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Q. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization? Answer: DFD:-Data flow diagrams represent the logical flow of data within the system. DFD do not explain how the processes convert the input data into output. They do not explain how the processing takes place. DFD uses few symbols like circles and rectangles connected by arrows to represent data flows. DFD can easily illustrate relationships among data, flows, external entities an stores. DFD can also be drawn in increasing levels of detail, starting with a summary high level view and proceeding o more detailed lower level views. A number of guidelines should be used in constructing DFD. • Choose meaningful names for the symbols on the diagram. • Number the processes consistently. The numbers do not imply the sequence. • Avoid over complex DFD. • Make sure the diagrams are balanced.
Data Dictionary: The data dictionary is used to create and store definitions of data, location, format for storage and other characteristics. The data dictionary can be used to retrieve the definition of data that has already been used in an application. The data dictionary also stores some of the description of data structures, such as entities, attributes and relationships. It can also have software to update itself and to produce reports on its contents and to answer some of the queries. A schedule is made for the development of the system. While preparing the schedule due consideration is given to the importance of the system in the overall information requirement. Due regard is also given to logical system development. For example, it is necessary to develop the accounting system first and then the analysis. . Hardware and Software Plan: Giving due regard to the technical and operational feasibility, the economics of investment is worked out. Then the plan of procurement is made after selecting the hardware and software. One can take the phased approach of investment starting from the lower
MIS characteristics · In any organization managers will have varieties of tasks to manage. · MIS helps in identifying a proper mechanism of storage of data. · MIS as a system can be broken down into sub systems. · Large quantities of data like customer’s information. Since then the commercial application exceeded the scientific applications for which the computer were mainly intended for. During the period 1940 to 1960 computers were commercially used for census and payroll work. Budgeting of MIS extremely difficult. accounting data etc is collected from internal sources like the company records and external sources like annual reports and publications. . The data is maintained in such a way that the unnecessary duplication of data is avoided. · MIS also helps in establishing mechanism to eliminate redundancies in data. This involved large amount of data and its processing. inventory. Information is available in abundance. · The data from the database is processed and analysed by using different tools and techniques. · Organizations will have different departments like marketing. Each of these departments function individually and also in relationship with other departments. It was after the industrial revolution that the computers slowly started replacing manual labor. accuracy of data and information. and personnel records.configuration of hardware going over to higher as development takes place. sales data. production. Effectiveness decreases due to frequent changes in top management 6. Each such sub system may be programmed. MIS aids in integrating the information generated by various departments of the organization. MIS is mainly designed to take care of the needs of the managers in the organization.What is MIS? Define the characteristics of MIS? What are the basic Functions of MIS? Give some Disadvantage of MIS? Ans. 3. Disadvantages of MIS 1. Lack of flexibility to update it. 2.During the period of preindustrial revolution most of the data processing was done manually. Function of MIS The main function of MIS is to help the managers and the executives in the organization in decision making. This results in easy access of data. Quality of outputs governed by quality of inputs. competitor’s information. attitude of worker etc.takes into account only qualitative factors and ignores non-qualitative factors like morale of worker. · The results of the analysis is properly presented to the managers to help them in decision making. It helps in maintaining the consistency of data. MIS is an Information system which helps in providing the management of an organization with information which is used by management for decision making. · The collected data is organized in the form of a database. maintenance etc. The process is to match the technical Q2. The modern digital computer was basically designed to handle scientific calculations. 4. Highly sensitive requires constant monitoring. sales. 5.
