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CLA59 NO. _
L i I
Candidate's declaration
hereby declare that this dissertation is the result of my ovm ongmal
research and that no part of It has been presented for another degree In thIs
University or elsewhere
Candidate's signature
Supervisor's Signature.
Supervisor's declaration
I hereby declare that the prcparalton and presentation of thIS dIssertatIOn
were supervised in accordance wuh the guidelmes on of disscrtatiun
laid down by the Umvcrsity of Cape Coast
and \ 1(:\\ (If SUIXf\ 1510n It <11--" hdhL"r
p.:,:'pk In '>urenh,-,r;. art: equlpp.:d Il.' cff..:ct\\cl; C3rr: ,.'ul "r
Ihe Je.....:rlrtl\ \: -,.J.mpk sur\ C:, \\ .1:> In the ,>!uJ:. ()ne
hunJr<.:J and thlll: stalf mcmh.;;r, ":,,n)ll[ulcJ the '>.1mC'k I;)T tnt
Th..: ..:h\'.;.en fwm -\":3Jemk fa.:ultlC::'. Departments and
l nils, and ',:'n - -\":aJernlc Dcpartmenb and I_nib The str3.11Ii.:J r3.nd,'m
\\ere Jesl:;neJ t" help m<:J.sure the qu.}"t: .)f and '>ub"rjlnJ.!,<
ab}ul Ih;:" ... Ihe re,..::ar.:h \\r.:re JnJ.I:,;,;.j
-The !iodin:,!'; mdlcJ.lcJ lh:l.t team J.ppr, h thc mJIr. m..:th,:,J
,UJX=f\IS1on In the Lnl\<::hl!: ,,f Cape C<J3.S! [t JI,.: r;_,unJ ,h
: :hc:
dlre':!l\": .:..:'ntr,,! J.prr,-'3,..:h ;.tnJ ..:(ollJ.b,:'ratl\c mc:t'r '.\;.;r.,; ...
\gam. <,f Impartmg JnJ .1nJ
10 L,i Jrr.: \r.:;:. :mr-_'rt.1nt \m,'n", T,h.,;
re.:0mmendall(lnS IS that .::J'J,,;,;jtcJ ,'n the ImpdtJ.n. "I
supervision In organizational success Also, supervisors rnust develop a team
approach to supervision and establish objectives togelher with supcrvisces
In the course of this study many people have been of great help to me
cannot but aCknowledge their Immense assistance and contributions
To my supervisor, Dr E K Ekumah. I am grateful for the valuable time
you spent on this work, the palnstakmg correctIOns. and professional manner with
which you approached this work Thank you agam for putting your Invaluable
research experience at my disposal
Professors Albert M Abanc and Hubert 0 QUist, past Atlanlic l-Ial1
Masters respectively come up for mention for the inspiration and encouragement
they gave me To you Prof QUist, may you continue to inspire generations. and
may you be blessed In all that you set yoursdfto do
I am also grateful to all the respondents who. oul of their heavy scheduks.
found time to participate in this study. I cannot let go the Immense support and
encouragement given me b) my family; Margaret my \.... Ifc. Enc Jnr and Peggy
Soma. our children for theIr understanding, dnd my brothers Ernest. Edmund and
Emmanuel for the inSpiratIOn they gave me My auntie. Gladys Odoorn. thank
I am grateful to the varIOus authors and speakers whose works In ont,O W;l)
or the other. sIgnificantly contributed 10 the successful completIon of thIs study
I also cannot forget the untinng efforts of r..1s VivIan U AIUkwu. and the
encouragement and support given to me by Tony Sa'iu A\' and hm:sl Ako
Sackey. all of AtlantIC FM. I say "thank you and God bless you all"
In mcmor;. of my parents of blessed memot;-
Background to the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose afthe study
Research questions
Slgmficance of the stud)
DelimitatIOn of the study
LlmitatlOn<; afthe study
Orgam7ation afthe study
Art and craft of supervision
BasIc super\'isory competencies
History PI" supervision
Variables of superviSion
"'adushin's model of supemslon
CharactenslH':s of super\'lsors
Dcwlopmem of the supel'\lsor
Puttmg the functions together
of SUpCl'\'lSIOn dehvel)
SuperVIsion interventions
Approaches to supcr\'ision
Supervising personnel Issues
Recogmzing thc importance of the supervlsee's pcrspectlve
Supervisor as teacher
Supel'\'lsor as enabler
Super\'lsur as administrator
Processes and Issues In supcr\'lsion
Supervisee as a source of variance In the SUPCI'\'ISOr) relationshIp
SuperviSIon of school admmlstration and support slaff
Mentoring and superviSion
Monitoring and evaluation
Research design
Sample and samplmg procedures
Ethical consideration
Data collection procedure
Reliability and validity
Data processmg and analysIs
IntroductIOn 70
BiographICal data
Sex dlstnbutlon of re<;pondcnts
SeOlor staff members In supervisory positions
Approaches to supervisIon
In - service training programmes
Importance of supervision
Senior staff members not in supervisor)' posItIOns
Report of the interview gUide
Summa!") of research procedures and major findings
Arcas for further research
A Research instrument for semor statTmembers In supCrVISl)r)
B Rescan.:h Instrument for senior stalTmembers not in supcn ISUr;.
c. InterVIC\\ GUide for Deputy Registrars
Senior stafT in FacultIes! Academic Units
Senior staff In Non - AcademIc Departments/Umts
3 Accessible population for Non - Academic Departments/Umts 64
4 Accessible population for Facultles./ Academic Department! Units 64
5 Distribution of respondents by sex 71
Perceptions of respondents to supervision approaches
Perceptions afresponder.ts about supervisors' approach to
Respondents' knowledge oflhe role of the supervisor
Number of In - service training programmes attcndl.:d
Background to the stud)'
The concept of leadership carnes many different connotatIons and IS often
vIewed as sygonymolls with other equally complex concepts such as po\\cr.
authority, management. administratIOn. and supeTVISlon Many leadershIp
theOrists have found thai inctTeCl1' c leadership In any orgam:t.atilln seems tn he
the major cause of dlffilnlshmg the orgamzatlon's productivIty and downward
posllioning of the mtemalional scah: (Dyc. 1(87) rhlS calls 1('r cfketl\c
SUpCrY1SlOn. one ur the skllls requm:d llf an effective h:<lder
Leadership IS the process of mtlue:ncing others to accomphsh the tl1ISSlnn
by providing purpose, direction. and motivation. Four critical factors aT..:
involved the leader, the kd (followers), the environment/situation, and th<:
communication process between leader and followers rhl" mlsswn, Ihl: nalurl: \If
the environment in \I,:hieh the leader operates. and thl: maturity of Ihl" rllllmh:rs
detcnnme lhe methods and means With wlw.:h the kadl"rs exert mllucllcL' or
OrganizatIOns have dlffl"rlng hieran.:hl{:al 1e\L'ls uf leaJL'rsh1r thLlt ha\l"
unique yet progressive rcsponslhilitles. nhligiltlUlls, and eXpCcL..ltlons "ilch len: I
is a dlflcrent context for the art and craft nr SliperVlsmn Prugrcsslun fnlm thl"
context of one- kvel to thc contcxt of anolhe-r, normaUy upward in tht.' hlt:ran:hy.
superdsor to make intentIonal psychological shifts supervisor
must renegotiJte a new understandmg of the responsibilities. oblq;allOn:- and
expedatlons when entering each level The supervisor also must re..:ugnm; the
psychological shifts that occur at each level with ne\\ self-perceptions. ne\\ self-
expectations. and adJustme-nts to ne-w pressures
Supef\-islOn IS controlltng. dln;ctmg. evaluatmg. conrdlnatmg, and
planntng the eftllrts of subordinates so that the- leader can ensure the task IS
accomplished SuperYislon IS practiced wlthm the context of four Important
variables that parallel the four critical factors of leadership' the personality llf th..:
super\1sor. the personality of the gwup. the situation, and the nq;anL Jillnal
1\1anaglng: a huge and complex orgJnt/ation like tht,' Unlverslt) of Cape
Coast requm::s competent h:adershlp and set up that IS drn en by
etlcctivc and efliclcnt processt.::s rl'sponSl\l' to l'hanges and ehallenges and
s..:nslll\'(: to students and starf expectations Lcading institutions plat:e
cunsidcrable emphaSIS on continually Impronng work ethiCS that are essential tn
achieYmg their VISion. Increased at.tcntion 10 understanding th..: key process..:s. and
the eoordmation. supcrViswn and teamwork acmss l"unt:tIPnal Untts IS ..:ssentlal III
JchleY'ing set ohjel:tivcs
Statement of the problem
SUp...'I"\'ISIOn of workers is important to organizatIOnal ta..<;k. which
affect the Job satisfaCtion of employees, It IS nne of the five Indices In the Jllh
descriptIve index (JDO. a fonnulation that is used mtematlOnally as a ":-.:asure nl
o\erall job salisfactllm rhe other four elements are the work Ibl,.'lf. pay.
proml)tlon and co - workers' behavior (Barr. 1990) \\1111c some researchers In
the t'nlHrslty l)f Capc Coast and the tTm\ersity of Education. \\'Inneba h;l\e
Imestlgated the satisfaction of \\orkers With thc Job. pay,
pcrformance appr..lIsal t:\gyenim Boateng. 20001. training and dc\'clppmcnt
(Amewudah. 1995l. management obJectJ\es (Okae - Anti. 20001. not many
studies h::l\e fi)cuscd on supernsion as a tool for orgaOlzatlOnal 10 the
L:mwrsity of Cape Coast
To achle\'e liS orgamzathmal gl)<:lls and Inc up ll) ItS as the
"UniverSity of ChOlcc". statl SUpcr.ISllln must be paranlOunt anJ llf
Importance to management of the l'OIHrsity c,r Cape Coast \Ianagement rules
rerfonned In the include the executive. by the L'm\er"ity (\)uncil anJ
thl: Vice Chancellor: management. hy the Rcglstrar, Rqpstrars, SeOll'r
ASSistant Registrars and ASSistant Registrars The le\el (If management that
perfonns SUpCIYIS0f)' roles of managemellt compnses Chll.:f \(]mIOlstrall\ l,.'
ASSistants iCA:\sl. Principal Admtnistratl\e ,\SSI-;lants (1'\.\SI. and "enlllr
Administratiw ASSistants (S:\As) whose duth,:S ..lS sllpulatcd In the Rt:\ Ised
lInilied Scheme of sef\lce for senior staff (\f Iht: l 'nl\t:rslll ..'S ll/' IncluJt:
among others "super.'islon ofpl:rsonnel" Ihl\\l'\a -;UPl,.'f\ISIIIO. al:l:llrJIIl:; It' tht:
Deputy Registrar in charge of Personnel of the Umverslty of Cape Coast. IS a
major problem In the university. and appears weakest wllh craftsmen and artisans
SupervisIOn again appears weak at the super\'lsory level where supervIsors do not
effectively supervise at their levels This IS because such people do not know thcir
supervisory roles.
According to him. lack of effective supervision may lead 10 poor
perfonnance or poorly finished work. apathy. lazmess or lackadaisical uttitudc
und unplanned \\ork Others mclude time wastmg. abscntcclsm and non
This study therefore was to examine whether people In supervIsory
pOSItions are well eqUipped to effectively curry out or perform thcJr superVisor)
roles as reqUired of them at the Umverslty of Cape Coast
Purpose of the study
The mam obJectlve of the study was to assess the state of starr supcrvl:'lon
In thc Umversity of Cape Coast
Thc specific obJcctives were to
Idcntlfy the supervision approaches used in thc University of Capc Coast
.2 Estahllsh supervisors' knowledge or their roles and the requisite
supervisory skills.
3. Examine m - service training programmes orgamzcd to upgrade thl:
knowledge and skills of supervisors
4, Assess how sCllIor staff and some Deputy Registrars In the Unlvcrsity of
Capc Coast perceive the Importance of superVISIOn In achil:Y1ng
organizational goals
5 Suggest recommendations to the ulllversity to Improve staff supervISIon
Research questions
Three (3) research questions were set as fo11o\'.'s,
What supervisIon approaches are used m the University of Cape Coast')
2 How do m-SCf\'ICC trammg programmes Impact on knowledge and skIlls of
3 Do staff members at all levels of the Umverslty of Cape Coast understand
the Importance of superviSIOn in LlChlcymg organl72uonal goals')
Significance of the stud)'
ThiS study IS to conSider superviSIOn m the UniversIty of Cape Coast
First. it will bnng out the state of staff SUPCf\'ISIOn in the University of Capc Coast
so as to dSSISt In the fonnulation of a superviSion policy for the llOlvcrslt\
SeconJly. It \\'111 bring to the forc the shortfalls In slaff superVISion as rcg.uds
supervisors' knowledge of IhelT supcr\'lsory roles and skIlls so that ert(lrts t;ould
be made to correct such shortfalls
This study will also enable both supcr\'lsors and SLJperVISccs to understand
the Importance of staff supervision. That supcr\'lsors would not l.:onsldcr
themselves as "police of supervlsees ",'ho. on the other hand would sec
as "fault finders".
The Personnel Section and the Centre for Training and Development both
of the Umverslty of Cape Coast would benefit from the study since th.:y can usc
the findings and recommendations of the study to design regular and tadored
programme schedule to enhance supervIsors' knowledge. and as well sharpen
theIr supervisory skills
It would also serve as a basis for further research work 10 staff super\'lsion
regarding factors that militate against effective superviSion. and steps by which
such factors could be eliminated or mitigated
Delimitation of the study
ThiS study could have covered other areas such as workers' pay.
promotion. staff appraisal. training and development, but was reslncted to
adnllnIstrative staff superviSion It looked at admimstrative staff superVIsIOn In
the UniverSity of Cape Coast ThiS IS because staff supervISIon IS a VItal
mgredlent for the achievement of organizational success.
In view of the assertion of poor supervision by the Deputy Rcglstrar
(Personnel). well as the expenem:e of the researcher (us a !"11ludlc lcvd
management employee of the UniversIty of Cape CU;Jst). the study was
undertaken to tind out the state of affaITs, It IS also agamst tbe background of tht:
Umversity of Cape Coast's accolade "Umvcrslty of ChOice" and the need for the
university to be able to attract students \vho are the consumers" of its produce
Some of the areas in staff supervision to be considered in the study arc apprual.:hcs
to superviSIOn, supervisory skills. and understandmg of Importam.l. llf
superviSIOn. Areas that could not be covered mc1ude faclors milltatll1g agamst
dfecllvc supervision. cXlstence of a super\'lsion polK) and Its anal) SIS. and the
rdulinnshlp between supef\'lsors and super\'lsees This was due ttl the broad
nature of sUper\'lSlOn In orgal1li'..atlons
The study would be delimited 10 ChIef Administrative ASSistants (CA.\Sl.
Pnnl.:lpal Admll1lstratlye ASSIstants (PAAs) and Senior Admmlstratiyc ASSIS{:.1I11s
(SAAsl hecause they are in the supef\'lsury level in the managerial levels In Ihe
UOIverslty of Cape Coast. ThelJ respective Job descnptlOns/dutles make It
incumbent upon them to "supef\'lse pcrsonncl" Thev supef\'lse the
ImplementatIon of polJl.:les planm:d anJ put furward by the top management
Limitations of the stud,
First the resean.:her would not be able to involve all the people In the
supervisory levd of management In the t 1mversil) Out of a lotal pupulallon df
four hundred and lifty (450), a sample size of one hundred and thlrt) se\'en (137)
was used T!Jls ('ould have been more.
Second. this study would also be constramed h) {line SlnCC II IS L.\pcdCd
10 be I:omplded within a spcclfic period of time
The return rate in the collectIOn orthe qucstlonnJlrL' L:IJuIJ nL';J Ilmltatlnn
\Vhilc some membL:rs would not compktc and suhmlt thL'lr 411CS!lllnnaln::. othL'rs
would exaggerate their views or responses These reasons arc hkdy to affect the
data, and nl.)t correspond with the situation on the ground.
In additIOn to the above, other constraints. such as lack of sufticH:nt
linanccs and logistics. would also limit the scope of the study
However these limitatIOns notwlthstandmg. resultant findings of the study
would constitute a strong basIs for generalizatIOn,
Organization of the study
This study has been orgamzed in five chapters Chapter One IS the
introductIOn, and It deals with the background to the study. statement of the
problem. purpose and significance of the study, the research questions.
dehmltation of the study, and Iimitatllln of the study.
Chapter Two reviews related literature on supervIsIOn This mvolves the
systematic Identification. locatIOn and analySIS of documents contammg
mformation related to the research problem These meluded penodicals. ahstrads.
reViews, books, and research reports
Chapter Three discussed the research design. population sample and thl.:
sampling prLlcedures used The research mstrumcnt used in culledmg thl.: data. the
mcthod of data collection and data analySIS were also discussed
In Chapter Four. the data gathered for the study were analys.:J usmg thl.'
appropnate statlstH;altools. and their mterpretations
Chapter Five presents tht: summary. conclUSIOns and recommcndatltlllS of
the study
rhls chapter reviews related literature on supervision. The review eO\'ers
the following areas supervision. variables of superVISion. history of super\'ISlon.
Kadushin's modd of supervision. characteristics of superVisors, development of
super\'lsors. mode of supervision dehvery. and superVISion interventions Others
arc approaches to supen'lsion. supervising personnel and supervlsion of school
administrative and support staff
Most authors have variously defined supervision. as a management
function According to Bernard and Goodyear (1991).
"Supen'lsion IS an mtervention that IS prO\'ldcd by a 5cnlllr mL'mber
of .t plUfesslon to a junior member or memhers of that same
profession This relationship is evaluative. extends over lime. and
has the simultaneous purposes of cnham:mg the prolcsslonal
functiomng of the junior mcmbcr(s), momtoring the qualIty of
professional services offered to the i.:hcnts she. he, or they ~ e e s .
and serving as a gatekeeper of those who arc to enter Ihe particular
profession .. lp. 1\).
\\'ithin the definition. there is mention of sc\'crall.:"ompOnenlS or supcrvlsIl1n
There an: lllllque competencies and skills III slipen'lslllll that
alllm the super\'isor to help the SUpef\'lsee. t\'1odels of super\'islOn eXist that
pro\ldc a framework for the process In addition. superYisors incorporate VarlllllS
modes and intcrn:ntlOns to facilitate super\'lsce dcYelopmcnt.
