($ all t$e $oles.ive a small an(ular is"lacement to t$e ro F note t$e time ta:en for * oscillations %.atc$ an &.EX NO$6 COMPO7ND PEND7L7M A()$ To etermine t$e ra ius of (yration an mass moment of inertia of t$e (iven rectan(ular ro e9"erimentally. 'to" .

Do t$e mo el calculation . /.+ *h$ A (ra"$ is "lotte bet. %. 'elect t$e bifilar "late 2.EX NO$8 BIFILAR S7SPENSION A()$ To etermine t$e ra ius of (yration an t$e moment of Inertia of a (iven rectan(ular "late. 1it$ t$e $el" of c$uc: ti($ten t$e strin( at t$e to". T sec Natural frequency fn 64>7 +a ius of (yration : 6mm7 b1<21.ei($ts a e an ra ius of (yration C l-"l t(on#$ Re#"lt$ O!#e+/ t(on$ Ty"e of sus"ension < bifilar sus"ension Number of oscillation n<13 b <13. No. *.* cm T !"l t(on$ 'l. A Eust t$e len(t$ of strin( to esire value.een .ive a small $ori>ontal is"lacement about vertical a9is. &.1* cm < &. ."(+ed$ )ain frame? bifilar "late? .* cm .atc$? t$rea Fo+)"l "#ed$ Time "erio T<t=N Natural frequency fn < 1=T $> +a ius of (yration : <6Tb=2π 7√6(=@7 6mm7 1$ere? b< istance of strin( from centre of (ravity? T< time "erio @< len(t$ of t$e strin(? N< number of oscillations t< time ta:en for N oscillations P+o-ed"+e$ 1. -.ei($ts an also by c$an(in( t$e len(t$ of t$e strin(s.atc$ an note o. 'tart t$e sto" . +e"eat t$e e9"eriment by a in( . 1ei($t a e m 6:(7 @en(t$ of strin( @ 6m7 Time ta:en for N osc. A** + t"# +e.ei($ts? sto".n t$e time require for MNA oscillation.

+e"eat t$e e9"eriment by c$an(in( t$e len(t$s of strin(s an a in( .:( 'l.+ *h#$ 1ei($t a e vs ra ius of (yration 1ei($t a e vs moment of inertia O!#e+/ t(on#$ Ty"e of sus"ensionGPPPPPPP? No. . of oscillations PPPPPPPP.m? mass of t$e "late? m1 < PP.it$ % strin(s of equal len(t$s at equal an(ular intervals 6123 3 eac$7 2."(+ed$ )ain frame? c$uc:s . &. Fo+)"l e "#ed $ Time "erio ? T < t=N? Natural frequency? fn < 1=T 4> +a ius of (yration? B < 6bT=2N7 √6(=l7 m.it$ . No.mm iameter? circular "late? strin(s? sto" .ei($ts . )easure t$e time ta:en? for * or 13 oscillations.ere etermine an tabulate .ive t$e "late a small t. A** + t"# +e.* :( 1# 1ei($t of t$e a e masses < m( in N Mo)ent o1 (ne+t( o1 9e(4ht0 I9 : It ' I* Re#"lt$ T$e ra ius of (yration of t$e "late an moment of inertia of t$e .?:(m ..ei($t I.ei($ts.atc$. 1$ere b# istance of a strin( from center of (ravity of t$e "late? l# @en(t$ of strin( from c$uc: to "late surface. P+o-ed"+e$ 1. .ist about its "olar a9is %.EX3 NO3 7 TRIFILAR S7SPENSION A()$ To etermine t$e ra ius of (yration of t$e circular "late an $ence its )ass )oment of Inertia. +a ius of circular "late? +<PP. )oment of inertia of t$e "late only? I"<6+2 9 117 = 6&O2 fn2 9 l7 )oment of inertia . 4an( t$e "late from c$uc:s . @en(t$ of strin( l? m A e ? Time for N mass? oscillations? m? :( t? sec Time "erio T? sec +a ius of (yration? :? m Natural frequency fn? 4> )oment of inertia of .ei($t a e ?It<+2 9 611 I 17 = &O2 fn2 9 l7 1$ere? +# +a ius of t$e circular "late an 11#1ei($t of t$e circular "late < m1( in N m1 < %.

