Chap#1

1.-

Introduction to Organization of Behavior

Organization:
Organizations are social groups or gatherings whose purpose is to accomplish a common goal.

Organization Behavior:
Organizational Behavior is a field of study that investigates or observes the impact of individuals, groups and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness.
ω KE !O"#$%& ω Outcome of any action or reaction is behavior. ω Behavior vary culture to culture.. ω Apply competitive edge...

Components of O.B:
he ability to use the tools of organizational behavior to understand behavior in organizations is one reason for studying this sub!ect. A second reason is to learn how to apply these concepts" theories" and techni#ues to improve behavior in organizations so that individuals" groups" and organizations can achieve their goals. . he goals of OB are to e$plain" predict" and control behavior... %ist is below" ♣ Behavior of individual in Organization. ♣ ♣ Behavior of group within or without organization. Behavior within or outside the organization...

ools of O.B:
O.B is combination of &sychology" 'ociology" 'ocial &sychology" and Anthropology.

. • Po#er. • Group dynamics. • Organizational culture. Social Psychology: An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another within a group.here from the power is being e$tracted. • or! teams. • • • • • "omparative values "omparative attitudes "ross-cultural 'nalysis Organizational culture Organizational environment . • • • • • Behavioral change Attitude change ommunication !roup processes !roup decision making" 'nthropology: The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities in group and organization system. PO %& *ale dominating r female dominating . • Organization change. • "ommunication. *ostly seems in organizations + groups.Psychology: &sychology is the science that see(s to measure" e$plain" and sometimes change the behavior of individual person and other animals.. • Inter-group $ehavior.. • • • • • • • • Motivation Personality Emotions Perception Training Leadership effectiveness Job satisfaction Individual decision making Sociology: 'ociologists study the social system in which individuals fill their roles) that is" sociology studies people in relation to their fellow human being..

hy do #e study O. ω There is a distinctly humanistic orientation with OB. )ole of Organizational theories in O. 3ven if organization will not adopt environment to till organization will remain same as it4s birth.g a person who has sweet shop he learnt from environment that along sweet 0 have to ma(e some nam(een items b1c it is needed for this environment" people would li(e to ta(e then hi bring change and enhance his business from sweet to some e$tra items..() ω It helps to understand and predict human behavior in an organization... as well as the structure and culture of organizations. hus" the right thing to do depends on a comple$ variety of critical environmental and internal contingencies %earning Approach: he approach which state to learn from environment" by observations and e$periences and bring change adopt some new invention.....g coca cola is remain same due to it4s birth... groups. e...B Contingency Approach: he contingency approach to management is based on the idea that there is no one best way to manage and that to be effective" planning" organizing" leading" and controlling must be tailored to the particular circumstances faced by an organization.. *atri$: . ω How individuals. 2o change in it4s teast.also called the situational approach/ assumes that there is no universal answer to such #uestions because organizations" people" and situations vary and change over time. ω It is concerned with the study of what people do in an organization and how that behavior affects the performance of the organization ω OB is a way of thinking. And also examine communication patterns between individuals and groups. if people li(e to ta(e it so they can purchase otherwise no changes. e. Organizational behavior theories are used for human resource purposes to maximize the output from individual group members. ω he e$ternal environment is seen as having significant impact on OB ω &erson should emotionally intelligent" not for !ust technical smarts... he contingency approach to management . ω -nowledge replaces hierarchies. and organizational structures interact and affect one another.B *Importance of O. organization can escape from one place to another place. ω The field of OB is performance oriented. ω OB is multidisciplinary. 2atural approach: his approach state that no need to invent something new..B+++ 'istory( The central idea of the study of organizational behavior is that a scientific approach can be applied to the management of workers.

horizontal flow of s(ills and information. 8espite their breadth" flat organization can be benefit from most of the advantages en!oyed by small companies such as faster response timeline to changing condition and customer preferences... -irtual Organizations: A firm that contracts out almost all functions. hey also continue to report on their overall performance to the head of their department whose authority flows downwards .. A flat organi#ation (also known as hori#ontal organi#ation) An organizational structure in which most middle6management levels and their functions have been eliminated" thus bringing the top management in direct contact with the frontline salespeople" shop floor employees" and customers. A virtual organization might not have even had a permanent office . . 3mployees in a matri$ organization report on day6to6day performance to the pro!ect or product manager whose authority flows sideways ... An organizational structure that facilitates the .any methods #ere used $y these organizations.horizontally/ across departmental boundaries. The only function retained by the organization is the name and the coordination among the parties.. 7olo Organization: An organizational structure" in which most middle management levels and their functions have been eliminated" thus brings the top management in direct contact with the frontline sales people" shop for employees" and customers.vertically/ within his or her department 5eport to many ob!ects.odular Organization: A modular organization is one in which different functional components are separated from one another. 0t is used mainly in the management of large pro!ects or product development processes" drawing employees from different functional disciplines for assignment to a team without removing them from their respective positions. Company only selects two to three components for wor( process and e$tracts others. 9lat Organization.

