# Root Locus sketching rules

Wednesday • Rule 1: # branches = # poles • Rule 2: symmetrical about the real axis • Rule 3: real-axis segments are to the left of an odd number of realaxis finite poles/zeros • Rule 4: RL begins at poles, ends at zeros Today • Rule 5: Asymptotes: angles, real-axis intercept • Rule 6: Real-axis break-in and breakaway points • Rule 7: Imaginary axis crossings (transition to instability) Next week • Using the root locus: analysis and design examples

2.004 Fall ’07

Lecture 18 – Friday, Oct. 19

−1.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 18 – Friday. −2. Example KG(s)H (s) = K . s(s + 1)(s + 2) Clearly. we can see that KG(s)H (s) ≈ K . T (s) has a pole at inﬁnity if T (s → ∞) → ∞. this open—loop transfer function has three poles. 0. For large s. 2. It has no ﬁnite zeros. Oct. 19 . s3 So this open—loop transfer function has three zeros at inﬁnity.Poles and zeros at infinity T (s) has a zero at inﬁnity if T (s → ∞) → 0.

±1. Oct.12 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. 4−1 3 3 Asymptote -j2 -j3 Nise Figure 8. π. 2. −1. j1 θa 0 -j1 1 2 σ In this example. . 19 . poles = {0.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 18 – Friday. −4}. . −2. . ±2.Root Locus sketching rules • Rule 5: Asymptotes: angles and real-axis intercept jω j3 Asymptote s-plane j2 σa θa = = P σa Asymptote X -4 -3 X -2 X -1 X P ﬁnite poles − ﬁnite zeros #ﬁnite poles − #ﬁnite zeros (2m + 1)π #ﬁnite poles − #ﬁnite zeros m = 0. zeros = {−3} so σa θa = = 4 [0 + (−1) + (−2) + (−4)] − [(−3)] =− 4−1 3 ½ ¾ π 5π (2m + 1)π = .

Nise Figure 8. 19 . Alternatively. 2. we can solve (1) -2 X -σ1 -1 X σ2 0 -j1 -j2 -j3 1 2 3 4 5 σ Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 18 – Friday.Root Locus sketching rules • Rule 6: Real axis break-in and breakaway points jω For each s = σ on a real—axis segment of the root locus. σ + zi σ + pi for real σ . dσ where K (σ ) is given by (1) above.13 X X 1 1 = . Oct. minK for this real—axis segment j4 maxK for this real—axis segment j3 j2 j1 1 KG(σ )H (σ ) = −1 ⇒ K = − G (σ )H (σ ) Real—axis break—in & breakaway points are the real values of σ for which dK ( σ ) = 0.

11σ 2 − 26σ − 61 = 0.13 2. zeros = {+3. +5} so we must solve 1 1 1 1 + = + ⇒ σ−3 σ−5 σ+1 σ+2 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.82 Alternatively. Oct.Root Locus sketching rules • Rule 6: Real axis break-in and breakaway points In this example. KG(s)H (s) = jω K (s − 3)(s − 5) (s + 1)(s + 2) so on the real—axis segments we have K (σ ) = − σ 2 + 3σ + 2 (σ + 1)(σ + 2) =− 2 (σ − 3)(σ − 5) σ − 8σ + 15 Taking the derivative. −2}. poles = {−1. Nise Figure 8. 19 . This is the same equation as before.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 18 – Friday.45 σ2 = 3. dK 11σ 2 − 26σ − 61 =− 2 dσ (σ 2 − 8σ + 15) σ j4 maxK for this real—axis segment j3 j2 j1 minK for this real—axis segment -2 X -σ1 -1 X σ2 0 -j1 -j2 -j3 1 2 3 4 5 and setting dK/dσ = 0 we ﬁnd σ1 = −1.

Root Locus sketching rules • Rule 7: Imaginary axis crossings jω j3 Asymptote s-plane j2 system response contains undamped terms at this point If s = j ω is a closed—loop pole on the imaginary axis. 19 . Oct.. and the oscillation frequency at the critical gain. Asymptote -j2 -j3 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 18 – Friday. 2.e. Since we did not cover Ruth—Hurwitz. we present here an alternative but just as eﬀective method. which we can solve for the two unknowns K and ω (i. then KG(j ω )H (j ω ) = −1 (2) j1 Asymptote X -4 -3 X -2 X -1 X 0 -j1 1 2 σ The real and imaginary parts of (2) provide us with a 2 × 2 system of equations.) Note: Nise suggests using the Ruth— Hurwitz criterion for the same purpose. the critical gain beyond which the system goes unstable.

Asymptote -j2 -j3 Figure by MIT OpenCourseWare. 19 . K = 9.65 we can discard the negative one (negative feedback ⇒ K > 0). KG(s)H (s) = = KG(j ω )H (j ω ) = K (s + 3) s(s + 1)(s + 2)(s + 4) Ks + 3K ⇒ 4 s + 7s3 + 14s2 + 8s jK ω + 3K . p Thus.65. 7ω 3 − (8 + K )ω = 0.004 Fall ’07 Lecture 18 – Friday.59.65 and ω = (8 + 9. K = 9. we can discard the trivial solution ω = 0. −ω 4 + j 7ω 3 + 14ω 2 − j (8 + K )ω − 3K = 0. In the second equation.65)/7 = 1. 2.Root Locus sketching rules • Rule 7: Imaginary axis crossings jω j3 Asymptote s-plane system response contains undamped terms at this point In this example. Separating real and imaginary parts. − µ 8+K 7 ¶2 + 14 K 2 + 65K − 720 µ 8+K 7 − 3K =0⇒ = 0. Of the two solutions K = −74. ½ −ω 4 + 14ω 2 − 3K = 0. Oct. It then yields ω2 = 8+K . 7 ¶ j2 j1 Asymptote X -4 -3 X -2 X -1 X 0 -j1 1 2 σ Substituting into the ﬁrst equation. 4 ω − j 7ω 3 − 14ω 2 + j 8ω Setting KG(j ω )H (j ω ) = −1.