robotics. Semantic web is a web that will make a description of the system that a system can understand. There are two types of knowledge bases. The information need to be processed by the reader. Such information sare used by semantic web. Knowledge base is the database maintained for knowledge management which provides the means of data collections. Decision making is based on the fact that the condition is similar to the past situation hence the decision is also is similar. To solve such problems you may have to use complex theories. A DSS has the capability to update its decision database. The models that would be required to solve such problems may have to be identified rules is known as decision support system. which directly adds value to the enterprise’s factors of production. a. the manager can chose to update the database with such decisions. You can summarize the benefits of DSS into following: • Improves personal efficiency • Expedites problem solving • Facilitates interpersonal communication • Promotes learning or training • Increases organizational control • Generates new evidence in support of a decision • Creates a competitive advantage over competition Q. It makes the data in the computer readable code which makes the operator to perform easier. Machine readable knowledge bases: The knowledge base helps the computer to process through. KBS refers to a system of data and information used for decision making. b. It can work in the interactive mode in order to enable managers to take quick decisions. The processing is done based on the past decisions taken under suitable conditions. This will strengthen the DSS to take decisions in future depending upon the model adopted to solve the problem.Q-3 Explain Knowledge based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example? Ans. which are together . Whenever manager feels that a particular decision is unique and not available in the system. The system is automated to work on the knowledge based data and information required in a particular domain of management activity. The reader can access the information and synthesize their own. neural networks etc.KBS are the systems based on knowledge base. In management many a time problems arise out of situations for which simple solution may not be possible. Examples of KBS are intelligent systems. It is a flexible system which can be customized to suit the organization needs. organization and retrieval of knowledge. The knowledge management manages the domain where it creates and enables organization for adoption of insights and experiences. 4What are Value Chain Analysis & describe its significance in MIS? Explain what is meant by BPR? What is its significance? How Data warehousing & Data Mining is useful in terms of MIS? Answer: Value Chain Analysis: The activities performed by a particular enterprise can be analyzed into primary activities. You can consider decision support systems as the best when it includes high-level summary reports or charts and allow the user to drill down for more detailed information. Human readable knowledge bases: They are designed to help people to retrieve knowledge. Decision Support Systems (DSS) DSS is an interactive computer based system designed to help the decision makers to use all l the resources available and make use in the decision making.
Data Warehousing – Data Warehouse is defined as collection of database which is referred as relational database for the purpose of querying and analysis rather than just transaction processing. either tabular listings (queries) with minimal formatting or highly formatted "formal" reports on business activities. the retailer could develop products and promotions to appeal to specific customer segments. ES. empowerment and telecommuting are some of the examples. by companies with a strong consumer focus -retail. and "external" factors such as economic indicators. various organizations or between individuals that is mainly used for transactions in business. DSS. BPR is mainly used for change in the work process. human resources. provides flexibility in manufacturing permits quicker delivery to customers and supports rapid paperless transactions among suppliers. The main output from data warehouse systems are. Latest software is used and accordingly the business procedures are modified. By mining demographic data from comment or warranty cards. Support activities include those providing purchased inputs. It is called process because uniform standard system has been maintained to undertake such a task. so that documents are worked upon more easily and efficiently. and corporate profits. Team based organization. and servicing of the product. You will really appreciate the need of process improvement or change in the organizations conduct with business if you have ever waited in the queue for a longer time to purchase 1 kilo of rice from a Public Distribution Shop (PDS-ration shop). it enables them to "drill down" into summary information to view detail transactional data. It should be possible to gather. manufacturers and retailers. mass customization. Significance of BPR Business process are a group of activities performed by various departments. This process is mainly used to modernize and make the organizations efficient. and customer demographics. With data mining. Data warehouse is usually maintained to store heuristic data for future use. communication. organizational culture and processes. This process of change for the betterment of the organization is called as Business process re-engineering. or overall infrastructure functions to support the primary activities. Business Process Re-engineering The existing system in the organization is totally reexamined and radically modified for incorporating the latest technology. This Data warehouse Architecture: Data warehouse Architecture Data Mining – Data mining is primarily used as a part of information system today. AI (discussed later) allows business to be conducted in different locations.referred to as the ‘value chain’. Reengineering involves changes in structure. or staff skills. It is used to gain an understanding the process of business and to understand the process to make it better and re-designing and thereby improving the system. There may be people who do this transaction or tools. competition. It is possible to reduce the transaction cost by proper coordination of all the activities. This is known as workflow management. customer satisfaction. Many concepts of BPR changes organizational structure. it enables them to determine the impact on sales. Integration and separation of data are the two basic features need to be kept in mind while creating a data warehousing. The process is called the check-out process. technology. We all do them at one point or another either as a supplier or customer. and marketing organizations. Data warehousing is usually used to generate reports. BPR is employed when major IT projects such as ERP are undertaken. BPR directly affects the performance. And. financial. These activities are connected in a chain. It enables these companies to determine relationships among "internal" factors such as price. product positioning. marketing delivery. a retailer could use point-of-sale records of customer purchases to send targeted promotions based on an individual's purchase history. Process may consist of following steps: . Figure: Product Differentiation and Value Chain representation Porter’s Enterprise Value-Chain Value addition activities like production. and supporting activities. Finally. The support system in any organization plays a important role in BPR.
