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From the Editors News From LLT by Dorothy Chun, Irene Thompson, & Pamela DaGrossa p. 1 From the Special Issue Editors by Michele Knobel & Colin Lankshear p. 2-3 On the Net Let's Go to the Zoo! Sites for Young Language Learners by Jean W. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio pp. 4-16 Emerging Technologies Messaging, Gaming, Peer-to-Peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation by Bob Godwin-Jones pp. 17-22 Announcements News from Sponsoring Organizations pp. 23-24
Volume 9, Number 1 January 2005 Special Issue on Technology and Young Learners
Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback in a Computer Mediated L2 Class Frank Morris University of Miami pp. 29-45 Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language Learners with Computers Carla Meskill State University of New York at Albany pp. 46-59 The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities: Exemplary Models, Changing Requirements, and New Possibilities Carmeron Richards University of Western Australia pp. 60-79 Commentary: You're Not Studying, You're Just... Ravi Purushotma Massachusetts Institute of Technology pp. 80-96
Edited by Rafael Salaberry Internet for English Teaching Mark Warschauer, Heidi Shetzer, & Christine Meloni Reviewed by Shaofeng Li pp. 25-26 Technology and Teaching English Language Learners Mary Ellen Butler-Pascoe & Karin M. Wiburg Reviewed by Kaley Bierman pp. 27-28
Call for Papers
Theme: Technology and Listening Comprehension p. 97
Acknowledgment of 2004 Reviewers
Contact: Editors or Managing Editor Copyright © 2005 Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501. Articles are copyrighted by their respective authors.
About Language Learning & Technology
Language Learning & Technology is a refereed journal which began publication in July 1997. The journal seeks to disseminate research to foreign and second language educators in the US and around the world on issues related to technology and language education. • Language Learning & Technology is sponsored and funded by the University of Hawai'i National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) and the Michigan State University Center for Language Education And Research (CLEAR), and is co-sponsored by Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication (ALSIC), the Australian Technology Enhanced Language Learning Consortium (ATELL), the Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL), the Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium (CALICO), the European Association for Computer Assisted Language Learning (EUROCALL), the International Association for Language Learning Technology (IALLT), and the University of Minnesota Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition (CARLA). Language Learning & Technology is a fully refereed journal with an editorial board of scholars in the fields of second language acquisition and computer-assisted language learning. The focus of the publication is not technology per se, but rather issues related to language learning and language teaching, and how they are affected or enhanced by the use of technologies. Language Learning & Technology is published exclusively on the World Wide Web. In this way, the journal seeks to (a) reach a broad audience in a timely manner, (b) provide a multimedia format which can more fully illustrate the technologies under discussion, and (c) provide hypermedia links to related background information. Beginning with Volume 7, Number 1, Language Learning & Technology is indexed in the exclusive Institute for Scientific Information's (ISI) Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), ISI Alerting Services, Social Scisearch, and Current Contents/Social and Behavioral Sciences. Language Learning & Technology is currently published three times per year (January, May, September).
Copyright © 2005 Language Learning & Technology, ISSN 1094-3501. Articles are copyrighted by their respective authors.
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Volume 9, Number 1
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Submissions which meet the basic requirements are then sent out for blind peer review from 2-3 experts in the field. accept pending changes. Step 2: External Review. revise and resubmit. This internal review takes about 1-2 weeks. and that it is of sufficient quality to merit external review. Full-length articles should be no more than 8. either from the journal's editorial board or from our larger list of reviewers. why. and authors of these manuscripts are encouraged to submit their work elsewhere.500 words in length and should include an abstract of no more than 200 words.e. usually no more than 2. Manuscripts are being solicited in the following categories: Articles | Commentaries | Reviews Articles Articles should report on original research or present an original framework that links previous research. authors are notified by e-mail as to whether their manuscript has been sent out for external review or. The editors of the journal first review each manuscript to see if it meets the basic requirements for articles published in the journal (i. All article manuscripts submitted to Language Learning & Technology go through a two-step review process. Manuscripts which do not meet these requirements or are principally descriptions of classroom practices or software are not sent out for further review. educational theory. Some good examples are • • • Social Dimensions of Telecollaborative Foreign Language Study "Reflective Conversation" in the Virtual Language Classroom Teaching German Modal Particles: A Corpus-Based Approach Commentaries Commentaries are short articles. General guidelines are available for reporting on both quantitative and qualitative research.Information for Contributors Language Learning & Technology is seeking submissions of previously unpublished manuscripts on any topic related to the area of language learning and technology. including those individuals who may not be familiar with the particular subject matter addressed in the article. and teaching practices. or reject. This second review process takes 2-3 months. Step 1: Internal Review.000 words. if not. and teaching practices). Articles should be written so that they are accessible to a broad audience of language educators. Following the external review. that it reports on original research or presents an original framework linking previous research. the authors are sent copies of the external reviewers' comments and are notified as to the decision (accept as is. We encourage articles that take advantage of the electronic format by including hypermedia links to multimedia material both within and outside the article. Titles should be concise (preferably fewer than 10 words) and adequately descriptive of the content of the article. educational theory. Following the internal review.. discussing material previously published in Language Learning & Technology or otherwise offering interesting opinions on theoretical .
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We acknowledge their contribution to bringing invaluable new ideas and perspectives to the journal. ISSN 1094-3501 1 . 1 FROM THE EDITORS Happy New Year! Welcome to our special issue on Technology and Young Learners. We are proud to report that our readership is growing in scope and diversity. Language Learning & Technology invites our readers involved in foreign language education to take part in the celebration of The Year of Languages.msu. We thank our hard-working and dedicated reviewers who reviewed manuscripts for us throughout 2004. The year 2005 will be celebrated as The Year of Languages in the United States.The goal of The Year of Languages is to advance the concept that every American should develop proficiency in a foreign language. Dorothy Chun and Irene Thompson Editors Pamela DaGrossa Managing Editor Copyright © 2005. Number 1 p.html January 2005. Seppo Tella. It is modeled after the successful European Union Initiative in 2001 and is being spearheaded and coordinated by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL). Patricia Paulsell. commentary. Their contribution has helped to make Language Learning & Technology a continued success.edu/vol9num1/editors. Volume 9. We are grateful to our Editorial Board. a theme that runs throughout the articles. Special thanks go to Michele Knobel and Colin Lankshear for serving as guest editors and for the time and attention they devoted to producing this issue. Sincerely. We ask all readers who have not done so to fill out your free subscription. Click here to learn more about it. We thank all of you for your continued support and hope you will find our 2005 issues interesting and informative.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. we wish to thank the National Foreign Language Resource Center of the University of Hawai‘i and the Center for Language Education And Research of Michigan State University for their continued financial support that allows Language Learning & Technology to remain free to our readers and free from advertisements. productive and peaceful New Year to you. And we are pleased to welcome new Board members Phil Hubbard and Lara Lomicka. A very happy. and we welcome their comments and suggestions. Our readers come from over 145 countries around the world. and Yong Zhao. especially those members who have recently been rotated off after many years of service: Graham Davies. Please note the Call for Papers for an upcoming special issue on Technology and Listening Comprehension to be guest edited by Phil Hubbard. and columns of this issue. As always. Larry Selinker.
g. computer-mediated interactions within a fifth-grade. hardcopy jigsaw task. a Web-based commercial course management interface. evaluative studies of ways of Internet use as a language learning resource. addresses ICT-supported learning activities. Carla Meskill focuses on computer-supported classroom discourse in her article. but how to recognize and navigate the "language of school" as well in order to help them effectively "participate in mainstream instructional activity. It reflects the author's commitment to ensuring that children's computer uses in language learning classrooms are not approached by teachers as merely "add ons" to the Copyright © 2005. ISSN 1094-3501 2 ." comprising teaching strategies. instant messaging. The third paper. Morris found that implicit." Meskill examines what she refers to as "triadic scaffolds. "Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback in a Computer Mediated L2 Class." Frank Morris reports findings from a study of corrective feedback on and subsequent repairs to written target language enacted during child-tochild. the computer's role in instructional scaffolding. and teacher education students. negotiated corrective feedback more often led to immediate target language error repair than did other types of feedback. and what is accomplished by students and their teacher within this teaching-learning context. by Cameron Richards.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. This study focusses on a typical teaching-learning activity within the school computer lab where students were paired. postindustrial city within the US. elementary Spanish immersion class in a southeast region of the United States. The teacher explicitly recognizes the importance of not simply teaching her students to encode and decode. but without being told who their partner was or where s/he was sitting in the classroom. the target language interactions that occur between the students and their teacher while using computers may be just as important. text messaging. Findings suggest that in this particular case. if not more important.html January 2005. sociocultural studies of new technology uses focusing on students' interactions with software interfaces and the social interactions occurring around the computer as students work. teachers. and students' new technology uses and purposes that are not usually associated with school-based language acquisition (e. The range of papers represents diverse areas of interest within second and foreign language learning that is mediated by new technologies. These include new technologies as a language learning medium." At the center of her study is a very experienced elementary school teacher who works with beginning-level English language learners from low-income homes. in a mid-size. Each pair used the discussion function of Blackboard. Number 1 pp. participating in fan-based Internet spaces). Meskill's analysis is grounded in the assumption that English is not a socially autonomous system. In the opening paper.msu. gaming. 2-3 FROM THE SPECIAL ISSUE EDITORS The papers published in this issue of Language Learning and Technology are indicative of current research and exploratory intervention work dealing with the use of new technologies in language learning contexts involving children. but is contingent on current and historical patterns of speaking and doing within socially defined contexts.. to complete an off-line. "Scaffolding the Learning of At-Risk English Language Learners with Computers.edu/vol9num1/editors. Volume 9. than the actual softwarebased language learning resources they are using. such as explicit negative feedback.
Richards reports on the trial. You're Just…" Purushotma argues that popular culture offers a rich range of readilymodifiable texts that can provide valuable alternatives to traditional high school classroom approaches to foreign language learning dominated by textbooks and isolated lists of vocabulary words and grammatical structures. and transformation. Popular culture. J. rather than computer-driven. Moreover.) (2005). Sincerely. Together. contextualized learning support for the target language while maintaining much of the pleasure to be had from gaming. which is popular in many countries around the world. He calls for teacher educators to encourage their pre-service teaching students to see themselves as designers of "effective and integrated learning" and not as merely transmitters of information and skills. reflection. many of these studies address second language use and acquisition (cf. in particular. Marsh 2005). The issue concludes with Ravi Purushotma's account of the roles popular culture can play in supporting and enhancing foreign language learning. new media and digital literacy in early childhood. can be modified to create a bilingual environment that provides strong. and frame learning as a cycle of activity. He concludes by discussing similar possible benefits to be had from modifying voice-activated games. refinement and development within teacher education programs of what he calls. We also want to acknowledge the work of Associate Editor Irene Thompson and Managing Editor Pamela DaGrossa in supporting and overseeing the production of this issue. He makes his case by reference to The Sims. Purushomata's paper. points to important new areas of investigation. In "You're Not Studying. non-school contexts.From the Special Issue Editors curriculum. We recommend this corpus of studies to researchers working in the area of second and foreign language acquisition and strongly encourage the development of a similar focus within their research purview. and from loading language lessons to one's mobile phone for language learning on the go. Michele Knobel & Colin Lankshear Special Issue Editors REFERENCE Marsh. This simulation game. (Ed. internet browser software. the four papers in this special issue trace important and useful terrain for subsequent research study. analysis. London: RoutledgeFalmer." These activities are deliberately learner-centred. "information and communication technologysupported learning activities. In assembling this issue we were struck by the absence of submissions reporting research into young people's language acquisition within informal. A large and growing corpus of studies conducted outside the field of second language acquisition strongly suggests that children are using more sophisticated and complex digital technologies outside school settings than in their classrooms or kindergartens. music videos.. As guest editors of this issue we extend particular thanks to our reviewers for their time and valuable feedback. Language Learning & Technology 3 .
Language Learning & Technology http://llt. and -. In other words.most people believe (rightly or wrongly) that "earlier is better" (Lightbown & Spada. 2004. and frequently have sections designed with educational activities for children.when chosen properly -. Omaggio Hadley. FL instructors might do well to consider a trip to the zoo -. & Snow. 1999. 2005). In the instance of young learners. make a personal connection to the learner (Curtain & Dahlberg. if one follows some commonly accepted precepts of second language acquisition (SLA). ISSN 1094-3501 4 . 4-16 ON THE NET Lets Go to the Zoo! Sites for Young Language Learners Jean W. These sites are of high interest to youngsters. whether or not there is a clearly established critical period beyond which L2 learning cannot take place -. use of authentic language. We will examine three sites below in some depth and will also explore a third site where young learners can create their own animals and write about them. 2000). Using authentic texts to teach reading and listening skills provides language learners with real-life opportunities to use the TL (Omaggio Hadley. 1978). Novak. L2 learning is facilitated because the young learner is already familiar with the topic or content in the first language (L1) context. of course.msu.the subject matter is meaningful to the young learner because a cognitive frame of reference already exists (Curtain & Dahlberg. Volume 9. Shrum & Glisan. Meaningful learning takes place when the new material to be learned is related to something already known (Ausubel. in context. It is not the purpose of this article to review the age acquisition research nor even to take a stand one way or another. Most research shows that L2 learning is facilitated by pedagogically sound instruction that involves meaningful input and intake of the target language (TL). Number 1 pp. is to select the authentic texts carefully. offer familiar content. not edit them. even at an early stage. & Hanesian. 2005). LeLoup SUNY Cortland Robert Ponterio SUNY Cortland While the debate over the optimal age for second language (L2) acquisition continues into the 21st century -. then they must practice with real-life examples. Marinova-Todd. in some way. Marshall. of high interest. 2004. and construct an age. the L2 is presented in a contextualized manner. Copyright © 2005. Presumably other articles in this volume will address this issue. Presentation of language in context seems to argue for the use of authentic materials in L2 instruction. The L2 should be presented in a contextualized manner and should. The goal. There are a good number of virtual zoo sites VIRTUAL ZOOS ON THE NET Virtual zoos on the Net are fruitful places for young language learners to explore. We will simply begin with the premise that early language learning can be beneficial.a virtual zoo. 2001). If the aim is to enable learners to manipulate the TL in real-life circumstances. Much of the literature suggests that the use of thematic units with younger learners fits the bill: The themes are of high interest to the learners. With this in mind.edu/vol9num1/net/ January 2005.and level-appropriate task for the learner to perform (Shrum & Glisan.that is. and of familiar nature to the learner would seem to be the best bet for success. 2001).
and the general makeup and philosophy of the zoo itself. entrance fees. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! El Parque Zoológico de Barcelona The homepage of the Barcelona zoo contains links to many different pages offering a plethora of zoo resources. Language Learning & Technology 5 . Information is available on zoo hours. The zoo schedule page is illustrated below.Jean W. zoo services.
its geographic origin and habitat. In addition to the webcam. amphibians. Each ficha gives a brief description of the animal. the albino gorilla that has lived at the zoo since 1966. and a family tree depicting his lineage and offspring. A world map illustrates the precise location of the animals range. and primary food source (carnivore.). etc. herbivore. who is a local celebrity. Also accessible are virtual "index cards. and Copito. birds. and reptiles. several magazine articles about him from his early days until his arrival at the Barcelona zoo. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! In addition.Jean W. Quite a few links deal with Copito. social customs. Language Learning & Technology 6 . that provide information about the different species of mammals. realtime webcams exist for select animals at the zoo: chimpanzees. there is a video." fichas. penguins.
gestation period. usual number of offspring. For those young learners who are more advanced. Many of these zoo pages contain simple language that would be accessible to young learners. and longevity. length.Jean W. a detailed description of the animal is provided at the bottom of the ficha. Numbers and cognates make the TL even more understandable to learners in the beginning stages of language study. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! The ficha also offers a list of identifying data including weight. Language Learning & Technology 7 .
Questions are submitted electronically on the form provided and answered on the Web site. Zofo.Jean W. etc.). Colombia is another interesting site worthy of investigation. The recipient of the questions is a cartoon figure. this zoo site has a specific site where youngsters can send in questions. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! Zoológico de Baranquilla. Language Learning & Technology 8 . inhabitants and their descriptions. In addition to offerings similar to those of the Barcelona Zoo (general information. Colombia The zoo in Baranquilla.
location. Language Learning & Technology 9 . we help reduce the all too common impression that France means Paris. containing her description and vital statistics.) for the the sorts of activities already mentioned. in the Charente Maritime department in this case. chose the Spectacled Bear as her conversation target! Zoo de la Palmyre.Jean W. responses to personal questions such as "What famous personality would you most like to talk with?" The winner. animal names. Each contestant had a campaign ficha. By examining a zoo outside of a major urban center. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! Another example of an activity specifically for young learners is the contest for "queen of the zoo" that the Baranquilla zoo just completed. etc. France The Zoo de la Palmyre in south-west France is another great zoo site including a good variety of useful information (zoo hours. In addition. Most of this site uses Macromedia Flash for display and interaction. Maps with driving instructions provide for a nice way to make geography more meaningful. This competition included 10 contestants from the animal world. Moving animals make the site more visually attractive. Costeña the Jaguar.
and family. order.Jean W. Students learn about their habitat and their eating habits. The fiche technique for the polar bear includes information about the animal's class. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! Information about animals on the site can be accessed by animal names or by location in the zoo. There is also a search engine for looking up a fiche technique by the animal's name directly. The first is quicker but the second gives the impression of visiting the zoo in its actual layout. Language Learning & Technology 10 . Here below we see the listing of mammals. We see biological data about individual animals as well as information about how they live and what environmental threats they face.
Touching the borne or post for each animal enclosure brings up a photo of the animal and a quiz. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! The interactive zoo visit uses Flash to let the visitor move a monkey around a map of the zoo. Language Learning & Technology 11 .Jean W.
Jean W. Language Learning & Technology 12 . To transport a giraffe one • • • • walks him uses a trailer with telescoping roof puts roller skates on him puts him in a big box and mails it at the post office Another section presents the zoo's pedagogical programs for school classes and projects. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! The giraffe quiz sample seen here uses humor to review information about the animal.
Now we can bring the children to the zoo through the Internet. In fact.com Italian: Parco faunistico Le Cornelle Language Learning & Technology 13 . A few are offered below to get you started: Portuguese: Zoologicovirtual. OTHER SAMPLE ZOO SITES A Google search using the key words zoo and virtual in the TL will yield many possibilities for language teachers to explore. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! The Palmyre zoo has a history of communicating with young people about animals in the world and the importance of conservation of the environment.Jean W. the founder of the zoo began his career by bringing his animals to schools all over France to teach children about them.
Language Learning & Technology 14 .Jean W. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! German: Zoo Hannover Making Your Own Zoo A final site worth mentioning is the Switch Zoo site.
schools!" banner attests.. (Diacritics are supported in this environment. and tails to create new and unique creatures. legs.. This site is loaded (pardon the pun) with animation that will delight young learners as they "monkey" around with different animal heads. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! This site is specifically meant to be used for educational purposes.Jean W. as the "Welcome.and convert it into a completely new animal of their own creation: They can then write about their creations and title their stories in the TL.) Language Learning & Technology 15 . . For example. they can take a cheetah...