Awareness of these models. modes. and interventlons \,,111 help the
supl'rvisee understand the underlying proccsses of super\'lsion and therefore. he a
more adl\e participant In the supef\'ISlOn process A dIalogw.: can devdop
hetween SUptTVlsor and supervisee as a means to share personal styles and
preferences for frameworks and lIltern'l1tllms to he used in super\"blon
SUpef\'IS10n IS all wnsumlllg It is nevcr complctl.:d and put a\\a\
Super\'islOll of people is not without contltctlllg personal and prol\:sslonal
Interests and demands Supervisors. like evcryone clse. have thcir share lit"
personal problems and professional shortcommgs The healthy SUPCr\'lSUr.
howcver. faces up to these rea1Jties and docs whatever It takes to l"unctll)]l
effcl"llvely. If SUpcf\'lsors are unable to manage themseh'cs and tht:lr pnOnlll'\.
Ihey will get lh(' hdp they need to do so This may mean prl)l"I.'s\llmal
development to review the craft of supcf\'isinl1 or finding a mentor tIl I:\aluatc thc
Supervision is embedded as one of thl.' dc\'cn prinl.lples of b.Jlkrshlp A
leader is a supervIsor. To be successful. the SUpCf\ Isar must undl:rstand both the
art and the craft of supervision fonnal training will teach the pnnclples of
supervision. rhls is the craft of supervision The "craft" IS the "Know" In the
"Be. Know. Do" leadership model. lnfonnal traming develops the personhood of
tht.' supen'lsor. Personhood is the "Be" in the "Be. Know. Do" modd It arrccts
the practice of supenision Practicing supervIsion in the context l)f the
superVISl)r'S technical skills and unique sense of personhood becomes the "art" of
supen"lSlon. This IS the "Do" m the "Be, Know. Do" model No l'ne dement \:an
be successful Without each of the others.
Some supen'lsors arc mal functIOnal tvlalfunelJomng super\'lsors almost
always lea\'e the orgamzatlon smallt'[. weaker. or more discouraged than he fore
they amwd At the root of SUPCT\ Lsory malfunction 3re supeT\'isors who arc not
learners and arc not reflective. They Ju not take thc time and effort 1 further
their prott:sslonal gn)\\1h. make little crfort to plan and orga01ze fllr
eflectl\e and effiCient supeT\-ISlOn The) tcnd not to rellect on their c'pcnen..:cs.
therefore they malfunctlon m the same ways. over and o\'cr again. \\ltlwut
realizmg It Supen'lsors who want to avoid being mal functIOnal
reflect UpOTl their expencnces to grow their perceptions of the art of SUPt.'T\ISIUIl
and g,lin ne\\. .skills that strengthen their undl.'rstandlOg of the craft uf SUPl:T\lSI0n
An orga01zatlOn is a systematic group of pC\lpk nwught tUgL'thl:f fur
specific purpos&: Organizations consist of pl:Clpll:, thm),!s. prIlCl:SS\;,S. ,mJ
Three people. systemic structurl:. and purpusc. arl: l:llmrnon to
organii'lltions. Peoph:: it takes people to makc decisions and to perfunn tht'
aCIl\'ities th:l! turn goals mto reality. Systemic Strut:lUrc' dlvisUIO of lahour that
ddines rolcs of the membt'rs in the orgamzation, crt:atcs rules and rcgulall{lns.
I'urpose' typkally expressed in tenus of goals and objectives.
SUperYISllln IS practiced and defined withm the context of tht: hlerarchlt'al
len.'ls of an organizatIOn A systems view (If organization recognl/l.:s the mutual
inh:rdt'pt:ndent'les of the \'aflOUS contrihutmg factors of kadl.'rshlp and
managl.:'menL Illiduk management, 1m..' managl.'rs, and 0pl..'ratl\'c cOlplnyt:t:s
Art and craft (If supcn'ision
The art of supervision parallcl, the leadership compctencIl.:s grouPt'U
undt:r the interpersonal and conccptual headlOgS Interpcrsonal compl.'tl.'nt:ll.'s
mclude const:osus buddmg and the \\hulc rang\,.' llf commUOIcatlon 'ikllb
('oncl.'ptual compdenCles encompass thmkmg and reasoOlng skills rhl.: I.:raft Ill'
supcni"lon parallels the leadership compctcncics grouped undcr tht' hcadlng 01
techOlcal skills Tcchnical skills compctcnclcs In\'olve spl:l"lfit: I-.nll\\klJgl.: (,j
tasks. prnLcsscs, and proccdurcs The changmg en\'lf{lOmcnt and naturl: 01 tht'
organii'..ati("!n, CIS a leadcr progresses from one IC\'eI of kaul.'rshlp {(I anothcr.
demands a corresponding change In the competencies.
The art of supervisIOn
The Informal training develops the art of supervision The mformal
traming includes the actual supervisory relatlonship ex.perienced by the
suhordinate The supervisor is responsible for that expeTlence Inappropnate
supervisIOn by any supervisor wlil not give the subordmate the correct traming
and ex.perience needed to learn the art of supervision. Practicmg the art of
supervision also depends upon learnmg the craft of superVISion.
The craft of supeT\'lsion
Formal trammg develops the crall of supeT\'lsion Formal trammg teaches
the pnnclples of supervision. the functions of management and the competencles
of leadership In the tramlng environment Supervisors attend many professional
development courses to recelve formal traimng The supeT\'isor cannot practIce
the art of supeT\'lsion without first learnmg the craft of supervIsion Supen'lsors
cannot "Do" If they do nUl "Know"
Basic superviSOr)' competencies
Thc <:upcrvisor may apply. or "Do." the art and the nuft of Sllpernswn
through the follO\.... mg competencies
Understand the miSSion. goaL Or task In the conkxt of the orgam/..1tllln (the
umt) and the level of supervision.
Communicate the miSSion to subordinates (with emphaSIS on the cntlcal
Issues. c.g , issues of mass casualties In a comhat hngade mission l
Break the mission into activities Assign personnel to activIties Asccrtam
psychological commitment (which may include such concepts as "Readmess"
from the Situational Leadcrshlp model)
Tram personnel (could Include ensuring that umt trammg IS completed or even
task unique traimng).
Set standards and expectations
Motivate subordmates.
Give and recclvC' feedback
Evaluate (internally and externally, formally and mformally)
Respond With
c' Rewards (could mclude words, letters,
recommendatIOns for formal awards. or direct praise to the
subordinate for good ,,"ark).
o Punishments (could include admOnIshments for poor
performance. onlhc-spot corrections, formal counseling
and letters, or wlthholdmg of opportunity such as
professional development. elc ).
r:; Course corrections (for example, If the implementation of a
task IS incorrect, then the supervisor must redirect the
subordinate's work)
Supen'ision as a process
The process of supervision occurs withm the relatIOnship established
bet\veen the superYlsor and supervisee It is Important to keep in mmd that both
the supervisor and supervisee contnbute to thc relationShip process within whIch
responsibilities are estabhshed and developed. An assumptIOn of super\"lslOn IS
that It Will last long enough for some developmental progrcss of the supcn'lsee
Super\"lslon IS differentiated from brief mteractlOns (such as workshops), and
consultatIOn that. by detimtion. IS time and session limitt:d. although all of these
Interactions share common goals (e g. trainmg in a skill. clanfication of process.
regaimng obJectiVity) The fact that supenrlsion IS ongomg allows for the
relationship to grow and develop 1hc Importance of the supervlsoT)' relationshIp
has received much attention in supervision literature.
The quality of the relatIOnship bct\\'een the supervisor and supernsce can
add to or subtract from the experience It IS Important that the "relatIOnship"
aspect of supen'lslon IS not overlooked or neglected
The supen'isor evaluates. monitors, and serves as a gatekeeper
In addition to enhancing the professional functioning of nJunsdors.
supen'lsors haw an ethical and legal responSibility to momlor the quality of t:art:
that is being delivered to the supervisec's clients In order to enhance the
profeSSIOnal tunctiomng of the supen'lsee and assure quality of can:. the
supervisor constantly momtors and provides il:edback rcgardlng SUpCf\'lsee
performance. ThiS formative evaluation forms the baSIS of the \...ork done m
supervisIOn The supervisor also serves as a gatekeeper for those who want to
enter the counseling profession. As part of this role, supervisors formally evaluate
supervlsees These summative evaluations occur after there has been enough
supervIsion to expect a certain degree of competence. For example. dunng
tieldwork experiences. summat1w evaluatIOns typically occur at the midpoint and
end of senH:sters
Agam supervISIon is defined as the process of management that controls
and evaluates the people. resources. and activities In the accomplishment of the
goal or mission The supervisor has a responsibility [or a special type of
leadershIp that Invohes the control of human resources. Leadership IS not a
funcllon of status or authonty. Leadership is a function of the quality of the
relationship. the Interaction that takes pbcc between the leader and hIS followers
Leadership IS a matter of mfluence. Supervision IS a process that mcorporates
both the competencies of leadership and the functions of management
History of supervision
The Immediate roots of \....hat we have come to know as SUpel"\'lSIOn In the
Managemcn11Admmlstration he in the development of SOCial work and casework
\Ve see thiS. for example. In the concern for the needs of chents and the lakmg up
of ideas and practices that o\ve much to the emergence of PS) choanalysls
HO\vever. to make sense of superviSIOn it IS necessary 10 look to the various limns
of apprenticeship that have existed in different soclellCS In anCient Chma. Afnca
and Europe (feudal and otherwise), for example. there arc numerous examples of
people new to a craft or activity having to rcveal thclr work to, and explorc It
with. or mistresses I.e, those recognized as skilled and wise. This process
of bemg attached to an expert. of 'learnmg through domg' allows the novice to
gam knO\vledge. skill and commitment It also enablcs them to cntcr Into a
particular 'commuOity of practice' such as tallonng or midwlfcry (Lave and
Wt:nger 1(91). By spending time with practitioners, by 'Iookmg ovcr thclr
shoulders', taking part in the routmes and practices associatcd with the trade: or
activity. and having them explore our work. we become full members or thl.:
community of practice
SuperVIsion could be found In the growth of charitable social agencies in
Europe and North Amcnca durmg the nineteenth century It mvolvcd the
recruitment. organizatIOn and oversight of a large number of volunteers and later
paid workers The volunteers were commonly known as 'VISItors'. Thclr task was
to caB on a small number of familles to offer advice and support Thc mam
concern was to fosler self-help and lhe adoption of 'healthy' hanlts amI
behaVIOurs In addition. Visitors wcrc also often in a position to access limited
funds via their agencies. although such mOO1es were only gl\'cn after a careful
mvestigation of the family's circumstances. In other words. a deCISIOn had to he
made as to whether they were 'deserving'
The person assigning cases, orgamzmg work and takmg dcuslOns (\0 bL'halfof
the agency was basically an 'overseer' - and hence: the: growing usc of the tL'rm
'supervisor'. (In Latin supa means 'over'. and \,u}(:n:. 'to watch, or As Peters
(1967) has pOinted out. traditionally, part of thl: overseer's lob was to en<.;url: that
work was done well and to standard, This can be viewed as an administrative task
However, overseers also had to be teachers and innovators These were nc,"v forms
of organization and intervention 'standards were being set, ne'".... methods
developed' (Peters, 1967)
In these early fOrolS - and especially m the work of the Charity Orgamzation
Society in the USA and UK - the present functIOns and approaches of superVISIon
were signaled As thinkmg and practice around casework became more
sophisticated, especially through the work of pioneers such as Mary Richmond
(1899, 1917 & 1922) and demands for more paid workers grew, so superVISion
became more of an Identified process For example, books on the subJect began to
appear - e g. Brackett's (1904) SupervIsIOn and Educ.:allOn 111 Charily.
In the mnetecnth century, the tenus that l::ame during the Industrial Revolution,
the tenu "supervisor" might have come up during the sCientific managemcnt
penad led by Henry Fayol Also, the hierarchical posItion of the supef\'lsor (or
patd agent) was rc\'ealcd
Whl1e the 'paid agent' acted as supef\'lsor to the volunteer VISitOr,
the paid agent or 'supervisor' was himself superVised by the
district committee, which had ultimate authonty ror case
decisions, The paid agent supervisor was then III a mlddle-
management position, as is true of supervisors today - SUPCf'.'ISlIlg
the direct service worker but themselves under the <Juthol'llv of the
agency (Kadushin, 1992, 15)
It is this hierarchIcal and managenal Idea of supervisIOn that tends to permcate
much of the literature in social work
Variables of supenision
The supervisor practices the art and craft of supervision withm the context
of four vanables the personality of the supervisor, the personahty of the group,
the situation. and the organizational factors
I. The persona/lly of lite supervisor. The personality of the supcn'lsor. or
personhood. IS the first Important variable. Thc supervisor's personality. \vhu:h
includes a personal and professional phtlosophy. defines thc art of superVISIon.
ThiS philosophy includes thc basIc assumptIOns that the supcn'lsor makes about
othcrs These assumptions come from the supervisor's education. CXf _'riences,
background. value system, and religious beliefs The supervisor's philosophy
evolves With ncw knowledge and experience. The supervisor's personahty
determines how the supervisor practices the art of supervisIOn, The supen.'lsor
does not learn personhood in formal traimng. Each supervisor has a unique
patterning of abtlitles, Skills, attitudes, habits. past expencnccs. pen.:cptions.
v l u e ~ and InIcn:3ts. Each has peculiar senSItivities. preferences. a\'erSlOll<;. blmd
spots. and likes and dislikes, There is no mould from which all arc cast.
2 Tlte personaltly of Ihe group, The personaltty of the group IS the second
important variable for developing the supen'lsor The supen'lsor can learn lhe
principles of baSIC human interactions through both fonnal training and the
informal experiences that occur as the supcn'isor mtcracts with people further
insight into the dynamics of any group comes through involvement and
application of cxpencnce. knowledge, and personhood. A resentful. hostdl:
group, for example. will require a dlnerent style of supernsion than a wdl-
mtentlOned and fnendly group Supervisory techniques that are \\lth
one group may prow disastrous with another group
:t The SllltallOn The situation can call for different styles or skills of
supervision Whdhcr the situatIOn IS a high stress criSIS or a casual meeting. th....
formal traimng remams constant. How the supervisor perceives, or filters the
Situation determmes how the pnnciples of SUpe[\'ISIOn will be appll .... d
SuperYlsors must adJust thclr SUpC'YISOl") skills to lit the mandates of the
situation. They cannol expect that a slluallon \\III fit the sloBs of Ihe supervlsnr
This seems so obVIOUS Ihal II IS how often supervisors at all b _Is
overlook It. If not on guard. the supervisor that relies upon famJiwr patterns \\Ill
forget the craft of supervision and Will distort the art
-I The orgam::allOnal lac/or.I' Organizational factors arc those factors nr
characteristiCS of the orgamzation that influence the diJTuslOn of mnovallons llf
the utI1i7...atlon of research by practitioners (e,g. admmistratlve suppl1rt. acc.... ss In
research. S\;<-t:. complexIty, staffing. orgal1l/1.lll(.mal cultur.... ) It also Includes task
demands faclor" that rdate to the employees' Jon. wnrkmg cnndl!\un'.; and 1hl..'
phYSical work layout. interpersonal demands pressure I..'aused h, uthl..'f
employees, orgamzatlonal structure including .... rules and rl1(lr
management techmques and orgamllltional leaJashlp l.'\'ldcnccd In corrur<lte
culture. high pressure and tight controls
.. " III
Ijll\\ Ill" ltll'" I'll I '1J"" "\\.'lI'.lJ IZtJh11 IIlq... npl''{
Ull!""u.ldnli J(I larUW
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-'til 1" IIJ .... IIIl('IIJllJ")1\' "111'1\ "pU'1I1' 11 .'.lU.'I;x!UJll,' 11'lh1111"'/1lJl';1Jt, pm' Il'nrl\lpUI
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I" \.11' .1lp ....111111'JJ Jll"'I\J,lJn" :'Ilp \\\14 1.
:'111" 111\\ "'JlllWI P'UII1l1'/1l1P;iJtl
rl''1 10 ""urq., ,'lll lIll\\ U:'I1I1l .' ... '41 1,nrlll1.l 1') ....'lnJ
11.'lllJ,,'ln pUl' .... "141'1 '\JI1l<;lll .,nhlun lI\\ll "11 \J.'\ I
11"''''1 \J.,Jn... I" "111 :'IUIlUJ'pr Ill" :'141 llr III
Il'll \\ 1,1 .... ... jllU " .1.1 \1lIJIU.1 :'I11l pOIlI"J:'IpUn \PP:'II.1 1\)U .1Jr SUlll\rp."lI.h.:'I .1111J
.1J.11l" \lln;llqu/I' :'IItlJ plW ''':lIlUJ.,tl .... Wll until ....JOlU op III <;1 ."l.... \UIJlU:'I
lli' 11 .... '1\\ p:'l.1U.... U....Jx........ mss:ud prop:'I\(1... IOJ ',{.IS!ll!" JO :'I\PUll.l."U III P1I!4:'1t.!. \rlU
1"41 "'lhlllT'l.l;xJ";l 1.llllUt
.1 .... 'OJ .II) dn ;lpllUl SpUr.W;lp :'IIOl ;'IlC SJOPr..1 l;l410
Adnllnlstrauw - promotion and maintcnancc of good standard..
of \\nrk. co-ordmation of practtce WIth pollClCS of admmblr.Jllon.
the assumm:e or an cfficlent and smooth-runnmg oOicc.
- the educatIonal dc\dopmenl (1f cat.:h mdl\Hhlal
workcr on the stall In a manner calculah:d to e\'oke hlm'her
tll n:all/e hls.'hcr ptl,>,>lhllllles III usefuln!,;,>s .md
Supportl\e -the: m,lIntenance llfhannOnlllu.., wurkmg n:l.tlllln..,hlp,>"
Ihe t.:ultl\'.Jtlon or"e,>pnt de corp.....
