General Chemistry Lecture # 3: Atomic Theory Prepared by: Engr. Norman Giovanni M.

Guevarra Atomic Theory Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1. Elements are composed of extremely small invisible particle called atom which a certain their identity in any chemical change. 2. Atoms of the same element have the same average mass and their other properties are also the same. 3. Compounds are formed by combination of atoms of different elements. 4. Atoms of two or more elements may combine in more than one ratio to form other compounds. John Dalton  British chemist and physicist Atom  Is the fundamental unit of a particle of an element Parts of Atom 1. Proton  Positively charged particles located in the nucleus of an atom 2. Neutron  Uncharged particles located in the central part of an atom 3. Electrons  Negatively charged particles located outside the nucleus of an atom Isotope  Atoms with same atomic number but different mass numbers Proton
1 1

Electron 1 1 1

Neutron 0 1 2

Atomic Mass 1 2 3

H H H

1 1 1

2

1

3

1

Atomic Number  Is a number of positive charge Atomic Mass  Is the sum of the weight of the proton and neutron Weight of Neutron = atomic mass – atomic number Example: Na Atomic mass of Na = 23 Atomic number of Na = 11 Weight of Neutron = atomic mass – atomic number = 23 – 11 Weight of Neutron = 12

+3 -1 0 +1 ↑ ↑↑ s = ↑= +½ S = ↓= -½ SPDF Configuration  It is the arrangement of the electrons in the various atomic orbital.4.3. First or Principal Quantum Number. +2 l = f = -3. -1.4. May be expressed in terms of the spdf Mnemonic Device for SPDF Configuration 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 3d 4s 4p 4d 4f 5s 5p 5d 5f 6s 6p 6d 7s 7p 7d Rules in spdf Electron Configuration 1. the 4s orbital is first filled before 3d orbital. 0.6. +1. s  It describes the number of orbital of given kind for main energy level 4. Example: n= 4 l=1 m = +1 S = +½ 4p3 n = 1. Exception are observed among heavy elements because of the uncertainty in the energy level sequence of atomic orbital with higher or values.Quantum Numbers  Are set of numbers which define the location of an electron in an orbital Four Quantum Numbers 1. 2.7 2. Generally electrons occupy atomic orbital with the lower values for the sum of n + 1. Sometimes electrons from neighboring atomic orbital are shifted to achieve their configuration. 0. +1. . Fourth Quantum Number. s  It is called the spin quantum number which describes the two ways in which an electron May be aligned with a magnetic field whether the direction is clockwise and counterclockwise. Third Quantum Numbers.5. +1 l = d = -2. l  It designates the shape of the orbital whether it is S (sharp) =0 d (diffused) =2 P (principal) = 1 f (fundamental) =3 3. Atomic orbital with the same n and l values exhibit preference for an arrangement whereby they are all singly filled or completely filled. +2. n  It designates the main energy level of the electron such as 1. Thus.2. If two orbital have the same value for n + 1 in 3rd and 4p (n + 1 =5) the one with lower n value that is 3rd is preferably filled to capacity before 4p. Empty atomic orbital with the same n and l values are each simply filled first before pairing of electrons is allowed. 0. 5.2. 3. this guide is known as “Hund’s Rule” 4. -1.6.5.7 l=s=0 l = p = -1. Second Quantum Number.3.-2.

Mel or Shell II.Method of sketching atoms of elements 1. d. Main energy level or Shell  Represented by letters and numbers Example K L M N 1 2 3 4 2. p. Symbol and Electron Number  The nucleus of the atom is represented by the symbol of the element and only the distribution of electrons in the different shells are represented by Arabic numbers enclosed in brackets Example: F[2. of Subshell III. 3p orbital c. Electron Dot Formula  The nucleus and the inner shells are represented by the symbol of the element and only the electron in the outermost shell are represented by using a dot or x around the nucleus Example: F F 3. No. 7] Electron Structure of Atom 1. p.4p. F Example: S = sharp P = principal D = diffuse F = fundamental 3.4d. of orbital of each in each subshell V. D. 6. 5d orbital d. Complete Atomic Structure  Shows the nucleus with different number of proton and neutron. of Electron in each Sublevel .4f 2.6. No. Kinds of Orbital VI.3d 2. 10 N 4 4 s. Kinds of Subshell IV. Subshells or Sub Level  Represented by letters S.10.2p 2. 6 M 3 3 s.14 I. Example: 19 9 F 2. P. 1s orbital b. f 16 3s. p 4 2s. 7f orbital Subdivision of main energy level K 1 1 s 1 1s 2 L 2 2 s. d 9 3s. Orbital  It is the region or space where electron are most likely to be found 4 Kinds of orbital a.3p. It also shows the distribution of electron around the nucleus in different shells. The electron travel in pairs and are represented by small circles. No.

Orbital Method  Follows order of filling of orbitals using the mnemonic device for spdf configuration 23 2 2 6 1 Example: 11Na 1s 2s 2p 3s 2.VII. Max. of electron in each shell 2 8 18 32 Two Methods of Showing Entry of Electron into the Orbitals 1. Rectangular arrow Method  Shows the position of electrons in orbitals. 23 Example: 11Na ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑↓ ↑ . no. Electrons are represented by arrows pointing in opposite direction.

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