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on a lathe 321 KB MPEG video of drilling Back to Drilling Page
A. Twist Drills I Definition: Drill: Drill can be defined as a rotary end cutting tool having one or more cutting lips, and having one or more helical or straight flutes for the passage of chips and the admission of a cutting fluid.
Classification Based on Construction 1. Classification Based on Methods of Holding or Driving 1. Composite Drills: Those having cutting portions mechanically held in place B. Taper Shank Drills: Those having conical shanks suitable for direct fitting into tapered holes in machine spindles. Beaded Shank Bits: Drills with flat shanks having raised beads parallel to the axis . driving sleeves or sockets. Taper Shank Square Drills: Those having tapered shanks with four flat sides for fitting a rachet or brace 4. General Classifications A. tang. Tipped Solid Drills: Those having a body of one material with cutting lips made of another material brazed or otherwise bonded in place 3. the shanks may be made with or without driving flats. commonly used with shell reamer arbors 5. grooves or threads 2. Straight Shank Drills: Those having cylindrical shanks which may be the same or different diameter than the body of the drill. Threaded Shank Drills: Those made with threaded shanks generally used in close center multiple spindle applications or portable angle drilling tools 6.To top of this page II. tapered shanks generally have a driving tang 3. Shell Core Drills: Core drills mountable on arbors specifically designed for the purpose. Solid Drills: Those made of one piece of material such as high speed steel 2.
Left-Hand Cut: When viewed from the cutting point the clockwise rotation of a drill in order to cut To top of this page III. Nomenclature of Twist Drills and Other Terms Relating to Drilling Axis: The imaginary straight line which forms the longitudinal center line of the drill Back Taper: A slight decrease in diameter from front to back in the body of the drill Body: The portion of the drill extending from the shank or neck to the outer corners of the cutting lips Body Diameter Clearance: That portion of the land that has been cut away so it will not rub against the walls of the hole . they will not produce original holes 4. Three-Flute Drills (Core Drills): Drils commonly used for enlarging and finishing. Classification Based on Hand of Cut 1. Single-Flute Drills: Those having only one flute sommonly used for originating holes 3. Two-Flute Drills: The conventional type of twist drill used for originating holes 2. drilled. Right-Hand Cut: When viewed from the cutting point the counterclockwise rotation of a drill in order to cut. Four-Flute Drills (Core Drills): Used interchangeably with three-flute drills. or punched holes.C. cast. they are of similar construction except for the number of flutes D. the great majority of drills are made "right hand" 2. Classification Based on Number of Flutes 1.
produced by a cam actuated cutting tool or grinding wheel on a relieving machine Chip Breaker: Nicks or Grooves designed to reduce the size of chips. connecting rods and similar deep holes.Built-Up Edge: An adhering deposit of nascent material on the cutting lip or the point of the drill Cam Relief: The relief from the cutting edge to the back of the land. they are generally made with heavy webs and higher helix angles than normal Cutter Sweep: The section formed by the tool used to generate the flute in leaving the flute Double Margin Drill: A drill whose body diameter clearance is produced to leave more than one margin on each land and is normally made with margins on the leading edge and on the heel of the land Drift: A flat tapered bar for forcing a taper shank out of its socket Drift Slot: A slot through a socket at the small end of the tapered hole to recieve a drift for forcing a taper shank out of its socket . as viewed from the end of the drill Clearance: The space provided to eliminate undesirable contact between the drill and the workpiece Clearance Diameter: The diameter over the the cut away portion of the drill lands Crankshaft or Deep Hole Drills: Drills designed for drilling oil holes in crankshafts. they may be steps or grooves in the cutting lip or in the leading face of the land at or adjacent to the cutting lips Chip Packing: The failure of chips to pass through the flute during cutting action Chipping: The breakdown of a cutting lip or margin by loss of fragments broken away during the cutting action Chisel Edge: The edge at the end of the web that connects the cutting lips Chisel Edge Angle: The angle included between the chisel edge and the cutting lip.
following the cutting portion of the flutes. or solid Gun Drill: Special purpose straight flute drills with one or more flutes used for deep hole drilling. to permit removal of chips. acting as a guide to keep the drill in proper alignment. it is measured by projection into a plane tangent to the periphery at the outer corner of the lip . they are usually provided with coolant passages through the body. and the point end on some sizes of core drills Flat Drill: A drill whose flutes are produced by two parallel or tapered flats Flat (Spade) Drill: A removable cutting drill tip usually attached to a special holder designed for this purpose. therefore. generally used for drilling or enlarging cored holes Flutes: Helical or straight grooves cut or formed in the body of the drill to provide cutting lips. and to allow cutting fluid to reach the cutting lips Flute Length: The length from the outer corners of the cutting lips to the extreme back end of the flutes. grooved.Drill Diameter: The diameter over the margins of the drill measured at the point Exposed Length: The distance the large of a shank projects from the drive socket or large end of the taper ring gage External Center: The conical point on the shank end of the drill. the guide portion may be fluted. it includes the sweep of the tool used to generate the flutes and. does not indicate the usable length of the flutes Gage Line: The axial position on a taper where the diameter is equal to the basic large end diameter of the specified taper Galling: An adhering deposit of nascent work material on the margin adjacent to the leading edge at and near the point of a drill Guide: A cylindrical portion. they may be either solid or tipped Half-Round Drill: A drill with a transverse cross-section of approximately half a circle and having one cutting lip Heel: The trainling edge of the land Helical Flutes: Flutes which are formed in a helical path around the axis Helix Angle: The angle made by the leading edge of the land with a plane containing the axis of the drill Land: The peripheral portion of the body between adjacent flutes Land Width: The distance between the leading edge and the heel of the land measured at a right angle to the leading edge Lead: The axial advance of a leading edge of the land in one turn around the circumference Lips: The cutting edges of a two flute drill extending from the chisel edge to the periphery Lip Relief: The axial relief on the drill point Lip Relief Angle: The axial relief angle at the outer corner of the lip.