(1999). Zoo sites are a special case because of the high level of interest and affection that animals generate in children. songs. (2004). Boston. Language Learning & Technology 16 . & Snow. including the ecological and conservation messages that are so prevalent. animal facts pop up everywhere. C. School Web sites. magazines for kids. (2000) Three misconceptions about age and L2 learning. D. J. E.P. Boston. LeLoup & Robert Ponterio On the Net: Let's Go to the Zoo! A helpful FAQ file is available to instruct young learners how to operate the site and design their animals.).. Marinova-Todd. Inc. In all. Shrum. A. Teaching language in context. Teacher's handbook: Contextualized language instruction (3rd ed. N. Curtain.. Marshall. & Glisan. Educational psychology: A cognitive view (2nd ed. S.L. H. P. MA: Pearson Education.. H. Omaggio Hadley. (2001). we need to look for the sites where native speakers target the same age level in the countries where the target language is spoken. Rinehart. the variety of activities and approaches.M. & Hanesian. and collections of children's literature. make these zoos a visit that is worth the trip.Jean W..W. (2005). there are other animal games to be played that require critical thinking on the part of the learner. Novak. and rhymes. Languages and children: Making the match (3rd ed.). REFERENCES Ausubel. New York: Holt. TESOL Quarterly 34. and the interdisciplinary value of this subject matter. CONCLUSION When searching for authentic materials on the Web that are age appropriate and exciting for young learners. MA: Thompson Heinle. MA: Heinle & Heinle. and Winston. the focus on presenting engaging material for young people. While these are all in English.A. 9-34. & Spada. Lightbown. England: Oxford University Press. special interest sites.. Boston.). How languages are learned. D.. C. In addition. & Dahlberg.. While they are creating. these features do add to the educational nature of the site. Oxford.D. (1978). J. are among the valuable locations where language teachers can look to see what native speaker children are doing online.
sometimes as a side benefit.or educators. Peer-to-peer Sharing: Language Learning Strategies & Tools for the Millennial Generation Robert Godwin-Jones Virginia Comonwealth University Marc Prensky likes to characterize the members of the millennial generation as "Digital Natives. Because it is a synchronous medium. and other symbols). AIM (from AOL) continues to be the most popular system. Gaming. There have been several attempts to create an IM tool accessible to all systems. commitment. 17-22 EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES Messaging. in the rest of the world. In the United States.edu/vol9num1/emerging/ January 2005. Not highlighted (but mentioned in other contexts) is a means of communication that has become as ubiquitous to many young people as e-mail: instant messaging (IM). Number 1 pp. and community building. but to less immediately evident benefits like identity creation (avatars in games/chat). While none of these technologies was developed to support language learning. or comfort level. GAIM being one of the more recent projects allowing the user to login to multiple systems with a single interface. Most IM tools allow the capture of IM sessions. and peer-to-peer file swapping is likely to be dismissed by their elders as so many ways to waste time and avoid the real worlds of work or school. IM is often used in conjunction with other means of communication. ISSN 1094-3501 17 . Services such as ePals or eTandem facilitate the process of finding partners. Some language instructors are sending their students out to find IM partners. sometimes directly. videogames. which may be of interest in a language learning environment. in contrast to the older "Digital Immigrants. but don't have the same familiarity. fax. But these activities may not be quite as vapid as they may seem from the perspective of outsiders -.msu. Programs such as iChat or Trillian (and others) support video as well. especially if one considers that it is not uncommon for users to have multiple IM sessions running simultaneously. or even mentoring (helping others in game strategies or game-related fiction writing). telephone. collaborative learning (networking to develop game playing strategies). emoticons. The multitasking prowess needed for Copyright © 2005. recognizing that this is a tool students know and like to use. Despite continued issues with interoperability among different IM networks and programs. IM simulates face-to-face conversation. The next generation's enthusiasm for instant messaging. Researchers point not only to such obvious by-products as computer literacy. communicative skills." for whom the Internet and new forms of digital communication are second nature. MSN (from Microsoft) and ICQ are widely used. Volume 9. but rather a function that is incorporated into many on-line environments such as Learning Management Systems or multiplayer games. The eTandem best practices document points to a variety of ways partners can communicate: e-mail. Today email exchanges and tandem partners continue that tradition. this has become a very widely used form of communication. video conferencing. it may be of interest to examine some of the ways in which they are being adapted for use in formal and informal language learning.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. if digital video cameras are being used by the participants. its spontaneity being balanced by the more deliberate writing of e-mail or blogs. they are being used for that purpose." who may have adapted to new technologies and tools. The nature of IM exchanges dictates particular language usage (short utterances. Instant Messaging and Mobile Communication The use of pen pals for language practice and intercultural learning has a long history. IM is not just a stand-alone activity. Many IM programs also now support audio exchanges in addition to text-based communication. heavy use of abbreviations and code words. particularly in its informality. Clearly these are aspects of the net generation's created "third space" (neither home nor school/work) which are central to many of their lives and which could prove instructive for educators seeking ways to connect to their students. Given the wide-spread acceptance and use by students of these technologies.
with free downloads of music still at many times the rate of sales of digital music through iTunes and other on-line music services. Dave Winer. Bittorrent)." The idea is that new posts to a blog can come from a digital camera. One of the more interesting new uses of mobile devices is moblogging or mobile blogging. with text and/or pictures sent through wireless networks to update a blog. There is also a project underway using SMS to deliver English instruction in China. Although some language educators have recommended use of P2P for sharing of teaching resources. mobile text messaging has begun to be used in support of language learning. Marc Prensky lists a number of other examples of cell phone use in language learning. This becomes particularly compelling now that so many mobile phones also sport digital cameras. Blogging software. The BBC World Service's English section has been using SMS in conjunction with radio broadcasts of English language programs in French-speaking West Africa. a well-known blogger and programmer. Peer-to-Peer Networking and the iPod Phenomenon The surprising standout commercial success among small electronic devices recently has been the iPod. such as TypePad. PDA. according to most estimates. which is particularly well-suited for transferring large files. Java support is of interest sin! ce it enables interactivity and could be used to create learning games playable on mobile phones. While Apple has had success in selling digital music (with its own proprietary digital rights management) through its iTunes music store. SMS has been used for years in Europe and Asia and is beginning to be more widely known in the USA. Among the m-learning projects underway are a Finnish language learning program (grammar and pronunciation) and Java-based review exercises from Great Britain. however. The P2P system which has generated the most buzz lately is Bittorrent. More and more Java-enabled phones are being sold. Gnutella. Kablog is a tool for use with the popular Movable Type blog software. have made it relatively easy to moblog. and some include the ability to shoot short videos. the leading mobile phone vendor. It is being use as part of the learning infrastructure to provide students a means to find and exchange resources. P2P network file swapping remains wide-spread. defines it this way: "Moblogging is any activity that occurs away from your normal blog-writing place whose purpose is to create content for your blog. currently has some 20 models which support Java. the initial popularity of the iPod was built on the wide-spread sharing of music files through the original Napster and subsequent peer-topeer (P2P) networks (FastTrack. it has not been widely used for that purpose. Despite law suits and crackdowns on file swapping at many universities. Apple's digital music player. incorporating its own Learning Management System and speech/text tools. Nokia. One interesting example.Robert Godwin-Jones Emerging Technologies: Language in Action IMing while gaming or engaged in other online tasks points to the one of the new kinds of literacies evolving among and through the Digital Natives. is the built-in P2P functionality of the Canadian LLEARN project for learning French (at the secondary school level). Nokia has developed new software (Lifeblog) to enable blog posting from Nokia phones. due perhaps to the discrediting of the P2P process (through copyright infringements) and of P2P software (through intrusive adware and spyware). The possibilities for moblogging in on-line journals (study abroad!) or field trips are compelling. since it enables files to be transferred in smaller chunks from a variety of Language Learning & Technology 18 . The idea is that through the use of the ubiquitous mobile phone one may be more likely to engage young learners in a time (of their choosing) and a place (away from formal institutional settings) more conducive to their learning preferences. the EU has funded a major initiative called m-learning which uses mobile phones to reach young adults who have not done well in traditional learning environments. In Europe. The m-learning infrastructure is quite sophisticated. While it is considerably more difficult to enter text on a mobile phone than it is on a computer. As opposed to other services which send the new entry by e-mail or text messaging. although they vary in memory and screen display size. by way of SMS (short message service). Kablog allows users to log on directly to their sites for updating. Of great popularity among young adults as well is messaging on mobile phones. or cell phone.
Emerging Technologies: Language in Action
sources. Some software is being distributed now in this way (including language software), as well as media such as films from independent filmmakers. An interesting example of the use of BitTorrent is Fugu Tabetai's large collection of annotated Manga stories (over 4,000 pages), for learning Japanese. One of the powerful possibilities for using a P2P like BitTorrent is the potential integration of digital rights management to identify legal use and of RSS (Really Simple Syndication) to enable searching and retrieving. As is, BitTorrent is not a good way to circumvent copyright since IP addresses for downloaders and uploaders can be tracked. Most digital music is encoded in the MP3 format, whose ubiquity, relatively small file size, and easy transferability to portable devices has been a boon to language learning. Many Web sites providing language learning resources feature audio in MP3 format (for learning, for example, Farsi, Italian, French). Several projects (such as one at the University of Washington) are in the works for equipping language labs with iPods or other digital music players, enabling untethered access to audio files for language learning. The Grand Island School District (Nebraska) has been using iPods with students learning English, mostly for help in improving pronunciation. This past fall, Duke University provided iPods to all members of its entering class. A variety of iPod uses for instruction are being explored there. In Spanish classes, students are able to listen to audio versions of texts they read, play back instructors' comments on assignments and assessments, review new vocabulary and its pronunciation, and of course listen to Spanish language music. The iPods are equipped with microphones, thus allowing students to record conversations and keep audio diaries. One of the benefits of using the iPod is its syncing capability with desktop or laptop computers, making it easy to transfer files. Another benefit of the iPod is one it shares with cell phones portable use in any environment the user chooses. While the MP3 player began as a device solely dedicated to playing music, Apple has, since the iPod's introduction in 2001, added additional capabilities such as personal calendars, games, and notes. The notes function is of particular potential interest to language teachers -- it uses HTML as well as Unicode encoding. This allows for formatting of the text but also linking of files to one another, as well as to music files stored on the iPod. The free iPod eBooks Creator transforms text files into notes for use on an iPod. This capability of the iPod has been used to create software such as the Talking Panda iLingo, which offers basic language tutorials in seven languages. Apple has recently introduced the iPod photo, which features a color screen and the capability of displaying digital photos. This adds the possibility of creating audio slide shows, displayable on the iPod or shared through connection to an external video display. While the iPod is currently the market leader, there are many more digital music players. Unfortunately, the rights management systems, file formats, and add-on capabilities of the different players are not standardized or compatible. Of course, the iPod as a digital device for doing anything other than playing music is a poor cousin to full-featured Palm or PocketPC handhelds. But PDAs have not achieved the wide distribution of MP3 players. Gaming Parents of teenagers who spend inordinate amounts of time finding treasure, zapping evildoers, and exploring imaginary worlds may take a dim view of electronic games and be skeptical about any potential benefit to their children. Nevertheless gaming is attracting the interest of educators and researchers, in part because it does consume so much of the time of young people today, at least in the industrial world. Researchers are studying this phenomenon, often by participating themselves in multiplayer online games, and are arriving at some surprising findings. Constance Steinkuehler, from the University of Wisconsin, has found that multiplayer online games are "sites for socially and materially distributed cognition, complex problem solving, identity work, individual and collaborative learning across multiple multimedia, multimodality 'attentional spaces' (Lemke, n.d.), and rich meaning-making and, as such, ought to be part of the educational research agenda" (pp. 15-16). She argues that given the time young people spend in such environments and their importance for socialization, enculturation and leaning, at the least they should be studied.
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Emerging Technologies: Language in Action
Another researcher at the University of Wisconsin, Rebecca Black, has examined the interactions among participants in a Web community dedicated to animé fans. As is the case with many videogaming and fan sites, there is a good deal of reading and writing throughout this site. For the site she examines (cardcaptor.com), for example, participants create "fanfiction," extending the stories of the animé characters. Although the stories have Japanese or Chinese backgrounds, the fan contributions are written in English, often by non-natives. Black examines how the community of fans helps with writers' English language skills and with cross-cultural understanding. She points to ways in which this "third space" may provide adolescents -- especially those who are marginalized -- with means of finding help and encouragement for creative activities and self-improvement. She demonstrates how supportive the online community is for writers struggling to express themselves. In turn, she argues, these kinds of nontraditional (and unsanctioned) literacy practices help young people construct identity and develop community. In addition to this kind of peer-to-peer learning, some language instructors have leveraged students' interest in gaming to create activities tied to students game playing. Douglas Coleman (University of Toledo), for example, has used the game SIM COPTER as a basis for giving directions, as well for peer review of writing. The ESL students take on the role of a helicopter pilot and are given tasks to perform such as to find a given location and write directions. They will then re-enter the game as another character and try to follow the directions a classmate has created. Others have created their own games, such as Zip & Terry, designed to teach children English. The story revolves around an alien names Zip who crashes into the home of the Broccoli family and must learn English to fix his spaceship and get back to his home planet. T! he learner is put into the role of Zip and must interact with the Broccoli family and others in English. This game is a simplified version of what is being called a "serious game." There is currently a lot of net activity around this concept (also called social impact games), including a recent summit, an active Wiki and blog, and an ambitious project partnering Microsoft and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The central idea behind serious gaming is the promotion and creation of videogames for use in education and corporate or military training. The U.S. military has invested a good deal of work in the creation of serious games, such as the Mission Rehearsal Exercises (created at the University of Southern California). Of course there are many more language learning games and quite a bit of work has been done on creating and using simulations for language learning. However, there has not been the same degree of interest in the areas of massively multiplayer online games. This may be due to the newness of the widespread popularity of these games, but also perhaps to the negative reputation they enjoy as time-wasters, and to the complexity of their programming. Interestingly there are some intriguing parallels between gaming and language learning in the use of roles, improvisation, codes, and negotiated meaning. Multiplayer online games tend to encourage communication and cooperation. More research into how individuals in these environments express themselves, learn and contribute to a collective may point to some additional ways to harness gaming to language learning. If the millennial generation is increasingly drawn to the digital third spaces, it behooves us as language educators to do as we have done in the past, use technologies and tools intended for other uses, to create richer opportunities for language learning. RESOURCE LIST Language Partnering and Instant Messaging • • • • • Gaim IM client Trillian IM client with audio and video capabilities iChat IM client from Apple Instant Messaging Gets the Picture article on integration of audio/video into IM Internet Audio Communication for Second Language Learning: A Comparative Review of Six Programs LLT article (January, 2003)
Language Learning & Technology
Emerging Technologies: Language in Action
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • Moblogging
Some CMC clients promoting language learning through chatting online from Vance Stevens Instant Messaging (IM) and Chat Tools from the e-Learning Centre ePals E-mail service with language translaton technology Language Learning in Tandem for finding language learning partners eTandem Europa EU sponsored tandem learning project Language Exchange Community service for finding language partner Diary Project exchange of diary entries Mobile Communication and SMS M-learning EU-sponsored mobile learning project M-learning project background includes sample material GCSE Bitesize Revision resources for learning through mobile phones (from the BBC) CTAD cell phone based language learning products New way to write essays on using cell phones in writing and language learning What Can You Learn From A Cell Phone? - Almost Anything! by Marc Prensky
• Moblogging good intro to the topic of posting to blogs from mobile devices • Mfop2 Moblogging service • Textamerica Moblogging service • AtomicLava Moblogging service • Kablog Moblogging tool • Photo Moblogging with the Treo 600 good description of how moblogging works • Nokia Edges Toward Phone Blogging article in Wired Peer-to-peer Networking, MP3s, and iPods • Comprehensive Japanese Software distrubted through Bittorrent • Online File Swapping Endures article in USA Today • Song-Swap Networks Still Humming article in Wired • Is P2P Dying or Just Hiding? conference paper from Globecom 2004 • Report: Universities Curtail Online Piracy Associated Press story • Big Champage measures P2P sharing • The ABC's of Online Film Distribution using Peer-to-peer networking MP3s and iPods • iPods for the Language Learning Center from the University of Washington • Building a Corpus of Comprehensible Text about using MP3s (by Greg Thomson) • Technology: iPods proposal by Laura Hale • iPods Assist with Spanish Accents project at Duke University • iLingo language translator for iPod • PocketMac iPod free tool for syncing with iPod • MP3 Files Will Revolutionize Your Language Learning by Reid Wilson • Language Impact's Language Learning MP3 Hub sample MP3s for language learning • Audio books of Italian Literature in MP3 format • Laguinguette articles in French with MP3 audio • Easy Persian incorporates MP3 audio • IPod eBooks Creator tool for transforming text files into iPod notes • iPod Note Reader Videogaming and "Serious Games" • • Language Games from Link to Learning Quest Atlantis uses a 3D multi-user environment for teaching and learning
Language Learning & Technology
Robert Godwin-Jones Emerging Technologies: Language in Action • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The Education Arcade a consortium of game designers promoting educational uses of gaming Games-to-Teach partnership between MIT and Microsoft Gaming to Learn workshop sponsored by Mexcia X Serious Games Initiative use of games in education and training Serious Games Wiki good site for exploring the topic EAF 228 education course structured to appear like a video game (by Rod Riegle) Social Impact Games catalog of "serious games" Serious Games Summit most recent: Oct. 2004 ELLS Project joint American & Chinese language learning project using gaming Simulation & Gaming issue dealing with language learning Polyglot: Linguistic Realism vs. Simplicity in RPG Gaming language use in gaming Simulation as a Language Learning Tactic PDF format ICONS experimental Web-based simulation project MMOG Research links to papers by Constance Steinkueler on multiplayer online games Papers on anime fanfiction links to papers by Rebecca Black Language Learning & Technology 22 .
indeed. with a particular emphasis on designing tests to facilitate placement decisions. Tim demonstrates how effective steps for learning to juggle are often parallel to effective steps for learning foreign languages. focuses on the development and maintenance of communicative language skills at the Advanced Low ACTFL proficiency level. 2005) This Summer Institute workshop serves as an online professional development opportunity for nonnative-speaking teachers of Japanese language at the K-16 level. social workers. UPCOMING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OPPORTUNITIES Designing Effective Foreign Language Placement Tests (June 20 . delivered entirely over the World Wide Web employing authentic language texts. Pakinggan At Unawain: Comprehending Intermediate Filipino (two-DVD set) focuses on watching while listening to promote understanding and to make learning Filipino a lively and engaging experience. The intensive course. with a strong emphasis on written communication meeting high standards of literacy. Excel) to facilitate test analysis will be highlighted. 23-24 NEWS FROM SPONSORING ORGANIZATIONS Sponsors University of Hawai`i National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) Michigan State University Center for Language Education and Research (CLEAR) University of Hawai'i National Foreign Language Resource Center (NFLRC) The University of Hawai'i National Foreign Language Resource Center engages in research and materials development projects and conducts Summer Institutes for language professionals among its many activities.19. and interpreting their data.edu/vol9num1/news/ January 2005. analyzing. 2005) In this 2-week Summer Institute workshop. Japanese for Non-Native Teachers (August 8 . Tim Murphey returned to Hawai'i in September to videotape the fifth in his series of teaching technique videos.msu. is offered free of charge to eligible participants. Participants are encouraged to bring data sets from their program's placement tests to practice setting up. ISSN 1094-3501 23 .. participants will gain a solid understanding of the fundamentals of creating sound language tests. The use of commonly available computer programs (e. This workshop is aimed at foreign language teaching professionals with placement testing responsibilities who feel they have had limited training and experience in language testing concepts. In the afternoon. It is a 2-week intensive online language course in Japanese reading and writing especially for teachers who have learned Japanese as a foreign language.g. Number 1 pp. The second publication by Dr. Discussions of "real world" issues and problems from the participants' home institutions are welcome. The first.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. team taught by two native speaking instructors. Ramos is a re-issue of a text originally developed in 1988. In the morning. and public health professionals. NFLRC PUBLICATIONS NFLRC announces two Filipino (Tagalog) publications in 2004. No previous statistical or measurement knowledge is assumed. or. Juggling with Language Learning Theories. Tagalog for Health Care Providers is aimed at nurses. Ramos. The workshop. Copyright © 2005. Volume 9. learning anything. participants will be introduced to various testing concepts in a clear and non-threatening manner.July 1. both by Teresita V. participants will get hands-on practice creating test items and analyzing test results.
html. CONFERENCES CLEAR exhibits at local and national conferences year-round. Watch the Web site for updates about next summer's offerings! Onsite Workshops CLEAR offers foreign language teachers at K-13+ institutions around the country the opportunity to host a CLEAR workshop.edu/training/. projects focus on materials development. and materials. or check it out on the Web at http://clear.News From Our Sponsors Michigan State University Center for Language Education and Research (CLEAR) CLEAR's mission is to promote the teaching and learning of foreign languages in the United States. professional development training. German. We welcome your submissions! PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Summer Workshops Each summer.msu. research. & Spanish. For more information. In May 2005. Watch our Web site for details! MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT Coming Soon! • Introductory Business German (CD-ROM) • French Pronunciation and Phonetics (CD-ROM) Products • NEW! SMILE (tool for creating interactive online exercises) • NEW! Hindi Small Group Instruction Guide (guide) • The Internet Sourcebook for Business Japanese (Web links) • The Internet Sourcebook for Business French (Web links) • The Internet Sourcebook for Business German (Web links) • The Internet Sourcebook for Business Spanish (Web links) • Business Language Packets for High School Classrooms (French.msu.edu/training/onsite/about. For more information. To meet its goals. PDF files) • Modules for Assessing Socio-Cultural Competence: German (CD-ROM) • Modules for Assessing Socio-Cultural Competence: Russian (CD-ROM) • Business Chinese (CD-ROM) • Pronunciación y Fonética (CD-ROM) • African Language Small Group Instruction Guide (guide and video) • Thai Small Group Instruction Guide (guide) • Foreign Languages: Doors to Opportunity (video and discussion guide) • Task-based Communicative Grammar Activities for Japanese and Thai (workbook) • Test Development (workbook and video) Newsletter CLEAR News is a biyearly publication covering FL teaching techniques. and foreign language research.msu. and other conferences. MFLA. CLEAR will be hosting the CALICO conference here on the Michigan State University campus.edu/newsletter/. go to http://clear. These 1-3 day workshops are led by CLEAR's professional development staff members. CLEAR offers professional development workshops for foreign language teachers on the campus of MSU. Language Learning & Technology 24 . CALICO. Central States. Contact the CLEAR office to join the mailing list. We hope to see you at ACTFL. visit http://clear.