The conditions of the closed decision-making system are: a) The manager has a known set of decision alternatives and knows their outcomes fully in terms of value. The model is built with some variables and relationship between variables. This method of analysis is called 'what if analysis.' For example. The MIS gives the information support. b) The outcome of the decision is also not known fully. and ranked for selection. Maximum Stock. Inventory manager wants to know how the cost of holding inventory will be affected if lead time is reduced by one week or increased by one week. In reality. or an acceptance of the fixed deposits. d) It is difficult to decide an objective or a goal and. therefore. if implemented. tested. 4. the manager resorts to that decision. 3. The MIS tries to convert every open system to a closed decision-making system by providing information support for the best decision. a method or a rule whereby the decision alternatives can be generated. Reorder level) lead time is assumed fairly constant and stable for a planning period. If the manager operates in a known environment then it is a closed decision-making system. 5. test them and select one of them. where his aspirations or desires are met best. The model with changed lead time would compute the cost of holding inventory under new . Data transformation: Data are transformed or consolidated into forms appropriate for mining by performing summary or aggregation operations. 7. Data mining: An essential process where intelligent methods are applied in order to extract data patterns. are some decision-making situations which fall in the category of the open decision-making systems. The conditions of this system in contrast closed decision-making system are: a) The manager does not know all the decision alternatives. the considered values of variables or relationship in the model may not hold good and therefore solution needs to be tested for an outcome. b) The manager has a model. 2. Based on this. in decision-making problem about determining inventory control parameters (EOQ. Data Cleaning: It removes noise and inconsistent data. if the considered values of variables or relationship change. based on some goal or objective criterion. the inventory parameters are calculated. Data integration: It is where multiple data sources are combined. Q-5 Distinguish between closed decision making system & open decision making system? What is ‘What – if‘ analysis? Why is more time spend in problem analysis & problem definition as compared to the time spends on decision analysis Ans-5 Closed decision-making system: The decision-making systems can be classified in a number of ways. an examination system to declare pass or fail. Deciding on the possible product diversification lines. Minimum Stock. rule or model is available to study and finalise one decision among the set of decision alternatives. the pricing of a new product. Data selection: Data relevant to the analysis task are retrieved from the database. for instance. Knowledge presentation: Visualization and knowledge representation techniques are used to present the mined knowledge to the users. he is able to generate the decision alternatives. There are two types of systems based on the manager's knowledge about the environment. A good MIS achieves this.1. c) No method. c) The manager can choose one of them. then the decision-making system is termed as an open decision-making system. The knowledge of the outcome may be a probabilistic one. whereby the manager knows more and more about environment and the outcomes. 6. Few examples are a product mix problem. Pattern evaluation: To identify the truly interesting patterns representing knowledge based on some interesting measure. and the plant location. What if analysis Decisions are made using a model of the problem for developing various solution alternatives and testing them for best choice. Safety Stock. Open decision-making system If the manager operates in an environment not known to him.