it is measured at a right angle to the cutting lip at a specific distance from the axis of the tool Relief: The result of the removal of tool material behind or adjacent to the cutting lip and leading edge of the land to provide clearance and prevent rubbing (heel drag) Shank: The part of the drill by which it is held and driven . but departs from a true cone to furnish clearance behind the cutting lips Point Angle: THe angle included between the cutting lips projected upon a plane parallel to the drill axis and parallel to the two cutting lips Relative Lip Height: The difference in indicator reading on the cutting lip of the drill. it does not include the conical shank end often used on straight shank drills. or fluted Point: The cutting end of a drill.Margin: The cylindrical portion of the land which is not cut away to provide clearance Multiple-Margin Drill: A drill whose body diameter clearance is produced to leave more than one margin in each land Neck: The section of reduced diameter between the body and the shank of a drill Oil Grooves: Longitudinal straight or helical grooves in the shank. nor does it include the conical cutting point used on both straight and taper shank drills Periphery: The outside circumference of a drill Peripheral Rake Angle: The angle between the leading edge of the land and an axial plane at the drill point Pilot: A cylindrical portion of the drill body preceding the cutting lips. it may be solid. grooved. in form it it resembles a cone. made up of the ends of the lands and the web. or grooves in the lands of a drill to carry cutting fluid to the cutting lips Oil Holes or Tubes: Holes through the lands or web of a drill for passage of cutting fluid to the cutting lips Overall Length: The length from the extreme end of the shank to the outer corners of the cutting lips.
primarily used to produce center holes in work that will be held between machine centers .Sleeve: A tapered shell designed to fit into a specified socket and to receive a taper shank smaller than the socket Socket: The tapered hole in a spindle. the extreme end of the web forms the chisel edge on a two-flute drill Web Thickness: The thickness of the web at the point. hold. or sleeve. and having a drill portion and an adjacent integral countersink portion. unless another specific locationis indicated Web Thinning: The operation of reducing the web thickness at the point to reduce drilling thrust To top of this page B. intended to fit into a driving slot in a socket Tang Drive: Two opposite parallel driving flats on the extreme end of a straight shank Taper Drill: A drill with part or all of its cutting flute length ground with a specific taper to produce tapered holes. designed to receive. they are used for drilling the original hole or enlarging an existing hole Taper Square Shank: A taper shank whose cross section is square Web: The central portion of the body that joins the lands. having helical or straight flutes. Definition Combined Drill and Countersink: Single or double-end cutting tool. and drive a tapered shank Step Drill: A multiple diameter drill with one set of drill lands which are ground to different diameters Straight Flutes: Flutes which form lands lying in an axial plane Subland Drill: A type of multiple diameter drill which has independent sets of lands in the same body section for each diameter Tang: The flattened end of a taper shank. Combined Drills and Countersinks I. adaptor.
made of another material brazed or otherwise bonded in place B. Tipped Solid Combined Drills and Countersinks: Those having a body or drill portion of one material with cutting edges or lips. plus an additional secondary conical section to provide clearance for the bearing surface C. Solid Combined Drills and Countersinks: Those made of one piece of material such as high speed steel 2. Plain Type Combined Drills and Countersinks: Those having a drill portion and a single adjacent integral countersink portion 2.II. Nomenclature of Combined Drills and Countersinks Axis: The imaginary straight line which forms the longitudinal center line of the combined drill and countersink Back Taper: A slight decrease in diameter from the front to back in the drill length Bell Angle: The included angle of the secondary conical section providing clearance or protection for the countersink angle conical surface (normally . General Classifications A. Classification Based on Type 1. or both. Classification Based on Hand of Cut same as twist drills III. Bell Type Combined Drills and Countersinks: Those having a drill portion and an adjacent integral countersink portion. Classification Based on Construction 1.