It also shows how to use technology when using the communicative approach in the classroom. Volume 9. The book is broken into eight chapters with a preface and index. The text is also useful due to the fact that examples are presented from a variety of ESL levels.ablongman. This section gives Web sites. USA Support materials for this title may be accessed through www. Professors using this text will find it presents many practical issues and ideas they will probably be addressing with their students. 27-28 REVIEW OF TECHNOLOGY AND TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS Technology and Teaching English Language Learners Mary Ellen Butler-Pascoe & Karin M.msu.com Review by Kaley Bierman. content-based instruction for ESL students. teaching thinking skills. a sample question reads. The text supports the teaching method of communicative language learning. a learning activities section for students to complete. Massachusetts. The chapters cover subjects including communicative language teaching. Then examples and implications for the topic are shown. The resource list may also be an incentive for those studying from this text to keep it as a resource for their classrooms. This text is best used for CALL training for educators going into ESL classrooms. Allyn and Bacon / Pearson Boston. Wiburg 2003 ISBN 0-205-32677-3 US $38. There is a chapter devoted to the history and development of this method citing such authors as Nunan and Brown. "How does technology support language as communication in authentic settings?" Each section begins with a question like this one and is followed by a short answer to the question.edu/vol9num1/review2/ January 2005. using technology for teaching reading and writing. Number 1 pp. Each chapter ends with a summary of key ideas. using technology for oral language skills. software programs. and assessment.80 246 pp. Those in the K-12 field will find helpful examples as will those involved in the adult ESL field. and students will find this text one they may want as part of their professional library due to the resources it provides in the field of educational technology. The book uses an interactive style that introduces a question/answer format to relate the key issues within the text.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. Each chapter deals with the issues surrounding these topics and their connection with technology. One that is helpful to those unfamiliar to the technology field is the use of visuals and illustrations that show Web sites and activities mentioned in the text. University of Central Florida Technology and Teaching English Language Learners is a professional text designed with the goal of equipping future language teachers with the tools technology provides for the English as a Second Language (ESL) learning classroom. resources for technologies. and resources for teacher development. Another strong point in this text is the presentation of how technology will affect classrooms in the future. For example. If the text mentions a Web site specifically. This is helpful because teachers need to be aware of the changes that may affect them in the future. and other important sources that teachers may find helpful to implement the ideas presented in the chapter. This is helpful not only to those who may not be familiar with the technical language or examples. but also for visual learners who learn best by seeing what they read. Copyright © 2005. a picture of the site may be shown to clarify and illustrate. Another strength of this text is the resource list at the end of each chapter. ISSN 1094-3501 27 . Also. culture in the classroom. There are many strengths associated with this text.
This book does have a few drawbacks. Although it is apparent that the authors wanted their book to be an accessible souce for non-experts. but a learning friendly place as well. this book presents them with basic information about the tools that can make their classroom not only a technology friendly place. With its many strengths teachers can take technology to a whole new height of usefulness in their classrooms. the text presents a variety of cross-cultural/inter-cultural issues related to ESL (and second langauge learning in general) and shows how technology can play a part in resolving challenges brought up by such issues in the classroom. These activities are already designed for group work. Although in this case the technology is available to many. For example. either to avoid those exercises. The incorporation of terms from both the technology and ESL fields can make the reading difficult for some. some of the writing in this book may seem foreign at first. She is in her final two semesters and hopes to graduate in May 2005. and the Internet more specifically. thus making it a less viable option. Finally.Kaley Bierman Review of Technology and Teaching English Language Learners teachers may like that the text has learning activities associated with each chapter at the end of the chapters. There are a few drawbacks to these activities. Overall. this text provides many insights into the use of technology to enable language learners to acquire English to their full capacity. for those not familiar with technology or for those yet unfamiliar with some of the main challenges brought up by ESL learners. becomes a prominent pedagogical resource in the majority of classrooms. Finally. "How can technology be used to facilitate respect for cultural differences within an ELL class?" The text then gives an example of how prejudice may be overcome by the development of projects involving the World Wide Web. For example. time and organizational management of this type of project may make it unusable for some. The accesss of students to perspectives from students all over the world is an important factor for teachers to keep in mind as technology. this attribute has a weak side it is commendable that the book offers a variety of options for the use of technology and some of the examples do have alternate activities from which teachers can choose. ABOUT THE REVIEWER Kaley Bierman is an MATESOL student at the University of Central Florida. the text addresses.com Language Learning & Technology 28 . Unfortunately. but these will be discussed separately. For example. First. Another example shows how teachers have used international projects accomplished via the World Wide Web to teach language skills. especially those with large classrooms. They may assign these as activities for use in or out of class to help students make meaningful connections to the text. teachers using this text would need to take these issues into account and plan accordingly. it sometimes falls short of this goal with the extended use of technical terms and wordy sentences. the learning activities at the end of each chapter may be difficult for some students to perform. or have the information available for the students to access. some of the learning activities of chapter 3 require students to use examples from their classrooms and have knowledge of school policy in their region. Thus. E-mail: kaley_bierman@yahoo. This may be difficult for students who are not currently teaching or international students in MATESOL programs who would be unfamiliar with current regional policy. which will also benefit teachers looking to save time during lesson planning. the book suggests that students be assigned teleconferencing to enhance their speaking skills. A second problematic issue is that some of the suggestions may be unrealistic for many classroom teachers. Her goal is to teach ESL in the United States. Although. And. This is an excellent way for teachers to incorporate technology with the communicative approach. for those unfamiliar with technology. many teachers do not have access to the technology needed for such an advanced activity.
(b) it enhances the student's level of literacy in conducting on-line communication. is of special importance in that in the current world people are faced with such a vast amount of information that the basic skills described in this chapter are essential for locating. Ushering the reader into the concerned area. The fact that computer-mediated communication (CMC) is asynchronous. Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. Suite 200 Alexandria. and writing and publishing" (p. "Student Research.msu. evaluating. journals. (c) it enables the student to interact with native and nonnative speakers for 24 hours on end.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. "being reshaped by the Internet: communication and collaboration. in my view. Chapter 2.org/ tesol@tesol. After briefly reviewing basic features of the major available search engines. In chapter 5. Number 1 pp. Chapter 3 discusses how communication and collaboration can take place at the intra-class level (within a single class). While the former is exemplified by teacher-student and student-student communication. Inc.edu/vol9num1/review1/ January 2005. (d) it makes the learning process lively. in the authors' words. 700 South Washington Street. & Christine Meloni 2000 ISBN 0-939791-88-9 178 + ix pp. and finally conclude the chapter by discussing the classroom activities and projects where the research skills are to be used. Virginia 22314 USA http://www. or at the supra-class level (across classes or beyond the boundary of the class). ISSN 1094-3501 25 . 25-26 REVIEW OF INTERNET FOR ENGLISH TEACHING Internet for English Teaching Mark Warschauer.org Review by Shaofeng Li." presents features of the Internet and reasons why it should be introduced into the ESL classroom. The next three chapters examine the major skills areas that are. and interesting.tesol. This chapter." investigates the possible research skills to be used by the student and to be taught by the teacher. each addressing one aspect of the topic in question. More importantly." describes the ways teachers can use the Internet to communicate with their peers. the authors look at strategies for using Web searches in English teaching. Volume 9. dynamic. University of South Florida Internet for English Teaching is an excellent resource book for the ESL teachers who are interested in using the Internet in their classroom or people who are enthusiastic about conducting research in this regard. "Resources for Teachers. the latter takes on forms like long-distance communication or interclass projects. Chapter 4. these skills can be learned. reading and research. It describes different aspects of the use of the Internet in teaching English and analyzes model programs across the world where the Internet is successfully employed to facilitate the improvement of the learner's English proficiency." the reader is presented with Copyright © 2005. and synthesizing information. (e) it gives both the student and the teacher the power to work efficiently. The book is divided into eight chapters. analyzing. "Getting Started. synchronous. Heidi Shetzer. particularly through e-mail or e-mail lists. and based on hypermedia (or hypertext ) makes it possible and practicable to incorporate the Internet into language teaching. The authors list five reasons to use the Internet for English teaching: (a) it provides authentic language materials. and virtual libraries. 8). The chapter also analyzes the various on-line resources for the teacher to access such as sites. "Student Publishing. the first chapter.
particularly the Internet. It is definitely worth reading. The first section is devoted to displaying the changing nature of writing in the Internet era as compared with traditional classroom writing. Chapter 8 is concerned with approaches to conduct research about on-line learning. the authors advance some basic principles teachers need to observe in integrating the Internet into English language courses. They suggest that these principles are pedagogical rather than technological in nature. in foreign language teaching. It defines distance education. while the book tries to keep pace with time.usf. this volume is a must-read for anyone interested in the application of technology. and language impact. is a doubleedged sword.Shaofeng Li Review of Internet for English Teaching how and why students are supposed to publish their own work on the World Wide Web. the fact that it provides so much Internet-based information in each chapter. and finally mentions the pitfalls of distance education and how the quality of education can be affected. which are so critical for conducting research in education. it is difficult to provide an in-depth discussion of all aspects of the applicability of technology in second language education. In the opinion of this reviewer. but none of them is discussed in detail. The underlying tenet for the encouragement of student publishing projects is that it can "achieve the dual purposes of helping students become active masters of technology while sharing authentic texts with real audiences" (p. Second. Therefore. Following chapter 8 is a supplement on how to make Web pages. The chapter opens with a description of five types of educational research. Furthermore. 66). He has published a number of academic articles and is author of several book chapters. This is most evident in chapter 8 where the research methodology in education is addressed. The second outlines a projectbased approach to Web publishing. First. from individual aspects to all-round application. bilingual education. ABOUT THE REVIEWER Shaofeng Li is currently a PhD candidate in Second Language Acquisition and Instructional Technology at the University of South Florida. Every topic discussed in this book is clearly described. The most praiseworthy aspect of this book is that it provides comprehensive guidelines for the effective integration of the Internet with English teaching. Sociocultural Theory.edu Language Learning & Technology 26 . it abounds in hands-on examples. I would like to point out a few minor concerns about the book. It is also accessible to readers with diverse backgrounds: for laymen and professionals as well as experienced teachers and rookie educators. because the Internet is so prone to change and so unpredictable that Web sites may come and go overnight. from basic principles to actual examples. leaving non-expert readers confused as to what to make of the seemingly profound terminology as in the "etic versus emic" dichotomy. In the third section. such as useful Web sites. it is obviously hard to do so. teaching guidelines. and then analyzes five specific areas of on-line language learning research: linguistic features. talks about available on-line courses for students and teachers. E-mail: sli@mail. attitude. In chapter 7. context. and the reader can find an inexhaustible stock of information. The principles are divided into three areas: learning goals. and discourse analysis. The chapter concludes with the description of ten sample Web projects. so observing them is essential since they remain useful guides even if particular tools change. some sample Web-publishing projects are provided. This chapter is roughly separated into three sections. Chapter 6 provides an overall picture of on-line distance education. The five approaches are all mentioned. interaction. while it is good to be all-inclusive. especially where the Internet is concerned. The flaws of the book are really minor in comparison with its virtues. Despite all the above virtues. His research interests include the integration of technology into second language teaching and learning. and planning tips.
The majority of lexical errors and syntactic errors were corrected using negotiation. 1997). 1994). White. 1983. 1990). and immediate learner repair were also examined. The relationship among error types. INTRODUCTION While second language acquisition (SLA) researchers agree that input plays an important role in second language acquisition (e. Speaker 2: Did speak? In the example above. it is possible for a learner of English to infer that subject use in English is optional in sentences with conjoined verbs. 1996. Long. ISSN 1094-3501 29 . As an example. it is possible that Speaker 1 may not understand that it was intended as a correction and may think that Speaker 2 simply did not hear what was said and asked for clarification. Findings indicate that learners did not provide explicit negative feedback. Upon first hearing a sentence such as the above. Lightbown & White.msu. 1978. 1987). pronouns and nouns can be deleted in sentences with conjoined verbs as in the following example: 1) The bird sang and flew back to its nest. and propose a role for both positive and negative evidence (e.. Preemptive negative evidence is presented to learners before they attempt to produce language structures (e.. Others consider positive evidence as insufficient for second language (L2) learning to occur.g.g. negative evidence provides information to learners about what is not possible in the TL (e. while reactive negative evidence is provided as a response to an ill-formed Copyright © 2005. Positive evidence tells the learner that linguistic features in the input are possible in the target language (TL). in an elementary Spanish immersion class.g. Negotiation moves proved more effective at leading to immediate repair of errors than did recasts. Using Blackboard. A total of 46. Some researchers have maintained that positive evidence alone is sufficient for adult SLA (e. Gass. 29-45 CHILD-TO-CHILD INTERACTION AND CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK IN A COMPUTER MEDIATED L2 CLASS Frank Morris University of Miami ABSTRACT The current study examined the provision of corrective feedback and learner repair following feedback in the interactional context of child-to-child conversations. the instructor randomly paired students and created a "virtual group" for each pair. Learners provided implicit negative feedback (recasts and negotiation) while completing the jigsaw task in the virtual classroom. Krashen. consider the following: 2) Speaker 1: Yesterday I did spoke to my parents. fifth-grade children participated in the study. Negative evidence can be provided preemptively or reactively (see Long & Robinson. Speaker 1 receives feedback about the ungrammaticality of what was said. Long. particularly computer mediated. consider that in English.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. Hatch. 1996.edu/vol1num1/morris/ January 2005. 1977. Each pair was asked to interact and complete a jigsaw task in the "virtual classroom. which were later printed and coded for types of error (syntactic/lexical).. Number 1 pp. Over half of feedback moves led to immediate repair. feedback types. Volume 9.. In contrast to positive evidence. many debate the form that input needs to take (whether positive or negative) in order for second language acquisition to occur.g. types of negative feedback (explicit/recasts/negotiation) and immediate learner repairs. Of course. 1998). As an example.g." Blackboard recorded the pairs' interactions. White. 1987. by providing and explaining grammar rules)..
Negotiation can take several forms. p. elicitations are used to obtain correct forms from learners by asking questions (e. Negative feedback could then be encouraged in language classrooms in teacher-student interactions and pair work. “What do you mean?”). L2 learners acquire new linguistic structures while attending to those forms in contexts where the primary goal is the message and not the code (see Hatch. Pinker. 1998. 1998). 2000. & Rupra. positive evidence (in that TL forms are provided). its role in SLA has been questioned. Long (1991) defines focus-on-form as "…overtly draw[ing] students' attention to linguistic elements as they arise incidentally in lessons whose overriding focus is on meaning or communication" (p. Saxton. researchers argue that the impact of interaction and feedback in SLA must be examined in different social and instructional contexts. It seems then that focus-on-form can draw learners' attention to linguistic forms within the context of performing communicative activities. "My mother works all day" as a recast of the incorrect "My mother work all day"). Negative (corrective) feedback has also been identified as a focus-on-form procedure (see Long & Robinson. “Is that masculine or feminine?”). Kulcsar. Thus.g. “How do we say that correctly?”). Hall (2000). 1997) does not provide learners with the correct TL form. Reactive negative evidence "highlights differences between the target language and a learner's output and as such is described as negative feedback (NF)" (Oliver. and.g. as in "No that is not how you say X.. 46). In contrast to explicit correction and recasts." NF can also include implicit indications that an utterance is not well formed. Recasts. Researchers have argued that recasts as a discourse structure can provide implicit negative feedback. Long. for example. negotiation of form (see Lyster. An explicit correction supplies a correct TL form after the ill formed utterance and clearly indicates that what the learner has said is incorrect. & Ortega. Second. in a form that is usable and used by learners. In order to play a role in language acquisition. Marshall. 1990). for example. Saxton. L2 learners benefit from the opportunities that take place during communication to give specific attention to form (e. reformulate a learner's ill-formed utterance and can provide relevant information that is obligatory but is either missing or wrongly supplied in the learners' utterance (e. NF facilitates L2 development. 1989). and thus facilitates L2 development. Long (1996) argues that negotiation for meaning elicits NF. Instead. and that NF contains various types of reformulation and repetition in addition to input modifications that serve to make L2 target forms salient to learners. NF can be explicit. Inagaki. First.. clarification requests are utterances made by the listener to clarify what the speaker said (e. and enhanced salience through the juxtaposition of the original ill-formed utterance and the TL recast form (Leeman.g. 120). NF carries important pedagogical and theoretical implications for classroom SLA If research shows that classroom interactions make NF available to learners.. The support for focus-on-form is based largely on three different claims about SLA..g. 1989.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… utterance. Mackey & Philp. Thus. 1998). 1998a. as a result. it indicates to learners that they have produced an error and that the error requires repair. “Pardon?”. and repetition restates the learner's error(s). for example. As a reaction to a learner's erroneous utterance. 1978). L2 learners may experience difficulty in attending to and producing linguistic forms in communication because they possess a limited information-processing capacity (see VanPatten. Beck and Eubank (1991) have echoed similar arguments for L2 acquisition and pose that the "universality" of NF must be documented. 2000. information or questions regarding the well-formedness of a learner's utterance but without providing the correct form (e. You say it like Y. including when a learner provides corrective feedback in response to her conversational partner's L2 errors. Despite the possible benefits of negative feedback. 1997. 1998). we can gain a better understanding of the relevance of classroom interactions between teacher-learners and between learners. Lyster & Ranta. and such focus can occur in a variety of classroom activities. calls for sufficient research "to help us compare the scope and circumstances of contextual conditions … the myriad issues connected to classroom interaction and Language Learning & Technology 30 . In his updated version of the Interaction Hypothesis.g. it must meet several criteria: it has to exist.. metalinguistic clues are comments. used by learners and necessary for acquisition to occur (Grimshaw & Pinker. be useful.
the majority of these studies have been carried out in adult contexts. 2002).. & Luppescu. With regard to repair. where feedback is often avoided. 2002. Chun. Ohta. It is important to examine how this technology affects learner-learner interaction and the extent to which it may differ or be similar to face-toface interaction. 1999). Warschauer. and thoroughly content-based (i. Kim. This paper assumes that feedback can also be available to language learners through peer and group interactions.136). while the rate of repair is higher when the interlocutor is a non-native speaker. Although these findings are valuable. 2003. 1977. Kern. Lyster. 1982). Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) The use of computers in second and foreign language classrooms has increased during the last ten years. Hamayan & Tucker.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… additional language learning in all learning contexts require more examination" (pp. However. 2001. 1987. 1986. 1998. Oliver. Echoing Hall's argument. provides learners with the language evidence on crucial and complex L2 morphosyntactic structures that they have yet to master in the L2 (Long. The context of second language learning in Spanish immersion classes in the United States is communicative. 1992. In other words. Oliver. Oliver. & Loewen. Han. Findings suggest that implicit negative feedback facilitates learners' L2 development. Panova & Lyster. 1998. Mackey & Philp. Thus. 1987. Kelm. 1996) and creates a less stressful environment for Language Learning & Technology 31 . & Ortega. 1998a. 2002). 1998. Nystrom. 1996. Because of the potential benefits of implicit negative feedback. Chaudron 1986. and that peer feedback fosters learners' increased awareness of language forms and. Leeman. research has attempted to examine whether it is available to learners in different interactional contexts (e. research has yet to examine whether results would be similar in the context of child-to-child conversations in Spanish immersion classrooms. experiential. In particular. 2000. however." we must pay more attention to classroom contexts (p. research must seek to understand and assess the norms of CMC. either non-native-speaker/non-native-speaker interaction or native-speaker/non-native-speaker interaction. Muranoi. 2002b. reveals that while children provide implicit negative feedback in the form of recasts and negotiations. 1996). Buckwalter. 1997. 296-297). Morris. Spanish immersion teachers have indicated that error correction is best avoided because it only leads to temporary changes in learners' language achievement and may cause learners to develop negative attitudes towards the study of the language (see Truscott. Oscoz & Liskin-Gasparro..1 Early studies on negative feedback demonstrated that feedback in the form of explicit correction is seldom available (e. 1980. Basturkmen. Chaudron. 1995. Nabei & Swain.g. Feedback. 1998b. Inagaki. research indicates that CMC elicits more learner participation (Beauvois. 1994). 2000. Mackey et al. 1998. 2000. It is possible that explicit correction is avoided because it may be perceived as abrupt and impolite. 2001. These studies demonstrate that implicit negative feedback is frequently available and used by L2 learners. Morris.. Although CMC can be used for L2 teaching. 2003. children in child-to-child conversations frequently incorporate the feedback in their subsequent L2 production. Long. Research on child-to-child interactions. 2001. Moroishi.. Mackey. 2001. Chenoweth. Doughty. such as recasts and negotiation. 1994.. negotiations are the most common form of feedback. it cannot be assumed that CMC will resemble and generate the same learning context as face-to-face interactions. Ellis. 2002. limited grammar instruction). Thus far. Breen (2001) proposes that if we perceive interaction and interactional features such as feedback "as the catalyst for language development. 2002. Only a limited number have been carried out in the context of child-to-child conversations (e. 2003. SLA research must examine whether children in Spanish immersion classes provide feedback in response to their peers' errors. its role cannot be seen as "transparent" (see Haas & Neuwirth. 2001. & Leeman.g. Day. consequently. Lin & Hedgcock. In fact. 1983. Therefore. 1992. plays a role in their L2 development. 2002). 1998. Lyster & Ranta. Braidi. plays in second language development (Ayoun. Fanselow. 1995. 1977. language teachers have incorporated "chat" programs that allow learners to interact in virtual rooms without engaging in face-to-face contact. 1995.g. 2002a.e. 2001. Recent SLA research has developed a noticeable interest in the role that implicit negative feedback. Doughty & Varela.