It ,,, "hllr1 "tep 10 tramble Ihese concern" IOto the currl,:nt l..Jngu.Jg..: III til..:
'learOlng organl/'-lllon' !x"rnlng orgalll/lllllins arc Ihll"C thai h.I\C In pl.LLL
mcchanl"m" anJ proccs"e'>. that arc u'>cd Itl cnh.1l1\C lhelr
anJ th,I'>e \\hl' \\llrk \\llh ,I ,'r f(lr 11. tt! <Jchlc\e '>1 l,"n.. hk,'hILLIJ\ ....,
- tllr Ihcrn... el\c,> ,HId lhe C'lmIllLlllllle'> In \\hlch thL'\ partilipaic "iell(.' ... 11'1'/11,
Je"cnhe... learnmg llrg,IOI/..lllon,> a'> "lIrganl/;.llllln,> "hen: f"'."tlpl... "llllIIiLdh
expanJ their Itl ueall' the rC'>ldh de... lre. \\IlLr " 111..'\'" "111.1
I ...' .Irlll' I..'
Iltg.H111"lt" ,n" ;.Irc <tJ;.IPII \ L' II I Ihe Ir C\lerna I en \ ,r, Inment ... , ,nl Ilill,,1 IL..."11 It.LIl ... l' T! 1\: II
U'iC the rc"ull ... III Icamlng hI .u.:hle\'c hl,;lh:r r":"'Il!I'. I h...:\ "111111",111'. I.,
Imprt 1\ e ex I... tl ng pnJdUd" <lnd 'icr.lel,. ... IClllllllllh Ill ... IllIrr" \ \"11 I "Ilt I ,Jlld ,1111,.\ .111, '11
(llreaklhruugh'itmlcglc' 1hi'" h<ls rL'>ult...:J III ,L pklh'lr.1 "I JIIIII,III\ ...". '>lI ... h .1'>
I()M nolall)ualll) Munagcml."ntl and 1"'1{ IBlh1l1...",,, I'r".. e,,",
But organizations are findmg that such programmes succeed or fall dependmg on
human factors. such as skills. atlitudes and orgaml.atlOnal culture It also appears
that many Implementations are geared to highly specified processes. dcllOl.:d for
antIcIpated situatIOns However. these lfiltlatives. by themselves. oftl,'n do not
work. Somethmg morc therefore is needed to cope with rapid and unexpected
changes where eXisting 'programmed' responses arc madequalc. pronde l1exlhJllty
to cope \\,'Ith dynamIcally changmg situations. and allow fronl-lme starr III
respond wlth Inillative based on needs as agamst bem!; constramt>J
business procl:sses estabhsh"d lor dIfferent circumstances As Salaman (1995)
argues. managers must have a concern for both perfonnance and leammg
The essentially managenal aspect of managers' work IS theIr
responsibility tor momtorlng and ImproYing the work of ot' :r...
Their managenal cffectl\ cncss IS determined by theIr cupaCll)' to
Impro\"!:: thl.: work (If others If m.lOagt.:rs arc n(lt ahle 10 make thl ...
contnhutltln. thcn what value arc they adding" The ultima\\.:
Justillcatlon of manager... exi ... lence I... the ImprO\emellt III thl'
of their suh(lrdmates If managers fail In thIS \\<1)' li.lil a...
In this way managers arc expected to de\'dop n.:lullun..,hlp" and
environments that enable pcoph: to work tugether and respond tIl chanj,:l' SUl,;h
'Jomt pcrformanl;e' mvolves having comm<lIl guals. common \.Iluc.... the r1l!hl
structures, and continuing trainmg and dcYelopmCnl It IS lmpllrt<tnt III l;on(l.'n1rall'
on ho\\' managers approach superVISlun lISlnj,: thc threefold (edul':J!lon
administratIOn/support) model for 'non-managerial' supervIsion In the experience
of management it was found that all three elements were prt:sent - and \\ep.:
acknowledged by the partIes mvolvcd Managers may well express a concern for
the wcll bemg of those they are responsible for and may also attend 10 gaIning
c1anty around the tasks to be achIeved (and how the)' are to be undertaken) In
addition. managers may havc a care for staff development. well explore partIcular
incIdents and SituatIons and set: how they could be handled in dlllt:rent \\ a) s
There may also be SItuations where tht:se dements arc nnt all present I'm
example. managt:rs may h<3\,t: silppt:d mto a strong lask Orl..:ntatlon \\ Ith d
particular workt:r They may foeu." ratht:r too strongly on the support sIJt: In
\ nlumary and not-for-prolit orgalllzatulOs It IS not uncommon to lind th<.lt slJn
reqUlrt: a good deal of 'workmg with"
It is helpful to thmk of the three clements as mtt:r lmked I hey Ihm frum
one lOtO another
K<.Idushm (1992) lIghtens up on Dawson ... 11(26) filrmulallon ,mJ prC\l.:Jlh
hiS lmder"IJ.rIJmg (,1' Ihe three clements m tcnns of the pnlTI<.lr) rrHhkm <.lnJ thl.:
pnmary goal In admmlstratlvt: sUpcn.'lslOn the pnmary pfllhkm I>; lllnL\:rn..:d
wllh the corn:cl. effective and appropriate Implemento..ltlllrl PI' Ll!:!enl.:! p'IIIl.:II.:\ <InJ
procedures The primary goal IS to ensurc adheren..:..: In P l l l t ~ "oJ rrH..:cJur..:
(Kadushm. 1992 20) The supen.'lsor ha.s hCL'n J,(ncn ;JUlhllfll) h! th
' .q:''':llL\ 111
oversee the work of the SUpcn.lsee ThiS l.:aHleS th..: h:"'PO/lSlhJlll\
both to ensure that agency polic)' is Implemented - which
imp1Jes a controlling function - and a parallel responsibility to
enahle supeT'\'ISees to work to the best ofthelT l l l t ~ (Brown and
Bourne. 1995 10)
It also entaJls a responsibility not to lose touch with the rationale for the g c n c ~ -
'to a IlfSt-ciass seT'\'lce for people who need it (or In some cases are
reqUired to have It. In order that they or others may be protected from hann I'
(Bro\\TI and Bourne. 1995)
In educational supeT'\'lsion the pnmary problem In Kadushin s \ le\\ IS
worker Ignorance and or meptitude ret:'ardmg the knO\\ ledge. alll" Ide and skills
reqUITed to do the Job The prim:lf) goal IS 10 dispel ignorance and upgrade skJlI
The classic process iO\'olwd with thiS task IS to encourage reflection on. and
exploration of the work. Superyisees may be helped to
L"ndersland the client better:
Become more aware of theIr 0\\11 reactIOns and responses to the clJl:nb.
L:nde!"<;1..and tile dynamICS ofho\', they and their client are mteractmg.
Look at hO\\ they inteT'\'ened and the consequences ofthclr mt('T\enll,m".
Explore other ways of workmg \\lth similar client sltuJIIOns llh.\\ klOS ;,tnJ.
Shahc!. J9891
In supportive supervision the primary problem IS worker morale and Job
satIsfaction The primary goal IS to improve morale and job satisfactIOn
(Kadushln, 1992) Workers are seen as facing a variety of Job-related stresses.
which. unless they have help to deal with them. could seriously affect their work.
and lead to a less than satisfactory service to clients For the worker there IS
ultimately the problem of 'burnout'.
Kadushm (1992) argues that the other two fonns of superVISIOn focus on
instrumental needs, whereas supportive superVision is concerned with expressIve
The supervisor seeks to prevent the development of potentially
stressful situations. removes thl' worker from stress. fl' luces stress
impingmg on the worker, and helps her adjust to stress The
supervisor IS available and approachable. communicates
confidence In the worker, provides perspectIVe. excuses failure
when appropriate, sanctions and shares responSibility for different
decisions. prOVides opportUnltlcs for mdepcndent functiOning and
fOI probable success in task achievement. (KadushlO. 1992 20)
Characteristics of supcn'isors
Good supervisors seem to have many of the same qualities of l.!ood
teachers and good counselors. They are empathIC. genuine. llpen, anJ Ikxlble
They respect their supervlsees as persons and as developing profeSSIOnals, and are
sensitive to individual differences (e g. gender. race. ethniclty) of supervlsecs
They also are comfortable with the authority and evaluative functions inherent \fL
the supervisor role. giving clear and frequent mdications of their evaluation of the
counselor's perfonnance. Even more. good supervisors really enjoy supervIsIOn.
are committed to helping the counselor grow, and evidence commitment to the
supervision enterpnsc by their preparatIOn for and involvement m supervIsIOn
sessIOns. These supervisors eVIdence high levels of conceptual functlomng, have..l
clear sense of thclr own strengths and limitatIOns as a supervisor. and can IdentIfy
hm\" their personal traits and mterpersonal style may affect the conduct of
superviSIOn Fmally, good supervisors have a sense of humor which helps both the
supervisor and supervisee get through rough spots In their work together and
achieve a healthy pcrspectlve on their work Such personal tr3lt5 af1'! relatIOnshIp
factors are considered as as techmcal prO\vess In supervision.
In terms of profeSSIOnal charactenslics (roles and skills), good supernsors
arc kno\.... ledgeable and competent counselors and supervisors. fhey have
extensive training and wide experience in counseling, which have helped thcm
achieve a hroad perspectlve of the field. They can effectively employ a vanet)' of
iuter\"entlOns. and deliberately choose from these interventions based
on their assessment of a supervisee's learnmg needs, leamlng style, and personal
characteriStiCS They seek ongoing gro\-\th In counseling anLl supcrVISIIJn through
continuing education actiVIties, self-evaluation. and feed had. from SlIpCr\"lst:c:-..
clients, other supervisors. and colleagues.
Good supervisors also have the professional skills of good teachers (e g .
applYing learning theor)'. developing sequential goals. evaluatmg
mtef\ entions and SUpCf\'lsee learning) and good consultants te.g,. objectively
assessmg problem situation. providing alternative interventions and/or
conceptualizations of problem or chent. facilitatmg supen"1Scc bramstormmg (If
alternatIves. collaboratl'vdy developmg strategies for supen'isce and cbent
gro\\thl. In fact. good supef\'lsors are able to function effeetlvely in the roles of
teacher. counselor. and consultant. makmg mformed chOIces about \',:hlch role to
employ at any given time with a partIcular supef\"lsee
DCl"elopment of tbe superyisor
EXisting models of supervisor dc\e1opment (Alonso. 1983. Hess. 19&6:
Stoltenberg & Delworth. 1987) give bnef descnptJOns of supef\isor stages of
gro\\1h. and arc qUite different in theIr theoretICal perspectives T\\o assume that
supen'lsors recene no trammg for theIr rok. but change \\lth expenencc and age
Only a few researchers have investigated novice supen'lsors. en:n Jc\\er havc
conducted companson studies of nO\lce and expcnenced super-Isors These
proVide a fairly consistC'nt profile of novices. but IIttk mfonnatll!:1 IS
available about how novices learn about super-'Islon and devdop a supcr- Isor
Identity. how they think and behave at vanous stages of development. and \\hat
factors encourage (and discourage) their developmen!
In general. novICes are characterized as leer', 1'1' bemg
evaluative or confrontive. tending to be highl) and or didactIC.
concrete. structured. and task-oriented. There IS little Ilexlhility in approach. With
novices 109 on their more familiar counsehng skills and focuSIOg more on the
chent and client and counseling dynamiCS than on counselor dc'\'elopment.
supernsors also seem to have personahzed supervision styles that ren',un stable
across supernseC's
Perhaps surprismgly. comparison studies have Yielded few differences
between no'\'ices and experienced supervisors In general, man: expenenced
supervisors seem to use more teaching and sharmg behavIOrs. and they and their
supeT\'lsees are more active. Ratings of efTectiveness. however. find nonces to be
equally effective as e'perienced
There are several plausible explanations for these results First. nonces
typically supervise begmmng counselllrs. which may be the that allo\\5
novices to be and/or to be secn as mast effective by their supeT\'isees Second.
"expenenccd" superYlsors m these studies often are relatively mexpenenced and.
most typIcally have received no trammg m supen iSlon In other
words. comparisons of mexperienced and expenenced are not represent3tl\C 01
comparisons of novice and expert. In fact. the expert supen'isor has yet to be
descnbed particularly In terms of their actual beha\'lors and
conceptual skills.
School supeT\'ision is a process aimed at Improvement of instructIOn and
school climate, Though the practice has been re-ordered and reddined by today's
new SOCieties. governments. and economies. the con..:cpt of school super\'lsll)n has
stood the test of time (Bolin & Panantls. 1992) Tod<lY's bu/.Z\wrd 10 schUt)1
supervision is "c1inical supervision." a practice that evolved In the 1960s Balm
and Pananlls characterized clinical supervIsIOn as a practice emphaslZlng
collegiality, where supervisor and supervisee work together to Improw
mstruction. as opposed to an inspectIOn approach. where a supervisor .,hows and
tells a superViset:
Central to the process of supervision are the three supervisor
responsibilities of carrymg out observation. giving guidance and support. and
glvmg feedback to the supef\'lsees Observation provides the supervisor \\ Ith an
opportunity to gam informatIOn about a Wide range of teachmg sklils (Knoll.
1987). Information gathered durng classroom obsef\'atJon may be used for
different purposes by supef\'lsors A common purpose of observation. accordmg
to Bourisaw (1988), IS to collect the data to make aCL urate evaluative
The process of supef\'ision can take on one or a combination of styles. and
one particular style may not be appropnate for every supef\'lsory situatIon It IS
important that a supervisor IS aware of hiS or her prt:dommatc approach to
supef\'ision 50 lhat the style may be adapted as tht: situation or tht: starr mcmhcr
requires. Winston and Creamer (1997) provide an Instrument to Identify
SUPCf\'IS0f)' approaches. The four approaches mcluded in the instrument arc
Authoritarian - based on the belief that staff members require constant attentIOn

Laissez Fairc - based on the desire to allow staff members freedom In

accomplishing Job responsibilities
Compamonable - based 011 a friendship-like relationship
Synergistic - a cooperative effort between the supervisor and the staff ffi<'inbcr
Authontanan supt:rvision
This is based on the belief that staff members reqUire continuous attention
because they are often undependable or Immature The basic belief IS that people
will attempt to work as little as pOSSible unless someone monitors them carefully
Because slatl members cannot he trusted to fulfill their responsIbilities
conscientiously or lack the necessary skills or maturity to handle difficult tasks.
the supervisor much check up on them lrcqucntly. Conflicts betwec her/his umt
and the orgaml'-ation arc handled by the supervisor either defendmg her/his uml (If
they are "nght") or bring her/his staff In hne with the orgamzatlon's goals or rules
The supervisor IS the one who IS ultimately responsible for her or his staff
members' perfonnance; consequently. close observation is an essential part of the
supervisor's n:sponsibllltICS.
Laissez-faire supervision
This type of superviSIOn is based on the deSire to alluw slaff memhers to
have the freedom 10 use their talents and skills In accompl1shmglob tasks
Supervisors should set the direction for the stall' ,lIld then allow them to work oul
the best way to accomplish the established goals indiVidually Supervision IS
offered stafr if "they run into trouble II As a result, staff members VIC\\,'
supervision :IS an admission of failure, that is, they have encountered a situation
that they are unable to handle on their own or their attempts to deal with the
situation have not been succr:ssful Conflicts between the supervisor',," unn and
other parts of the inslitutlons an: dcalt with by "allowll1g" hlsfhcr staff to ' .... ork out
their own solutIOns. and if they fall. then to step 111 and takc over Because seekmg
ad\"lce or askll1g direction IS an admiSSIOn of failure. supervIsors arc called In b)
staff only when thmgs havc progressed to a serious state or have gotten
completely out of hand Supervision IS synonymous with crisIs Intervention or
"clealllng up the mess."
Companionablc supervISion
Companionable supcrv:slOn IS based pnnclpally In a fncndshlp
relationship. Above all else. supervisors seek to be liked; they concentrate on
being "buddies" with the staft'they supervise and avoid confronting stafr members
about poor job performance or mistakes II1 Judgment as long as pOSSible
Unpleasant sItuations or problems are Ignored in the hope that staff members will
be able to work things out, thereby aVOiding unpleasantness and confrontatIOn
Supervisors give staff members a great deal of personal support as an lI1dm.:l.:t
means of helping them deal With problems. Companionable supervisors usually
prOVide staffmemhers considerable personal attention and opportumtles fur sodal
interaction Organi;r..atlonal conflicts are dealt with hy the superVIsor '>upportlng or
defending hlsfher staff against outside attack. It's ~ s n t l l that "tall memhers
never doubt their supervisor's support Work-life. however, is much like a roller
coaster ride of pleasant highs and painful lows. Once crises pass. supervisors
work hard to repalT the damage to the relationship
SynergIstic supervIsion
Synergistic superYISlOn has been described as haymg the greatest ullilty
for workmg \..... ith student affairs profeSSIOnals Its cooperative nature allows jomt
efiects to exceed the combinatIOn of mdlYldual efforts Important charactt:nstlcs
of synergistic supef\'islon include
Dual Focus - Staff membels need to feel that they have a Significant
mfluence on selectmg and defining the goals of the Unit and in devismg strategies
to accomplIsh them If staff members perceive goals as being Imp"sed on them.
they may not make a personal mvestment m trymg to achieve the goals of the
umt For example, It IS a given that a successful ReSidence Life operatIOn has a
process for asslgmng rooms and roommates to new students. However. the
mdivldual staff members can playa large part in defining how that p r o s ~ Will
most effecllvcly work.
Joint Effort - SuperviSion IS not somethmg done to staff but rather ..l
cooperative activity in which each party has an Important contnhutlOn hl make
Plans for accomplishing tasks such as detennining umt pnontlcs. schcdullng and
distributing work. and coordinating the efforts of the diVISIon arc workcJ out
jointly between the supervisor and the staff mcmhcr
Two-way Communication - In the synergisllc model of staffing practices,
supervision IS dependent upon a high level of trust between slaff members and
supervisors Staff members must be willing to allow supervisors to learn per:'>onul
IOfunnatlon about them Staff members must also feel free to theIr
supen'lsors honest, direct feedback Communication is key m developing tillS
Focus on Competence - Supervision should concentrate on four of
stalT competence
Knowledge and infonnauon Staff members must understand how tIl
elTectl\'cly perfonn the duties of th.:lr job ThIS meludes, but IS not limited 10
understanding college student development theory, current laws and other legal
parameters of practice, standards of pW!esslOnal practices, ethical standards, and
mstltutional rules and policies
Work-related skills - Supcrvisors must ensure that staff mcmbers
current on developing trends wlthm the lield of studcnt development '.lI1J that
they arc trmned in a Wide range of skills related to thl.:lr Job dcscnptlCln, slJ\:h as
interpersonal communicatIOn. goal sctllng. and computer skllb I'm ,>tudent
profc:':'lonals to remain effective. these skills to he refrc'iheJ
regularly. ThiS IS especially true for skills that arc not uscd un OJ n:guwr
Supervisors mllst also proVide the means for staff memhl.:rs to Je\'elop and
acqUire ncw skills.