or external boundaries imposed b a predefined structure to eliminate vertical and horizontal boundaries within the compan and break down external barriers between the compan and its customers and suppliers. . *he Hawthorne studies began in "+..555 emplo ees had participated in one wa or another. Self-regulations. Empathy.8espite their breadth" flat organizations can benefit from most of the advantages en!oyed by small companies" such as faster response time to changing conditions and customer preferences.he /a#thorne Studies. it became clear to researchers that productivit was much less affected b changes in work conditions than b the attitudes of the workers themselves. Boundary less Organization: A boundary less organi#ation is a contemporar approach in organization design. productivit continued to climb1 2cientific management doctrine could not account for what was taking place. !"# .6 9oundation Of 0ndividual Behavior 3motion: Emotions are intense feelings that are directed at someone or something. Motivation. They are reactions not a trait. or limited to. the Hawthorne studies can be credited with turning management theorists awa from the simplistic 6economic man7 model to a more humanistic and realistic view. more than . the performance of a select group of emplo ees tended to improve no matter how the ph sical surroundings were manipulated..in a ... Social skills Ability and Selection.. Decision Making..estern /lectric plant near 0hicago as a small%scale scientific management stud of the relationship between light intensit and productivit . the focused on people. $ehavioral scientists from prestigious universities began to conduct on%the%&ob behavior studies. 9/motional intelligence is the ke to both personal and professional success9 Self-awareness. a second development in industr took place.5. the horizontal. 0uriousl . relationships between members of a work group and between workers and their supervisors were found to be more significant. Instead of stud ing tools and techni'ues in the scientific management tradition. and to handle interpersonal relationships &udiciousl and empatheticall . :. /ven when the lights were dimmed to moonlight intensit . 3motional 0ntelligence: *he capacit to be aware of. headed b /lton 3a o. and so a team of behavioral science researchers. was brought in from Harvard to conduct a more rigorous stud . 2pecificall . As the sociopolitical climate changed. It is an organization that is not defined b . *hough the experiments and the theories that evolved from them are criticized toda for flawed methodolog and statistical inaccuracies. $ "+4. and express one8s emotions. the 6social man7 model. After extensive interviewing of the sub&ects. when the Hawthorne studies ended. (ractical behavioral research such as the famous Hawthorne studies stirred management)s interest in the ps chological and sociological d namics of the workplace. Dependent variable . control. vertical.

♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ $iographical characteristics (alues !ttitudes Personality Motivation !bility  Physical ability  Mental ability ♣ Perception ♣ Mood+ Emotions Biographical Characteristics: !inding and analyzing the variables " &ersonal characteristics. ♣ Age: o 5ole of age in productivity o o Comparison with old age + youth 5esearchers said" Old people create more productivity in compare to youth b1c of e$perience and self assessment.such as age" gender" tenure" #ualification" e$perience and marital status" disability.hose variables which sub!ect to change when interact with independent variable. . ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ ♣ Job satisfaction Productivity urnover !bsentsum "#$ D%$ (!)&!$*E &'DEPE'DE' 2ot depend on any variable. o 5ole of !ob satisfaction 6 hey satisfied with their !obs b1c of responsibility. o <outh mostly les e$perienced lac( of confident" s(ills" +self assessments. o hey obey authority as seniors.

hey ta(e time to forget any (ind of incident as compare to male. hey can do !ob at any situation r in any company. but females can4t do !ob at any where without security b1c of gender. #entally $hallenging %ork &E'uitable (ewards &)upportive %orking $onditions &)upportive $olleagues o Absentesum o o Avoidable + unavoidable. Both has e#ual mental ability o o @obs satisfaction: o *ales are more satisfied from their !ob as comparison to females. ♣ >ender: There are few if any important differences between men and women that will affect their *ob performance including the areas of+ ? .roblem-solving ? Analytical skills ? $ompetitive drive ? #otivation ? )ociability ? ... Avoidable: found in youth due to little headache" bac(ache and emergency. o o 5ole of turnover o urnover ratio mostly high in youth then old age people.. @ob satisfaction more in males then females o o . =navoidable: found in old age people b1c they ta(e time to recovering..youth doesn4t satisfy 6 0f top level management doesn4t treat well then b1c of their best career.earning ability o &roductivity o 9emales are slower in ta(ing decision then males.