Smith. is in Spanish in kindergarten and first grade. do they immediately repair the original ill-formed utterance? What types of implicit negative feedback lead to the immediate repair of what types of learner errors? METHOD School and Classroom Context The current study was conducted in a private Spanish immersion school (K-5) located in the southeast region of the United States.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… language learning (Chun. Pellettieri. and the recent studies that have explored the benefits of negotiation in CMC. most of the focus during negotiation is on lexical items and little attention is paid to linguistic form. However. The particular class chosen for the study was computer lab class because it was the only course that utilized computers and technology enhanced instruction during classtime. The course met Monday through Friday for a period of 1 hour and 10 minutes each day and provided learners with opportunities to learn basic computer skills such as uploading and downloading documents. Language Learning & Technology 32 . students who attend this school generally have opportunities to speak Spanish outside the school. At the time the study was conducted. because such feedback is perceived to play a facilitative role in promoting L2 development. 2002. The questions motivating the current study are: Do Spanish immersion school children working in CMC provide implicit negative feedback in response to their peers' non target-like utterances? What types of learner errors lead to what types of implicit negative feedback? When Spanish immersion school children working in CMC receive implicit negative feedback from their peers. 2003).. The school was selected based on feasibility and the willingness of the staff to allow this study to be carried out. whether adult or child. Children come from home backgrounds that represent a wide range of socioeconomic levels.2 The school is located in a Spanish speaking community in a metropolitan area where Spanish is considered a second language. These studies reveal that when learners engage in CMC. Therefore. research to date with regard to CMC has been limited.e. The goal is to examine the provision of corrective feedback and learner repair following feedback in the context of child-to-child conversations in an elementary Spanish immersion classroom during CMC. they may apply only to adult learners. While these findings are valuable. Three sections of a fifth grade computer lab class participated in the study. The vast majority of the children attending the school come from monolingual English-speaking families. these studies have focused mostly on the overall incidence of negotiation. it is necessary that research on CMC examine whether implicit negative feedback is provided to learners in response to their non-target-like utterances. 2001. feedback types. Fernández-García & Martínez-Arbelaiz. The pedagogical approach at the school is student-centered and grounded in the principles of whole language and communication (i. which may not provide an accurate picture of the learning opportunities that arise as a result of corrective feedback provided during CMC. and immediate learner repair will also be examined examined. browsing the Internet. English is introduced for the first time in second grade. Fifth grade is the end of elementary education at this school. including reading and language arts. Therefore. Blake. In addition. It may be that the findings could vary according to the age of learners. 1998). The fifth grade level was selected for the current study because it was the only grade level to incorporate the use of computers in the curriculum. Current Study The current study joins the established efforts that have attempted to assess the existence and use of implicit negative feedback in child-to-child interactions. Darhower. either native speakers of English or Spanish. The school curriculum and instruction. Computer lab class is introduced in the fifth grade and is conducted in Spanish. 2000. The curriculum emphasizes thematic and cultural content over linguistic form. that there is an integral connection between language and culture and that culture learning is a major contributor to second language learning). 2002. All teachers in this school are bilingual (English-Spanish).. 1999. The relationship among error types. students had been enrolled in the course for almost 6 months.g. as only a handful of studies have examined the effect of CMC on learner-learner interaction (e.
Although the school has no language placement test or language proficiency exam to determine learners' levels of language attainment. She is a native speaker of Spanish.4 Each pair was asked to interact and complete a jigsaw activity in the "virtual classroom. and 14).e. and two were French. learners were randomly placed at different computer terminals. and 15. according to the pictures they had available. Almost all students were native. No modeling or training session was held because students in these classes had already completed similar jigsaws and were comfortable working via CMC. All pairs worked on the same jigsaw. Following classroom protocol. types of feedback and immediate repairs (see Data Analyses section)."5 Blackboard recorded the pairs' interaction (synchronous and text-based CMC) while completing the jigsaw activity. The teacher provided all directions." The teacher chose a jigsaw because it is believed that communicative activities that require information to be supplied by both learners to achieve a common goal are most likely to generate opportunities for learners to receive and produce comprehensible input.6) enrolled in three separate computer lab classes. informal conversations with school teachers and the researcher's classroom observations suggest that the participants in this study had achieved an intermediate to high-intermediate level of language proficiency (i. 9. Each dyad member got half the pictures (one student received pictures numbered 1. One student was Korean. Students did not know where their partners were sitting or who their partners were. Each course offered by an institution is hosted on a Language Learning & Technology 33 . Immediately after class began. 4. 11. Her native English-speaking peers at the school considered her to be highly proficient in English. & Falodun. At the time the study was conducted she was in the process of getting her State Teaching Certificate and was completing a Masters in Education at a nearby university. The time restriction established for the jigsaw (25 minutes) was consistent with the teacher's lesson plan and curriculum design.. The Computer Program Blackboard is a software platform that delivers a course management system and creates a customized institution-wide portal and online communities. Participants A total of 46 fifth grade students (29 girls and 17 boys. The researcher was not the instructor for the course. to produce in 25 minutes one collaborative essay that represented "Esteban's routine. and the other received 2. family. one was German. all directions were provided in Spanish. 8. monolingual English-speaking students of nonHispanic origin. reading online magazines and newspapers. 13.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… creating Web sites. one Japanese. the instructor randomly paired students and created a "virtual group" or chat room for each pair (see description of software). and grammar limited to present and past tense forms). The teacher had been teaching this grade level for two years and the class for one year. The pictures were not available online but provided to students in hardcopy. There were no Spanish-heritage language speakers3 in the classrooms examined. Participants were asked to work together and. and each pair's interactional sequence was later printed and coded for types of error. Kanagy. Data Collection Procedures The activities employed in the current study were used by the classroom teacher as typical activities planned for students to engage in interactional sequences with their peers while engaged in CMC. which employs activities that need to be completed within 25 minutes. a set of pictures (N=15) numbered 1 through 15 that represented La rutina de Esteban (Esteban's routine). feedback and language modification (Pica. 10. extensive vocabulary allowing them to produce discourse related to daily activities. and she was in charge of the three computer lab classes. 12. born and raised in a Spanish-speaking country. 1993). creating and engaging in online chat rooms. 3. Using Blackboard (Version 5). mean age 10. and playing computer games. The teacher always spoke Spanish to the students in and out of the classroom. One teacher participated in the study. 5. 7. 6. school. and child-associated activities such as games.
lack of or use of articles. This area is only available to users who have been designated as "professor. a button bar. He washes. Interrater reliability for corrective feedback type was high (I = . The researcher and one additional coder independently coded the data. Say I eat (correct form).91). Recasts are immediate implicit reformulation of an ill-formed utterance and reformulate all or part of the utterance as a recasts of the incorrect: S1: S2: Él lavar. or information regarding the well formedness of the learner's utterance without providing the correct form such as Is it masculine?). Say como. elicitation (obtains correct forms from learners by asking questions such as How do we say that in Spanish?." or "teaching assistant" (see Appendix B for frame sample).... and repetition (the Language Learning & Technology 34 . determiners. I to eat (wrong form) every day. TA sessions.. Explicit correction directly and clearly indicates that what the learner has said is incorrect (translation of the example and comments are on the right): S1: S2: Comer mucho todos los días. inaccurate. The current study examined the errors that learners produced while completing the jigsaw and during CMC. (b) lexical errors (e. (c) unsolicited uses of L1 (e. and negotiation of form. (wrong form) He washes. recasts. Three categories were used to assess corrective feedback: explicit correction. and learners' repairs. All course administration is done through the Instructor Control Panel. gender. A course Web site consists of a navigation path. In addition. The content frame displays Web pages accessed through the buttons or navigation path. allows the instructor and students to participate in real-time lessons and discussions and also view archives of previous classroom sessions. (correct form) Negotiation of form provides learners with signals that facilitate peer and self-repair rather than mere rephrasing of their utterances. The instructor assigned to a course Web site oversees the course through the Instructor Control Panel. Signals to learners can be given in the form of clarification requests (include statements such as What did you say? ). questions. and office hour type question/answer forums. While the instructor has control over the course Web site. Don't say comer..g. Data Analysis To answer the questions posed in this study. The button bar links users to the available content areas and tools. the administrator sets overrides that restrict or require content areas and tools.g.. pluralization. the interactions were coded for learner errors. verb morphology. the errors were examined in relation to three main feedback types and in relation to learner repair. instances when learners used English when Spanish would have been more appropriate and expected). All communication and interaction is carried out through (synchronous) typed text. The errors coded were (a) syntactic errors (e. and a content frame. One of the Instructor's features is the "virtual classroom.. verbs. The system has the capacity to welcome guest speakers and subject matter experts who can address the class (see Appendix C for a sample template)." The virtual classroom. and word order).. Él lava. learner corrective feedback used in response to errors. imprecise or inappropriate choices of lexical items and non-target derivations of nouns.. Interrater reliability for error type was high (r = ..Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… Website. adverbs and adjectives). pronouns.g. metalinguistic clues (comments. or by asking students to reformulate their utterance). prepositions." "instructor. or the chat room.96). It can be used to hold online classroom discussions. The navigation path allows users to return to any page accessed between the main course page and the current page (see Appendix A for a frame sample). Don't say to eat (wrong form).. errors with subject/verb agreement. Negotiations differ from explicit correction and recasts in that negotiations do not provide learners with a correct form.
Oh…yeah runs (right form).6 Language Learning & Technology 35 . and 3% were L1 uses. A comparison of the distribution of these feedback types across different error types appears in Table 4. Table 3 reveals the rate at which each error type received corrective feedback: 100% for L1 uses. 40% followed syntactic errors and 2% followed uses of L1. and explicit correction. Table 1. Number and Percentage of Errors by Error Typs Syntactic Lexical L1 Total 87 44 4 135 64% 33% 3% 100% Ella correr en el parque. However. which creates conditions that may facilitate development (Swain. p = . Rate of Feedback per Error Type L1 Lexical Syntactic Total 4/5 43/44 29/87 76/135 100% 97% 33% 56% The feedback moves were distributed across three feedback types as follows: recasts. negotiation. 1995). N = 135) = 76. Ella corre en el parque.0001. and 33% for syntactic errors. each initiated by a student turn. She runs (right form) in the park. their immediate responses to feedback were coded as repair or not repair. Interrater reliability for response to feedback was high (r = .8. N = 76) = 30.6. 1985. X2 (2. lexical. Thus. 76 were followed by corrective feedback. they allow learners to produce modified output and possibly notice the TL form.98).0001. and none were explicit corrections. 97% for lexical errors. Of the 135 errors. X2 (2. Of the 76 feedback moves. p = . A chi-square test shows that the differences were statistically significant. whereas 33% were lexical. Oh…yeah corre. Negotiations were more likely than recasts to follow lexical errors (98%). Table 1 presents the distribution of error types in the database.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… learner's error is repeated). and L1 uses (75%). Therefore. The following example represents an instance of repair: S1: S2: S1: RESULTS The analysis yielded a total of 135 errors. Number and Percentage of Feedback Moves per Error Type Lexical Syntactic L1 Total 163 114 5 282 58% 40% 2% 100% Fifty-six percent of learners' errors received corrective feedback from their peers. 72 (95%) were negotiations. negotiations were more likely to follow learner errors. Once learners received feedback from their peers. Table 2. Table 3. Repairs do not necessarily constitute that a learner has developed the form corrected. These differences were statistically significant. or L1. She to run (wrong form) in the park. 4 (5%) were recasts. the rate at which L1 uses and lexical errors were corrected was higher than the rate at which syntactic errors were repaired. The majority of errors (64%) were syntactic. containing at least one error coded as syntactic. The majority of feedback moves followed lexical errors: 58% of all feedback followed lexical errors. syntactic errors (93%). Table 2 reveals the distribution of corrective feedback across the different error types.
. . 52 led to learner repair within the error treatment sequence. Thus. and 2 (4%) were L1 uses. Le veo que parece que eschucha las canciones o algo por como igual…y … es…<wait>.. The next highest rate of repair was for L1 uses (50%): Of the four errors with feedback... headphones .0001. Table 5 provides the rate at which each error type was repaired. p = . Pues que tengo que mirar. two were repaired. Rate of Repairs of Errors with Feedback Lexical L1 Syntactic Total 37/43 2/5 13/29 52/76 86% 50% 45% 68% The following excerpt illustrates learners' overall pattern of error correction and repair while engaged in CMC7: Turn 26 27 28 29 Jorge: Carlos: Jorge: Carlos: Y dime las que tienes.9.. All repairs resulted from negotiations. Distribution of Errors Receiving Feedback Across Feedback Types and Error Types Recasts Negotiation Total Lexical 1 (2%) 42 (98%) 43 Syntactic 2 (7%) 27 (93%) 29 L1 1 (25%) 3 (75%) 4 Total 4 (5%) 72 (95%) 76 Of the 76 feedback moves. The highest rate of repair was for lexical errors: Of the 43 lexical errors with feedback. You know what I mean..BRB! Listens to songs with a yellow radio and he has one of those headphones that does not have cables over your head and do not get your hair looking bad you know And tell me which ones you have So I have to look (OK) I see that it seems that he listens to songs or something like that…and it is… 30 31 Jorge: Carlos: 32 33 Jorge: Carlos: 34 35 36 Jorge: Carlos: Jorge: Language Learning & Technology 36 . Table 5. Where are you? You alive? <wait> !. 86% were repaired. These differences were statistically significant. Recasts did not lead to repairs.. Only 45% of the syntactic errors with feedback were repaired. right? You drive me crazy. 37 (71%) were lexical. <wait>8 Ya pues <wait> .. X2 (N = 52) = 36. Sorry! Sorry! I am back like yeah I could not figure it out! LOL! Escucha las canciones con un radio amarillo y tiene unos headphones de los que no tiene los cables de por encima y que te ponen el pelo todo mal como sabes… ¿huh?? ¿los headphones? LOL! Los audio los de los de esos los de que se me olvida… …audífonos… ¿ya sabes no? ! Que me vuelves loco…BRB! <wait> ¿Y lo otro que necesitamos?? And what else do we need? LOL! The sound [incorrect/incomplete word] the the the . I forget. The overall rate of repair was high (68%).. Of the 52 errors repaired. 13 (25%) were syntactic. the majority of the errors repaired were lexical..Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… Table 4.
Oliver. Do Spanish immersion school children working in CMC provide implicit negative feedback in response to their peers' non target-like utterances? Yes. Why were all L1 uses repaired? At the school where data were gathered. they provided feedback in response to their peers' L2 errors. When Spanish immersion school children working in CMC receive implicit negative feedback from their peers. Immediately in turn 32. Over sixty percent of learners' errors that received feedback were repaired.9 DISCUSSION The findings permit the following responses to the four questions posed earlier in the study.g. Children are encouraged to constantly use Spanish. do they immediately repair the original ill-formed utterance? Yes. Carlos produces a repair and utters the Spanish form audífonos. there were no corrections in the form of explicit feedback. 2000. many lack a solid syntactic base to correct linguistic form. The results support the findings of previous face-to-face. and the teachers do not tolerate the use of English (except of course in the English class) during class-time or in school surroundings. The same results have been obtained in studies that examined face-to-face. Mackey et al. Singleton. and L1 errors invited negotiations. 2002). learners repaired over 60% of errors that received feedback. What types of learners' errors lead to what types of implicit negative feedback? The majority of lexical. therefore. 1995. thus. While all L1 uses and the majority of lexical errors were corrected." and thus may not be afraid to take chances when producing or modifying their L2.. the curriculum. 2000. Children repaired less than half of the syntactic errors. the staff. Although learners provided feedback in the form of recasts and negotiations. children are considered "risk takers. In addition. 2000. Thus. these Spanish immersion students have not had any formal instruction of Spanish grammar and. the children may have just been following school protocol in tolerating their peers' L1 uses. the rate of syntactic error correction was low. By turn 36. headphones. It has been argued that children are risk takers and are comfortable in correcting their peers' error (see Dekeyser. It is possible that the rate of repair was high because. It is possible that syntactic errors are more difficult to process than lexical errors because processing and Language Learning & Technology 37 . It is possible that children negotiated their peers' errors instead of using recasts because recasts require a solid linguistic knowledge and communicative competence. child-to-child interactions have also reported that children frequently repair their errors immediately following feedback (Mackey et al. 1995. With regard to the type of feedback. 2003. as the methodologies encouraged at the school concentrate more on lexical growth over grammatical accuracy. 2002). What types of implicit negative feedback lead to the immediate repair of what types of learners' errors? All repairs followed negotiation.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… 37 Carlos: ¡Que creo tienes la actividad que sigue y yo no la tengo…menciona <sigh> and decribe las que hay contigo!!! I think that you have the following activity and I don't have it … mention and describe the ones you have. which these children are still in the process of developing. Following feedback. the most common form of feedback was negotiation. children repaired the majority of lexical errors and most of the L1 uses. That lexical errors were corrected at higher rates that syntactic errors should not come as a surprise. as indicated earlier. child-to-child interactions (e. it appears that Jorge does not understand what Carlos says or at least wants Carlos to utter the item using Spanish. 1995) which may explain why the rate of feedback was high. 2003. In turn 31 in the excerpt above. Carlos produces the English equivalent of audífonos. Studies that examined face-toface. Jorge. When the children in this study engaged in CMC. syntactic. child-to-child interaction studies that suggest that implicit negative feedback is available to learners within the error treatment sequence. over 50% of errors received implicit negative feedback in the form of recasts and negotiations. Oliver. the pair moves on to attempt to complete the task.. the L2.. engages in a negotiation: …los headphones? Immediately in turn 33.
these findings demonstrate that the pattern of error correction and repair following feedback resembles that of face-to-face interactions (see Mackey et al. for example. These explanations are. however. Morris (2002a) and Mackey and Philp (1998) have also shown that recasts may be beneficial for short-term interlanguage development even when they are not immediately incorporated by learners. as they allow learners to practice the structures and to produce output (Swain. interaction which is implemented in a synchronous electronic environment generates high rates of students participation and language production. In addition. Leeman. Thus. 2003. As a result. It appears that negotiations are more likely to promote repairs because. 1994). & Park. focusing the burden of communication on written messages. as the school curriculum encourages content over linguistic form. 2000. CMC may take away the support that faceto-face cues provide. What learners may have to do for acquisition to take place is to notice the feedback and accurately perceive it as intended. which proved to be more effective at leading to immediate repair of errors than did recasts. Anderson. 1997). Much work needs to be conducted in order to examine how these new technologies and their applicability to language classrooms affect the learning context. In the field of CMC very little work has been done to particularly examine the identification of the pedagogical objectives that this type of technology-based teaching is intended to fulfill and to explore the demands that CMC activities place on learners (Salaberry.. it may not be necessary for them to produce an immediate repair. It helps to remember that feedback. students are not used to focusing on form. Recasts failed to promote any learner repair. However. But did CMC play a particular role in the provision and use of feedback? It is possible that the incidence of feedback and learner repair following feedback was high because. such as recasts. 2003. we must also examine how these learners correct their peers' errors and how they respond to feedback in the context of face-to-face interactions. Overall. they may (through clarification requests. In fact. following feedback. provide feedback and use the feedback.. they corrected many of their peers' errors. To fully determine how CMC shaped these learners' provision and use of feedback. must be looked upon with caution. learners produced repairs of the errors corrected. elicitation. communication Language Learning & Technology 38 . 1995) which may create conditions needed for language acquisition. CONCLUSIONS The significance of this study lies in demonstrating that interaction via CMC provides opportunities for learners to write and "chat" (in a synchronous text-based format) about language. The overall findings may reveal specific interactional features that may or may not be particular to context. as Kern (1995) argues. such as providing feedback and immediately responding to feedback.10 When these Spanish immersion school children engaged in CMC. how technology improves the quality and process of L2 learning. 2001). The results should be compared to those in this study. 1995. The majority of errors were corrected using negotiations. offers more time to develop and refine comments. Repairs may be important. Without a doubt. Saxton. synchronous CMC blocks interpersonal cues and reduces much of the nonlinguistic aspects of face to face interaction that may facilitate communication and understanding (Walther. metalinguistic clues. and. However. Recasts can also promote L2 development by making the target language form salient and by providing positive evidence (e. and allows for more collaboration between participants. Researchers and educators must continue to ask. Oliver.g. 1985. the use of persistent indicators. 2002). and repetition) incite learners to notice that they have produced a non-target-like utterance and to reprocess it. The current study takes on the position that new technologies and their application to L2 classrooms. speculative at the moment and must be viewed with caution. elements that are considered to be crucial for L2 development. in contrast to recasts. may have occurred to establish the intended utterance and avoid a communication breakdown between participants. even when learners fail to repair their non targetlike structures after receiving feedback it does not necessarily mean that the feedback provided is ineffective in promoting acquisition. Findings indicate that all repairs followed negotiations. can do more than simply signal an ungrammatical utterance.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… accessing the rules of grammar is far more complex than retrieving lexical items.