Personal skills - The synergistic style emphasm.:s OJ holistIC <lpprUiH:1l (0
Just as attention must be pHld to development of OJ "latl mClllher\
work-related skills, so too must personal skills be developed To function
successfully as professional. individuals must acqUlrc skills m areas such as t ~
management. anger control. diet and excreise. and retirement planmng
Attitudes - Supervisors must maintam a pOSitive altitude among their staff
members PosItive attitudes can motivate mdividuals to apply knowledge or skills
to stnve toward personal. umt, and division goals.
Student af1ims professionals arc Involved m a people bUSiness. Therefore. thl.:lr
altitude toward people, espeCially students. must be appropnate Whether a staff
member approaches tasks with an attitude of enthusiasm or sarcasm oftcn
detenmnes that staff member's SUCCL.:SS
Gro\\1h OnentatlOn - An Important responsibility of superviSIOn IS carl.:cr
development of staff Supervisors shlluld prOVide assistance til staff as the.\
pursue work that IS meamngful and personally satisfymg ThiS manual suggests
using Schein's Model of Career Anchors to help clarify a person's occupational
self-concept. If a supervisor can understand a staff membds carCl,;r anchor", It
may be much casll:r to help that person climb the career laddl.:r and find work
assignments that arc congruent With thelf Interests and ahilltles
It is importi!lIt that supervisors have a clear undl.:rstandmg oj adult dl.:' c-Inpmcnt
theory to best relate to and help develop stalrmc-mbl.:rs at cllnCH:nt Ill\: st<:Jgt:s
The entry level mdlvldual has needs. pl.:rsonal and profeSSIOnaL that arc rar
different than the individual that has been In the lidd rllr ..,cvcml )cars 1 '''0
IOdividuals such as these should never be superVlst:J In tht: sLl!lle manner
Winston and Creamer (1997), usmg the work of Schein (1978), developed
a "life cycle tasks" table in which they applied general llfe Issues and tasks to
work 111 student affairs. This table provides an excellent gUIde 10 supervIsors.
especially those who supervise mdlvlduals at varying stages of life
Marsh (2001) advocates uSing adult development theory as a \0
understand start's personal and professional needs lIer work overlaps \\'Ith and
extends Winston and Creamer's (1997) developmental foundations of synerglstH..:
Proaetlvlt)' - Synergistic supervISion focuses on Identifying potL'ntlal
problcms carly rather than to problems that have heen huildlng o\'l.:r
time In this style superVIsIOn emphaSizes early identification and de\'clopml:nt uf
strategies hy the supervIsor and staft rlll:mber Jomtly to prevL'nt or their
Asking for assistance or adVice from a supervisor IS not a sign of wcakness Ior
staff members \0 present problems to a supervisor does not mcan that the
problems arc bcmg transferred to the supcrvlsor for a solution Nor docs It
that thl.: \,,'ill or should encroach on thc staff ml:mber's aulunomv lu
altad. the I'lOhkm
SuperVIsors should erealc that pl.:rmlt stall' 10 hong 1,,"Ut''' .Ind
problems they are facing to the table Ilo\\,cVl:r, .... upl:f\'I ... or ... lT1u ... t pr\lnd..:
feedback, or offcr advlec on problems that stall rnl:ml-h:rs nol hI: ahk' In
handle mdependenlly.
Goal Based - Synergistic supervIsion requires the supervisor and staff
member to have clear expectations of one another. Goals and expectatIOns should
be developed between them and a commitment made to review and adjust those
goals on a regular basis It IS recommended that supef\'lsors meet with thC'lr
indivIdual staff members on a biannual basIs to set and evaluate goals and on a
bimonthly basIs to momtor progress of those goals
Systematic and Ongomg Process - Supervisory sessions should be held un
a regular. proactive basiS and not as a response to crises or madequate Joh
pcrfonnance The newer and less experienced the staff member. the more
frequent the sessions should be held Both good and poor perfonnance should be
addressed TopICS to he addressed at the meetings range from work altitudes of
the employee to values of the professl{l!l nf student affairs
Holism - People and their attitudes and beliefs cannot be sl.:parateJ from
their professional pOSitIOns Syncrglstlc supervision concentrates 011 helping stall'
develop both in their profeSSIOnal and personal lives and offers support as thC')
prepare to advance In their career
Anmmo and Creamer (2001) conducted a study of "supeflor"
m an to identity what made them "excellent" m the eye:> of tho.. c thL') hdd
supervised. They found that the followmg behaviors wen: c1u"cl) LlSSOl,;ILllcd \\ Ilh
"quality SUPCf\'lSIOn "
Putting the functions together
Havmg mapped out Kadushm's model It is now possible to look at some of
the dltTerent foci that can be attributed to supervision For example, Hawkins and
Shohet (1989) list 10 difTerent foci and then catcgorize them m relation to
Kadushln's clements
The pnmary foci of supervision (after flaYikms and Shohet. 1989)
To provide a regular space for the supervlsees to reflect upon the content and
process of their \\lork - Educational
; To develop understanding and skills Wlthm the work - Educational
3. To receive mformation and another perspectIve concerning one's work --
EducatlOnal/Supportl ve
4 To receive both content and feedback - EducatIOnal/Supportive
5 To be validated and supported as a person and as a worker - Supportl\'C
6 To ensure that as a person and as a worker one IS not left to carr)
unnecessarily difficulties, problems and projections alone - Supportive
7 To have space to explore and express personal distress. rcstlmulatlon.
or counter-transference that may be brought up by the ,",,"ark -
8 To plan and utihze their personal and profeSSional resources hetter
9 To be rather than re-active - Admimstrativc
10 To ensure quality of\\urk - Admlnistrative/Suppurtlvc
Hawkms and Shohet (1989 43) suggest that focI one and two could be seen
as educatIOnaL focI three and four as educational/supportive; foci five and SIX as
supportive. foci seven to nine as administrative/supportive and ten as
Modes of supentision deli\'el")'
There arc four modes of supervisIOn delivery.
1. Individual
As the name Implies. individual super.'lsion is conducted on a oneon-one
basis between the supervisor and sup.:rvlsee. Typically, the supervisee IS prepared
to diSCUSS counseling sessions that occurred DISCUSSion centers on the sessIOns as
a context for superVisee learning and dC\'elopment
2. Dyadic
Dyadic supervISion IS generally conducted in the same way as indlvlduul
superVision, but the supervisor works with two supervisccs at the same time
3. Group
In-group supervision, a designated supervisor works with a group of
counselors. The unique aspect of group supcr\'lsion IS that the supervIsor does not
only mfluence members. but they also are influenced by (and mfluence) the others
m the group. lntervenhons are mcorporated to capitalize on, and account for. Ihls
interrelatedness, Practlcum and Internship experiences 10 trammg typH,:aJl)
incorporate g.roup superVISion as their '\:Iassroom" cxpeflence
LIVt: supervIsion occurs as the supen'lsee is acting as counselor
mteract With the supervlscc "m the moment" and therefore dlrcctly affect the
counsehng process
Supcn'ision inh:n'cntion!'i
Thl.'rl.' arc a \andy (If Inh:rvenllons thai can be Inl'orplJr.1h:J
mto the SUpeT\ISIOn prm:ess Bmul:rs .mJ Ll:ddld (1987) listed Sl.\ re.1:-.on... flJT
choosmg dllTl:Tent supl:rVISlOn ml:tll"J:-. "the supcrvlsl:e's learn109 gnal ... , Ihl'
supcnlsec ... cxpl:ncnce kvcl and dcvelopmcntal Issues. thl.' ',dpen'lsee' .... learnlnl,!
style. the SUPCT\'ISor'S goal... for thc ... upcn'lsce, the supeni ... llr' ... thenrl:IILII
orientatIOn, the ... uper\'lsor' ... own learning goal... for thl: "'UPl'T\ h"r\
l:xpenencl:" (p :!8)
1'.:.Ich modl: of superdSlon Ienus Itself III <l vanet) of mll.'T\l:ntlllll'" .... Pllll'
of the moTt' p(llular mterventlons will he pre...enteu A thorough JI ... l:lI ...... lIln ,>I
supen:lsu," InterventIOns can be Il)und In BemarJ anu I ilJ(IJ)l:i1T ( I(1
)10\ I
rradltlOnal approaches to ... upcrvl"'IOll l'mph"""/c
and "contmlling" mdlvidual performance Ilo\\e\'l.'T. lInprU\lng pr\fgr,lI11
perfonnance and maintaining program standards by supervising Indl\'ldual
perfomlance is Impractical because most servIces are complex and are not
dependent on the actions of a single Individual
Supervising indivIdual performance may help managers to correct
mistakes or know whom to reward However, the results of mdlvldual supervIsory
visits arc someltmes used by managers to blame mdivldual workers for
inefficlenclcs that arc caused by the design and management of the service
system(s) In addItIOn, systems that supervIse individual performance are rarely
designed to conSider the Impact of environmental, sociaL and cultural factors such
as program and policy Issues, rCSOL'.rce constraints, and group dynamics that alTect
an individual's performance
Usmg a team approach to wperVlSlOn requires that the supervisor
disregards conventIOnal disciplinary attitudes and shifts from the role of
"inspector" to the role of "facilitator" Team supervision IS oriented to\vard
teamwork, where problem solving is the main focus of the mteractlon. and
supcn'lsors become on-thejob tcachers who support their staff ThiS Issue
examines how supervision can be improved by uSing a team approach
SlIp.;.rvl"or" vary in the way they approach supervision Gilckman (1990j
Introduced four categories of supervisory approaches The approaches dlfli:r In
the amount of power and control accorded 10 the superVIsee dunng Inlcractilln
with the supervIsor. Some approaches give more l:ontrol 10 the supervIsor. whde
others give more control to the supervisee In l:ollahoratlve supervisIOn. the
supervisor and the supervisee share decision makmg about future Improvement
Non - directive supervision occurs when the supervisee formulates his or her own
plan about future development. The supervisee has the liberty to frame the
supervisory Interaction; the supervisor only gives advice. The dIrective
informatIonal approach occurs when the supervisor frames the supcrvl,>ory plan
and the supervisee deCIdes whether to follow the plan In the directive control
approach. the supe[\.'lsor frames the supervIsory plan and expects the
to follow It
An effective supervIsor focuses on the Infernal program em'lronment.
Includmg program planning. team problem solving. operations mOnitoring. and
progress toward obJectives. as wdl as on the external envIronment. including
pobc)' and gUideline changes. traming opportunities. communicatIOn with llthcr
levels of the health system, and advoca( \
Supen'ising personnel
Interpersonal dynamics have a profound elTect on program and
performance It is the manager's job to help mamtain morale In the office. assIst
the staff In managmg conflict, and motivate the staff to perform to theIr potentIal
The IS ;n the best position to know what Interpersonal conl1H,;{s eXist or
what staff members need to be motivated or chalh:nged If the manLlgcr be"-" till.'
necessary skills to address personnel problems. these prohlems may le<Jd (() poor
Staff MotivatIOn Supervisors wdl not h;J\e cuntrol u\'cr .m
employee's motivation, but there arc sttll many thmgs that a supervIsor can un \n
Improve an employec's sense of motivation and Job satisfaction SuperOlsors can
have a effect on staff morale by pro\'ldmg positive feedback to staD" on a
regular basis. expressmg appreciation for theIr efforts. and engagmg them In
problem solVing and decision makmg These actions \\111 help to re:->ffinn the
tmportance of their Jobs to the achtevements of the program
Professional development" Supcr"'lsors must support stalT development h)
conUnumg to prondc (or help provide access to) tramlng. educational. and
professional de... elopment opportumtles Supernsors should pro\'lde staff \\ Ith ,)n-
thcJob tramlng. and arrange for staff to attend training programs Slaff abo
Increase th":lr koo\\ ledge and profe',slOnal skills Supporting the development uf
your stalTs profeSSIOnal skills heIrs to' maintam staff morale. Increase Joh
performance. budd the institutional C..lrJClty of the program. ,.tnd broaden the
skills base of your staff Staff de... elopment Will also result in attractmg and
retamlng a strong profeSSIonal team
Conflict resolution A cnllcal aspect of supen Ismg siaff IS rnJnaglng
conflict among stall The cause of these conllicts rna) be mterpl.:rsunal t1r rebkd
to d)sfun.:tional orgaOlzatlOnal systems Supenlsors must Ieam lo hccllm..:
confl,.;t manager:. In this role they can resol... e disputes by obsenmg. anal)nng.
and helpmg tht: disputing parties to develop mutually agreeable 'iOIUtlllns
To resolve conl1lc15. the super\.'lsor mllst It:arn to remam neutral \\OIJ
lakmg sides. Help the dlsputlOg to separah: the pr'lhlem fnlm the PCllpk
In\'ohcd Sometimes the dtsputlOg parties are s\) angr;. at l"lCh other th.lI the\
bcltc\'c that thc other person is the problem hen though thiS usuall) I" nut the
case, it takes a good supervisor to help the two sides separate their personal
differences from the real problem I\. good supervisor will help disputing
to see and understand their interests behmd their posItions. Once these mtcrests
have been identified. the partlCS can focus on areas of common interest instead of
their individual positions. These areas often serve as a startmg point for
discussion. A good supervisor will help search for and develop solutions that meet
the needs and mterests of both parties. If you remain neutraL you can Insist that
both parties agree on objective critcna to use to make any decisIOns to resolve the
Recognizing the importance of the supervisee's perspective
An Important and often oVt:rlooked aspect of supervlSI' '0 IS the
supervisee's perception of thc Importance and usefulness of supervision. tvlost
approaches to supervIsion do not regard the supervisee's point of VICW as
important Yct the supervIsee's perspeclive plays a significant rolt.: in thl'
supervisee's ability to function effectively as part of a team
Smce every supervIsor IS also supervised by someone else, when you arc
supcr"i"mg., )ou should keep m mind what your perspective \.vould he as the
supervisee, and what information you would need to have Inform those you
supervise abollt the rationale for supervisory actJvitle::., including what to e.:xpcct
from superviSIon, how they can benefit from It, how can be 100prowd,
and how they can use superviSIOn to Improve' their own pcrlf.1rmanl:l.: and the.:
overall performance of the team. By paying attention to thl: SUpCrVl'iCCS' roles In
the supervisory system and to thcir attitudes and perceptions. supervisors can help
those they supervise to become active and effective team players
The functIOns of supervision havc traditionally been given as
admmlstralive. educatIOnaL and supportive (Dawson. 1926). At different times.
emphasis on partIcular functIOns has increased or decreased in response to
influences both internal and external to the profession.
Supervisor as teacher
The begmmng of formalized professional SOCial work practice In the Umtcd
States IS rooted m the chanty orf'.amzation societies of the 1880s In these
agencies. social work was a "kmdly. patemahstlc. over-seeing" (Freeman. 1(92)
case"'iork process and supervIsion was proVided by paid ~ n t s who
administratively oversaw the work of the fnendly visitor volunteers (Lcddlck &
Dye. 1987). Over time. as a body of knowlcdge grew from the firsthand
expenences of the fnendly VISitorS and the superVisors, the role of supen'lsor
expanded to mclude that of teacher of methods to the volunteers and later to
students partiCipating in field cxpenence (Blackhurst. 2000)
Supervisor as enabler
With the role of tcacher timlly grounded m the functIOn of SUPCf\ISlon. at
the tum of the century and into the 1920s there was mcrcased profeSSionalism m
the practice of social work and an expansIOn mto the areas of mental hygiene and
child guidance. In addition to scrving people In poverty. service delivery was
directed toward issues such as child welfare. people who were physically and
mentally ill. and the family in generaL Dunng the 1930s. social
employed m vanous counse!mg borrowing from the knowledge ba... e of
psychiatry and psychoanalytic treatment. often emulated the practice method of
mSlght therapy. Social work supervisors took on certam attributes of therapists as
their Job began to mclude helpmg workers become aware of and resolve their 0\\11
mtrapsychic conflicts (Bryan and Schwarz. 1998) After the workers had
successfully completed thIS task. It was behcved they could successfully carry out
the same process \vith clients
Dunng the 1950s and 1960s changes withm the profeSSIOn resulted In
practice becommg more eclectic. covenng a broad spectrum of theones of
intervention. populations servcd. ,md ;Idmimstratiw structures. 1 \-tIS broadcmng
resulted m a decreasc m the strength of the psychoanalytic influence. but thc
supervlsof)' roles of teacher and enabler contmued to hold
Supervisor as administrator
Adr.l1nistration as a part of supervision has roots III the origms of socIal
worl-.. praclH.e but lias taken a path of development different from that of tC3l.:hcr
and enabler The teacher and enabler functions are closdy aligned \\'lth dmll.:ul
services and reflect the casework method of practice. The admmistratlvl; functIon
deals with the management of agency resources and operatIOns and refkets the
methods of business.
The charity organization societies used paid agents as administrators of
programs. They were accountable for the distribution of the agency's resources In
addition to overseeing the volunteers The Milford Conference of 1929 Included a
of a paper entitled "Personnel Management In Soci,,1 Service
Agencies" (Dalton, 1989) that emphasized employee rights and responsibilitIes
and the contracting that is done between agencies and workers, with the
supen'lsor representing the agency The two supervisory functions highlighted In
this paper were keepmg the work of the agency up to the standard set and
promoting the professional development of staff
In 1935 the passage of the SO':lal Security Act (P L 74-271) created a new
social services delivery system The seT\'lce delivered was not therapy but rchef,
that IS, financial assistance. InSight therapy was not needed to do the Jot. but good
managenal skills were Wuh s\..LpervislOn once again reflecting field practices.
administration was given renewed emphaSIS SupeT\'lsors were required to
administer agencies. dewlop policy, manage programs. network \.... lth
communities. and negotiate complex bureaueralic systems (DeCoster & Brown.