ays is"lace from t$e a9is of rotation alt$ou($ t$e amount of is"lacement may be very small. T$e ben in( of s$aft not only e"en s u"on t$e value of eccentricity? but also e"en s u"on t$e s"ee at . OF S=AFT A()$ To etermine t$eoretically t$e critical s"ee of t$e (iven s$aft . T$e inertia force acts ra ially out.01m=s27? 5< mo ules of elasticity of t$e s$aft I<moment of inertia of s$aft in m&? . Fo+)"l "#ed$ fn <BL65(I=. Natural frequency &. <=IRLIN. As a result of t$is is"lacement? t$e centre of (ravity is subEecte to a centri"etal acceleration as soon as t$e '$aft be(ins to rotate. an N< s"ee of t$e s$aft in +P) B< constant 62.< . Critical s"ee .&*7 Re#"lt$ C l-"l t(on$ 1.ei($t =unit len(t$ in N=m l<effective len(t$ of t$e s$aft bet.it$ t$e (iven en con itions De#-+(*t(onG T$e s"ee at . 1ei($t of soli s$aft %. Normally t$e centre of (ravity of a loa e s$aft .$ic$ t$e s$aft rotates.een su""orts in m.$ic$ t$e s$aft runs so t$at a itional eflection of t$e s$aft from t$e a9is of rotation becomes infinite is :no.ill al. )oment of inertia 2.ar s an ben t$e s$aft.EX NO$ .n as critical s"ee .l&7 an N< fn Q -3 1$ere? fn< natural frequency of vibration in 4> (< acceleration ue to (ravity? 62.

If t$e rotor system rotates smoot$ly? ."(+ed$ rotor system? .it$ t$e ai of force "oly(on an cou"le "oly(on. Fi9 t$e unbalance masses as "er t$e (iven con itionsG ra ius? an(ular "osition an "lane of masses. Re#"lt$ T$e (iven rotor system $as been ynamically balance . OF ROTATIN. 'l. +un t$e system at certain s"ee s an c$ec: t$at t$e balancin( is one effectively.EX NO$> BALANCIN. C D )ass m? :( +a ius C. *.it$ t$e ai o t$e force "oly(on an t$e cou"le "oly(on. Force "oly(on & Cou"le "oly(on . A** + t"# +e. 2. Fin out t$ee balancin( masses an an(ular "ositions usin( force "oly(on? an cou"le "oly(on %.it$out consi erable vibrations? means t$e system is ynamically balance .Force = R2 r? m mr? :(#m Distance from Cou"le = R2 +ef. Fi9 t$e balancin( masses 6calculate masses7 at t$e res"ective ra ii an an(ular "osition. MASSES A()$ To balance t$e (iven rotor system ynamically . &. P+o-ed"+e$ 1. An(ular "osition of t$e masses %. Plane mrl? :(#m2 l? m D( 4+ )#$ 1 Plane of t$e masses 2. No.ei($ts? steel rule? etc. 1 2 % & Planes of mass A .