The essay that the students produced was collected and the students received feedback from the teacher. The reason participants were asked to write an essay was to give a purpose for the jigsaw task. The current study does not argue that all child-to-child interactions via CMC will yield the same results. The current study did not attempt to evaluate discourse techniques.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… settings substantiated in CMC still require a substantial amount of investigation before reliable pedagogical guidelines are developed. as many students immediately shared their identity. evaluating other levels and classes. The Internal Review Board/Human Subjects Committee allowed only the researcher (and coders) access to the original dialogues with names. <Wait> indicates one waits or the other person should hold/wait. for example. as socio-cultural factors may have played a role in the interactions and feedback patterns represented in this study. and only if they chose to. 3. 1995) arguing that the study of L2 use in its social context is essential to the study of SLA. Perhaps the participants in this study were courteous students who have been taught to negotiate their peers' errors instead of correcting those errors using explicit feedback. CMC strategies. learners' preference for negotiation over recasts may not necessarily be attributed to the CMC or the classroom itself but to other variables such as learners' conversational and learning styles and strategies. NOTES 1. and comparing CMC to face-to-face conversations. Additional studies should examine the provision and use of feedback in Spanish immersion schools. 7. Language Learning & Technology 39 .g. Additional studies are needed to determine what social and cultural aspects may predict the pattern of error correction and repair. For example. One must also be cautious when interpreting the results. Future research should examine these interactional patterns and determine. Once the activity began. Statistical analyses were not conducted for the data in Table 4 because the number or items and frequencies in some of the cells are low. 2. 9. Only the students who participated in the study could. 8. 5. and the interactional features (e. as is customary when learners hand-in any written work. These claims also support Tarone's position (see Tarone & Liu.. Another question that remains speculative and future research should address is why learners demonstrated a lack of awareness of grammatical inaccuracy. LOL means laugh-out loud. LOL ["laugh out load"] and happy faces ! ) that communicate emotion and help learners compensate for the lack of face-to-face contact. As stated earlier. The exact demographics of the school are not known because the school administration chose not to disclose that information. the teacher could not control whether students would eventually recognize their partners. disclose their ethnic-racial-language background. The term is used to refer to a student who is raised in a home where Spanish was spoken and who is to some degree bilingual in English and Spanish. The limitations placed on the research by the school administration and the Institutional Review Board/Human Subjects Committee were done to safeguard the children who volunteered to participate in the study. 6. children's use of language (whether English or Spanish) when engaged in CMC. language use. or general interactional patterns. 4. The lack of preand post-tests measures make it impossible to determine the effects of feedback and repair following feedback on L2 development. The names of participants have been changed to protect their identity. the purpose of the current study was to examine the overall pattern of error correction and repair following feedback. BRB means be right back.
" APPENDIX A Sample Template -.Blackboard Welcome Page APPENDIX B Sample Template 2 -. The terms "chat" or "chatting" are commonly used when individuals engage in online conversations such as "instant messaging.Blackboard Control Panel Language Learning & Technology 40 .Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… 10.
Breen. Braidi. Language Learning and Technology. Beck. D. The role of negative and positive feedback in the second language acquisition of the Passé Composé and the Imparfait. 120-136. 85(2).Blackboard Virtual Classroom / Chat Room ABOUT THE AUTHOR Frank Morris teaches in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at the University of Miami. Beauvois. (1992).edu. 226-243.com REFERENCES Ayoun. 25(5). (2001). S. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. Computer assisted classroom discussion in foreign language classrooms: Conversation in slow motion. (2000). 52(1). 73-76. M. Acquisition theory and experimental design: A critique of Tomasello and Herron.as. (1991). M. 112-140). M (2001).miami. Computer mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. 13(1). Language Learning. Blake. Learner contributions to language learning: New directions in research (pp. Reexamining the role of recasts in native-speaker/nonnative-speaker interactions.. R.). (2002). Overt participation and covert acquisition in the language classroom. 455-464. Modern Language Journal. Foreign Language Annals. 1-42. He obtained a PhD in Hispanic Linguistics at the University of Minnesota (2002). & Eubank. E-mail: fmorris@mail. London: Longman. In M. L. morrisfrnk@aol. 4 (1). His current research explores whether collaborative work and classroom pair work fosters second language acquisition.Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… APPENDIX C Sample Template 2 -. Breen (Ed. Language Learning & Technology 41 . H. L.
Communicative focus on form. (1989). Doughty. Fernández-García. & Neuwirth. 19(3). Austin. Repair sequences in Spanish L2 dyadic discourse: A descriptive study. 341-342. Instructional features of synchronous computer-mediated communication in the L2 class: A sociocultural case study. C. 22(4). (1994). (1987). 12(2). Darhower. Foreign Language Annals. Mahwah. Arens (Eds. Second and foreign language learning through classroom interaction (pp. C.). Language learning online: Theory and practice in the ESL and L2 computer classroom (pp. Basturkmen. C.).). CALICO Journal. DC: Georgetown University Press. R. 380-397. E.. New York: Cambridge University Press. Writing the technology that write us. P. Day (Ed. Chaudron. (2001). Mahwah. DeKeyser. 57-80). Fine tuning of feedback by competent speakers to language learners. S. 10(4). Gass. 16(4). (1997). TX: Labyrinth Publications. Positive and negative evidence in language acquisition. and correction: A study of native-nonnative conversations. Romano. Literacy and computers (pp. & Tucker. 281-318. J. Negotiation of meaning in non-native speakernon-native speaker synchronous discussions. (2002). Ellis. interaction and the second language learner. 85(3). In J. Behavioral and Brain Science. Alatis (Ed. K. C. H. Language Learning & Technology 42 . NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 27(1). M. Haas. 319-335). M. Modern Language Journal. Hamayan. C. Classroom interaction and additional language learning: Implications for teaching and research. R. The treatment of error in oral work. Das (Ed. & Luppescu. (1998). Washington. 96-108).. & J. Hall. 583-593. 537-547. Hall & L.. MA: Newbury House. TESOL Quarterly. E. & Lowen. 64-84). S. P. TESOL Quarterly. Language input in the bilingual classroom and its relationship to second language achievement. 114-138). A. 453-468. New York: Modern Languages Association. NJ: Erlbaum. Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition (pp. Hilligoss & C. 287-298). Language Learning.). R. S. Chun. (1977). Errors. In R.. Chaudron. Fanselow.). & Varela. (1994). In C. Using computer-assisted class discussion to facilitate the acquisition of interactive competence. & Pinker. 249-277. C. C. Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre. A descriptive model of discourse in the corrective treatment of learners' errors. (1980). In J. & Martínez-Arbelaiz. 499-533. M. The role of error correction in second language teaching. (2001). Doughty. Language Learning. interaction. (1986). (2002). N. Verplaetse (Eds. R. Swaffar.. Teachers's priorities in correcting learners' errors in French immersion classes.). Doughty. J. Georgetown University Round Table (GURT) 1993 (pp. Rowley. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. Self (Eds. Input. E.. A. Grimshaw. CALICO Journal. (2000). (2000). In S. S. In J. R. Chun. J. & K. Markley. 279-294. Learner uptake in Communicative ESL lessons. Day.. In B. (1977). Focus on form in classroom SLA (pp. Chaudron.. 19(2).Frank Morris Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback… Buckwalter. A. S. M.. 14. E. Williams (Eds. 29-46. Chenoweth. D. Patterns in classroom interaction in Southeast Asia (pp. M. 17-50)..). The robustness of the critical period effects on second language acquisition. (1982). (1998). 51(2).
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Meskill. INTRODUCTION Computer technology is being widely used in classrooms as a means of supporting instruction. Number 1 pp. 1991. 1999. ISSN 1094-3501 46 . specific forms of instructional conversation employed by a veteran elementary teacher of beginning-level English language learners (ELLs) are examined. 2000. This analysis examines the communicative dynamics of an experienced English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) teacher working with her students around computers. Volume 9. & Prendergast. This analysis of instructional conversations around computers is an attempt to closely detail and explicate such mixtures in action. and in second language and literacy learning in particular. 2001. Forms and functions of triadic discourse (teacher. & Bates. Gee.labeled here as triadic scaffolds -. their ESOL (English for speakers of other languages) teacher makes use of the computer to capture.are the focus of analysis. and render comprehensible the target language they hear and see on and around the computer screen. Both of these academic areas have long acknowledged communication's central role in successful learning with the exact intricacies of instructional conversations and the forms these take having been the focus of close analysis (Cazden.msu. Mossop. computer) are examined for their potential unique role in second language and literacy instruction. Nystrand. This straightforward premise currently undergirds much theory and research in student learning in general. 1997. In this examination of computer-supported classroom discourse. learner. Gamoran. specifically the "language of school" and the concomitant social complexities implied in order to participate in mainstream instructional activity. My interest here is to present particular patterns of instructional discourse that are at once (a) making distinct referential use of the physical features of the computer and (b) accomplishing second language and literacy activity in ways that make good pedagogical sense. the situational features and verbal instructional dynamics that can accompany computer use (Garner & Gillingham. 1996. and (b) instructional language ("overt focusing and scaffolding…[to] focus learners on the most fruitful sorts of patterns in their experience") that supports learner acquisition of a community's practices (p. Lankshear & Snyder. 2000).Language Learning & Technology http://llt. van Lier. In this case. The focal teacher orchestrates instructional conversations around computers with children whose immediate needs are to learn the English language.edu/vol9num1/meskill/ January 2005. much attention in the education research community has focused on instructional technologies generally and more particularly on the critical role of contexts of use. 1996). 5-6). the guiding notion of good pedagogical sense is rooted in what Gee (2000) points to as critical elements of effective literacy instruction: a "judicious mixture" of (a) learner involvement in their language and literacy learning ("immersion in a community of practice"). Wegerif & Mercer. 1988. 1996. motivate. 46-59 TRIADIC SCAFFOLDS: TOOLS FOR TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS WITH COMPUTERS1 Carla Meskill State University of New York at Albany ABSTRACT Active communication with others is key to human learning. Kumpulainen. Tharp & Galimore. that is. Kachur. Copyright © 2005. Concurrently. and anchor learner attention to. With these goals shaping language and literacy activity. The anatomy of the activity she orchestrates around the computer and the language she uses to support it -.
essential to virtually all aspects of daily life. A characteristic of at-risk learners -. 2000. or native language children actively learn the ways of knowing. 2000). Learning a second language can be viewed as comprising similar processes. 248) with immediately perceptible consequences (Asher. 2002).. p. Gee. talking about. and doing the world by working out the intentionalities of those around them. Recent recognition that mastering language use is first and foremost a social process that involves humans relating to one another in effective and productive ways has taken precedence over older notions of language as a body of knowledge that can be broken down into discrete pieces and taught accordingly (Lantolf. Rather. 1996). an "authentic need to comprehend and act accordingly" (van Lier. 1997).Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language.S. "mainstream" students have been prepared since birth (Delpit. Yet the trend has traditionally been for language to be treated as a given. children need language that provides access to the practices of their various communities (Lankshear & Knobel. prosody. 2001). referenced. When learning the first. Wilkinson & Silliman..must be crafted and guided in order to render what gets said and done salient and meaningful to learners. It is key to improving one's lot and imagining different worlds.where sight. The Language of School The number of children in U. Nonetheless. and dissings. language teaching professionals typically engage students in activities that make what learners see and hear in the target language salient. they are also expected to learnacademic content in the very language they are in the process of learning. This is accomplished through observing parents' and peers' ways of understanding. Correspondingly. 1981. Michaels. admonitions. directions.is that they may not be communicatively equipped to engage the everyday scripts of school-based activities. Moreover. 2001. schools are brimming with language: lectures. 1988. instructional activity that has as its goal initiation into the world of school discourses -those ways of talking that have become institutionally sanctioned or "normal" (Gee. Heath. 1999. object. 1995). The human imperative to work out the intentionalities of others is central to a child's development of a theory of mind -. Heath. facts. activities for which most middle class. and their home culture -. 2004.S. their families. 1983). While ELLs are expected to master the English language." language that has both clear visual referents and whose forms get noticed by students (Schmidt. 1988). after all. Language teachers further enhance their aural input through salience-building intonation. p.that accounts for the ways language connects with the immediate social context. children come to school versed in the experiences of their homes. Soto. with understanding having relevant consequences: in short. talking about. facial expression). the structure of a typical language learning activity might be as follows: A need to engage is established and a context is orchestrated that sets up a particular relationship between aspects of the physical or social environment and learners. 1983.cultures comprised of complex ways of knowing and communicating -where what Bloom calls a "theory of mind" is firmly established as a foundation on which children's native communicative repertoire is formed at a young age through social interaction with others. Bruner. Likewise. Consequently.not as essential to all learning (Schleppegrell. and visual accompaniments of all kinds (gesture. Such complexes of instructional Language Learning & Technology 47 . 2003). Short & Sherris. school culture can be quite dissimilar (Cazden. touch. a prerequisite -. Snow & Wong-Fillmore. and comprehensible. It would be difficult to disagree with the notion that something as critical and pervasive as language should be featured and so treated in schools. The resulting activity -. 2000. their instructional needs are multiple and complex.an essential understanding of the self in the world -. 2000) -. "organizational structures in schools give or deny students access to an apprenticeship to the discourses of academic success" (Gebhard. Such structured activities make use of "enhanced input. fantasies. 2001. Language is. In short. and speech unite -. 551). advice. 1996. noticeable. With a foundational understanding of language learning as a social/contextual process that benefits from opportunities to interact with others (van Lier. schools for whom English is their second language is nearing five million and growing. 1990. and being in the world (Bloom.both native and non-native speakers of English -.becomes the locus of learning. How a child's home and community understand and communicate about the world and how this is manifest in U. 1995.
& Bates. Each involves strategic instructional moves that. Esling. M" has taught English to non-native speakers in the same mid-size. 2001). to communicatively reinforce word. this also becomes a rich venue for immediate. highly tangible. Meskill. anchored referents. 2000). 2000b) propose specific physical features of computers that are especially supportive of joint meaning-making and instructional conversations. 1998. as a complex whole. Wood. 1991. anchored referent).. she can direct learners to manipulate what they see on the screen (publicness. children's responses. Their four-component definition of instructional scaffolds can be readily applied to what the presence of the computer accomplishes in the instructional conversation: a) what appears on the screen can be viewed as reducing the size of the task so the child can complete it. specific verbal instructional strategies known widely as teaching "scaffolds" can be facilitated by virtue of the physical properties of the computer. 1991).g. and communicatively authentic ways. The presence of the computer potentially amplifies such moves. & Ross's (1976) definition of scaffolding is instructive in this regard. referenced target language learning. and "instructional conversations" (Tharp & Gallimore. and what these together accomplish instructionally. Computers and Language Teaching/Learning Adding the computer into the instructional mix affords many opportunities for this sort of language learning activity. Thus. Newman. Indeed. Over the years. 1997). The following analysis focuses on the computer-supported instructional scaffolding of an ESOL teaching professional as she uses computers to teach beginning-level English language learners the language and literacy they need to participate in the everyday academic activities of their school. August & Hakuta. Mossop. Meskill & Mossop.g. Features such as publicness. Snow.. Each of these four key characteristics of scaffolding involves more than the language used per se. instability) thereby reinforcing the aural/visual aspects of the language she is teaching.. computer screens can serve to anchor attention to forms and functions in immediate. and Bates (1999. this role has come to include serving as the main liaison between schools and ELL families as well as the wider immigrant Language Learning & Technology 48 . and the anarchic nature of computers can be viewed as enabling acquisition-oriented activity when skilled language professionals take instructional advantage of them. looks like. 1992). Learning what language sounds like. she has traveled between the district's elementary schools to teach groups of mostly low socioeconomic status (SES) English language learners (ELLs). Mossop.2 A language educator can make use of the visual representations of a word or picture on the computer screen (a public. Bruner. CONTEXT "Mrs. the features of the machine. If a student wishes to exercise her own volition by changing what is on the screen independent of the teacher's directives (anarchy). Further. and means can be supported and enhanced through teacher and student talk about what they see on the computer screen (e. instability. In light of such optimal contexts. and sentence-level meaning. phrase. the majority of that tenure has been as the sole elementary ESOL specialist in the district. As such. anchored referents. elements have been variously referred to as "affordances" (van Lier. 1999. b) what appears on the screen and what changes to it are possible can be viewed as keeping the child's attention in the moment. recent research on computer-supported learning contexts indicates that these interactional routines can provide the kinds of stimulation and anchoring of language so central to the language learning process (Cummins & Sayers. an instructor verbally directing a child's sizing and placement of an image). From this perspective. are at the heart of the craft of teaching. "optimal samples" (Cook. and d) what the teacher says and does in reaction to what appears on the screen can be viewed as modeling ways to accomplish. Meskill.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. Special focus of these instructional sequences is given to the interplay between the teacher's utterances. 2000a. c) what appears on the screen can facilitate making salient relevant features.. post-industrial city school district for over 30 years. 1997. Second language and literacy learning contexts that promote and sustain the social construction and negotiation of meaning-making are widely considered as optimal (e.
to school personnel perceptions that ELLs' lack of responsiveness is "rude and disrespectful when these kids aren't understanding or that they don't know how to respond. she uses native-speaker software that aligns with the theme of the class's current work and that can be used in ways that support learners practicing target language around the machines through interaction with their teacher and peers. and productivity tools to complement her instruction. She uses content-rich games. She accomplishes her multiple instructional goals through modeling. Two computers line the wall to the side of the worktable." To these ends. colors. M's part that formed part of the triadic scaffolds seen as predominating her work with ELL children around the computers. This is her stated way of combating the negative reactions her students tend to experience: She immediately teaches them comprehension and responsiveness techniques they need to appear cooperative. M's classes and her comments about them were successively coded on a number of emerging dimensions. M's approach to exploiting computers for their overall attention-getting and maintaining quality as well as the continuous opportunities they afford for language and literacy learning. Mrs. Descriptions of these verbal strategies and what these were intended to accomplish were checked against interview data with Mrs. Mrs. and food. Each elementary school in the district uses the ESOL "pullout" approach to ELL instruction. the class they just came from. She regularly sees that children receive the medical and social services support they need. After these informal yet always instructional conversations. reading. simulations. speaking. M as were the labels for the roles played by Language Learning & Technology 49 . community. Mrs. to fit in. The construct triadic scaffold grew out of observing a preponderance of similar verbal routines around the computer coupled with the fact that these routines appeared to most accurately characterize Mrs.. the weather. during. content area language and accompanying concepts. The remainder of their day they spend in the mainstream classroom from which they are "pulled out" and where they receive little or no linguistic/instructional support. this can mean "pounding on doors. Instead. The room is bright and cheerful with posters on the wall. M's room daily for 45-minutes of intensive ESOL instruction. There is a table where the teacher plus 4-8 students can work together. M's main objective during her 30 years as an ESOL professional has been to do everything in her power to ensure that her English language learners are equipped with the linguistic and cultural skills they need to actively participate and succeed in school. Mrs. M before. and all out anger on the part of their classroom teachers and other school personnel.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. M). That they've got a winter coat to wear to school" (interview with Mrs. labels were assigned to verbal and non-verbal actions on Mrs. This is mainly due. and pronunciation. writing. M makes use of software not designed specifically for ELLs. guidance. Mrs. shapes. These topics steer focal academic vocabulary and each activity consistently integrates the five language skills: listening.. racial abuses. all informal conversation with Mrs. she observes. Making sure kids get to the dentist even when I've got to drive them. Data Collection and Analysis Mrs. and investment-building that are profoundly respectful and caring. She sadly describes how the ELL children she has worked with over the years have been subjected to gross misunderstanding. Children leave their regular classrooms to come to Mrs. animals. Sample themes of these activities are the alphabet. she works intensively with her students on basic oral and written literacy. In addition to a 1 1/2 hour culminating interview. and re-review. As soon as the children enter the room. and after class sessions was also recorded. and the like. Like most language instructors. geography. Through processes of review. M's sessions with two groups of ELLs were audio recorded with field notes made of non-verbal components of the activity over the course of 3 months. M's class sessions are held in a small private room. M's sessions typically consist of group table work that focuses and prepares students to successfully engage in subsequent language and literacy activities that she orchestrates around the computers. M engages them in level-appropriate conversation about their clothes. Transcripts of Mrs. revision of codes. their family. their health. and the appropriate verbal and non-verbal ways of "doing school" that will gain them access to the academic/school discourse that surrounds them.
bolded text. (b) the role of the computer in the instructional scaffold. discussed. examined. Coders initially employed Meskill.one from each of the two pull-out classes observed -. and Bates' (1999) unique features of electronic texts (publicness. commonly favored second language teaching strategies (modeling. instability.a teacher verbal strategy 2) C .. Through discussion and negotiation of. Two excerpts containing triadic scaffolds -.are explicated below. vocabulary.. Triadic scaffolds are thus comprised of and were coded as follows: 1) S . and ultimately agreement on. select classroom data came to be coded by a set of (a) teaching strategies (both verbal and nonverbal. pronunciation. Three coders. spelling. and independently coded classroom and interview transcripts. The first involves two second graders and the use of an alphabet game to reinforce pronunciation. and (c) what these combined (teacher + computer features) strategies appear to accomplish and what the teacher reports them as accomplishing. terminology. recasting. these verbal instructional strategies came to be characterized as triadic scaffolds -. Illustrative triadic scaffolds are in bold with their components explicated in boxed. Mossop. and more the thematic focus and conversational opportunities for language and literacy work that its use affords. Triadic Scaffolds Data consist of transcripts of classroom interaction and interviews with the participating teacher. Due to their tripartite nature.those that appeared to accomplish her aims -. the computer. and listening. and references the computer in a sociolinguistically and instructional way. These data collection and analysis activities comprise an attempt to capture the special computer-supported techniques this one very experienced teacher employs to coax and support children's English language and literacy learning. and the like) also served to guide analysis. The second involves three fourth graders and the use of an animal game to reinforce vocabulary.three dimensions of an utterance that at once aims to teach language.what the strategy accomplishes Those instances of strategies reported effective by the teacher -. echoing. and anarchy) in their attempts to make sense of the role of the computer in these instructional conversations. one of whom was the author and all of whom were language-teaching professionals. is fashioned to be instructional. spelling. In addition. In both cases. global and local).contribution of the computer 3) A . anchored referents.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language.are clusters of verbal routines (including gesture) that clearly connect with learner investment in language and literacy learning with the computer. Language Learning & Technology 50 . and listening. the aim is less what the design of the computer software might dictate.
and pronunciation simultaneously through talk and activity around the computer screen. Triadic scaffold: second graders Language Learning & Technology 51 . They work in pairs with an application called Alphabet Express. M’s stated instructional aim here is to teach listening. work under Mrs. vocabulary. the pair of boys.. In the following. Joe and Sam.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. software designed for beginning readers whose native language is English. speaking. reading. They have been preparing for the computer time by reviewing the English alphabet and sound-letter correspondence. Figure 1.. Mrs. M’s guidance. Four second-graders are transitioning from table-work to computer-work.