1991 )
Processes and issues in supcn'ision
Supervision IS an educatIOnal process, 10 which thl.: supeT\'lsee learn" nl.'\\'
skills and techmques Supervision goes bcyond the n:latlOnshJp
Wl'nle relationship is important. it IS nol all is 10 supt:rvlsion
SupervisIOn as a three or more person system
The supervision relationship is one of triangulation. An Imbalance of
power eXists. In an effort to balance this power. the supervisee may align with the
chent agamst the supervisor or may align with the supervIsor against the client
While this IS usually thought of m a negative sense, the same can be positIve
When the supervisee feds vulnerable. alignment with the supervisor empowers
the superYisee When the supervisee may need a change in the or
paradigm shift. alignment between the client and the supervisor may prOVIde the
mSlght needed to work wlthm the counseling session. The baSIC need for
triangulation is empowerment through coalitions These coahtlOns can he
negative or POSitive
Parallel process refers to the dyn.unics of supervIsion suggestmg that whal
occurs between the client and the counselor repeats itself in the relationshIp
between the supervisor and the supervisee The opposite IS also true. what occurs
between the supeT\'lsor anJ the SUpeT\/lsee, also occurs bet\veen the counselor and
Explanations for parallel process seem to fall IOta the followmg categories
Thc supervise' identifies With the client and then produces reactIons that the
supervisee felt In the session.
The supervisee unconscIOusly chooses to reflecl the Impasse between the
chent and the counselor
The supervisee unconsciously selects the part of the t.:lu.:nt's problem that
helshe shares with the client.
Because the supervisee lacks skill. the supervisee is inclined to presents
client's pfl)blems that are specific to the supervisee's specific learning needs In
Basically, parallel process IS a chain reaction that occurs from the top-
down and from the bottom-up. making It a systemic process. Parallel has the
possibJiity of being both negative and pOSItive used in supervision.
Isomorphism mcans that two difTcrent complex structures can be mapped
on each other In other words. if you could develop transparencies of two people.
there would be corrcspondmg polOts when tht: two transparencies were placed us
overlays for each other. These correspond109 points are roles SupervisIOn and
Counseling have such shared roles or points of correspondence The speCific
Isomorphic roles arc'
Need to establish rapport or join with the clients or supervisees
Need for setting goals and thinking In stages.
Need to appreciate contextual senSItiVIty
Need to challenge realltlcs
SUPCf\ ISlOn a system
While Rogenan cllent-ccntered therapy bccame popular as hath <l c11l:nt
Intervention and as a superviSion model. studlcs have emcrgcd that IOdlCLlte that
Empathy. Wannth, and Gcnuiness (EWG) arc much too important to Ignore. hut
appear to bc more practical 10 the therapeutic relatHlIlship than In the SUPCf\'ISlOn
relatIOnship. The focus of supervision IS that uf creating a homl. defining agrecd
upon goals. and agreed upon tasks. Through the weakening and then repmr of the
bond. goals. and tasks change occurs and alliances develop Supervisory Workmg
Alliance Inventory has been used m research to mdicate these alliances
Problematic bonds fall IOta three categones'
AnxIous Attachment where the supervisee IS very dependent. constantly
seekmg help. desmng favoritism. and resents the supervisor for "lack of
mutual need"
Compulsive Self-Reliance' where the supervisee resists. refuses. rcbels
against. the supervisor's attempts to help
CompulSive Care giver where the supl.:'rviscc "rescues" the clients, glosses
over major concerns, uncomfortable With the supervisor's help. and defenSive
When goals are clearly dclincd one maximizes the congruenr'e In the
supervisor's expectatIOns and tht' supervisee's perfonnance. ThiS congruence IS
best accomplished with a clear contract or negotiation. Role induction has heen
found to be ctTectlvc Role mductlon is the use of diSCUSSions or multi-media
methods to model the supervisor-supervisee session. Another method has bccn 10
assess the supervisee's expectatIOns of what they will be able to <.1c..:omplJsh
withlJ'l the u p ~ iSiC'n experience
The tasks or skills may proVide the area for greatest COnnH,:t between thL:'
supervisor and supervisee. A nonnal reaction to :->upcrVISlon IS connl..:t or
disagreement about whether a skill is present or a task accomplisht:d The dt:gn:e
of contlH;t IS directly proportional to the degree or I.:unfidl.:m.:,," and IOst:cunty or
the supervisee and supervisor. The more ad\'an..:cd the: tralOl:l:. the more likely
they are to be dissatisfied wilh supervision These lypes of contllct an: nol
problematic Problematic conflict can anse when there IS transference and
counter transference or when there an: personality contllcts As II IS unreallstH': to
cxpect every therapist to work WIth every chenl. it IS unrealistiC to CXr('ct en.. ry
supervIsor to work with every supervisee
Role conllict occurs
when supen'lsecs arc requITed to cngage 111 two or more roles that may rellulre
inconsistent bchaVlor (I e revealing personal weaknesses when knOWing that
lht:lr work and/or IS evalu"led )
when arc n:qulTed to engage In bt:havior that IS Incongruent \\ lth
theIr pcrsonal.1udgml:nHi e thl: conlh.:1 may hI: over lhl: ethical or t' :metlcal
dilTen:nces \)n ahortwn. dlTedlVl.' arrroal:hcs. rok of tl:achlng In dl: I
The grr:ater the strength of the bond between the supcnhor and the-
superVisee, the less the role conflict I"he least role conniet m:l:urs \\hl:n thl: rok
ambigUIty IS reduced by clear statl:ments about c,<pcdations or ",upcrVlsHlll III
assess rok conllict and role ambigUIty. Olk and j'nedlandl:r ,XI)1
developed the Roie Conflict and Role Inventory
Dual (('latlOnshlps arc a spccilic casl: of role conlllcl \\11l1e It '" ph\ IIIU\
to most supcn'lsnrs that romantic and sc,<ual rcialLonshlp" or tnr "luJen!..; III
training to serve as clients to other memher" of the pnlgram, othL'r Ju,Jl
relatIOnships may not be so obvious. The most OhVlUUS dual role <':00111\.'1 1\ lhat
of the supervisor's role to help the supef\'I\ce It) one-lop skilb. \\hill.:
the supervisee's performance m those skills. At the onset, the supervisor IS
obligated to dearly outhne thc dual nature of the relationship and that \\hlle
cvaluatlOn, self-disclosure. and skill l.:r1t1que are a part of supervIsion and rna)
crealc conllicts The area of self-disclosure IS usually limited to b0W thl'
supernsec's personal experiences may be blockmg their progress WIth a chent
While the supervisor may want the supcr\'lsee to resolve thIS personal Issue. the
supernsor is nO! the supervisee's therapls!' and therefore. If the concern I" of
slgmficance to severely Impair the supen'lsee's counseling, a referral to prlvatc
lhcrapy may hccomc ncccssary
PmH:r In thc supt:rvislon relationship IS not equal Powcr may bc sccn uS
uncqual from the follOWIng persper.:tl\'eS
The supervlscc nt:cds the super\'ls"r mon.: than thc super_Isor ncd thr.:
The supen'lsor has permIssIOn to comment on the supcn'lSee's behu\ Inr. \\ hill-
the reverse I" not truc
The supen'lsor has evaluatlvc power ovcr thc supcr\lsee and can CVCIl
threaten or advance thl' supcrvlsec's carccr
Tru:!! bch\cell lhc supcnisor and thc supen.'lst:c IS ncce,,,af! fur cfft:c!l\e
rhl' r.:haracterlstlcs of trust rclatlOnsllip arc
An atmosphere of safety prevails lilr the supen ISCC
A hclicfthat both arc actmg profeSSIonally and not expl11111ng thc olhl'r
Trust may vary by degrees ovcr time. but IS al\\ays prr.:'cnt
Trust is earned between thc two trustee,
Level of trust mfluences the degree to which there can be personal disclosures
of vulnerabilities
Supenisec as a source of variance in the supen'isory relationship
Supen'lsees create two sources of vanance m supervisIon: need to be
competent and the expenence of anxiety A supervisee's felt compelence is hnked
to their actual competence. Because of their anxIety, the supervisee rna)
expenence detenoration of their skills when they are observed I-Io\\e\'er, when a
skill has been mastered or over learned. the supervisee bemg observed wlil
enhance their perfonnance. The sk,lIs should be reinforced or practiced until the
supervisee. automatically perfonn the skill. Until the skills become automaltc, the
supervisee may complain that the beha\lors or techmques arc nol comfortable or
artifiCiaL The supervisee will lluctuatc between confidence and incompetence
The role of the supervisor IS to help the supervisee feci safe about disclOSing
failures that the supervisee considers "too horrihlc to admIt" The SUpt:f\'lsor docs
thiS by continued support and backing. encouragement. if you Will Sclf-
disclosure by the supervisor of embarrassing moments sometimes helps til..:
supervisee to sec that It IS a developmental process that IS nt:ver qUite completc
Supcrvi"ion has a major component of managing and contalOlOg ..IIlXld)
of the supervisee The supervisor may also fet:l anxldy that must be managed and
contained. A degree of anxiety causes one to mOH: toward Improvement.
therefore, super\'ISlon should create some anXle!) IIowc\l,:r, lOll mUI,:h ..In:\lcl\
can be devastating. crippling anxiety should he aVOided Whether as supcr\lsor Dr
as counselor. the individual must learn that anxiety IS part of the helping proccss
and must learn that it remams within all good interpersonal relationships.
Anxiety IS made manageable by having clear expectatIOns. structure. and
evaluatIon cnterlJ in the supervision relationship, Three obJcctionable fonns (If
superviSIOn are amorphous super\'lslOn. unsupportivc superviSIOn. and therapcutlc
supcrvision Amorphom supcn'lslon proVIdes too little c1Jrity and too lillie
structure UnsupportlYC supcr\'lslOn focuses on the negativc. blJnung the
stalemate between them on thc supcn'lsce
Therapeutic supcn'lslon takcs the stand that the reason that the super\'lSCl'
has ddiclencies In their skills IS dip:ctly attributable to personality deJicicnclcs
Students who recel\'C therapeutic sLlpen'lslon are the most distraught than from
any other form of objectionable supen'i .. lun
Supcn'ision of school admini'itralion and supporl slaff
In dealing with efficlcncy concerns of school admlll1stratl\'c and
support stalT. the recommended proccdure follows the prinCiples of those
for teaching staff. but at thiS slage there has not been an agreed dt:tUllcd
proce<;s Ail school udmllllstrative and support staff need to undt:rsland Iht:
role. accountability and performance standards that :.Irc cxpccted {If tbem
School admmistratlve and support statT arc entlllcd to fcedh:.lck and
constructtve support to Improve performance,
Any school admmlslratiw and supp(ln slarr mcmher \\hll'\C
effiCiency IS of concern should he placed on J SUPP(lr! program tu Imrrmc
their perfomlance The process may be terminated at any stage should the
member respond to the program and IS considered efficient The prmciples
of fairness. equity and sound employee relatIOns must underpin this
process The staff member IS entitled to have copies of all related
documents. and to have a support person present at any meetmgs.
n t o r i n ~ and supervision
Mentonng IS a process whereby someonc With more expcrlence or
expertise provides support. counselling and adVice to a less experienced or
less expert culJeague ThiS approach i" useful where the length of teachmg
experience within the staff varies Widely. Experience has shown that
mentonng IS bcst In a one-to-one relationship. although it is possible for
one person to mentor two or three others Mentors support their colleagues
through providmg feedback based on observation of teachmg pracllcc
They question. share. diSCUSS. challenge comfort and gUide thClr
colleagues through a learmng process based on trust and confidentiality
The key t(, successful mentonng is the mentoring relatIOnship For
mentorlOg tu be etfi:L1I\'C participation must he voluntary and both partK'"
musl be commltled and wdling to give time to thc process. The lwo partll.:s
should agrec to mentoring arrangements With a clearly articulated action
plan mdicatmg expectatIOns, goals. level and style of contact and duration
of thc mentoring relatIOnship
Evaluation IS the analysIs and comparison of actual progress vs prior
plans. oriented toward Improvmg plans for future implementation It is part of a
conhnumg management process consistmg of plannmg. Implementation. dnd
evaluation. Ideally with each follo\ving the other m a contlOuous cycle until
successful completIOn of the activity. The primary focus of evaluation IS to
determine the effectiveness of a program m light of the attainment of pre-set
priorities and goals Evaluation helps document whether a program IS
accomplishmg its goals or not It identJfies program weaknesses and strengths and
the areas of the program that need re' ISlOn
An evaluatIOn plan may have two ddTerent focuses formalln: and
summallvc. A comprehensive cvaluatllJn plan should include both types of
evaluation Formative evaluation IS dcslgned to collect data \vhile a program IS
being developed with the intention to Improve it Formative evaluatIOn pro\'ldcs
ongoing feedback on how the different components of a program arc workmg and
leads to deciSIOns regarding what needs to be enhanced. what needs to be deleted,
what needs to be added Summatlve evaluatIOn IS deSigned to gather conclUSive
data that indicates how effective the overall program IS Summatm: e\"aluatllln
results In to continue or not a program
There are many different perspectives and approaches to evaluatIon.
When an orgamzation uses its own reople and theIr skdls to carry oul
evaluation (as opposed to hiring an external agc:ncy tn carry out the c:\'uluUIIOn)
this is known as self-evaluation. Momtormg and evaluation IS bUilt into the
everyday actl\'lties of the project so that It becomes part ofwhalls done
For learnmg and dc'\'clopment
Momtonng and evaluating scrvlccs will help assess how well you are
doing In order to help you do It better It is about asking "",hat has happened and
why - what IS and what is not working. It IS about uSing evaluation to learn morc
about an organizatIOn's actl\'ltJes. and then usmg what has been learnt.
For accountability - to show others that the orgamzation IS effectIve
Funding agencies and other 'stakeholders' want to know whether a proJc:ct
has spent Its moncy appropriately. There IS pressurc from thcse to prm'lde thcm
With evidence of success Many proJccts have to respond to this demand In order
to survive
Evaluation for lcarnmg and dc:velopmcnt
Using cvaluatlon to learn more about an orgamzation's actlvltlcs. and then
uSing what has been learnt
Evaluation for accountability
This is to demonstrate achlcvements Evaluatlon should nol only ans\.\cr
questions It should also prompt fresh thinking wlthm the organizatIOn and In
contacts with c.\lemal <.Igenclcs If the nght questIOns are asked. an cvaluatlOn \\'III
tell not only what has been achlcvcd. but also how It was donc and wh'lt ~ most
effective, It will hdp find the areas whcre Improvcmc:nt or change i.s nceded. and
assist to prOVIde the best service to users.
Moniturmg IS about collecting mformatlon that will help answer questIOns
about a project It IS Important that this mformatlOn is collected m a planned.
organized and routinc way The mformation can be used to report on thl: project
and to help to cvaluate
All organizations keep records and notcs, and discuss what they arc d01l1g
ThiS simple checkmg becomes momtoring when information IS collected
routinely and systematIcally agamst a plan The mformation might be about
activities or servIces. users. or about outside factors affecting the organization or
Monitonng informatIOn IS collected at specific times' daLly. m o n t l ~ or
quarterly t\lomtonng IS to some extent a ruutme part of the SUpervlsor/super\'lsee
relattonshlp Most employers make some checks on the quantity and quality of
,...'ork produced by their stafr. and employees will generally expect thIS Any
monitoring must be done m a way that 15 hoth lawful and fair to staff
Monitoring & c\'aluation
tv101lltoring IS about colleclmg information that wll! help answcr 4uestlons
about a proJl:ct ~ indicated car her, the information l.:un he used to report qn the
project and to help to cvaluate EvaluatIOn on the other hand IS abuut uSing
monilonng and other informatIon you collcct to rnakt.: juJgemt.:nts about your
project It IS also about llsmg the mformatlon to make changes and ImprO\'eml.:JllS
While momtoring IS routine and ongoing, evaluation IS an In-depth study. taking
place at specllic pOints In the life of the project
This chapter dIscusses the research design. population. sample and the
sampling procedurr.:s used The research Instruments used in collecting the data.
the method of data collection and data analySIS are also discussed
Research design
The descriptive survey research design was used in this study. The
usefulness of the descriptive sample survey for this type of research study IS
supported by Gay (1987) who emphaSizes that the descriptive sample survey IS an
attempt to collect data from members of the population In order to determme the
current status of that population With respect to one or morc vuriabll.:"
Respondents werc only required to respond to existing practices These practice",
inclUde approaches used in supervisIOn. supervIsors' knowledge of thc.::lr
supervisor)' roles. supervisory skills possessed by supervisors. organizing of In _.
service trammg programmes to upgrade the knowledge and skills of supr.:rvlsors.
and staff mr.:mbcrs understandmg of importance of superVISIOn In aclllr.:vlOg
orgamzatlonal goals
Surveys permit the researcher to study more variables at onc time than IS
typically possible In laboratory or field experiments, whilst data can be collected
about real world environment It is an efficient and accurate means of determining
information about a given population The results from surveys are prOVided
relatively qUIckly, and ensure higher reliability than some other techOlques
Depending on the sample size and methodology chosen, surveys are relatively
inexpensive They allow for standardizatIOn and uniformity both in the questions
asked, and in the method of approaching subJects, makmg It easlcr to compare
and contrast ans"vers by rcspondent groups.
However. smce respondents know that they are being studied, the
Information provided may not be valid in so far as the respondents may WIsh tll
Impress or please. This gives rise to respllnse error or bias
Again. the Willingness or ability to reply can also pose a problem. Perhaps
the mformatlon is considered sensillve or intruSive leading to a high ratc of
refusal. Sometimes the questions are so specific that the respondents arc unable to
answer even though they may be willing
One of the major shortcommgs of usmg surveys IS the level of respnnsl.:
rate. OIl the method chosen, the length of the questlonnalfl.:. the typt:
and/or motivation of the respondent. the type of questions. the hme of day and
place. and whether respondents were mformed to expect the survey (or offered an
Illcentive) can all mfluence the response rate To correct s o ~ of the problems
associated with the deSign III thiS study, prior notIce \vas given to t ~ Heads of the
FaculucsfficpartmentslUllIts concerned. They, ill turn. Illformcd the people who
took part in the research The day(s) for the admimstratlon of the questionnaire
was discussed and agreed upon at meetmgs between the researcher. and Heads of
FaClllt les/Departments/UOIts
To reduce response error or bias to the mimmum. the essence of the study
was thoroughly explained to the respondents They were allo\,"'ed to ask questIOns
on what they did not understand. and also called the attention of the researcher to
any difficulty they encountered In the cause of respondmg to Items/statements on
the questionnaire
Internc'\' gUide was used for three (3) out of the four (4) Deputy
Registrars. In charge l)f Personnel ufld Welfare. Admmistration. and Trammg and
Development These were chosen smce their respeclivc roles have to '0 wIth thl.'