YROSCOPIC CO7PLE A()$ To etermine t$e active an reactive (yrosco"ic cou"les an com"are t$em. T$is causes an active (yrosco"ic cou"le an t$e . A . T$is is calle (yrosco"ic motion.ei($t to center "lane of isc. %.ei($t =mass is a e on t$e e9ten in( "latform attac$e to t$e isc. &. +eactive cou"le 2. +eactive cou"le . *.yrosco"e? tac$ometer? or strobosco"e? variable volta(e transformer? rotatin( isc .it$ a li($t reflectin( stic:er for strobosco"e s"ee measurement P+o-ed"+e$ 1. 1ei($t a e Vs.EX NO$%0 DETERMINATION OF .+ *h$ 1.R. T$e s"ee of t$e 6N7 isc is measure usin( a tac$ometer or a strobosco"e. 2."(+ed$ . An(ular velocity of t$e isc? R < 2ON = -3? ra =s? N#s"ee of isc in r"m An(ular velocity of "recession? R" < 6S = t7 9 6O=1037 ra =s +eactive (yrosco"ic cou"le? Cr<I.ei($t7 is stan in( to move in a "er"en icular "lane to t$at of "lane of rotatin( of isc.R" Nm an Active (yrosco"ic cou"le? Ca<1 9 @? 1#.it$ .R" Nm . 'l no '"ee of isc? N? r"m 1ei($t a e m? :( Time ta:en for -3H "recision t? sec Active cou"le Ca<1 9 @ Nm +eactive cou"le Cr<I.ei($t a e < m(? N an @# istance bet. A** + t"# +e.ei($t "latform . Formula use G )ass moment of inertia of t$e isc? I < m 2 =0? :(#m2? m#mass of t$e isc an # ia of t$e isc.R. T$e isc as ma e to rotate at a constant s"ee at a s"ecific time usin( variable volta(e transformer. Active cou"le Vs.$ole assembly 6rotatin( isc? rotor an .een centers of . T$e time ta:en 6t7 to traverse a s"ecific an(ular is"lacement 6S <-3H7 is note .

"(+ed$ Turn table? masses? steel rule De1(n(t(on#$ velocity? acceleration? an(ular velocity? an(ular acceleration? centrifu(al force an mass moment of inertia. %.EX NO $%% T7RN TABLE A()$ To etermine an(ular velocity ? an(ular acceleration? mass moment of inertia an centrifu(al force of reci"rocatin( masses A** + t"# +e. No. Fi9 t$e mass to t$e sli in( arm an measure t$e initial ra ius +1 2. P+o-ed"+e$ 1. +e"eat t$e ste"s for ifferent amounts of masses. Fo+)"l e "#ed$ Initial velocity? V1<2O+1N = -3? m=s Final velocity? V2< 2O+2N = -3 @inear acceleration? a< 6V2 # V17 = t? m=s2 Normal acceleration? an< V22=+2 m=s2 Tan(ential acceleration? at < L 6a2#an27? m=s2 An(ular acceleration ? T < at = +2 ra =s2 An(ular velocity ?R< 2ON = -3? ra =s Centrifu(al force? F < mV22 =+2? N )ass moment of inertia? Im < m +22 :(#m2 T !"l t(on$ 'l. s"ee s an measure t$e final ra ial "osition of t$e mass? +2 an t$e time ta:en by t$e mass to travel from initial ra ial "osition to final "osition? t in secon s. secTime ta:en :()ass NCentrifu(al force :(#m2)ass )oment of Inertia Im? C l-"l t(on#$ V1? m=sInitial velocity ra =sAn(ular velocity ra =s2An(ular acceleration +1? mInitial ra ius +2? mFinal ra ius V2? m=sFinal velocity N? r"m'"ee m? t? R? T F? . )a:e t$e turn table to rotate at 6%3#&3 r"m7 lo.

Re#"lt$ T$e an(ular velocity? an(ular acceleration? centrifu(al force an mass moment of inertia . .ere etermine an tabulate .