mostly re#uired for males E.. Aualification. *ales continuous their !ob. o ♣ *arital status: o o o *ore productivity in married people as comparison to single.. %es ratio of anbentesum and turnover in married people then single people....... :B to CD for ... *a$imum to high level of #ualified person....Absenteeism: o 5atio of absents is high in female" due to bad circumstance they can4t present to their !ob b1c of family restrictions...... '(ills... >ender. *ore #ualified more productivity" more !ob satisfactions" less absent b1c of duty4s responsibilities and less turnover. o o 9or hiring a 3AC7351*anager: 1. 8uring to hiring person to !ob companies have to need to #ualified person.. o ♣ Aualifications: o o Aged people are more #ualified then youth... *arried people have responsibilities to running their families.. *arried person more satisfied then single one. *ale can go by facing little difficulty. o urnover: o 9emale4s turnover ratio is high b1c of family responsibilities" r early marriage.manager re#uired for more age/ :... s(ills. Age.. confidential s(ills" conceptual s(ill" technical s(ills" human . *ore tenure" more e$periences. C...

e. *a$imum e$perience + more tenure. Ability: A person4s capabilities to perform various tas(.ental and physical a$ility. e. ...erceptual speed / Inductive reasoning / 2eductive reasoning / )patial visualization / #emory ability Ω 1imensions of Intellectual '$ility 2umber aptitude: Ability to do speedy and accurate Accountant: @ob e$ample) ..g the 'upervisor: Choosing between two different suggestions offered by employees. strength.. e. thin(ing" reasoning and problem solving. Ω Strength 2actors . 3$perience.9ire investigator: 0dentifying clues to support a charge of arson. 'patial visualization: Ability to imagine how an ob!ect would loo( if its position in space were changed. Physical a$ilities $he capacity to do tasks that demand stamina.g9ollowing . *emory: Ability to retain and recall past e$periences. and similar characteristics. 'alesperson: 5emembering the names of customers.&lant manager: corporate policies on hiring./ 0nductive reasoning: Ability to identify a logical se#uence in a problem and then solve the problem. *ar(et researcher: 9orecasting demand for a product in the ne$t time period.. ypes of abilities: 0..B.g. / 0umber aptitude / 1erbal comprehension / ./ &erceptual speed: Ability to identify visual similarities + differences #uic(ly and accurately: 3../ Ferbal comprehension: Ability to understand what is read or heard and the relationship of words to each other: e... de*terity.computing the sales ta$ on a set of items arithmetic. 8eductive reasoning: Ability to use logic and assess implications of an argument... Intellectual Abilities: are abilities needed to perform mental activities...g 0nterior decorator: 5edecorating an office...g.

hen the abilities will not match with re#uirements then the employee will fail in his tas(. 8ynamic strength Ability to e$ert muscular force repeatedly or continuously over time. 3$tent fle$ibility Ability to move the trun( and bac( muscles as far as possible. ∇ *ostly intellectual + physical abilities re#uired to !ob fit. 'tatic strength Ability to e$ert force against e$ternal ob!ects.actual power. expertness. I. Balance Ability to maintain e#uilibrium despite forces pulling off balance. She is capable of playing only one piece by Bach on the piano. 8ifference between Ability + Capability: Ability:: +bility is the ..potential. run( strength Ability to e$ert muscular strength using the trun( .. Body coordination Ability to coordinate the simultaneous actions of different parts of the body. for doing something (something physical or mental) skill. :. C. J. capability is the . 3$plosive strength Ability to e$pend a ma$imum of energy in one or a series of e$plosive acts. 'tamina Ability to continue ma$imum effort re#uiring prolonged effort over time. . Capability:: e. he Ability6@ob fit: ∇ 3mployee4s performance will enhance when high ability to !ob fit then high productivity" high !ob satisfaction" less turnover" less absentsum.. G.1.particularly abdominal/ muscles.g . B. 8ynamic fle$ibility Ability to ma(e rapid" repeated fle$ing movements. Ω 2le3i$ility 2actors Ω Other 2actors H. power by which ability show. E. -practically. or talent.. 1. ∇ . Intelligences: 0ntelligence contains four subparts: cognitive" social" emotional multiple" and cultural. She is able to play the piano. .

.while their pac(ing and loading process was specialized but was monitor properly. e. Behavior *odification: ♣ Behavior modification is a techni#ue to change the fre#uency of behavior in organization" if there is any bad feedbac( due to long time then should bring some changes s+ mechanism such as rewards" punishments" positive and negative reinforcement" ♣ One behavior can lead to 1DD billions loss or profit. Identify critical $ehaviors: 9irst to investigate the problem. 9ive steps to solving problem Case study on Container Company who suffers from millions of loss . . : C 1evelop $aseline data: unacceptable behavior. B %valuate performance improvement 0ncrease performances" introduce some new mechanisms" bring some new inventions" and to promote.g 0n Case study identify the problem that why going to loss too much.. Analyze behavior in reality.hat is in realityK/ Identify $ehavioral cons#uenesce 9ind the reason behind the E 1evelop and apply intervention Bring ne# interventions according to employee $ehavior li!e start to monitor each and every step and order to #rite do#n all information a$out containers.. ∇ 'ome times company hire e$perienced + s(illful person but lac( of opportunities" reward ceremonies" motivate" and to promote employees Activities Company can4t accomplish cure of goal. Crd chap %3A5202> .∇ 7igh abilities of employee from the re#uirement list will down the employee !ob satisfaction. 1.