ImplementatIOn of management deCISIOns I.':speclally non - teaching staff. tratOlng
of stall and also ensurmg camphaneI.': An mtef\'lew gUide was used for thesl.':
The study populatIOn was 456 and comprised all senior staff members nr
the UOI'.-crsity ofCapc Coast Tabll's I and 2 show thl.': populatIOn
Table]: Senior staff ID faculties /academic units
Faculty! Unit
Social Science
Graduate Studies
Agriculture 19
Total 228
Source Salaf) Section, UmH:rslty of Cape Coast. Cape Coast. :2005
Table 2: Senior staff in non - academic departments/units
Department! Unit Population
Registrar's Offices 30
Fmance 24
Audit 14
Development Offict: 46
Dean of Students 15
Hospital 38
Source. Salary Section. Umverslty ofCapc Coast. Cape Coast. 2005
The study population was. however. 293. It was made up of staff from the
Registrar's Otlices. Estate Section. Hospital, and Development Office. for the non
- academic departments/units. The Faculties and Academic Units compnsed Arts.
Education. Science. Social Science. and School of Agnculture. b l e ~ 3 and 4
below show the accessible population for Faculties/Academic Unit and Non -
Academic departments/umts respectively
Table 3: Accessible population for non academic departments/units
Department / Unit Population
Registrar's Offices
Development Office
Source" Salary Section. University of Cape Coast. Cape Coast. 2005
Table 4: Accessible population for faculties, academic departments/units
Faculty / U.,it
Faculty of .\ns
Faculty of Social SCiences
Faculty of Education
Faculty of SCience
School of Agriculture
Source Salary SectIOn, University of Cape Coast. Cape Coast, 2005
Sample and sampling procedures
The sample \-vas made up of 137 senior staff members selected from the
study populatIOn In choosmg the sample the stratified random sampling
procedure. purposIve sampling. and lottery method were used The ... tratlfied
random sampling procedure was used to group the population Into
Faculties/Academic llmts and Non - Academic departments/units The stratified
sampling procedure was used since the population was In groups that have
common charactenstlcs related to the vanables of the study. Stratllied rand(lm
sampling was again used tll group the respondents Into those In superVIsory
positions and those who arc not In posItions.
All the 97 semor starr members in SUpef\.'lsory positlons In both non -
academic departments/umbo and facultIes/academIc departments/umts. \\we
purposively selected The purposIve sampling was used because the respondents
are in supcr\'lsory capaCJlles. one of the categones covered by this rhls
"'ias to ensure that their pOints or view adequately reflect that held by the re:-.t In
the study populatIon For representatl\cness. steps were taken to cnsure that
member of the study populalllln stood the chance of being selected
'\ total of four Non - AcademIC departments/units was seh:cted U"'lng the
lottery method. Registrar's Offices, Estate. Hospital and DeVelopment Or/ice
Twenty percent each of the total number of semor stafr mcmhers whu aft.' nol In
super\'lsol)' pOSitIOns 10 both categones sclectl:J The lottcry mclhlld was
used to selt:ct 40 respondents who arc not In supcr\"lsor) posltluns IhIs was to
Improve the rcpn:scntatlvcncss of the sample
The Instruments for the research were two types of questIOnnaire. one Il"lf
semor slaff In SUPCl\ ISOr;. positIOns. and the other for senior stair In nun -
pOSillllnS \'ere deSIgned to help measure the uf
supervision and subordmates' ImpreSSIons about their super\'lsors The
questionnUire semor staff in supen positions has 4 main sections. Scclton
A. B. C. and D Sectwn A has 13 Ih.'ms and locusl.'S on approaches to supcn'I!'lOn
Section B IS made up of 9 ltcms and IllCUSCS on respondents' knowh:dgc lln thc
role of a supl.'nls\)r Sectwn C madc up of:; Itcms that sed.. respondcnts' 'IC\\S
on In - sen'lce traimng, \\htlc Sectll1f. D. wIth 5 Items finds out the undcrstandmg
of stair about thc lmpl)rtam:c of supel\ ISllln
fhl? qucstlonn3lrc fllr semor st311 not In positions has I:.'
questions that sed, respl)ndenb' lmprcs'>lons about the number and l)f
5upcn 15100 r..:cel\ cd. as \\ ell as aD\lut thelf SUpel\'lsor5
An mter\'IC\\ l;UlJl.' \\as deSigned fl)r the Deputy Registrars of Pl.'r"lmnl.'1 and
Welrare, Admmistratwn. and Traimng and Den;'!opmcnI
Ethical "onsidcration
In collccttOg the data, the researchcr llhtamcJ a t:O\t:rmg Idtcr ffllm Ih\,.,
Supen"1S0r to the Hcads of the departments of the ((1 s\,.'ck pl.'rmlSSl11n tIl
undertake the research m thelf respect1\c scctlons rhe pcmllSSlllO \\crl.'
then taken to the Heads of the dcpartments for pl.'rmlssil)fi 10 aJminhh.'r Ih..:
instruments. Senior stafT members to the sdccteJ J..:partmcolS \\Cfe hndeJ llfi th..:
purpose of the research and their consent was sought for their participation A day
was then fixed for the admimstratlOn of the research instrumcnts to those who
were sampled
Data collection procedure
The respondents \\ere hnefed on how to respond to the Items and gl\'cn
the opportunity to ask the researcher questions to clanfy Issues they did not
understand In relatlon to dlflicultles In responding to the Items They \\ere then
given the research Instruments to respond to The research Instruments were
collected after a maximum of '5 days Jr a day/orne which was agreed upon by the
researcher and respondents
Rcliabilil)' and \'alidil)"
ReliabilIty of the Instrument was undertaken to find the precIsIon,
consistency and of a score from the over different and
time spans It \Va" also to venfy that deciSIOns made based on the Instrument
would be the same from tllne to lime, and addrc<;ses the question of how much
error IS m the value generated
Test-Retest Reliability was used 10 establish the reliabIlity through a pilot
test. ThiS was obtained by corrclatmg pairs of scores from thl,' ... umc pl,'rsun on two
difTerenl admlOistrJtlons of the same test. The overall reliability was () 75 usmg
Cronhach's Co-efficient Alpha
Validity refers to the legitimacy of uSing a mea.<;urement with accuracy for
a specific purpose Cntenon valtdity. the degree to which :l test IS related
(statistically) to a measure of Job performance, was used The Concurrent
\\as also used to establ1sh thiS The \\as 0.65
Content \alllllt\ IS the degree \() \\hleh a test measures an mtended content
area It requires both Item \ahdlt) and sampling validit) Item \ahdlt) IS
concerned with \\ hether the test Items represent measurement in the Intended
content area. and samplmg \ alldlty IS concerned with how well the test samples
the total content area fhls was caITicd out to ensure that the questlonnam:
dTectivcly and aecur:.l.lcly Cll\cred th.: areas under study
Face \ahdlt). the degree to \\hleh a test appears to n asure whal II
purports to measure \\ as abu caITled Ollt ThiS was to find out whether the test
Items appear 10 rl,,'present thl: domam bemg c\ aluated Here. sical fidcht).
whether ph) slcal charactemtlcs or test reality. was conSidered I he f..lI.:l.'
\'ahdlty was caITll,,'J out by the Super''lsor {)fthc fl.'search
The reliability and \ ahdlty of the research Instrument Wl,,'rc carned {llit
through a pilot test Results of the test established the \'ahdlt) and rchanillty of
the in-.'7Uments as well for further modificatIons On the hasls or thc re"iults.
ccrtam Items, \\luch. respondents did not understand. \\crc rcvlscd
Results of the pre-test enahled the rl.'searchcr hi and nmtirm thl,,'
content validity Alst). some a:;pects of the Instrument that needed amendments
were Identified. and amended accurdmgly The pretestmg of the m::.truml,,n\ al..;n
revealed amhlgUlllcs. poorly worded Hems, ilems that "erc not undl,,rstuoJ. and
unclear choices It also indicated whether the instructIOns to the respondents were
clear. It helped til Improve upon the final Instruments and this made It possible to
ehclt adequately the required mformatlOn.
Data processing and anal)'sis
The informatIOn g u t h ~ r in thIS study was analyzed statistically usmg
deSCriptive and mt\:rentiul statistics Being a dt:scnptlvc study, the researcher first
of all gave senul and code numhers to each item on the qucstlOnmnre for cas)
identification befl)rc sconng thcm The responses to the various items were then
coded and tabulated. tUklllg. cl)gnilnnce of their senal numbers.
Frequenclt.:s and percentages were used to analyze all the research
questions Accordmg to Sarantakos (1998), the frequency and percentages tabll:s
enable a researcher to gam an overall Vle\\ of the findings, to ldcntlfy the trends
and to display rclaullnshlp hl'l\\cen parts uf the lindmgs
This chapter analyses and mterprets the data gathered for this study. The
research quc<;t!ons were analyzed using frequencies and percentages For easy
presentation of the resulls. this chapter has been divided mto four sections A. B.
C and D Section A dIscusses the biographic data whilst section B presents the
results of the research instruments admmistered to sentor staff in supen.'lsory
pOSItions. and analyzes them Section C presents the results of the r e ~ r h
mstrumcnts administered to sentor staff that arc not In supervisory pOSItions. and
analyzes them. and Section D presents the report of the interview gUide
Biographical data
Sex dlsl.lbuhon of rc!>pondcnls
The issue of sex was given attention In the study smce It was con:-.Jdcred
Important In the context of this !>tudy, sex was used to Imply thc c1asSlficalltlO of
sex into male and female groups In con!>Jdermg sex. the :-.tudy ,>ought to
endeavour to have an equal or appreciable numher of each group 1 able 4 prc'>cnts
the dlstnbutlOn by sex
Table 5: Distribution of respondents by sex
Sex No Percentage
Source. Field Data. 2005
Table 5 ren:als that. (lut of the 137 respondents used in the study, 108
(7883%) wen: malt: 29 (2117%) were female ThIs vast difference In the
reprcsentalJon of sex IS due to fact that not many females. as compared to maks.
are found in the supcnlsnry posIllOm.
Senior staff members in supervisory p"'iitions
ThiS sectlon presents the n:sults of the analyses of the research instrument
for semar staff members 10 supervIsory POSItions The analyses have been dune
under four malO headmgs approaches to supervisIOn. supervisor rolt:s. III
service trammg programmes. and staff understandmg of the importam;<: 01
Approaches to .. upenision
The in this seclion sought to dch:rmlllc
undcrslandmg of superVISiOn approachcs as well as their n:spt:t:t1\'C approadlcs to
Table 6 shows the distributIon of rt:spomknts by their pt:rccplloD:i of
supervision approaches.
Table 6: Perceptions of respondents to supenrision approaches
Approach No Percentage
Traditional 36 37.\
Team 61 629
Total 97 100.0
Source: Field Data, 2005
From Table 6, concerning theIr perceptions of SUpeT\'ISIOn approaches, 36
(371%) mdlcated that llr the traJltlomd mdl\'ldual SUPCT\'ISlOn approach ThIS
emphasizes "mspectlng" fucLlltles und "controlhng" mdivldual perfonnance
On the other hand, 61 (62 Q \ mdlcated the team approach Here the
supervisor disregards conventional dIsciplinary attitudes and shirts from thc role
of "mspector" to the role of "facilitator" become on - the _. job
teachers who support their staff
As shown In Tahle 7, concernmg supervisors' approach to SUpCT\'ISIOn,
common among Glickman's (1990) four catcgones of supervisory approaches
were the collaborative approach and the directive control approach
Table 7: Perceptions of respondents about supervisors' approach to
Directive Control
Non - Directive
Directive Informational
Nu Percentage
38 392
0 00
0 0.0
97 1000
Source' Field Data,
There were however no reSf,l,mses for the Non - and the
DIrective InformatIOnal approaches to supervIsIOn
In the daectlve control approach. the :lupen'lsor frames the supen'isor)'
plan and expects the supervisee to follow it ThiS approach indicates the fact that
the supervisory plan or schedule of supen'lslon IS already set out m the schedule
of duties for supervisors. Supen'lsors, therefNe. needed to follow It ThiS.
therefore, accounts for the high number of respondents (59).
In collaborative supervIsion, the supervIsor and the supervisee share
deciSIOn -makmg about future Improvement Supcn'lsors who used this approach
may be seen to be "bemg tlc'Xlble" and "unbureaucrauc", havmg cnntidence In th"
supervlsecs. tapp1l1g and makmg usc of theIr potel1tlaiLtles, and/or givlllg them the
room to explore Supervisors who practiced thiS approach may ha,'c done it" In
theIr own interest" depending on their peculiar Circumstances. or "at theIr own
peril". Therefore. a few number of the respondents, 38 (39 2%) practised it
Non - duective supervision occurs when the supervisee formulates his or
her own plan about future development The supervisee has the liberty to frame
the supcrvisory interaction. the supeT\'lsor only gives advice The ducctl\'c
mformatIonal approach occurs \\ hen the supervisor frames the supervlsol) plan
and the SupcT\'lsee decides \\hether to follow the plan These two approaches had
no respondents Their practice does not fall In any way within the workings of the
Supen'isor roles
ThiS sectIOn had nine statements which tested respondents' knowledge of
the role of the Respondents were reqUired to Indicate in a Like] 4-
scale Within four rankmgs how important each statement IS to hlmlhcr (Table 6)
From the anal)sls 10 Tahle 6 a gr..:ater number of the respondents (51)
representing about 530 mdlcated ihat the supeT\'lsor's role of Impartmg
knowledge and skills IS wry Important On the contrary, 7 respondents mdlcated
thiS role is not important. An appreciable number of the respondents (21 ) sec the
role as important
R..:garding the supeT\'lsor's role of emplOYing a dlscovel)' approach 1(1
(103%) said It IS vel)' important However. a closer number of Tl:spond,.:nts saw It
as Important 34 (35 1
), somewhat Important 29 (299'0) and not Impurtant 24
With the sUPcP/lsor's role of respondlllg to need" of
supervisecs ovcr 50% of the rcspondents (52) said It IS vcry Important whlk' 12
(I8) said it was not important About 26% (25) respondents sa\\! it as Important
whilst 8% (8) said It was somewhat Important It IS incumbent therefore upon
supervisors to respond to the mterpersonal needs of their supen'lsees
Forty and a half pcrct:nt of thl.' n:spondents said ills not to
VICW supen'lslon as lIlqUlry Fl\e respondents said it is very important to do so,
\\!hile 35 mdlcated It IS lmport:U1t SuperVIsion therefore might not be
necessanly viewed as IIlqUIl')
On the supervisor's rule to focus on baslc skills ofsupen'lSccs as buddmg
blocks for the future, about 5:''0 (53) respondt:nts said It is very important whLlst
about 5% (5) sa" It as o\)t Important A'Jout (25) of the respondents and 14%
(14) saw It as Important and sllmewhat Important respectively ThiS that
superVISion must focus on the baSIC skills ul SUpt:['\'lSCCS so as to build blocks fiJr
their futurt: development or advancement
Concernlllg the super\'lsor's role to discern deYclopmmtal needs of
supervlsees and sdect the supcf\'isory b3sed on his/her needs 33 (34%)
respondents indicated thiS IS somewhat important About the sanle number of
respondents (28 and 25) said It IS very Important and Important n.:spectlvcly
Eleven respondents (II 3%1 conSidered it not Important The data mdlcate:-- that II
IS important for 10 discern the developmental needs or 'iupt.'n'lsec:-- Jnd
sclec.:t the best stratcb'Y that best sUlls then needs
Table 8: Respondents' kno""ledge ortbe role ortbe 5upen'por
\'er:- Some\\hat
Supen lsor Role Important Important Important Important
I Impart knO\\ ledge
and skills 61 61 18(186) 717 2) 97(1001
2.Emplo) a dlsco\ er:
lOt 103, 3..\1351) 29(99) 2..\(277) 97tl001
3 Respond to
interpersonal needs of
52(536, 8) 8(82) 12(12 4) 971100,
..\ Vie\\ 5upen ision as
515 21
914 -: I 35(36 OJ 48149.5 ) 97t 100,
5.Focus on basIC
5315..\ 6l
25(258) 14(144, 5(5.2)
6 Discern
de\ elopmental needs
:n(3..\ 0) II (II 31
7. Focus on personal
18t 18 6,
28(2891 26(267) 97t 100)
8. Transr.tit important
35(36 1)
..\2(433) 17, 17 51 313 11 97(lf)f))
9. Encourage
27(278) :>313..\ 0) 16<165, 971]fJO,
Source Field Data. 2005
Sote Flgurcs In parentheses represent
Regardmg the supen ISOr'S role to focus on the personal concerns of the
supervisee. about an equal number and percentage of respondents expressed
opposite \ ie\\s \\111lst 26 respondents representmg 26 7% said it IS not
Important. representing abclut 260 said It IS \ef) important A Strik.'ilg 28
respondents. representmg 28 QO satd It is some\\ hat important for supen isors to
focus on the personal of the supen lseeS Eighteen ho\\ever see It as
In response to the supen ISOr"S role to transmit an imponant culture...C
(433'0) of resIX'lndents said It IS Imponant \\hereas 35 136 1%) sa\\ It as \ef)
Important. Three respondents representmg 310 said the supernsor's rok to
transmit Important culture IS not lmponant Ho\\e\er about 17 (17
respondents said It IS Imponant The sUIX'n Isor therefore has to transmtt an
important culture
In their to the super. ISOr' s role to encourage reflectIOn based on
the supen Isee' s to dr.m meanmg from l.:'\pcnence. about an equal number
of the respondents shared opposmg \Ie\\s Whereas 21 respondents Said It IS \Cf)
Important. 16 said It IS not Imponant Ho\\e\cr 27 and 33 n.. "Spondents
respecll", said this IS Important and some\\ hat Important
10 - sen-ice training programmes
This seetlon had 5 questIons aimed at c"anllmn or JetemlmlOg the
number of 10 - sen'lec tramlOg programmes orgaOil'ed to upgrade the\\ kdge
and skills of supernsors Some of the qucstlons \\CTe also to find twm
respondents the number of m - service training programmes they wish to attend In
12 months. and the suggested number of In - service traming programmes they
wish took place In 12 months Table 9 presents the results of the findings
Table 9: The number of in - sen'ice training programmes attended
Number of In-service Trammg
Attended I - , 6 - 10
57t5? 7%)
Since appOintedJpromoted
2 In 24 months
3. In 12 months
4. Number to attend m next 12
months 63(649%)
5 Suggested number to attend
in next 12 months 75(77 3%)
(Source. Field Data. 2005)
From Table 9 above. a high percentage of respondents 907% (88) have
attended between 1 and 5 m - service trammg programmes smce thcy ",ere
appOInted or promoted as supervisors These. therefore. have undergone a form of
traimng in supervision Regardmg the numher of in - service programmes
attended in 24 months. 649% (63) had attended between 1 and 5 m - sen'lce
training programmes. About 59% percent (57) of the respondcnh, attended - 5
In - service trammg programmes
Concerning the number of In - service trainmg programmes that should be
attended In ml)nths 63 (64 QO,o) mdKatcd 1 -- 5, and 34 (35 \%1) mdlcated 6-
10 Seventy lIve (77 3(J) of the respondcnts suggested that the Center for
Training and Development of the University of Cape Coast should organize 1 - 5
m - service tramlng programmes In 12 months, whl1e 22 (about 23%) prdcrred
between 6 and 10 1100\c\ cr, nnne of tht: respondents had received between 6 and
lOin - serYICC programmes smct: thcy werc appOinted or promoted as
Importance of !ooupcn'i!'lion
rhls section has 5 questH10s rhe"e questions wcre to assess how statT
who arc supen lsed III the lln1\ersll) of Cq'l" Coast percel\'e the Importance of
On the type of supen'lsor tht:y arc considered by subordinates, a higher
percentage (90 7,J) (If the rcspondcnts said thclr subordinates conSidered them as
democratlc \\hIIL- 2 00 \\erc conslJcn:d aulocratlc None ol"the supen'lsors wen:
considered aUlnontanan whereas 720 wert: conSidered as lalssel fam: ..;t 01
the supen Isors lhcrdon: \\ere \:onsldercd (!l:mOl.:rahc
Regarding thi: attltudt:s of subordmates toward" thclr superVlsllTS, none of
the respondents Said It is poor More than half of Ihe respondents, 51 (52 6'o},
mdicatcd It IS good whereas 40 (41 2%1) said it IS i:xcdknt lIowcvcr (l (h 2'0)
mdicated that the attitudes of their subordinates Itm(lfl.b. them ." laIr I;rum thi:
analysIs therefore the attitudes of :iubordlOates towards supervisors can generally
bc said to be good
Sixty two of the respondents thclr subordinates' understandmg of
assessment reports or supen ISlon reports \\r1tten on them IS good, about 28%
said It IS tim gilD (8) s::ud It IS excellent None of them Said thclr
subordlOates had poor perceptwn of Rt::ports or SupervisIOn Reports
wntten on them SubordlOates therefore have a !:!-ood perceptIOn of Assessment
Reports or Super\'lsion Reports wntten on thcm
Concerning ho\\ tht.:lr sublm1matcs arc with thclr superVISion, 36
(371%) rcspondt.:nls lOdllakd \ery whde 9 (about 9%) indlcah:d quite
satislied ThIrty thret.: respondents (34 0 I Indicated that theIr subordinates are
mostly satislicd With theIr superViSion, and 19 respondents (19.6%) wen: mildly
satlslied The implu;atlon hcre IS that arc satlsfied With
To the question Dr how subordinates take from their
supt.'rvlsors when thclr mistakes or wrongs arc pointed ("Iut to them. about 65'0
(63) of the respondents indIcated that their suhordlOatcs took such correctton... In
good f,uth go,o (8) their look the corrections as though they
were being IOtimldated llf the respondents IOdlcated that their
took such hackbllmg Howcvl.:r about 27
/o (26) uf the re"p\lndenl."