M uses in these scaffolds. 4 first) grade ELLs Highlighted and labeled instances of triadic scaffolds in Figures 1 and 2 are typical of the routines Mrs. Typical teacher verbal strategies with these beginning-level learners such as directing. It is important to note that as they advance. speaking. In these two cases. In this brief excerpt. In all cases. Again. talk and Language Learning & Technology 52 .Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language.. The trios have been taking turns playing an identification game. vocabulary. Learners had previously reviewed animal names and their pronunciation during table work. Cathy.. Rachel is watching the others. Figure 2. M’s guidance. and focusing accomplish language learning goals. so too will the complexity of the language Mrs. M’s stated aim is to work on listening. mixed (2 second. and reading simultaneously in an authentic context. waiting her turn. a colorful software application designed for native speakers of English to learn the names and families of animals. children are newcomers and as such speak and understand very little English. Triadic scaffolds: six mixed ability. echoing. Fiona. questioning. one boys) are working at the computers using The Animal Game. the computer serves to physically support and motivate attention while at the same time providing referents for the language in use. M uses to teach language and literacy skills to beginning-level ELLs as they are use the computer. Two trios (one girls. The computer used by one trio is not playing sound. Mrs. and Rachel work together under Mrs.
and focus on the sound /m/ in mouse. You know what we'll play another game. The children moreover enjoy a certain degree Language Learning & Technology 53 . giving and responding to directives ("The train"). In spite of the often "directed" feel to this teacher's talk. what is it called?") with the accomplishments of getting the children situated to use the computers.). Their teachers hear them. but may offer other options) focuses learners on attending to the language of problem solving being modeled by their teacher: "You really can't play without sound." With the older students in the second excerpt (Figure 2). The children learn the basic language of turn taking. their acquisition of the language that gets used and scaffolded is likewise apparent. again almost incidentally. Moreover. M and made possible by the instability and unpredictable nature of the machine and. the instability of the machine (it will not play sound. anchored referent and thereby anchors the children's attention on what the teacher is saying. Mrs." The forward movement evident in the activity requires collective collaboration in order to not stall. M's class learners actively participate in the conversation by moving the cursor around the screen and clicking the mouse as a form of response while Mrs." In the first sample triadic scaffold above (Figure 1). M uses an echoing strategy to reinforce the language these children need to acquire ("It's his turn"). In the second triadic scaffold. making requests.. and the literacy material they see on the computer screen. keying. M uses the verbal strategy of directing ("What's this? Do you remember? Ohh the what? Sam. M reports that she hears her students using the language that they learn while using the computer in other school contexts: "They use what they learn with me on the computers all the time. The computer serves to provide an immediate. the sociolinguistic accomplishment of learners responding to aural directives and questions in English that are representative of school talk. and subject to both the machine's instability and to learners' individual or collective volition (anarchy). This is in contrast to the rest of their day in the mainstream classroom where there is little support for comprehension nor opportunity to participate. We can observe Mrs. their continual nonverbal responses to the verbal scaffolds (pointing. etc. these interactions are eminently social in nature with children fully involved and responsive. the computer motivates and anchors the children's attention to these interactions while guiding them to affect the right outcome on the computer screen. visual. What is seen. and the immediate social milieu.. I hear them." This is high level language that Mrs. Mrs. "They get so involved with what I say and what they're doing on the screen that their comprehending becomes really easy for even the most basic beginners. nodding. M is making accessible by virtue of the instability of the machine and their collective actions in response to that instability. moving the mouse. M provides the aural component for the learners' decision-making process while focusing the girls' attention on the information on the screen and the procedures required by the animal game. whatever activity I do with them. action. action are immediately perceived (public). Mrs. Mrs. Likewise. "I am amazed at what I. They get it so quickly so I see them saying the same things I say within a couple of days. for beginning level language learners are both an accomplishment and a clear indication of successful progress in acquiring the language. Children's responses to these scaffolds are continually evidenced in their attentiveness to the activity at hand. It's great. how it could be reinforced so easily now. M models and forces meaning out of language that is directly related to sight. almost incidentally. the names and pronunciation of jungle animals. She comments. as well as their verbal responses which. said. smiling. the pronunciation and spelling rules of the words on the screen. therefore. In Mrs. Each bit of talk is anchored to what is seen on the screen and to the social process of manipulating it and moving forward. She reports. In this instance. M again using the language of directing to model and reinforce the language of school with the computer anchoring and motivating the children's language and literacy learning. The children's careful attending to what gets said and done is clearly evident. what they ought to be doing. consistently relevant and salient -precisely what the language acquisition process thrives on. in the final triadic scaffold. situationally cued (anchored).Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. whatever vocabulary. The children consequently learn the language of goal setting and problem solving as modeled by Mrs. and done to keep things moving along is. and.
. gradually guides responsibility over to the learner. 1999. controlling tendency in technology. very little bit of English. and behaving in ways that revealed strong disconnections with school. (b) their learning is overtly scaffolded by a skilled mentor. However much the presence of technology may imply equilibrium. as new technologies become more widely available. and sustaining thought. In the case of children who also need to learn the language of school. they are equipped to access the academic discourse that makes up the bulk of their school day as well as participate where they may not have before. Mrs. and (c) learners' attention is deliberately focused on "fruitful patterns" (the English language they need to learn). moreover. Scaffolding in the Wood. then. we can see that her aim is to strengthen her students' voices and participation and thereby avert what might otherwise end up being an "ESL ghetto" (Valdés." Some have suggested that having children use computers as tools for learning increases motivation in children who are less likely to be motivated by school (Burns. Griffin. or one school administration will become less sustainable. M is consequently ever watchful of the tenuous relationship between children's development of school-based language and literacy and their development of a theory of mind in their second language so that they have less risk of joining the ranks labeled "left behind": "These kids need to feel like they can do school. & Snow. she reported several anecdotes where children who otherwise "removed" themselves from the school community by keeping their heads down on their desks. the issue of traditional modes of social reproduction in schools that appears to be going on in these classroom conversations must also be addressed. Bruner. Opportunities for action are inherent when learners have physical/decisional control over what appears and happens on computer screens. I try to help them with that. Such calculated instruction requires continual use of an internal syllabus for each individual learner so that scaffolds can be implemented to give "support to the edge of a child's competence" (Gaskins et al. 2004). This type of scaffolding -. the triadic scaffolds used by Mrs. he paradoxically also sees technology as a means of breaking old patterns of social reproduction. DISCUSSION While Lemke (1995) sees a monologic. I couldn't get him to even Language Learning & Technology 54 . controlling the keyboard. scaffolding has a three-fold purpose. et al. I became most excited when we had this little boy John … John was unreachable. that they can participate like everyone else. 1997. but employ the added dimension of tailoring learner attention to both the forms of talk and accompanying visual referents to which that language corresponds in the immediate physical and social environment. while initially controlled by her. a dimension of scaffolding becomes the modeling of school discourse and how it enjoins the ways school gets done. acting out.scaffolding that is particular to second language and literacy instructional activity -. M reflect Gee's judicious mixture in that (a) learners are directly mentored into a community of practice. with the English they need.. p. he was a first grader. Indeed. If we turn to the broader context of these children's learning and the social/pedagogical imperatives expressed by the teacher. supporting. Sharp. M's ELLs are no exception. became highly motivated and animated when the computer was turned on. crying. Language teachers not only scaffold learning in the traditional sense of cueing.. I couldn't get John to color. Mrs. He was just. of control over the interactions as they are the ones holding the mouse.has characteristics that mark it as unique from the traditional sense of the term. Skilled language teaching professionals consistently use what anchors they have available to exploit the aural-visual-action interface. Her aims are continually informed by immediate practical matters of survival for these children in a context where understanding the language of school is socioacademically crucial. With the language routines they learn in order to participate successfully in this kind of cooperative work. As composites. In second language and literacy instruction.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. and thereby directing the action. and Ross (1976) sense describes verbal moves on the part of an instructor that. 45). For. 1995).. the univocal transmission of voice through one teacher.
2001). guide. A key conceptual obstacle to understanding these students' needs is the folk assumptions that the language and complexities of "doing school" are inherently obvious. Then finally we put him next to the computer and Well! He sat up! I couldn't believe it. such cross-cultural situations can become exacerbated when unequal power relations are also at work (e. 14). 1990). child-adult. Indeed the kinds of ongoing scaffolding provided by Mrs. M's talk is dense with triadic scaffolds.. to understand the language and rules of turn taking." constitute the major material that initiates children into the discourse communities in which. stimulate problem-solving. Scollon & Scollon. if they are to be successful in school. Studies of learning with and around computers consistently point to a teacher's planning. Cross referencing what appears on the screen with her comments and directives is continual. 1994).g. Language Learning & Technology 55 . p. orchestration. and moment-by-moment support of learning as being critical to successful instructional activity. 724). In both cases. and to follow the steps of solving a problem. John wanted to type his name. wouldn't hold a pencil. Nowhere is this more the case than with non-native English speaking children from diverse backgrounds for whom the social norms and accompanying discourses of school are new and challenging. and initiate learners into ways of doing school. both make use of the special features of the computer to anchor and support such strategies. 1999. and encourage learner-directed talk and action. they must fully participate (Gee. Technologies represent potential contexts where active participation of learners. 1990. the computer context served to capture and maintain learner attention in ways unlikely to occur offline. Such incidents parallel those of Elliot & Hall (1997) who found that explicit modeling of self-regulating behaviors around computer tasks contributed to better performance of at-risk preschoolers. Mossop. use talk that reflects an "implicit model of literate discourse" that too often neither considers nor accommodates learners who have yet to be initiated into this specific genre of communication (Cazden. 2000a. anchor discourse. M and those explicitly modeled and encouraged in the Elliot and Hall study are quite similar.. Through this kind of activity. Palumbo & Bermudez. Schleppegrell. And here he's typing his name. 2001. p. Indeed. Meskill. 1988. This folk model can spell disaster for those whose cultural/familial backgrounds do not mirror nor prepare children for these complexities. parent-teacher. we can observe her capitalizing on the physicality of the computer to orchestrate language and literacy learning. see Darder. 1991. 1991. this is a kid I couldn't get a pencil in his hand. Deconstructing the obvious is the ESOL specialist's first line strategy: Undertaking careful analysis of what children need to know in a given context. CONCLUSION Oftentimes a lack of understanding on the part of educators concerning English language learners places their education in jeopardy. but rather specific verbal abilities tied to specific school-based practices and schoolbased genres of oral and written language" (Gee. Johnson. He had his head down on the desk most of the day -. in conjunction with caring teachers. children learn to respond appropriately to oral directives and suggestions. "The verbal abilities that children who fail in school lack are not just some general set of such abilities. but not John. 2001. Mrs. This experienced instructor exploits the machines in her classroom to stimulate children's enthusiasm for learning while exploiting the computers' special language and literacy affordances in ways that model. In school. he wanted to interact. I mean his eyes were bright! And I thought my god look at this kid..in his regular classroom and with me. he wanted to do something. Nothing turned John on.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. can be orchestrated and orchestrated well (Heath. what Wootton (1997) terms forms of "successive guidance. That was a real turning point. & Bates. Her second is to orchestrate instructional activity that apprentices her students to learning language that can help them navigate and participate. because I had other first graders and we did lots of little fun projects and the other six year olds were joining in. He had a smile on his face. The kinds of verbal routines that are used to regulate and model regulation. those in power. he was so lethargic. On a moment-by-moment basis. get excited about using markers. It was amazing to me. And I was surprised by that. and he started. She exploits the computer for its capacity to draw and maintain learner focus. teachers.
This project was supported in part by the National Center on English Learning and Achievement (CELA). these children may be better poised to claim their identities and participate in the (re)shaping of schools than were they not so equipped. c. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the American Educational Research Association Conference 2001. PUBLICNESS: The feature of publicness is defined as public nature of electronic texts that prompts. WA. b. empirical studies of programs of excellence for ELL children continue to point to excellent teachers as the prevailing influence on school success (Burns. However. these instructional sequences are just the beginning of their guided immersion into the world of the cognitive academic language they must master to participate in the mainstream. Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement (Award #R305A60005).S. and the anarchic feature to encourage learner volition and autonomy. 2000. Relational structures of information is often invisible.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. a process that risks derailing if the foundational language of doing school is not first mastered and used to access institutional streams of meaning. 2. and form-meaning correspondances. Berg. what Mrs. For Mrs. The Center is supported by the U. Technology represents no magic bullet for the problems of schooling. ANCHORED REFERENTS: Electronic texts provide immediate concrete referents to which talk can be anchored. Department of Education (Award #T195A970024-99).S. M's teaching reaffirms the critical role of caring. At first blush. Delineated strategies and routines for giving and guiding the voice of at-risk English Language Learners as they use computers can serve as a basis for future empirical work on computersupported learning dynamics as well as points for modeling and discussion in professional development in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). & Snow. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the Department. supports. Lasley. Griffin. a language and literacy training project funded through the Office for English Language Acquisition (OELA). & Bates. Indeed. As active participants they are positioned to construct their contexts of being and learning. This lack of predictability provokes the kind of thinking and conjecture reflected in critical thinking and the literacy/acquisition oriented discourse that accompanies it. 1999: a. This is most frequently manifest in learners and teachers pointing with their fingers or with the cursor (mouse) to something on the screen that illustrates (anchors) their talk and thus both meshes aural and visual. especially school-based print. 1998). thoughtful educators in meeting the widely varying needs of ever-changing populations of school age children while illustrating ways that computers can be thoughtfully integrated into language and literacy instruction. and changes. & Raisch. d. a process that benefits from inclusion as opposed to exclusion. and acceptance at school. and indeed to some extent it is. Mossop. NOTES 1. disappears.. ANARCHY: This feature directly contrasts with traditional linear/hierarchical forms of representation characteristic of the print medium. M's ELLs. Seattle. U. and facilitates rich discourse on the part of learners and their teachers. This feature is defined Language Learning & Technology 56 . equipped with the language that gains them access to. 1999) and that exemplary uses of technologies with elementary students are typically driven by constructivist models of teaching and learning (Becker. M does with her learners may look like social reproduction of mainstream discourse structures. Information appears. She makes use of the unstable feature to model problem solving and the language through which it can take place. INSTABILITY: Electronic texts are unstable. The following is from Meskill. Benz. Partial support was also provided by The Language Advocacy Project. University at Albany. She uses the public feature to anchor language and attention to language. This examination of Mrs. This seasoned teacher's instruction with computers and ELLs employs specific strategies that exploit the physical features of the medium to assist children in learning the language that will help them navigate these contexts..
J. E-mail: cmeskill@uamail. space. Learning another language through actions: The complete teacher's guidebook. & Raisch. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education. The National Research Council. Cook. R. J. (1998). Elliot. & Hakuta. T. In P. D. (2001). Griffin. Garner. (1999). (1991). N. Cambridge. C. Findings from the teaching.. & Snow.. and culture. MA: Harvard University Press. CA: Sky Oaks Productions. Brave new schools: Challenging cultural illiteracy. C.. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. K. Westport. Los Gatos.. (2000). 187-198. August. CT: Bergin & Garvey. The impact of self-regulatory teaching strategies on "at-risk" preschoolers' mathematical learning in a computer-mediated environment. Lasley. rather than preset.asu. Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning. as learners exercising volition and control over the order and direction of their interaction with electronic texts.. Darder.Carla Meskill Triadic Scaffolds: Tools for Teaching English Language. from http://epaa. C.. 8(2). S. (1988). Bloom. Washington. A. NH: Heinemann. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Carla Meskill is Associate Professor.albany. J. Martin's Press. C. & Hall. Dunkel (Ed. New York: The New Press. Delpit. Culture and power in the classroom. Becker. Benz. New York: Newbury House. L. Evidence is discourse and action that reveals learners interacting with information in an anarchic. (1995). M. Cazden. Mahwah. Researching the effects of networking: Evaluating the spoken and written discourse generated by working with CALL. Department of Educational Theory and Practice.111-122. learning and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? Education Policy Analysis Archives. & Gillingham. D..). J. Burns.. M. Portsmouth. Journal of Research on Computing in Education. (1997). Language Learning & Technology 57 .. A.. (1996) The culture of education.edu REFERENCES Asher. 111-131). Bruner. & Sayers. Educating language-minority children. Other people's children: Cultural conflict in the classroom. New York: St. Retrieved May 20.edu/epaa/v8n51/ Berg. 2004. V. H. (1996). DC: National Academy Press. 8(51). Cambridge. 31(2). How children learn the meanings of words. Exemplary technology use in elementary classrooms. (1997). Washington. MA: MIT Press. D. P.. Second language learning and teaching. DC: National Academy Press. Esling. (2001). (1991). New York: Arnold. Starting out right: A guide to promoting children's reading success. Computer-assisted language learning and testing: Research issues and practices (pp. Cummins. (1988). Internet communication in six classrooms: Conversations across time. (1998). linear fashion. Her research interests include the communicative dynamics and consequent language and literacy learning that the uses of technologies can provoke and sustain.
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interaction. communication.edu/vol9num1/richards/ January 2005. to build upon related learner-centered strategies for integrating ICT resources and tools. 2000. Number 1 pp.msu. ICTs are often used as an "add-on" in the classroom. p. as are specific methods and models. Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are often used as an "add-on" in many classrooms and in many lesson plans. CHANGING REQUIREMENTS. and teachers often resent the naïve rhetoric of ICT integration typically associated with top-down policy imperatives (Cuban. demonstrations of cutting-edge programs and possibilities often intimidate rather than encourage educators. 78) INTRODUCTION: THE CHALLENGE OF "DESIGNING" LEARNING FOR ICT INTEGRATION In general. (March. we need an as yet unknown nonexistent theory of the structure and evolution of activities. and applied interactions. 2001) How do we understand persistence. (Disessa. ISSN 1094-3501 60 . To the extent that such approaches go beyond and transform traditional "transmission" models of teaching and formal lesson planning. As one possible strategy in this direction. many teachers find that interesting and wellplanned tasks. The Internet is an embarrassment of riches that is next to worthless without an educator to facilitate learning and integration in classrooms … what tends to be in shorter supply are specific learning activities that make use of this wealth. Despite an often instinctive skepticism. many teachers have a Copyright © 2005. Case studies from teacher education foundation courses provide an exemplary focus of inquiry in order to better link relevant new theories or models of learning with practice. Relevant contexts or frameworks for practical integration which link to both the curriculum and the learning process are also needed. The challenge for teachers to more effectively harness the educational implications and possibilities of ICT learning resources and tools is not simply a problem of finding sufficient time to develop appropriate computer skills or even think about potential applications. University of Western Australia ABSTRACT Despite the imperatives of policy and rhetoric about their integration in formal education.decays of old lines of work and the emergence of really new ones? For this. and knowledge construction of young learners. Volume 9. Healy. Nevertheless. Internet communications and interactive multimedia to engage the interest. projects.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. AND NEW POSSIBILITIES Cameron Richards Graduate School of Education. but also the reasons for transformation -. 60-79 THE DESIGN OF EFFECTIVE ICT-SUPPORTED LEARNING ACTIVITIES: EXEMPLARY MODELS. and resources provide a key to harnessing the educational potential of digital resources. and to incorporate interdependent functions of learning as information access. this paper investigates the changing requirements and new possibilities represented by the challenge of integrating ICTs in education in a way which at the same time connects more effectively with both the specific contents of the curriculum and the various stages and elements of the learning process. 1998). 2001. the concept of an "ICTsupported learning activity" suggests the need for teachers to approach this increasing challenge more as "designers" of effective and integrated learning rather than mere "transmitters" of skills or information through an add-on use of ICTs .