"(+ed$ 4artnell (overnor setu" an Tac$ometer De#-+(*t(on$ 4artnell (overnor is a centrifu(al ty"e s"rin( controlle (overnor . Bee" t$e s"ee re(ulation in 3 "osition before startin( t$e motor. T$e ball cran: is mounte . 'ensitivity 2.+ *h$ 1.een t$e sleeve an t$e ca" is fi9e to t$e en of t$e (overnor s$aft.O&ERNOR A()$ To fin t$e stiffness? sensitivity an effort of t$e s"rin( usin( 4artnell (overnor A** + t"# +e. )aintain t$e s"ee for eac$ an every (ra uation as require to ta:e t$e irect rea in( Re#"lt$ T !"l + -ol")n$ Q<2* mm0 U<2*mm0 r1<r <2*mm 'l. T$e s"rin( is com"resse bet. )ean s"ee Vs.$ere t$e "ivot of t$e ball cran: lever is carrie by t$e movin( sleeve. 5ffort . No. '"ee ? N 6r"m7 )in ma9 mean 'ensitivity 5ffort 6N7 'tiffness 6N=mm7 an C l-"l t(on$ .10 :(7 R1 F R2 <an(ular s"ee of (overnor at ma9imum ra ius an minimum ra ius res"ectively in ra =sec r1F r2 <ma9imum an minimum ra ius of rotation Fc1 F Fc2 <centrifu(al forces at R1 an R2 in N Q< len(t$ of t$e vertical ball arm of lever in m U< len(t$ of t$e $ori>ontal ball arm of lever in m '1F '2 < s"rin( forces at R1 F R2 in N P+o-ed"+e$ 1.it$ its bell an t$e vertical arm "ressin( a(ainst t$e ca".EX NO$%2 =ARTNELL . )ean s"ee Vs. 2. Increase t$e re(ulate out"ut (ra ually till t$e motor ta:es t$e critical s"ee imme iately control t$e s"ee of t$e (overnor %. Fo+)"l "#ed$ Fc1<m R12r1 6N7 an Fc2<m R22r2 6N7 R1<2π N1=-3 ra =s an R2<2π N2=-3 ra =s '1<2Fc1 69=y7 N an '2<2Fc2 69=y7 N r2< r#+69=y7 6mm7 'ensitivity< 6ma9imum s"ee #minimum s"ee 7=mean s"ee <6N1#N27=N 5ffort < 6s"rin( force at ma9imum s"ee # s"rin( force at minimum s"ee 7=2 '"rin( stiffness < 6'1#'27=+ N=mm 1$ere? m< mass of t$e ball is 6m<3.

een "ivot an s"rin(6@17 m %. Attac$ t$e beam to t$e trunnion brac:et 2. A** + t"# +e.een "ivot an e9citer assembly? m T$eoretical natural frequency? fn6t$e7 <1=Tt$e 4> ? 59"erimental natural frequency? fn6e9"7 <1=Te9" 59"erimental time "erio ? Te9" < t=N sec. MASS SYSTEM A() $ to etermine t$e un am"e natural frequency of an equivalent s"rin( –mass system. +e"eat t$e e9"eriment by c$an(in( t$e e9citer "osition or mass or bot$..+ *h#$ @2 Vs Te9"? Tt$e @2 Vs fn6e9"7? fn6t$e7 D( 4+ )#$ s"rin(#mass system? equivalent s"rin( mass system )ass of @en(t$s e9citer assembly @1 @2 )? 6:(7 m m Time for N 59"erimental T$eoretical oscillations time "erio ? time 6t7 sec Te9"? sec "erio ? Tt$e? sec 59"erimental Natural frequency? fn6e9"7 T$eoretical Natural frequency? fn6t$e7 ."(+ed $ '"rin(? trunnion? beam? e9tra mass? steel rule. )easure t$e istance bet. 59cite t$e beam by a sim"le Eer: an measure t$e time ta:en for N oscillations 6t7 sec *.:( 'l n o 1 2 % & * . O!#e+/ t(on#$ )ass of t$e e9citer assembly? ) <PPPP.EX3 NO$ %3 E?I&ALENT SRIN.een "ivot an s"rin(? m an @2# Distance bet. Fo+)"l e "#ed$ '"rin( stiffness? B < loa = eflection < 1= K < m(= K N=m in 6"art I7 m# )ass a e to s"rin( in :( 5quivalent mass? )eq <) 6@2=@17 :(? )# mass of t$e e9citer assembly in :( Time "erio ? 6T$eoretical7 Tt$e <2V )eq=B sec. )ount t$e e9citer assembly over t$e beam at suitable len(t$ after alterin( t$e s"rin( at t$e ot$er en 6@27 m &. P+o-ed"+e$ 1. @1# Distance bet.