and provides additional benefits that range from standardization and lower maintenance to easier and/or greater reporting capabilities. A situation is only a problem if the problem-owner wishes to. However. MRP evolved into ERP when "routings" became a major part .conditions. Supply Chain. The different aspects surrounding the design problem have been analysed and should be taken into account in the problem definition. Such type of analysis can be done for purchase price change. a software package that provides both payroll and accounting functions could technically be considered an ERP software package. we speak consciously of the situation someone is or is not content with. and wants to do something about it. including the assumed patterns of behavior of the people and organizations involved. The method of finding and collecting error information depends on the state of the hardware at the time of the failure. The problem analysis information is used to: • Determine if you can resolve the problem yourself. a software package must provide the function of at least two systems. Examples of modules in an ERP which formerly would have been stand-alone applications include: Manufacturing. Financials. • Gather sufficient information to communicate with a service provider and quickly determine the service action that needs to be taken. Such analysis helps a manager to take more learned decisions. Problem Analysis You can use problem analysis to gather information that helps you determine the nature of a problem encountered on your system. Enterprise Resource Planning is a term originally derived from manufacturing resource planning that followed material requirements planning . can also be formulated in such a manner that a problem does arise. Warehouse Management and Decision Support System.Enterprise Resource Planning: To be considered an ERP system. A description of the situation is therefore a description of a state plus the relevant causal model(s). This procedure directs you to one of the following places to find error information: • Hardware Management Console (HMC) error logs • The operating system's error log • The control panel • Advanced System Management Interface (ASMI) error logs Hence more time is spent Problem Analysis and Problem Definition. The existing situation. Human Resources. The introduction of an ERP system to replace two or more independent applications eliminates the need for external interfaces previously required between systems. For example. more broadly based applications. however. A problem definition is usually set up at the end of the problem analysis phase. the term is typically reserved for larger. ‘What if analysis’ creates confidence in decision-making model by painting a picture of outcomes under different conditions? Decision Analysis A decision is made but such decision needs to be analysed for conditions and assumptions considered in the decision model. This implies that a situation must be conceivable that is more desirable than the present one: the goal situation. Customer Relationship Management (CRM). For defining a problem this implies that it is not sufficient to describe the existing state. Problem Definition The starting point of a problem definition is the information gathered in the problem analysis stage. The process is executed through analytical modelling of problem and solution. demand forecast variations and so on. Therefore. Q-6What is ERP? Explain its existence before and its future after? What are the advantages & Disadvantages of ERP? What is Artificial Intelligence? How is it different from Neural Networks? Ans.
shipping. distribution. Tasks that need to interface with one another may involve: • A totally integrated system • The ability to streamline different processes and workflows • The ability to easily share data across various departments in an organization • Improved efficiency and productivity levels • Better tracking and forecasting • Lower costs • Improved customer service Change how a product is made. Part of the change can include labelling to identify version numbers. the human resources (HR)) department. inventory management. EAS – Enterprise Application Suite is a new name for formerly developed ERP systems which include (almost) all segments of business. The payroll department would typically calculate and store paycheck information. and accounting for a company. a person could not be paid in the payroll system without an employee number. This provided complications. and so on. Enterprise Resource Planning or ERP software can aid in the control of many business activities. delivery. invoicing. and the financial department) would have their own computer systems. and date that some are discontinued. the payroll department. in the engineering details. For instance. departments within an organization (for example. payments for employee benefits to providers. logistics. and that is how it will now be made. For the HRIS to send salary information to the payroll system. Effective dates can be used to control when the switch over will occur from an old version to the next one. reporting structure. and personal details of employees. Many companies took this opportunity to replace their legacy information systems with ERP systems.of the software architecture and a company's capacity planning activity also became a part of the standard software activity. This rapid growth in sales was followed by a slump in 1999. billing. inventory. quality management. production. at which time most companies had already implemented their Y2K solution. both the date that some ingredients go into effect. The financial system was not interested in the employee-level data. an employee number would need to be assigned and remain static between the two systems to accurately identify an employee. and human resource management. like sales. The HR computer system (often called HRMS or HRIS) would typically contain information on the department. a large manufacturer may find itself with many software applications that do not talk to each other and do not effectively interface. but only in the payouts made by the payroll systems. such as the tax payments to various authorities. ERP systems typically handle the manufacturing. using ordinary Internet browsers as thin clients. ERP systems saw a large boost in sales in the 1990s as companies faced the Y2K problem in their legacy systems. Each system would have to rely on a set of common data to communicate with each other. marketing. Advantages and Disadvantages Advantages – In the absence of an ERP system. The financial department would typically store financial transactions for the organization. . ERP Before and After Prior to the concept of ERP systems.
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