said their subordinates took the correctIOns as cntlclsm 1:\'l."n an
appreCiable number of subordinates took their Slipl.:rvlsors' correction" as
Intlmidatlon and crllicism (as indicated by 8% and ahout 27% of thl' rcspondents
respectively). a higher number of the subordinates took such corrections in good
From tht,. analySIS llf thIS Sl'l.:l1lm. It can be concluded thai stall at the
various levds In the of Cape Coast ha\'!,: a good perception of
Senior staff memhers nol in supervisor)' positions
ThiS section has I:! questIOns designed to seck respondents' ImpressIOns
about the numbl:r and of "Uper\"lSICln they received. as well as about their
With respect to the \.jualLt)' of SUpef\"ISIOn rCl:elvcd. about 880 (35
respondents) r.ltcd It cxcellent and non\? said It was poor Three (7 5%) said It \\as
good. and 2 (5'0) rated II fair. CieneraJly then:fore, the quality of supef\"ISlOn
respondents rCl.:el\'ed was cXl:dlent
To thc kllld of sUper\"lSIOn respondent::> \\J.Jlted. 25 respondents (625'0)
said they detinitely had the kind of superVISIOn they wanted. and 15 (37 5'0) smJ.
generally they hJ.J. the h.ind 01 superVision they wanh:d None of them did nnt gel
the kind or superVISIOn they wan\l'd ThiS may be l:xplallleJ tll lTIl:an that
supervIsion was deSIgned to meet the need" Oflhl.: respondents
On the exlent 10 which superviSIOn tits their need.... none ut" the
respondents did not have any of their needs not helllg md I'hls il1lhcall'" thaI
respondents' superVISiOn needs were met. SIX respondent,> had only a k\\
of their needs anJ II (:!7 had most of Ihelr needs ml:t T",'l:ot)'
three (5 7 rc'p\lndents on the nther hand had ,,111 theu needs met
Mo,t respondenh \\ere prep,neJ 10 re\:ommend (heu to theIr
fru:nds who \\en: III nel'd ,n '>upen I,>ur,> 15 l.l7 5
0) \\Quld rL'addy do sn. 22
are sun: hi J\l '>\1 1I[\\\I:\l:r. "I rl:,>punJl:nh 17 5"0) do not Ihlnk Ihey \\Quld
rl'adll) rl'lOmml:nd thl:H ..,upel\l,>ur.., tu "I friend \\hlll:-. In nl:ed ol..t SUpCl\'lsnr
1\IOC rc..,ponJcnh l22 """f \\I:rl' 1I1Jlllcrent llr mildly dissatblll.,'d with Ihe
amount 1)1 ",up,,:n '..,11 In Ihl'\ hJ\ e rl'll'l\ cd AhllUI an cqu.llnumbcr of rl::-.pondenb.
15 en 5
01 ;.mJ If! l-lll""l .., ...IIJ Ihl'\ \\crl: lllOstl) s..tltslicd and vcry s..tu... lleJ
rcspcetl\cly \{1:,>p"nJellh therejufl' l"'r,re..,wJ "',111.., 1,,11. lion \\llh thL' .... mounl 01
sUP\:f',-I'>lon Ihl'y ft:lel\eJ
(In \\ hl'! hL'r thl' ,>llra\ 1,>IPI1 reLcn \.'J h,I'" hdpcJ re"'p\lnd\.'nb III deal lI111re
dTcctl\dy \\Itll the p\.'rll'fm,llllt: pi Ihelf fll!l:,>. o\er h,dl of IhL' rL'spondenh
(675'0) ,>,,111.1 II h.IJ ,krIOl,,:h JplIl: "'11, \\hd ... t,lhIIUI4V'" mdll'aled It had !!enef.Jlh
helped thL"m lf1 thl'H \\url... I he '>up\.'f\ 1... lun r\.'Lel\eJ L',ln thL'rL'lorl' n..: .... IIJ III h\.'
helplul ... llll.:l. 11 h:I'> helpLJ re ... ponJI.:Ill'" 10 dl.:.ll more c1kdnd\ In Ihe
performan I.' III thL'1f fllle
Re",pllndcnh C.11l he ,>,IIJ III I'll' gL'rlt.'f:dly ,>.tlr ... rrnl \\1111 th\.' O\' ..:r.1I1
supcnlSlon th\.') h,I\t: rl.:Cl.:l\cJ Ahutlt 6X"" ....lId Ihc\ ,HI.' \I.:f\ ,>,llr ... lied \\Ilh
SUPCl\'IMOn IhL'y rL(Cl\\.'J \\hd ... 1 .10"" ....IIJ they ,If\.' ... all'>(lcJ I Inc p...f'"!l
representing:! 50,/) " ....... Of mildly JI .....,alr ... rl'.:d
More of the respondt:nts saId they would prefer to choose their present
supervisors 22 of the respondents (55%) indicated that they would defmitely
choose their present super\"lsors whilst 13 (32 5%) said they think so About 13%
said they do nat thlllk If they \\ert: to choost: a superVIsor. they would choose thclr
A higher percentage (67 5%I ()f the respondents said they con<;ldered their
supervIsors as demacralic whilt: 275,!> considered their supervIsors autocratic
None of them considered thelr supcr\'lsors authoritarian HO\vever, 5% considt:red
their supervIsors as [aissa. faIre t-.-tost of the respondents therefore consIdered
their supervisors as democratll.:
Regarding the altitudes of their supef\'lsors attitude towards them. 2. (5%)
of the respondents said It IS poor t-.-tore than half of the respondents. 2\ (525%).
indicated It is good 13 U2.5%) said it IS excelJenl However 4
respondents (10%) indicated that the.: attitude of thclr supervisors towards them IS
faiT. From the analySIS therefore the attltude.:s of supervisors towards subordinates
can generally be said to be good
About 53Cl/o (21) of the n:spondents say their under<;tanding of assessml:nt
reports or :-.upervislon rcports ""Tilten on them is good, about 25%, (10) say It IS
fair whereas 22 5'a (9) :-'1) It is excellent None of them mdH;atcd they haw poor
understand109 of As..,cs:-ment Reports or SUperVI'lIOn Reports written on them
Subordinates therefore have a good understanding of Assessment Reports or
Supef\liSlOn Reports wfllh,.'n on them
On how respondents take corrections when their nllstakcs or \\Tongs arc
pointcd llut to them, Jbout (32) of the respondents indlcatcd that thc\' took
such Corrccliol1S In gl10d faith \\hlbt 5
0 (2) said thcy took thl: corrcctions as
intimidation None or them mUIC:ltcu that they took such corrections
backbiting. 1-10\\ e\'er. anout 150 (61 or the respondl,.'nts said they took the
corrections as Criticism tlenerally, thcrcl()re. a numbl:r of the respondcnh
took corrections III gll11U f.uth "hcn their pOinted Ollt their to
them. or correctcd them
Report of the inten'jew guide
ThiS section Ihe responses lll'thc inlcr\'u:w gUIde admilllskrcd 10
the Deputy Registrars ,n charge or Admlm"tr'ltion. Pcrsonnel. and Traimng &
Development Due hl their schedules howc\'Cr. in some cascs. Senior
Assistant Registrars (their next - 111- command) weft.. ' contncteu
The l1nl\'erslty llf Cape ('onst's pohcy on superVISion l"i tlmt cYer\'
subordmate shall hc supervised by Immedluk That. where two
persons arc on the same I],rade the most selllor on the grade docs thc SUPCf\'ISHlIl
The .mlvcrsltys approach to is more of teamwork bllt for thl,.'
purpose of responslhillty SUpl:r.'lsion has a "httle pollcll1g" componenl (ahout
10%), The upproach .Igam IS hClth I(lrma! Jod mlurmal With m!1.)rm,,1
supervision, supcrvlsors arc ahlt.: to hnng suhordmatt.:s In llllt.:. ur tu Ilfdl:r, e\'l.'11
dunng ofliclal duties or at unollicHd times. For l,.xampk. a "'llhorJmate \\,ho
shouts m the oflicc dunng break tlmc 1.'.10 be brought tu order hy the
On appointment of supervisors. supef\'lsors dre I.:Jther appointed on entry
pomt into the university or by progression. It comes by movement from
one gradc to another within the university structure
[n - sef\'lc\: training programm\:s are orgamzl:d for newly appointed staff
in supervision. Such trainmg arc as \ve11 organized for those already
m the system
Reports/recommendations from SUp1..'f\'lsors are passed on to the sectional
head through sesslOndl bncfings or at the end of year annual report These arc
then passed on to through the Head of S\:ctlOn's annual report. Some
times such reporh or rl.:commendatlons (orne through memoranda Adverse
reports on poor performance arc handled by the supervisor and the staff involved,
while favourable performance IS handled by cilmmendation of the subordinate by
the supervisor This IS done through rcwmmendation letters. pep talks. etc
Concemmg mOOltonng of supervisors to ensure they arc dOIng the right
thmg(s). supervision IS mnsldl.'rcd a cham event dependmg on the actlvity of the
staff concerned Thl:re IS someone who IS there to SUpCf\,jsc the supervisor. For
example. a Hl.'dd of Department overseemg the work of the Pnnclpal
AdmlOlstratlvl' ASSistant l\er) unit of the university has its assIgned work and
schedule of tn perform The cnd result of everythmg IS to ach"':n: lhe
objectives If these arc bemg achieved wlthm thl: expected time frame then It
means thlOgs working well However, if there arc hiCCUps and results an:
not forthcommg then it mean::; that thmg'> arc not working out well m the L1n,t
This calls for ans\vers and ht:re the supervisors have to answer Sometimes too
they arc given soml.: specilic instructIOns and they have to send feedback
Barriers to dfectlvt: super\ ISlon are due mamly to poor communication or
lack of It. between the and the Head Targets are sometimes not <;,,:t
with supcrvlsces. while mstructions are given in unclear and unambiguous ways
leading to guesswork and uncertamtit:s There IS also lack of motivation and lack
of resources to carry out and Implement deCISIons and actIOns. There is lack of
appreCiation from supcrvisors. supcr\'lsors cntlclze more when subordinates go
wrong and praIse- less when they do good/well Monitonng is not done
consistently but rather on ad hoc
fa irnprovt: supcr\'islon m the University of Cape Coast. pnority must be
given to traimng of super\'lsors Supervlsor:-- have to understand their roles as
supervisors What supcn'lsees have to do must be made clear to them whilst
momtoring should be conslstt:nt New management trends are cmerging and If
supervisors arc not ahreast With those new trends. there would not be any
Improvement 10 supcr\'lslOn There should also be an Incentive package as well as
a reward system for performance. 10 Improvc performance
This chapter presents the summary. conclusions and fe-commendations of
the study It also gives an:<L<; for further rescarr.:h.
u m m r ~ y of research procedures and major findings
The objectives of the study mduded thl.: fllllowmg.
a Identify the SUPCI'\'ISIOn approaches used in thl:: University oreapc Coast
b EstabiLsh supcf\'isors' knowledge of thclf roles and the requisite
supervisory skills
c Examme In - service trainmg programmes orgamzed 10 upgrade the
knowledge and skills of supervisors
d. ASSC5S how staff at alllcvds In the University of Cape Cnast pcrccm: the
importance of superVISIOn In achievmg orgaml.atlOnal goals
The stud.... was a descrlptlvc sample survey It posed three research
questions research questions as follows
To what extent do supervision approaches used In tht: Umversity of Cape
Coast influence the knowledge of supervisors In their roles'!
2. How do in-sen'lcc traming programm...s impal'l on knowledge and skills of
3. Do staff at a111e\eb ollhe lIn;n:Tslly 01 ('ape Coust understand the
importanc... ()f ....r\'l:.,l{ln in .:KhlC\ mg l)rg,lOl/-<lt;onal goals')
In all, Ihe s;unpk \\a... made- up 01 137 staff selected trom Ihe-
accessible populatwn II ... 97 :.,enior ... talT members In supervIsor)'
positions in \:'!{)th non acadl.'llllc J...partm...nb.lulllis. and faculties/academic
departments/unlls. ami 0 each ()lth.... t(ltal number of senior stall members Whll
arc not In III bl)th
The II1strumcnb tor the \\t'rt' two of quesllonnUlr.... (one for sCllIor
slaff in sup.... ,IllJ the Lllh.... r staff III non .... rvlsory
posllions) de\ dl)P.... d hy Ih.... n:se,lfl:her unde! (I, .... lutdage and guidance or the
supervisor. lh.... y w('r.... tn help mC'l... ure the quality of superVISion. and
subordmales' ahnul their An mtL'rview j,!,UH.It.:: \'US
deSigned fro the of Personnel and Wdfarc. Administration. and
Traming and devdl1pll1ent
Dcscnptlw stal1s\ll.'s. n,uncly. percentilges und rrellUl:nl.'lCS were u... eJ tn
analyze the bwgrdphical Jilt.! anJ Ihe rescureh LJu ....
The study 1('\('Jh:J thJI
I. Approach h1 was manlly hy tbc tcum approach.
2. Directive control approach and collahoratlvc 3upcn l:-lon were
in supervision;
3. The Supervlsor's role of Impartmg knowledge and skills lS wry important.
4. The Supervisor's role of responding to Interpersonal needs of supef'/Isces 1S
5. Supervision must focus on the basIc s\...ll1s of supervlsecs so as to bUild blocks
for their future development or ad\ ancement.
6. [t is Important tor supervisors to discern the developmental needs of
supervlsees ;J.nd select the best strategy that best suits their needs,
7. The Supen'lsor" s role must be tlJ focus on the personal concerns of the
8 The supen'isor has to transmit an important culture:
9. The supen'isor must encourage reflecw:n based on the supervisee's ability to
draw meanmg from expenence,
lOA higher percentage of respondents have alknded between Iand 5 in - service
training programmes slOce they were appOinted or promoted as supervisors
These therefore have undergone a form oftraining In supervisIOn;
11. Respondents suggested that the Center for Traming and Development of the
University of Cape Coast orgamzes 1 - 510 - service training programmes In 11
months. and
12 Respondents were prepared to recommend thClf supen'isors to thea fflends
who \vere m need of
The mam conclusIOn of the study IS that staff at the vanous Icvl.:'b In the
University of Cape Coast have a good understandmg of superviSion
Other conclusions are as follows
(I). The quality of respondents received was excellent.
