General Chemistry Lecture # 5: Chemical Equations Prepared by: Engr.

Norman Giovanni Molina Guevarra

Chemical Equations - are representations of chemical reactions. They consist of the reactants (reacting substances: found on the left side of the arrow) and the products (substance formed: found on the right side of the arrow). - Example: 2 H2 + 2 ! 2 H2 . This is stated as 2 moles or molecules of hydrogen react with " mole or molecule of oxygen to form 2 moles or molecules of water. #eactants: H 2 and 2 $roduct: H2 - %ymbols used in writing e&uations: ! means to form or produce + means that there are two or more reactants (one substance reacts with another) and products (two or more substance form) ' precipitate formed (ppt.) ( gas e)ol)ed heat is added catalyst is added gas phase li&uid phase solid phase in a&ueous solution (in water solution) re)ersible reaction Writing and Balancing Chemical Equations: ". *rite the correct formulas of the reactants and products. 2. %tarting with elements other than H and + balance the e&uation by putting numbers before the formulas (coefficients). ,e)er change the subscripts while balancing an e&uation. -. .ea)e any elements in the free state until last+ since changing their coefficients only changes that one /ind of atom. 0. 1alance the polyatomic ions as a group. 2. 3ll coefficients must be in the lowest possible ratio. 4. 5hec/ that the number of atoms in the reactants is e&ual to the number of atoms in the product. Example+ formulate and balance the following e&uations: ". 3luminum + xygen ! 3luminum xide 2. 5alcium 5hloride + 6ron (666) %ulfate ! 5alcium %ulfate + 6ron (666) 5hloride -. %ulfur trioxide + water ! sulphuric acid 0. Hydrochloric acid + $otassium carbonate ! potassium chloride + carbonic acid 2. 1arium chloride + $otassium sulphate ! barium sulphate + potassium chloride Types of chemical reactions: 3. 5ombination reaction 7 a reaction in which 2 or more substance combine to form " product. ". 8etal + ,on9metal ! 1inary 5ompound (such as oxide+ sulphide or halide)

+ H2 ! :e( H)0.a + 5l2 . 8etal(63) 1icarbonates carbonate + water + carbon dioxide +5 2 . .ecomposition reaction 7 a reaction where " reactants form 2 or more products. 8ost 5arbonates (except 63) oxides + carbon dioxide 5a5 - 5a +5 2 5. 1.a5l ! .a2 + 5 2 ! . . Hydrates anhydrous salt + water (%alt that contains " or more molecules of water as part of its crystal structures) 1a5l2<2H2 8g% 0 1a5l2 + H2 8g% 0 <=H2 + H2 2.8 oxide 5+ 2 ! 5 2 H2 + 2 ! H2 %+ 2 ! % 2 %+ 2 ! % -.2 ) 8g + H2 +5 6.on9metal oxide + water ! oxyacid 5 2 + H2 ! H25 % .on9metal + xygen ! . %ome compound may be decomposed by electrolysis: H2 ! H2 + 2 . 5hlorates chlorides + oxygen gas >5l + 2 >5l - 3. . 8ost 1icarbonates (except 63) oxides + water + carbon dioxide 2 8g(H5 .3l + 2 ! 3l2 8g + % ! 8g% . 8etal xide + water ! base 5a + H2 ! 5a( H)2 :e2 .aH5 - .+ H2 ! H2% 0 2. 8etal oxide + non9metal oxide ! salt 5a + % . 3 compound may be decomposed by adding heat or electricity.a25 - + H2 =.a5l 2.a + 5l2 ! .a5 1. :ew metal oxide 8etal + oxygen gas 2 Hg Hg + 4.! 5a% 0 .

H0)25 . 5a5l2 + (. ".isplacement 3g.a5l + 1r2 ! no reaction .5.a25 -<H2 ! 2. . The free element must be more reacti)e than the element being replaced+ or else there will be no reaction. 5upric oxide + @inc ! @inc sulphate + copper -. :erric chloride + ammonium hydroxide ! ammonium chloride + ferric hydroxide 0.i1r2 ! *rite the balanced chemical e&uation to represent the reaction between sodium metal (. :e + 5u% 0 ! 5u + :e% 0 5u + :e% 0 ! no reaction  3ny metal abo)e (H) will displace Hydrogen gas from an acid.i 3l $b > ?n (H) 1a :e 5u 5a 5d Hg .i 3g 8g %n 3u  3 metal higher in the series is more acti)e and will displace all the metals below it. $b(. .a . :ormulate and balance the following e&uations: ". %ingle replacement or .a5l + H2 %eatwor/ 6.a6 ! -. . -)2 + H2% ! 0. ?n + .a1r ! . . 8g5 - 666.isplacement reactions 7 a reaction where " element replaces another element from a compound. %odium bromide + chlorine ! sodium chloride + bromine 2.a H + H5l ! .ouble . . Then+ state the type of reaction per item.! =. 3l + H2% 0 ! 4.isplacement in)ol)ing non9metals The series is : : ! 5l ! 1r ! ! 6 ! % 5l2 + . . 2..+ H5l ! 3g5l + H.iphosphorus pentoxide + water ! phosphoric acid 66.a5l + 1r2 . . 1r2 + . . 1.a) and water to form sodium hydroxide (.a H) and hydrogen gas. 5omplete and balance the following reactions. 8ercuric oxide ! mercury + oxygen 2. 8g + H5l ! H2 + 8g5l2 3g + H5l ! no reaction 2.ouble #eplacement or .isplacement in)ol)ing metals 7 depends on the metal acti)ity series+ which list the metals in order of decreasing reacti)ity: .

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