the column in turn supports a table. A drill press is composed of a base that supports a column. the relief angle is measured at the intersection of the bell portion and the body Process Parameters: Depth of cut: The depth of the hole generated by the drilling process Feed: The rate that the drill advances into the material. generally measured in distance per flute Speed: The cutting speed is usually measured at the periphery of the drill in surface feet or meters per minute Thrust: The axial force required to drill Torque: The twisting moment required to drill Surface Finish: The roughness of the walls of the drilled hole. for the bell type. a measure of the hole quality To top of this page Drill Press: Click here to view Drill press A drill press is preferable to a hand drill when the location and orientation of the hole must be controlled accurately. Work can be supported on the table with a vise or hold down clamps. and a line tangent to the surface of the countersink portion at hte intersection of the countersink portion and the body and at the leading edge of the land.120 degrees) Bell Diameter: The diameter at the intersection of the countersink portion and the bell portion at the leading edge of the land Body: The central portion of the tool by which it is held or driven Countersink Angle: The included angle of the countersink portion (normally 60 degrees) Countersink Relief Angle: The angle between a plane at right angles to the axis of the tool. or the table can be .
etc. Sutherland at email@example.com Materials .). N. Height of the table can be adjusted with a table lift crank than locked in place with a table lock. The motor turns the spindle at a speed controlled by a variable speed control dial. The column also supports a head containing a motro. The spindle holds a drill chuck to hold the cutting tools (drill bits. To top of this page REFERENCE: Above shown figures and many other definitions are referred from Metal Cutting Tool Handbook published by the Metal Cutting Tool institute . John W. deburring tools.swiveled out of the way to allow tall work to be supported directly on the base.Y Back to Drilling page Suggestions/comments contact Prof. center drills.
They are used only for drilling wood. and much more resistant to heat than high carbon steel. High speed steel (HSS) is a form of tool steel. . They can be used to drill metal. particularly if the drill is not held at a very constant angle to the workpiece. and are far more subject to breaking. and are used to drill stainless steel and other hard materials. Bits made from high carbon steel are more durable than low-carbon steel bits due to the properties conferred by hardening and tempering the material. If they are overheated (e.g. hardwood. depending on the required application. Many hard materials. and have largely replaced carbon steels.g. are much more brittle than steel. e. resulting in a soft cutting edge. Cobalt steel alloys are variations on high speed steel which contain more cobalt. when hand-held. and most other materials at greater cutting speeds than carbon steel bits. These bits can be used on wood or metal. Steels Soft low carbon steel bits are inexpensive. such as carbides. They hold their hardness at much higher temperatures.. The main disadvantage of cobalt steels is that they are more brittle than standard HSS. HSS bits are hard. by frictional heafing while driling) they lose their temper.Titanium nitridecoated twist bit Many different materials are used for or on drill bits. even working with hardwoods rather than softwoods can noticeably shorten their lifespan. but do not hold an edge well and require frequent sharpening.
and in applications where machine downtime to replace or sharpen worn bits is exceptionally costly. Others Tungsten carbide and other carbides are extremely hard. carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The material is expensive and much more brittle than steels. PCD bits are typically used in the automotive. Coatings Black oxide is an inexpensive black coating. most often for cutting tile. A black oxide coating provides heat resistance and lubricity. bonded as a sintered mass to a tungsten carbide support. aerospace. extending the cutting life by three or more times. Nitro-carburized steel withstands  substantially higher drilling temperatures while maintaining sharpness. and can drill virtually all materials while holding an edge longer than other bits. it can then be ground to complex geometries that would otherwise cause braze failure in the smaller "segments". small pieces of hard material fixed or brazed onto the tip of a bit made of less hard metal. and other industries to drill abrasive aluminum alloys.5 mm (0. when the bit is sharpened the new edge will not have the benefits of the coating. and diamond coated bits often have to be water cooled to prevent damage to the bit or the workpiece. typically about 0. most notably PCB manufacturing. consequently they are mainly used for drill bit tips. The nib can later be brazed to a carbide shaft. Zirconium nitride has been used as a drill bit coating for some tools under the Craftsman brand name. Large amounts of heat are generated by friction. Titanium nitride (TiN) is a very hard ceramic material that can be used to coat a high-speed steel bit (usually a twist bit). It consists of a layer of diamond particles. Coating increases the life of high-speed steel bits. Titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) is s similar coating that can extend tool life five or more times. or by sintering PCD into a vein in the tungsten carbide "nib". in some industries. stone. Polycrystalline diamond (PCD) is among the hardest of all tool materials and is therefore extremely resistant to wear. .019") thick. In very small sizes it is difficult to fit carbide tips. However. carbide bits are used. Diamond powder is used as an abrasive. it is becoming common in job shops to use solid carbide bits. requiring many holes with diameters less than 1 mm. Hi-moly tool steel is heat-treated at 1196 °C (2185 °F) and then nitro-carburize finished at 510 °C (950 °F) to be measurably harder than high-speed steel. Bits are fabricated using this material by either brazing small segments to the tip of the tool to form the cutting edges. as well as corrosion resistance. Titanium carbon nitride (TiCN) is another coating also superior to TiN. However. and other very hard materials. and other abrasive materials.
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