(2). SupervisIOn was designed to meet the needs of the respondents, and so
respondents' supen ISlon needs were met
(3) Staff arc satisfied \\ ith the amount of supen'lsion they received
Based on the lindmgs of this study as well as the conclusions dra'\vn, the
follQ\.ving recommendatIOns are made
1. Staff (supervisors and supcn"isces) must be educated on the importance of
supen'ision 10 orgamzatlOnal success
2 Resources must be provided to supervI:.urs to enhance superVISIOn
3 Supervisors must de'Vdop a team approach to superviSIOn. establish
objectives together wllh look at problems and how to solve
them together They define roles and responsihllitles together
4 Supervisors must proVIde positive feedback /pralse to theIr
staff/supcrvisees. and request feedback on their own performance as wdl
5 SupervIsors should be seen as more "open" and "accommodating" than
being "policemen"
6, The Umverslty of Cape Coa"t must commIt finanCial to the
orgam,..atJon of regular In - service traming programmes for supervisors
7. In order to be effective, superVIsion muM he
quickly acted upon, and enforced when.: nl.'cd be
8. To be more effective, supervisors must be tramed in modem trends in
management as weB as the use of supervision tools such as Job
descriptIOns, checklists. policy manuals. procedure manuals. registers and
records. reports, action plans and work plans
Areas for further researcb
In view of the delimited scope of thiS study as well as the limitations
encountered. It IS recommended that future research focuses on the follOWing
(a) extensIOn of the study to cover supnvlsion of academic staff
(b) supervision of students' academic work
(c) factors that militate against effective supervision. and
(d) an analySIS of the Umverslty's Poilcy on Supervision
Agyemm - Boatcng. E 0 (2000) Towards the devdopmcnt of performance
appraisal system for Llnivcrslty of Cape Coast senior and Junior staff.
Journal ofeducatlOnal management, (3), 128 - 143.
Alonso. A (1983) A developmental theory of psychodynamic supervision The
clinical supernsor. 1(31, 23- 36.
Amewudah, N 0 K. (( 1998) An evaluatlon of staff lrailllng and development
acttvltles at the UniversIty of Cape Coast. 1987 - 1997. Journal of
educatIOnal management, 4. 164 - 178
Armimo, J, & Creamer. 0 G (20011, What supervisors say about quality
supen'lsion College student affairs journal, 2\ ( 1), 35-44
Babbie, E. (2001) Practice of ';0(;131 res":i.1fch, (19
cd). Belmont CA:
Wadsworth Thomson Learning
Barr. M J (1990) Growing staff diversity and changing career paths In M J
Barr. M L Upl.:raft. and ASSOCiates. New futures for student l r ~
BUlldlOg a vision for professHmal leadc:rshm and practice San Francisco
lossey-Bass 53 - 65
Bernard. J M. and Goodyear. R K (1992) Fundamentals of climcal supervision
Boston Allyn and Bacon
Blackhurst. A (2000) Effects of mcntonng on the employment expenence::. and
career satisfaction of women student aCrans admlOlstrators NASPA
Journal, 37(4), 573-586
Bolin, F S. and Panaritis, P "Searchltll,t a common purpose: A
perspcctlW In history ofsupcr\l.SIOn" In C J) Glickman (Ed) Supel'\'lsion
in transltHlO, 30 - U, Ak,\J,nJrL<l, V,\ ASS\)Cl,ltlon ll)r SUpC'I'\%IOn and
CUITICUIUIll Dc\ dl)pmcnt
Borders, L 0 ,md l.eddlcl-..lI R (lllS7) lIandhook of counseling supel'\'ISlOn
Alexandna. VA ll)r Cllunsdl)r Edlll:J,t\lJn and Supcl'\'bion
Bourisaw. D r.. t (1488) Antlcmatlnt; Sl.'t hll.IS EITcl:b lln teacher ohservatlon In
evaluation (Dll.:!llrJ,1 dissertatIOn. hnva State University, \<)88)
Dlssert,IUl"lll Ahstrad. 13667
Brackett. J R (1904) Supcrn:'>lllTl and I'dUl:atlon 10 Chanty, New York..
Brown. A and Bl)Uml..
( \99:') I he 51 'L I,ll 5urcr\isor. SupervisIOn in
commuml), da) l:J,re ,Ind n::,>idential settings BllcklOgham: Open
Bryan, W. A.. & Schwart/. R A (1998) "Sllllle linallhoughts ahout staff
dl'vclopmcnt" In W A Bryan, & R A Sehwart/. (Fds ), Strateglcs for
staff development personal and profcs:'>lOnal cdul:ation in the 1st eentllf)
Nt:" dlrcl:1I0nS Ii)!' :'>tullenl Sl:f\'KCS, Ntl 84 San Franel:,>eo
Dalton, J C. (1(89) Fnham:lOlJ s\<lft knowlcdgl.: :lllll skills In II Dd\\drth, t I R
Hanson, and Stullent ser"Il:":S A handhook Ill[ thl: DrlllcsslOIb
San Jossey B:lsS
Dawson, J. B. (1926) "The casework supervisor In a family agency". Farmly 6.
293 - 295.
DeCoster. D A. and Brown. S S (1991) "Staff development: Personal and
professional educatiOn" In T K Miller, R B Wmston, Jr., and Associates.
AdministratIOn and leadership m student affairs Actualizing student
development m higher education (2
cd) MunCie, IN Accelerated
Development. 123 - 165
Dye. H. A (1987) ACES attitudes' Supervisor competencies and a national
certificatIOn program ERIC/CAPS Resources in EducatIOn, Document
No ED 283 098
Freeman, S. C . (1992) "C H Patterson on chent-centered supervisIOn: An
inten'ICW" Counselor education and supen 1<;lon, 31. 219-226
Gay. L. R (1987) Educational Research Old Ed ), London Memll Publishing Co.
Glickman, C. D (1990) SuperviSIOn of instructIOn A developmental approach
(2nd cd ) Boston' Allyn and Bacon
Hawkins. P & Shohet, R (1989) SuperviSion til the helpmg profeSSIOns An
individual. group and organizatIOnal approach, Milton Keyness' Open
UniverSIty Press
Hess, A. K (1986) Growth III supervision Stages of supervisee and supervisor
development. The climcal supervisor, 4( 1-1), 51-67
Kadushm, A. (1992) Supervision in SOCial work (3'd Ed) New York. Columbia
Umverslty Press
Knoll. M K (1987) Supervision for better Instruction Practical techniques for
Impro\"ing st.lifpcrformance Englc\\'ood Cliffs. NJ Prentice Hall
Lave. J. & Wenger. E (1991) SltuateJ learning' Legitimate peripheral
participation New York Cambndge University Press.
Leddlck, GR.. & II A (1987) Efli:ctl\'1: superVision as portrayed by
tramee expcctatH.ln,> and prefcn.:ncc,>" Counselor educatIOn and supervision. 27.
Marsh. S R (200l) 'll'ilng udult de\dopment thL'ory to mform staff superviSIOn
10 student a!1,llf"" Student Affairs Journal. 21t 1), 45-57
Okac Anti, C COllO) By ObJectlves In multl -
campu'> ..ll..inllmstratmn Ilf a tertiary In,>tltutlOn. Ilow fea<;lble'J" Journal of
Fducatlon..ll U), 161 -- 1/,-1
01k, Mr. and I neJlander. I (]I)(,12) "I rainel.:s' experiences ofrnh,: conlllet
and role In rL'latll'!1ship"," Journal of Counseling
Ps\cholllgv. 39. :HN-VI7
Peters. DEi \9(l7) SUpef\ISIOn In '>llcwl /\ method of study student
traimng ..lnd stan deYclnpmL'ill London (ieorgc Allen and t lnwm
Richmond. M r: (1917) :-'tlu.lllku.!,OOSIS New York Ru,>sdl Sage h1undatlon
RIchmond. M I (1()22) What IS -;o..:ial ca-;c\\,ork') an jntrodul.:hll)
New York Sage Foundation
Salaman. G (199S) Man.lglOg BUl:klOgham Open 1.1
'ilt)' Pre..,..,
Sarantakos. S (199M) SOl:Ia! re,>eUfl:h (2
I',d) I.ondon r-vtal:mllian Pres..,
Schein. E II (1478) Career "'latching indiVIdual dnd orgam/-<ttlonal
needs Readlnl,! Addlson- Wesky
Scnge. P M (1()()O) Thc tilth discipline Thc art tlnd practice of the leammg
organt/..atlon Ncw l'ork Dounleday Currency
Stoltenlxrg. CD. and Ikh\orth. U t 19K7) SupervIsing coun"c!ors and
lherapl ... h A dc\c1.PmL'nt...d J.pIW-lach "lan FrJn<:I"<:o JosscyBas...
Winston, R B. ,md ('rc,lmer. D. (j (1997) Improving "tufting practices In ':i{udcnt
alTair... "' ..m Iri.1nu",co Ju...... c)-Ba... s
Questionnaire for Semor Staff In Supervisory Positions
This questionnam: IS to find out about Supervision in the UOIvenaty of
Cape Coast. It is for resl:arch purpose and I would be grateful If you could
respond to the items as appropnately as possible.
The mformatlon you provide will help to detemllne further improvement
m the supervlSlon of employcl's In the of Cape Coast Answering all
the questions as honestly and mdependently as possible would help the findings a
great deal Your anonymity IS assured
Thank you for your co - operJ.t1on
A. Approaches 10 Supervision
Select (by circling or ticking) from the answers provided. that which most
appropriately answers the question
1. For me the most Important goal of supervisIOn is to
A honor orgamzational authoflty
B respect individual abilities
C establIsh rapport WI th staff.
D. establish a shared commitment to goals
2. When faced With a deCision that affected the whole slaff, I
A. provided information that allowed the staff to the reasons for my
making the deCISion I did
B. allowed the staff the autonomy of gathering the Infonnahon they needed and to
make their own decl,>lon
c. listened to each staff member's feelmg dnd opmions and helped the staff arrive
at a consensus decision
D. collaborated with the staff m gathenng infonnatlon and in generating a
3. My mo'>t frequently emphasized achlcvlOg goals of
A upper level admmi'>trators
B mdivldual profe'>slOnab
C departmental cohesion or good staff rclat onshlps
D. the institution or divIsion
4 Most of ffi) supervisIOn occulTed
A IITcgularly. on and as needed basis
B. mfrequently. when rcque"tcd
C frequently. as a part of c\eryday interactions
D. regularly and systematically on a planned schedule
5 I
I n In th
> I:ontcxl of m)' own work as mteracllon" to
vtew supeTYI!> 0 ....
A mamtam clear \\IlHk
B. encourage profc!>slOnal autonomy
C solidify rdatJonshlps
D. enhance productivity
6. I felt most successful as a supervisor when the staff were fully knowledgeable
A. the I provided about work expectations
B. the workrclated concerns of the statT
C. the relationshIps among staff
o the organizatIOn and Its goals
7 My relationship \\ nh staff who I SUPCr\'ISC IS oased pnmarily on
A mstitUtional dcfinitlOns of responslbllltics
B my desire to allo\\ maximum mdl\'ldual autonomy of action and style
C creating camarJdcne and close personal r.:IJtlonshlps
D. shared commitment to e'\cellcnce
8 I handled poor "taff performance by
A mstructmg staff ahout how to handlt: the sltuJhon or solve the problem
B encouragmg stan to find thclr own solutions to problems
C. showing personal '>upport lor continued effort at improved performance
D helpmg stalT deSign better strategies for gettmg the work done
9. In m) supen I hdd to the beltcf that thl.: moSI nnportJnt allnbute
of my relationshIp \\ Ilh :=:.taff .... as
A. mamtaming respect for authonty.
B. showing respect for mdependencc of action
C creating hannony among people
D. gaining commitment to mutually denved goab
10. When conflicts occurred between a staff member whom I supervised and
other umls of the organizatIOn. I
A intervened to assure compliance \\ Ith institutIOnal pohcles and procedures
B. allowed the staff member to deal with the matter 10 Ills or her own way
C. supported and/or dl.'fendcd my stall' member
o mediated the conflicts
11 and profeSSional de\ dopmt:nt needs of statY were dctenmncd by
A establishing dlSCrCpJncles bct\\een institutional reqUIrements and current staff
B. encouragmg stan to pursue their
C supporting -"tJff member.... In dOing what m,IlJc them happy and productive.
o supervIsor and stafT member collaburatlvcly
12. In my supeT\ ISlon of stan, indiVidual lit With the JOshtuhonal culture was
Viewed as
A. irrelevant, so long the \\ork IS per fanned
B a matter of member chOIce
C optional, so lung tiS a of community achievl'd
o a slgmlicam detl.:rmmant for succes....
13 When thmgs went wrong for staff I tended to
A afTer darect advice for corrective action
B expect the staff member to lind a solutIOn or dsk tor help
C. champion the staff member to bolster confidence
o look for an expIan<.thon jOintly between the orgamzation and the staff member
B. Supervisor Roles
Tick in the column whIch most appropnately ans\\ers your "'noy,.ledgc on the role
of supervisor Plc33c tic'" each column once
The role of a Very Important Somewhat Not
IS Important Important Important
14 To impart
knowledge and skills
15 To employ a
discover approach
16 To respond to the
mterpersonal needs of
the supervisee
17.10 view supervi<;lon
f------- .
18 10 focus lin
skills as buildmg blocks
for the future
19.To discern the
developmental needs of
the supervisee and
select the supervisory
strategy based on
hislHer needs
20 To focus on the
personal concerns of
the supef'.'lsce
21 To transmit an
Important culture
22 To encourage
reflection based on the
supervisee's ability to
draw meaning from
c. In - Service Training Programmes
23 How many m - servIce traming programmes have you attended smce you
were appomtedJpromoted to your current positIOn') (TIck as appropnatc)
A 1-5B 6-IOC 11-15D 16-20
24. How many in - service trammg programmes have you attended In the past 24
months') (Tick a<; appropriate)
a 1_5B6-10CII-15DI6-20
25. How many m - service trammg programmes have you attended In the Pdst 12
months? (TIck as appropnatc)
a. 1-5B.6-IOC.I\-\50 \6-20
26. How often would you like to attend in - service traimng programmes in 12
months? (Tid.. as appropnate)
AI-5B 6-IOC II-ISO 16-20
27. How many hmes would you suggest that the Centre for Traimng and
Development of the University orgamzes In - service traming programmes in
12 months?
A.\ - 5 B. 6 - 10 C II - IS 0 16 - 20
D. Staff understanding ofimportance ofSupervision
28 What type of supervisor do your subordmates consider you to be?
a Democratic B Autocratic C. Laissez Falre 0 Authoritanan
29. What is the attitude ofyauf towards you as a supervisor')
a Excellent B Good C Fair 0 Poor
30. How do YOlu subordinates understand "Assessment Reports" or "Supervision
Reports" written on them')
A Fxcellent B Good C. Fatr D. Poor
31. How satisfied arc your subordinates with your supervision?
A Very Satisfied b. Mostly Satisfied C IndIfferent or MIldly Sdtlstied
D Quite Satlsfic:d
32 When you point out subordmates' mIstakes out to lhem, or correct them, how
do they take such corrections?
A. In good faith B. As criticism C As back - biting [) As InUmidallon
Questionnaire for Sentor Staff not In SupervIsory Positions
This IS to find out about Superdsion to the UniverSity of
Cape Coast It fur purpose and I ,,"ould be grateful if you could
respond to the p03'>lblc
The 1Il10rrnJtlon )lJU pro\lde \'.111 help to determine further Improvement
an the or cmplo)ec:s 10 lhl.: of Cape Coast Answcnng all
the a... hone"ll) .md mJepl".'ndentl) a"> would help the findmgs a
great deal Ypur anlln)mlt\ 13 a:-. ... urL'J Thank lOU for your co operatIOn
Please select (tick or circh." the mO'it appropriate ans,,"cr to each gueslion.
lIo\', \\ould )OU T..tlc the quality of the ,>upLnlSlon you have received?
Ian Poor
2. Dill )OU g\'llhc \...mJ of ... upcn '''Lon )OU \\amcd I
) 4
No, nllt rC..Illy
3, To "h<1t I:'(tcnt ha.; "upenl'>,on lit your nl.:'cd!>"
1 2
Only a fey, of m)
Almost all of my
needs havc hl.ocn
Most of m)
ha\c been mct
ha\c heen
Nonc ()f m) n...
havc been mel
4. If a friend \\ere In need of supervIsion, would you recommend thIs
supervisor to him or h;;()
No, definitcl) not
No, I don't thmk
Ye'i, I think so
Yes. defimtely
5 Ho\'. an: ,uu \\ Ith the amount 01" supcn'I"lon you ha\c rCCCI\ cd')
Imllflcrcm or

Mo... tly s..ttlslied
6 the supcn l"'llln )UU reCCl\ cd helped) ou 10 dcal more d'fccu\ ely In the
pcrfonnancc of) our mit: I
N(l. not rCo.llI) Nll. definite!)
1 In an o\crall. gcneroJl ...enw, how ...all'ilicd arc you with the ... upcn'I"'lOn )OU
have rcccl\Cd'l
Very satisfied
Indifferent or
mlldl) dl ......atl ... ficd
QUite dl"''iUll'i!ied
8 If you were to ch .
, OOSt; a supervisor, would you choose your present
No. delinitel) not
No, I don'l thm'"
I thm'" so
Yes, definitely
a Dl.:mllLrJtl( B AUIOlr..ll1( C I I-am: D Authontarian
10 WhJI thl' ..Itotud..: ul our ISO( to" ) ou a
B (wod ( I ..ur [) Poor
"ntten on
A Fx(dknt B Good D Poor
12, Wht;n )llUf )our mistakes out to you. or ),ou,
A In good f.lIlh B A.. C A.. h;ll,.k hltlOg D mllmldatlOn
Interview GUide for Deput}' Reuistrars In Charge Of Admmistratlon, Personnel.
and Training & Dco\'dopment
What is the of Cape Coast" s policy on supervIsion')
What dppro3ches Joc" the lll1lvcrslty of Cape Coast have concemmg
supervisIon or staff")
3 How arc supervisors appulOkd:
4. Are pers\Jnnel in capaclhes trained before they arc appointed?
5 Ho\, 3n: froPl supervIsors handled'-"
6 What traimng pTllgramml".'s. espl,.'clally In - .serVll::C. arc avaLiablc for personnel
in supervIsor) pOSitIOns'?
7 How many In - service trainmg programmes have been orgamzed for
personnel In super-Isory pllsHlOn:.')
8 How arc super-isors momhlreJ to ensure they are doing the right thmg(s)')
9. What are the barners to effecl1w super\'lsJOn In the University?
10 What recommendations would you make to Improve sUPCr\'iSHln In the
llnl\'crslty of Capc '- (las!')