The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities...
general awareness that the Internet offers a rich source of potential learning resources, that multimedia tools and design can make interesting, impressive, and interactive tools of learning, and that many of their colleagues are finding ways of harnessing the learning possibilities of ICTs in unique contexts. Even an ICT-resistant "traditional" teacher cannot deny that the World Wide Web (WWW) houses endless and ever-current information on all manner of topics, and that multimedia CD-ROMs are at the very least useful for skills-based tutorials or for making information links more attractive. The inquiry represented by this paper began with an interest in developing transferable design principles for a teacher education context out of the many good ideas and examples of good practice available. This goal initially proved to be most elusive because of the difficulty of distinguishing between contextspecific factors related to teaching and learning and any inherent principles of design that might be at work. Effective learning through an integrated use of ICTs often occurs despite, and not because of, the role of the teacher (Loveless, Devoogd, & Bohlin, 2001). Yet relevant designs for learning with ICTs can certainly enhance this possibility. An initial review suggested some inherent principles and strategies at work in effective examples and models of teaching with ICTs that emphasize an activity-based approach (e.g., Thomas & Knezek, 2002), hence the interest in alternative requirements needed to more effectively integrate ICTs in teaching and learning. This paper therefore investigates the idea that an emergent notion of "ICT-supported learning activity design" provides an antidote of sorts to an add-on use of ICT in education. This is insofar as the conventional generic structures of formal lesson-planning and syllabus design tend to reflect a view of learning as essentially a transmission of information or skills, as distinct from a dialogue between teacher and learner or an interaction between learners and the learning process (e.g., Laurillard, 2002) One principle which suggested itself from the outset is that effective teachers tend to see ICT resources and tools as much more than an extension of "traditional" print resources, existing classroom practices, and "curriculum-as-content" transmission. The integration of ICTs in teaching and learning is more likely if the tools and resources of the Internet, multimedia, and related technologies are seen as being integrally connected with literacy learning in the wider sense of learning as a matter of accessing information, communicating, and applying knowledge (Kress, 2003; Lankshear & Snyder, 2000). In other words, to the extent that they represent new tools, media, and functions of learning in the digital age, ICTs complement, extend, and transform the role of language-across-the-curriculum in learning as the very basis of generic skills or competencies and applied knowledge as well as mere skill or content transmission. Thus, it might be argued that an across-the-curriculum approach does not just complement and extend a more skills-focused and specialized use of ICT in formal education, but is a key to ICT integration in teaching and learning (Richards, 1998; Roblyer & Edwards, 2000). In addition to promoting the learning of generic skills and applied knowledge orientations instead of mere skill or content transmission, an across-the-curriculum approach is useful for recognizing and promoting the idea that to effectively integrate ICT in education teachers need to increasingly become designers rather than merely transmitters of learning (Kimber, 2003). Such an approach naturally also extends a "new literacies" perspective of how language and literacy learning as formal study is more effective and relevant in various ways if grounded in the functions and aspects of informal everyday discourses and interactions outside the classroom (Cope & Kalantzis, 2000). This is especially true in the digital age where young learners tend to be more confident and have greater familiarity with everyday (especially visual) literacy aspects and functions mediated by ICTs than older teachers and parents (Hird, 2000; Richards, 2000). The importance of every learner and teacher becoming designers of meaning through new ICT literacies has been well argued by Kress (1997), an influential critical literacy and language theorist. Kress's recent work has increasingly focused on how effective multimodal literacy learning needs to be grounded in (not merely imposed on) everyday practices and contexts. Kress's notion that design precedes yet is interdependent with evaluation in terms of the literacy (i.e., to the extent that
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The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities...
writing and reading are aspects of design and evaluation) as well as learning aspects of education in the digital age, suggests the need for new approaches to learning design also. As will be discussed further, many of the new learner-centred concepts and models point in a similar direction but are often either practiced or theorised in a way which inadvertently reinforces teachercentred or transmission approach assumptions. Practical concepts such as problem-based learning, collaborative learning, project work, authentic assessment, and inquiry-based activities all represent alternatives to the linear and hierarchical assumptions of formal lesson-planning and course design, yet tend to be seen in either opposition to or as an add-on to traditional educational design. To the extent that they provide exemplary foci for discussing the learner-centred implications of ICT tools and resources (Jonassen, Howland, Moore, & Marra, 2003), such approaches emphasize how effective learning should rather be understood as a process, cycle and/or set of stages proceeding from initial skill or information acquisition to more applied and reflective understanding, knowledge and even innovation . Kolb's (1984) influential model of the learning process usefully lends itself to the practical requirements of ICT integration in terms of how it outlines a practice-reflection cycle proceeding as distinct stages of concrete experience, observation, conceptual abstraction and testing. Likewise, Sandholtz, Ringstaff, and Dwyer (2000) have developed a well-known model of instructional "evolution" as a traversal of five stages (entry, adoption, adaptation, appropriation, and invention). However such models or theories tend to view learning processes, cycles, or stages independently of context and often fail to recognize the discontinuities or "missing links" between learner doing and thinking, educational practice and theory, and ICT skills or information and applied understanding or innovation (e.g., Beard & Wilson, 2002). The hands-on requirements of ICT integration suggest how such models need to be more effectively grounded in the very situational contexts of practice, application, and various related notions of activity which every teacher needs to negotiate. The challenge of ICT integration also represents a good opportunity for productive change and interesting innovations. THE CONTEXT AND DESIGN OF THE INQUIRY Context This paper represents an inquiry which proceeded for several years in teacher education ICT foundation courses taught in Singapore, and more recently Hong Kong, based on earlier interests and experiences of coordinating similar courses at Queensland University of Technology in Australia. It also developed as an implicit focus of two related projects undertaken in Singapore and Hong Kong: (a) the design and development of a model of activity-reflection e-portfolios as a learning and assessment strategy for ICT integration, and (b) a practical and conceptual investigation into a convergent model of ICT-supported learning environments (Richards, 2002, 2003). Whilst undertaken in different cultural contexts where language education and issues were significant, the most relevant context of the inquiry was a global one related to how new learner-centered practical models and theoretical projections offer the promise of a more effective approach to integrating ICTs in teaching and learning than still often dominant teachercentered, transmission and rote learning approaches and practices. The teaching modules which were the focus of the inquiry involved foundational ICT courses with common objectives for both across-the-curriculum classes and also language education classes from both primary and secondary level teacher education programs. While the specific purposes and contexts of ICT integration in teaching and learning varied somewhat in different classes, the inquiry addressed and responded to the challenge of the common main aim of foundational ICT teacher education modules, namely, to prepare future teachers to respond more effectively to the challenge of integrating ICTs in their pupils' learning and also in their own specific teaching contexts. In short, the specific inquiry represented by this paper is one of how might teachers be prepared and encouraged at practical, concrete, and "micro" as well as reflective levels of pedagogical design to integrate ICTs more effectively in their pupils'
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The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities...
learning and in their own teaching? In other words, how might we identify, represent, and make transferable the pedagogical principles of an alternative design strategy which seems to be implicit in both examples of good practices and influential practical design concepts such as project-based learning, problem-based learning, collaborative learning, authentic assessment, and so forth? The challenge of ICT integration in education is intensified, and therefore exemplified, in contexts such as Singapore and Hong Kong. The Hong Kong Department of Education followed Singapore's example in developing an initial five-year plan in the late 1990s to increase access to computers and the Internet in school classrooms. Both Singapore and Hong Kong have ambitious and innovative policy projections which strongly link the challenge of ICT integration to new student-centered theories of learning as well as to strategies of educational reform relevant to an emerging global economy (Hong Kong Education Commission, 2002; Singapore MOE, 2002). However, despite increased access to ICTs, the schooling systems in both countries still remain largely dominated by an exam-driven curriculum and traditional teacher-centered methods of pedagogy (Pearson, 2001). Such contexts thus made it more difficult in some ways and easier in others to emphasize to students how the challenge of ICT integration exemplifies a larger challenge for teachers of the future to design contexts for more active and effective learning, that is, to go beyond related paradigms of teaching and formal education in both "traditional" and industrialized societies as primarily the transmission of information or skills in isolation or for its own sake. The comparative context of the study thus emphasized that a generational gap between older teachers and younger students, who embrace a global "wired" culture at home, was as significant as the cross-cultural clash between traditional educational practices and the imperative of progressive new theories of learning (Richards, 2004). The challenge of ICT integration is as much at the centre of a conflict between old and new pedagogies as it is in terms of how educational values are alternately influenced by institutional imperatives for change and existing social contexts. Design of Inquiry The three case studies below also represent three stages of the action research inquiry outlined above, as well as examples of different approaches taken to prepare future teacher educators in terms of a pedagogical design approach which might more effectively facilitate integration of ICTs in teaching and learning and go beyond a mere add-on approach. Harris's (1995, cited in Grabe & Grabe, 1998) threefold typology of meaningful ICT learning activities (information exchanges, interpersonal exchanges, and problem-solving projects) provided a useful focus for linking different approaches to related concept of stages which increasingly emphasize more higher-order, applied, and innovative approaches to pedagogical design for ICT integration in learning. Such a model also seems to reflect how both pedagogical and technological perspectives involve three convergent principles of design and development: the organization or dissemination of information, the facility for communication (including modes of either presentation or publication which potentially go beyond the teacher as sole audience) and some aspect of user interactivity exemplified by the challenge of problem-solving, and also the participatory possibilities of role or game playing. As performative action research, the inquiry represented stages of seeking to "change and improve" efforts to encourage participants to be more active designers of learning with ICTs (Richards, 2001). In other words, at each stage there was an ongoing action research cycle of design, implementation, and evaluation which linked up a focus on the generic structures of the models used with the larger interest or strategy in getting the student teacher cohorts involved to think more effectively about designing learning with ICT tools and media. Hence, this paper has further adapted a case study approach involving example artifacts by students from specific classes typifying the three different approaches and related stages trialled during the overall study. The names of students have been changed for reporting purposes. The three studies described focus on how particular cohorts typically responded to the main approach taken at that stage. While the overall inquiry included cohorts of both primary and secondary student
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an initial naive phase followed by a critical. the specific models (i. The main focus of the second stage was on the specific models of "Internet communication projects" and "multimedia project development" reflecting a general focus on ICT tools and media which encourage communication and collaboration in the process of knowledge construction. and Connell (1994) describes a general sequence where students (a) choose a topic or focus to research for information and resources. many Language Learning & Technology 64 . but not be reduced to this. then (b) design a way of transforming this into a presentation or publication.e.e. and also between the literacy processes of design and evaluation. stage 2 also corresponds to relevant subjects taught at the same institution in 2001-2002. or even procedural. Similarities and differences between these models suggested the outlines of alternative generic structures which could inform the design of an effective lesson plan or larger module. and also found that many North American classroom examples did not translate well into a local learning context. These studies are all relatively autonomous although somewhat overlapping as a progression. As a series of three stages.. webquests and microlessons) and general focus (i. Implicit to the kind of typology outlined by Harris and also the various models looked at is a sense that effective ICT supported learning activity models all reflect some aspect of information resourcing.Class A. or applied phase. The models explored in the first two studies suggest the anatomy of an effective ICT-supported learning activity to the extent that they also seem to intrinsically "resist" merely linear and hierarchical approaches to educational design. between practice and theory. Study #1: Webquests.. the seminal model of hypermedia learning projects outlined by Lehrer. For instance. communication (including publication or presentation). However. Likewise. 2001 Hitendra's webquest Because of the exam-driven curriculum (and despite official support for the introduction of project work). This is might be better appreciated in terms of the kind of three-fold progression of knowledge inquiry and construction described in the methodology of dialogical hermeneutics. Sample activity designs were selected for their typicality as an example focus and a practical reference-point for discussing here the specific models reflecting these three different approaches and stages.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. They also reflect a progressive and comparative refinement of approach as well inquiry in terms of distinct stages. our Singapore students initially struggled to see the possibilities of webquests. and stage 3 similarly relates to a key focus taken in several subjects taught at the Hong Kong Institute of Education in 2002-2003. In this way our investigation sought to discern the design principles of how effectively designed "activity structures" involving ICT integration provide a context and focus for learning as a transformation in terms of bridging the gaps between learner doing and thinking. Microlessons. As will be discussed. Erickson. the studies represent both an interdependent progression of sorts on one hand. For instance.. that is. teachers. The first stage involved subjects taught at the Singapore National Institute of Education in the academic year 2000-2001. and learning interactivity.. and a comparative progression of sorts on the other. phase and finally a dialogical. the examples for the discussion below mainly reflect a "middle school" focus. the third stage trialed versions of a generic template conceived to encourage students to design and develop ICT-supported learning activities in interactive modes which might build on or even include aspects of both the specific models and approaches of the first two stages. ICT integration as a strategy for mainly harnessing information resources) adopted and trialed at the first stage were still being used as exemplary models in their own right as well as a foundation for the second and third stages where the activity focus was more on ICT communications and interactivity. and (c) finally refine this in terms of effects aimed at purposefully engaging an audience. Likewise. the comparative progression inherent in the study focused on how the models and approaches investigated all resisted being reduced to the constraints of formal lesson planning and linear/hierarchical syllabus design. and a "Learning Design" Focus on ICT Information Resources Typical Learner Artifacts -.
This was evidenced by the typical use of microlessons in the Singapore foundation teacher education courses where I was first introduced to the concept.. Both models seemed to be -. For instance. and also use the often ignored multimedia functions of Powerpoint such as customized animation. However in practice both are often used to inadvertently reinforce the very inherent assumptions of the traditional lesson which their originators seemed to be challenging. inspired Hitendra to collect and post the class webquests on a shared Web page resource. it was originally conceived by Dodge (1997) as a general strategy for learning with Internet resources: "a webquest is an inquiry-oriented activity in which some or all of the information that learners interact with comes from resources on the Internet." Microlessons. are typically conceived as Powerpoint templates with one or two basic objectives for student-centred learning which may link to either Internet resources or some kind of worksheet (e. while microlessons encourage teachers to use Powerpoint as a multimedia activity format rather than just for standard presentations.g.. Both are applicable to and provide many useful examples of across-the-curriculum applications. with the approval of his peers. They use a hypertext function well to get learners to explore different examples and scenarios. and teacher designs for such learning on the other. webquests mainly promote active engagement with information resources on the Internet. Brian & Kai Ming's microlesson The microlesson model usefully outlines the importance of designing learner-centred contexts. Brian and Kai Ming's microlesson has a simple but effective design which links a wishful plan to save up for a mini disc player to a mathematical activity of interest calculation. Hitendra's webquest on tropical pitcher plants provides the context of mayoral intervention in a debate between town residents. microlessons may alternatively be saved to CD-ROM as multimedia learning activities. as a word processing or spreadsheet document) as exemplified by Brian and Kai Ming's microlesson. 1999). soon become enthusiastic about developing webquests on their own Web sites and how this model would help motivate learners to search and use Internet information resources.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. the models used for getting students to design effective ICT-supported learning were webquests and the locallydeveloped microlessons.useful templates for encouraging more active learning on one hand. Students were generally not required to design their own variations of the multimedia templates but simply to add their own content. Also. Indeed. In theory. both models encourage independent and collaborative learner-centered inquiry as well as higher-order thinking. in contrast. the expectation of having lesson objectives at the outset (like a normal lesson plan) also seemed to me to contradict perhaps the most powerful implication of this model: the facility for allowing student teachers to design Language Learning & Technology 65 . The term webquests has become for many teachers almost a generic term for getting students to interact with information on the Internet.and to a significant extent are -. At the end of the module there was a presentation sharing session which. and an accompanying worksheet (not linked here). Hitendra's webquest provides a context on one page and useful links on a related "resource pag"' to explore information about the regional Pilcher plant.. Webquests are usually presented in Web page format and aim at getting students to use information resources from the World Wide Web in terms of either provided URLs or tasks in which students need to find their own links. Typically the main focus of both these models is on providing contexts for students to collaboratively or individually engage with the use of ICT for information resourcing in either an actual classroom context or in distance education mode (McKenzie. In the initial year of the study when working at the Singapore National Institute of Education. my class was encouraged to develop their own design schemes in a relevant way to the activity idea. Although students in many other classes simply adapted their ideas to existing design templates. In practice. This microlesson could be undertaken by an individual learner or a small group. While webquests are typically posted online.
some of the limitations of Dodge's model provided a focus for going beyond this as a design model. but also various types of ICT-supported learning activities. treasure hunt. Dodge's initial definition of a webquest is somewhat of a catch-all and potentially covers all manner of uses of the Internet as an information resource for teaching and learning purposes. should any classroom learning activity which makes use of Internet resources be referred to as webquests? If not (and clearly not). His co-developer Tom March (1999) went on to develop a framework for Web-based learning activities which included webquest (alongside topic hotlist. Thus the term webquest is often used interchangeably in confused fashion as alternately a general approach and a particular method associated with his personal authorization and online models. interactive. and outcomes. multimedia scrapbook. where do you draw the line and how do you distinguish an authentic webquest? Although webquests were further defined by Dodge (1997) as "inquiry-orientated activities which include both specific or short-term and larger long-term projects. Dodge's model of a webquest incorporates the progressive structure of introduction. For a start.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities.. Dodge ended this his most definitive article about webquests with a plea for people to send him longer examples. In other words. As also exemplified by Brian and Kai Ming's microlesson. process. our students were expected to put their learning objectives at the end rather than the outset. Even its use as a mere reference resource still involves some degree of inquiry where there is a need to search and evaluate quality information." his examples have tended to be shorter activities. Internet resources. relevant. Dodge also conceived it most typically as a collaborative activity where a group divides into different roles and perspectives for information searching in order to produce some kind of presentation report or publication outcome which addressed a particular topic or task in terms of focus questions. interesting and authentic contexts for engaging the learning process. Dodge (1997) helped to promote and develop the idea of integrating Internet resources in terms of the teacher design of student-centered activities which mine the potential of the Internet to encourage more immediate. task. because they represented a more open-ended model. Language Learning & Technology 66 . and is not able to contain extended and varied notions of learning activities which make use of Internet resources. Put another way. In short. webquests were found to be more useful for getting students away from the traditional lesson mindset for using ICT tools and resources. and subject sampler) as the one category which covered an integrated use of Internet resources.. webquests provide typical examples and a basic design structure which is useful for promoting a design approach and also an appreciation of the power and possibilities of ICT-supported learning activities. In contrast to conventional lesson planning designs. As suggested by Dodge's own definition. Discussion Many educators still see the Internet as basically a reference or information resource. the theoretical concept of webquests is ultimately a rather narrow and specific one. It would seem that Dodge conceived his notion of webquests in the manner of a traditional self-contained lesson context and was thus confused about how this might be reconciled with a more general project-based learning approach. and authentic learning. In these courses. Yet Dodge himself conceived webquests as a particular method which he developed into an example template with an associated assessment rubric. the educational concept of project-based learning seemed to provide a more integrative context for not only different types and sizes of webquests. Therefore the second semester we used this model students were required to design their own slide templates (especially in terms of customized animation and other multimedia functions) as well as a context of activity linked to one or more specific learning outcomes. This is outlined in the online template he set up for teachers. However.
However we found that project-based learning was an even more useful framework to get these students to link the design of learning contexts for ICT integration with a range of associated issues and challenges -. 1994). Normally the monster idea is exchanged and drawn by the other party. Mei's multimedia project Many of the multimedia projects undertaken in our classes. We continued to use webquests and microlessons as useful templates for getting my students to design learning contexts with ICT tools and media. Many of the student multimedia projects focused on setting interesting contexts for introducing topics of information or skills learning. As a language lesson it focuses on skills learning. and multimedia learning projects as a design cycle developed around a particular topic or idea (Lehrer. The latter uses Internet communications directly as a pretext for writing. The originators of this particular model mainly conceived it terms of literacy learning. Study #2: Project-Based Learning for Internet Communications and Multimedia Design Typical Learner Artifacts -.. Here Lena also drew her own monster and then exchanged that back to other party for comparison with their drawing. drawing. Mei's project was saved to a file which took up little memory (one reason for being selected here) but is simple and effective. would involve so much computer memory that they would need to be submitted on CD-ROM rather than as a Web page. A typical variation is students in two different classrooms send each other monster descriptions by e-mail to be drawn by the other as a focus for ongoing interactions. & Connell. it soon captures the enthusiasm of learners of all ages – including student teachers..Class B. but does so in relation to an interesting and well-conceived context.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. Monster exchanges exemplify the power of an interesting pretext for a range of ICT-supported learning activities within and between different classrooms. usually email or even webforums are the ways in which students interact and send attached graphic or word files in their monster exchanges. The basic idea of a monster exchange is that getting students to imagine in written and then also in graphic form their own unique monsters not only provides a powerful motivational focus for learning participation but also for interactive exchange in and between classrooms. including international language exchanges. Using this model we found that imaginative drawing and writing activities Language Learning & Technology 67 . and an applied.especially those to do with reconciling the quantitative emphasis of much formal assessment and qualitative aspects of the learning process on one hand. This model thus provides a useful prototype and exemplar of the possibilities of Internet communication projects. developmental. and often collaborative focus for seeking and transforming information into modes of indirect communication as presentations or publications designed to engage particular audiences. Erickson. Others used the connection between introductory animations and related hypertextual link options (requiring learner choices) to encourage more interaction and higherorder learning. While we have used real-time chat programs such as ICQ as a means of conducting monster exchanges and organizing online dialogue (either with other classes running at the same time or groups within the same class). and other learning activities. especially those involving more advanced authoring or extensive use of audio-visual files. problem-solving focus with the acquisition of multiple skills and knowledges on the other. Yet as an imaginative writing exercise (which may be done either individually or in groups) also involving both a drawing with a graphics program and some form of Internet communication for interacting and sharing files. So to extend the focus and possibilities of designing learning for ICT integration two other specific design models were used monster exchanges as an introductory example of Internet communication projects. but other related models such as the Global Schoolhouse's "travel buddies" exemplify the power and across-the-curriculum possibilities of such exchanges and pretexts for learning. whilst the former provides a convergent. 2002 Lena's monster exchange The monster exchange model was conceived for younger learners.