But step by step.8efinition: • • • • houghts and behavior changed by observing and e$perience . 0t4s depends on person. to change the mission or vision technology/. the things which is adopted from other organizational environment for betterment our business .. 5elatively permanent changes e. 0t is generative...we learn in organization from observation/ is called learning... %i(e treatment: pills + precautions to (ill deasses.  wo things are include in learning 1st order learning 1 single loop learning: o ransactional process . 6 change possible if relatively permanent se sam!aya !ay.&lease ignore/ :p o o :nd order learning 1 double loop learning o ransformal process . but follow the method step by step. But change not for limited 1 short time.. .. %i(e operation: to finished deasses for ever.. 0t is relatively permanent change. 0f he will not follow then it will called only permanent change". Bring changes in structure for improvement.g if a person offering 'elah since last 1D year on same place but the : nd person guide that it is wrong way "the direction of A0B%A '7A5339 on other side then person learn and change his thoughts and observe it is called 5elatively permanent change. o o heories of %earning: ♣ Classical Conditioning .

unconditional stimulus 1 by naturally. .. 0t is learned behavior.. 'eatbelt restrictions to prevent accidents. condition response. he unconditional response on unconditional stimulus by natural condition such as on a success party in organization the new employee will do wor( which he didn4t learn before he doesn4t (now about the arrangements. But when second time such (ind of party will organized then the employee response will condition response which learnt in last time. 6 6 6 5einforce behavior through rewards. unconditional responds ♣ Operant conditioning Operant conditioning is a condition of learning which states individual4s desire by applying reinforcement techni#ues for reoccurrence by someone else and encourage him" in condition of success gives him reward if fail then punished.A condition in which individual responds on stimulus. The result of acts can be reinforcement....& / ♣ 6 6 ypes of reinforcement when desirable conse#uence &ositive reinforcementL .g.. .. A techni#ue of behavior modification by reinforcements and punishments .O..5einforcement/: occurs then reward. 3. B39O53 %3A5202>: 'o party arrangements 3mployee responds A9 35 %3A5202>: &arty arrangements 3mployee responds condition stimulus 1 unnatural. punishment and extinction. Negative reinforcement (Escape): 8esire behavior occurs unpleasant conse#uence then suggests preventing 1 escaping..

6 6 6 Punishment: when undesirable result occurs then apply it by removing undesirable behavior.C/ Behavior is associated with conse#uence. Difference between !C +O.otor reproduction processes: &einforcement processes: by someone else.... 6 / 5ey "oncepts hoe to change $ehavior.23= 5A% ' 0*=%=' ='38.g dog e$periment.O.C/ he operant response is affected by what happens after the behavior M that is by its conse/uences. Extinction: to remove undesirable behavior occur undesirable conse#uence.& / ♣ Social-4earning theory: (eople learn from each other through observation and socialization. $r . adopt models dress" fasion"new things which attract / &etention processes: us. to our small business. %earning through associations .C/ %earning through conse#uence.. o e$tract the thing in our mind which attract o apply those things for our li(eness...&: • • • • • • Classical condition use stimuli for observing + get e$perience to change behavior . 0t is affected by something that occurs before the behavior ..C./ e.. A techni#ue of behavior modification by reinforcements and punishments ... / / • .C. 'ttention processes : he thing which is attractive and gets our attention but it was not in our intention we adopt this then we will learn willing r unwilling...O.. . 5eperform when ever gets encouragement ♣ Shaping Behavior / he method used different reinforcement to obtain successive appro3imation.

/ So &einforcement me re#ards are more effective than others.. E.. All other behavior was ignored.g • Dolphin Training o A dolphin has learned to !ump through hoops via the process of shaping. / ... o '(inner bo$ used shaping" or the use of reinforces to guide behavior" in his e$periments.he timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. 0n the '(inner bo$" the rat would be rewarded with food each time it e$hibited a desired behavior.. o Crd chap complete. 6 1ifference $*# shaping $ehavior 7 operant conditioning..../ %haping involves gradually changing of an e&istence reinforce into a desire behavior through reinforcement"""" 'phly (o kam desire bahvior k lue karty thy chor diya ab dobara )ok am kara)aya (araha h re)ards k #arye*""" • Key Concepts& / Is re6uired to change $ehavior... . Operant condition is used to train animals to do pretty + amazing things....