The development model of hypermedia proejcts seminally conceived by Lehrer. Multimedia learning projects may be further developed as learning contexts in themselves in terms of how hypermedia may be approached as either an animated sequence or as a set of multimedia links. multimedia learning projects contrast with workshop models which either focus on skill acquisition without much effective connection to the design of learning process. 2001). As a transformational focus for learning multimedia skills and knowledges in a doable. Mei conveived and developed her multimedia project in this way and presented the final product as part of an activity-reflection e-portfolio assignment. concept maps. teacher-centered lessons and instead emphasizes learning activities that are long-term. As an aspect and model of problem-based learning. and outcomes. Electronic concept-mapping programs provide the means to get learners to design and develop their work through mindmaps. provided a powerful focus and example for even older learners such as Lena to get excited about using Internet communications and graphical tools on one hand. Multimedia learning projects provide an especially useful focus for reflecting on the interactions between individual and collaborative or team efforts and visions in relation to a specific idea or topics. refining. and linking of design activities with the learning process on the other. and Connell (1994) -. the Winnie-the-Pooh literacy skills programs sets the main character in a forest and children then need to decide which path to take from there to engage in learning activities. Multimedia learning projects are similar in many ways to commercial models of multimedia project development. hypermedia flowcharts. However. methods.also developed and refined by others -. or rather tease with the distant promise of advanced cutting-edge possibilities which the average teacher has little hope of attaining. but ultimately encourages personal motivation for and ownership of the learning process. The key learning design principle involved here is that the trajectory between an initial idea and a developed project or outcome at the end not only provides a framework for the learning process but also a convergent focus for acquiring. more manageable. Commercial programs are usually some sort of mix involving an opening animated context followed by the options of hypermedia links.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. "project-based learning is a model for classroom activity that shifts away from the classroom practices of short. Language Learning & Technology 68 . project-based learning with the Web represents an exemplary focus and framework for the integration of ICT in education in terms of being a general approach which also embraces various types of Web-based learning activities or teaching methods. but not reduced to. As the Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project (1999) outlines. and storyboards. Erickson. This may be represented and evaluated effectively as an activity-reflection learning e-portfolio or some similar way of grounding assessment in the learning process. Such models provide a context for connecting multimedia effects and some form of curriculum content in a common design process. specific learning activities.. The typical design for teacher multimedia learning projects typically involves an animated sequence which introduces a topic or process of learning linked to a menu of further topics or processes. interdisciplinary. A project may also include the collaborative emphasis of webquests. and reflecting on a variety of multimedia design processes and project development skills along the way.provides a useful focus for both developing and converging the learning design models of webquests and microlessons. but much smaller. and more flexible. For example. Any teacher who has used project-based learning strategies well should be able to attest to the power of a project topic (especially if negotiated) to capture a student's energies and enthusiasm for exploring knowledge. applied context.. student-centered. many of the more effective multimedia projects tend to be more mixed with ongoing animation linking with interactive options for engaging learners in the negotiation of choices or selections (Mayer. Discussion A project-based learning (PBL) approach usefully goes beyond the notion of webquests because it represents a general integrative approach which can include as well be exemplified by. isolated.
within a communication framework of collaborative projects. Lerman. applied learning.. The whole more effectively informs the parts in a progression of learning focus from implicit to explicit knowledge. and presentation -. p. Although Internet communication projects typically involve more simple pretexts for learning and social interaction than the other models looked at. Language Learning & Technology 69 ." As a context for discussing the integration of Internet resources in teaching and learning. 1998.as exemplified by the International Schools Cyberfairs organized by the Global Schoolhouse. PBL also goes beyond the webquest model in terms of emphasizing that problem-based and inquiry-based contexts for transforming information are ultimately part of a larger communication framework of learning. influential models of Internet PBL emphasize the sharing and even wider publication or presentation of activity outcomes and products. influential organizations such as the Global Schoolhouse-. and integrated with real world issues and practices. and their very process of learning and focus this in the direction of some kind of applied learning. examples such as Monster Exchange and Travel Buddies illustrate how even simple pretexts can provide the focus for more varied and developed modes of ICTsupported learning activity. 2001). to link classrooms across the world.instead of vice versa -. for instance. Various communication options from email lists through to Internet chat provide contexts of interaction on these sites for teachers to discuss possible projects and for students to undertake projects (e. and (b).. a project is an educational focus which is able to provide an organizing framework across and beyond a series of lessons and many quite distinct even if related activities (March. both in terms of individual lessons and larger modules. adult/effective guidance. the Internet extends the process of learning in terms of a range of "telecomputing activity structures" (Grabe & Grabe.by those who focus on the Internet as a gigantic database rather than primarily as a telecommunications media. As a communication tool.. In contrast. As indicated. Whether or not a particular project makes use of e-mail.use the World Wide Web itself as a communication medium to advertise projects.g.. webforums or even chat and other conferencing Internet functions or programs. While the student webquest report is typically produced for the teacher alone. and assessment practices. Particular types of activities ranging from key pals or electronic mentoring through to tele-fieldtrips and social action projects may be adapted to and extend the specific contents of different subjects. 1998). participation. and to develop online educational communities.e. student Web sites provide a focus for reporting and interaction as well as developing information resources -. In particular.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. interaction. At this stage of the inquiry some of the convergent principles (or "anatomy") of an effective ICTsupported learning activity are clearer and more explicit. a narrow conception of a learning activity) may organize the plan for up to several classroom lessons. 44). academic rigor. Project-based learning might productively be considered as one useful subcategory of problem-based learning in terms of not only designing a specific focus and context for student projects but in terms of getting students themselves to also (a) identify project constraints and feasibility. Sternberg's (1997) "six A's of designing projects" provides a useful overview of relevant criteria for an effective PBL context: authenticity.which has pioneered telecollaboration projects since 1984 -. Likewise. explicit knowledge. it is the function of learning activity "pretexts" to engage learner interest. by Blue N'Web's typology of ICT resources and learning designs. This initial transformatory connection is a crucial not just accidental or add-on function of learning activity design. active exploration. a specific learning task (i. and effective outcomes. to plan and apply a "design" approach. Such a learning design structure is significantly different to that associated with formal lesson planning although the latter may be used to develop the former.
1.. initial access to digital information resources as the basis for a multimedia presentation or Language Learning & Technology 70 . A bit mixed in quality. communication. In the activity of this initial section. Kristina's responses are more typical than exemplary.)? 3. multimedia projects. and outlining an ICT-supported learning activity idea -. and applications. we continued to use earlier models both as useful examples in their own right and also as ways of getting our students teachers to think about designing effective learning with ICTs. developing. Her idea could be adapted and refined in different ways. 2. In this third phase. Study #3: Interactive Learning with ICT and the Quest for Generic Alternatives to the Traditional Lesson Plan Typical Learning Artifact -.but not vice versa. which is modeled in class. the authentic or imaginary context for an activity must somehow lead into an activity involving curriculum learning through some kind of use of ICTs for information resourcing. or interactive engagement. Design aide for developing an ICT-spported learning activity In terms of the structure indicated in Figure 1. Although ICTs may be used for a combination of purposes (e. WHAT IS THE MAIN ICT-SUPPORTED LEARNING FOCUS AND WHAT ADDITIONAL RESOURCES NEEDED FOR THIS ACTIVITY? Figure 1.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities.g. 5.. and various kinds of problem-based or inquiry-based learning using ICTs) might still be applied to formal lesson planning and module or subject design -. PROVIDE AN OVERVIEW OF KEY STAGES OR STEPS OF ACTIVITY. The template used by Kristina includes a "warming up" activity as introduction to the exercise of conceiving. Feedback from both student evaluation surveys and learning activity assignments indicated that this template was useful in getting student teachers away from merely replicating particular models or specific examples and to think about and apply the generic learning activity functions of (a) providing effective and interesting contexts for engaging learners and (b) linking this to organizing learning objectives ranging from skill and information acquisition to various higherorder understandings. In effect this represents an initial draft or stage which can be further developed in terms of various models or modes. However in this phase we generated a template which would try to exemplify some of the structural resemblances of these other models to the extent that this was quite different to the traditional lesson plan. etc.. Firstly. WHAT WILL LEARNERS NEED TO DO AS THE PURPOSE OF INITIAL INTERACTION (solve a problem.Class C 2003 Kristina's ICT-supported '"learning activity" idea template Section B is actually the activity template and generic structure (which was conceived out of the first two stages of inquiry) for generating and developing a range of ICT-supported learning ideas. In this way they should become ready to choose and develop one idea with promise. address some issue or challenge. Section A is a warming-up task where students are asked to come up with three innovative ideas for transforming a typically boring lesson plan objective into a much more interesting context. her activity design nevertheless indicated some innovative context ideas and she started to develop this quite well as an activity sequence.along the lines suggested in Figure 1. students are challenged to transform boring curriculum learning objectives into exciting pretexts or foci for interaction. an effective learning activity design will involve two transformations as the foundation for learning as an effective connection between learning activity and reflection or doing and thinking. HOW WILL THIS PROVIDE A PRETEXT FOR SPECIFIC LEARNING OUTCOMES IN A CHOSEN SUBJECT AND RE: MAIN LEARNING OBJECTIVE? 4. The use of this learning activity "generic structure" either in its own right as a design strategy or as a complement to the use of various models (such as webquests. CONCEIVE OF AN AUTHENTIC OR IMAGINARY SITUATION/CONTEXT/PROBLEM. syntheses.
other learners.. relevant focus questions are another way of setting up interesting and effective pretexts for engaged learning -. Thus. Naive/activity phase (initial familiarisation/ innovation) content 2. A naïve phase initially engages learner interaction and understanding as a basis for achieving a subsequent phase of "disciplined" performance. often associated with the Socratic model of teaching through questions which engage and challenge the learner. The second transformation should represent a stage of applied learning which realizes an organizing learning objective which has been implicit from the beginning but emerges directly out of the curriculum focus of the learning activity. The common stages and dialogical trajectory of effectively designed learning are depicted in Figure 2 in terms of effectively linking both content and process. Although her plan has yet to be developed in detail yet.discipline) 3. web publication).Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. This model. there is indication that a communicative or conversational framework is being provided for learning new words in a second language context. critical. In contrast to the linear and hierarchical assumptions of the traditional lesson. for instance. 2003). the two related transformations of learning outlined above are framed here in terms of the three phases of a dialogical methodology: naïve.. and applied modes of the learning process corresponding to introductory. Kristina's lesson involves English as second language learning. adequate explanation.contexts to critically explore or developmentally engage with topics or issues. 2001). Kristina's nascent activity describes the imaginary context of leaners being asked to help an alien stranded on Earth get back to his own planet. or critical reflection. explanatory/procedural. Dialogical/transformative phase ( specific/innovative application) process Social knowledge thinking threshold of temporary vs perpetual frustration (especially where ICT is concerned) Figure 2. In other words. Individual performance doing (using) 1. and also leaner thinking and doing. and even the curriculum mediated as much by "technologies" of communication as language itself (Light & Cox. the initial context idea is crucial as both a stage and in terms of indirectly engaging learners in the learning process generally. In turn. and synthesizing stages of knowledge construction. 2004) Language Learning & Technology 71 . Whilst the curriculum focus of the learning activity is central. It can be visualized as either a threefold process or as open-ended design spiral. by Laurillard (2002). and to encourage active learning as a process of transforming knowledge in terms of understandings. one mode should be primary. ICT integration and learning as an activity-reflection cycle (adapted from Richards. Such a design strategy is as applicable to larger contexts of curriculum design as it is to specific activity design or lesson planning. Critical/reflection phase (procedural/theoretical explanation . designs for interactivity are a key to the learning process itself as a productive transformation of information and/or skills into actual knowledge (Salmon. applications and transferable principles. and their own learning process in particular. The diagram attempts to depict how the generic structure of an ICT-supported learning activity represents an activity-reflection cycle grounded in contexts of both individual performance and social knowledge (Richards. This pretext for interaction is then linked with a curriculum learning activity focus on identifying distinct words in relation to supermarket items. a dialogical phase represents the potentially innovative transformations implied by any effective grounding of reflective knowledge and the learning process generally in concrete contexts of application and interaction. The generic structure of an ICT-supported learning activity outlined in the template is also consistent with the kind of dialogical model of learning with ICTs advocated. 2002). views the learning process as kind of a "conversation" between learner and teacher.
the dialogical methodology and related constructivist learning approach that underlies the generic structure and alternative model of an ICT-supported learning activity represents a turning-on-its-head of the formal lesson plan format and associated assumptions about educational design and even the learning process. 2004). In a way. In this way the hands-on requirements of ICT integration exemplifies the inherent dilemmas of the learning process generally. The need for a better exemplary model or strategy for designing ICT-supported learning is given weight by a closer examination of the assumptions and limitations of two currently influential approaches or general theoretical perspectives -. presentation. The process of learning to use ICT tools and programs effectively and with confidence. Different versions of instructional design theory make use of constructivist learning theory as they do cognitivist and behaviourist models.. it is an approach which suggests that technical competence in using ICT tools and programs can actually be enhanced when linked to either (a) applications which also encourage the design process at the same time or (b) any key or convergent learning objectives. & Gray.g. likewise. Thus. social constructivist learning theory can be regarded as distinct for present purposes insofar as it represents an influential approach to how learning with ICTs lends itself to collaborative activities and the concept of bonded learning communities and "rich" learning environments (e. relevant and appropriate designs for learning are needed which provide contexts or frameworks for bridging the missing links between learner doing and thinking (and also content and process) so that confidence. learner performance. Gagne's associated theory of "instructional events" then proceeds in terms of the typical linear and hierarchical assumptions of formal lesson planning: gaining attention. Adaptations of instructional design as "instructional technology" thus tend to view the educational use use of ICTs (and any technology media) in terms of their add-on facility to this process. even if this focused on the content of different subject or disciplinary areas of knowledge. recall of prior learning. Barab. reinforcement. application.. Such an approach is most notably associated with the theoretical work of David Jonassen which has long explored the learner-centred and "cognitive tool" implications of ICTs. and generalization. can be most frustrating and often is not achieved without adequate support. and even innovation begin to be achieved.. retrieval. However. Taking specific and typically lower-order learning outcomes or tasks as its reference point.instructional design and social constructivist learning theory. this theory proceeds retrospectively in linear fashion to describe the required "learning hierarchy" of skills and processes. guidance. Gagne's collaborator David Merrill developed this approach further to outline a model of reusable ICT "learning objects" and metadata which barely recognize the role of teaching or learning performance in context. Both approaches represent a range of diverse interests and methods but also general assumptions about learning design. ICT-supported learning activities provide an applied focus for learning which extends from a primary focus on ICT skills and knowledge acquisition through to ICT integration in various modes of and subjects of across-the-curriculum learning. In other words. Kling. Discussion The three stages of the inquiry represented in this paper have linked the challenge to get teachers to be more active and effective designers of learning with the tools and media of ICTs with a response to how formal lesson syllabus planning seems to involve an inherent tendency for add-on uses of ICTs in teaching and learning. it may be argued that both approaches are often used to reinforce such tendencies. Also despite ostensibly opposing the linear and hierarchical tendencies of traditional formal education. Gagne's (1987) theory exemplifies this tendency in instructional design. especially across different contexts of application. For instance. lesson objectives.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. Practical ICT skills and even related new learning concepts are often taught in somewhat of a vacuum. Jonassen's (2000) adaptation of cultural-historical activity theory tends to be more interested in the concept of activity as a systemic use or context of cognitive tools rather than Language Learning & Technology 72 . oppositional views of the relation between pedagogy and technology.
concepts such as intelligent learning or tutoring systems. by the critical pedagogist Peter McLaren and the new media critic Douglas Rushkoff. it may be argued that both models retain implicit linear.. specific and transferable designs for grounded hands-on use of ICTs as a form of media literacy. Thus. The many good ideas and useful concepts associated with these general approaches might be even more relevant if related to a more bottom-up perspective on how effective practice presumes some kind of design strategy grounded in performance or dialogue. connection. The message from this short discussion of two particularly influential approaches is that the discussion about the challenge of ICT integration in terms of teacher designs for learning has largely remained at macro levels of theory as well as policy and rhetoric. which provide a practical design focus for the inquiry. In this way any teacher can soon become an innovative designer of learning contexts which encourage not only ICT integration in learning and the learner-centred implications of ICT generally. and oppositional assumptions about learning which represent tendencies for an add-on use of ICT in education and fail to most effectively overcome missing links between practice and theory and learner doing and thinking. and the greater efficacy-. for instance. so too there are related instructional design models (e.e. in formal contexts of education.at least where ICT integration is concerned -. have exemplified alternative ways.. and (c) mediated knowledge itself.with emergent and developmental rather than arbitrary or fixed and imposed learning objectives and processes. The importance placed on designed pretexts recognizes the need for grounding learning in context. often associated with knowledge management principles) which see learning primarily in terms of networked information systems. designed) structure of social knowledge -. in contrast to the more abstract cultural-historical notion of ICT-supported learning activity. but functions of learning linked to one particular program which many teachers find difficult to use in average classrooms. complements and reinforces the kind of dialogical approach to learning outlined in Laurillard's (2002) conversational framework for the effective use of learning technologies -. and strategies for harnessing. then it might be represented as three stages or even two interpenetrating spirals informing (a) an overall link. rather than specific and transferable ideas applicable by the average teacher. the approach taken here focuses at the outset on simple practical design models which any teacher can soon begin to customize and apply ICT both as discrete tools and as a general media interface (i. Just as the cultural-historical model of activity theory derived from the work of Vygotsky and others represents a more systemic and abstract model of the technology-learning process connection. collaborative interactions. Such theories have a tendency to discuss in vague abstraction how ICT tools and media lend themselves to learning community development.g. As new modes of literacy and learning. If the "generic activity design" structure were imagined visually. However. In sum. Such a bottom-up perspective is able to appreciate in practice how specific or situational contexts of individual performance both ground and open up for potential transformation any implicit or explicit (i..Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities.the designed contexts of either actual or virtual learner interactions with (a) teachers. both as physical and cognitive extensions of human activity) in relation to his/her own specific contexts of practice. Thus. Figure 3 provides a comparative breakdown of how the kind of generic activity design investigated represents an alternative generic structure to a top-down formal lesson plan format. for instance. both models make useful gestures about how ICT might not only be integrated in learning but enhance the learning process.. the models. the great interest and seemingly natural confidence that the young have for the kind of new digital media worlds and cultures similarly outlined. Scardamalia & Bereiter's (1994) well-known CSILE (Computer-Supported Intentional Learning Environments) model of knowledge building is really not so much about ICT integration in education as such. but also the learning process in relation to any specific pedagogical objectives or strategies. The effective design of an ICT-supported learning activity as some kind of doing-thinking or activityreflection transformation relates to.. hierarchical.e. structures. (b) other learners.and thus ultimately the kinds of cultural-historical structures or relevant macro objectives emphasized by activity theory and related models. or transformation Language Learning & Technology 73 . and knowledge building.
but also play and work in ways we will need to understand better if we are to harness the extra-curricular ICT literacies of younger learners (e.. Instead of designs for showing' being a mere add-on to telling. how the mind-body dualism in western and modern thought is transformed in practice as a dialogical interplay of understanding and explanation.. In the communicative language classroom. Formal lesson plan format • key learning objective/ outcomes explicitly outlined from outset (also tendency for confusion of implicit and explicit objectives) • linear and often 'closed' or fixed sequence of topics or procedures • hierarchical and oppositional view of relation between thinking and doing. Nunan. In both senses activities inform a larger convergent focus and design for learning in time. and. other thinkers such as Huizanga have proposed that play is the characteristic human activity which precedes and transforms work. and is a process by which learners both individually and collaboratively transform skills or information into applied knowledge. In this way. Just as Hannah Arendt (1958) identified intrinsically meaningful action rather than labor or work as the key to her famous study of the human condition. 10). 1994) has powerfully argued how the discursive and textual applications of language in context not only mediate but transform the connection between interpretative processes of thought and reflection and the world of human action. and individual performance and social knowledge. The term activity has been used here to refer to both a process and a generic structure which encompasses pretexts. tasks and specific activities. A contrast between formal lesson-planning and learning activity design The concept of an ICT-supported learning activity has some initial resemblance to the task-based pedagogy (and larger communicative) model in language education (e. Activity in context as both individual performance and social process opens up structures of knowledge and thus learning to processes of innovation as well as habituation or discipline. Not only does the generic structure of a learning activity represents a design framework for linking learner doing and thinking. Language Learning & Technology 74 . the link between designed or virtual and actual contexts is recognized as crucial for an emergent and developing learning process along the lines of the dialogical framework outlined above..Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. 2003). Gee. Tasks thus provide pretexts for grounding various aspects of language study (grammar and vocabulary as well as conversation) in some everyday context of application or topic of interest. The later work of Paul Ricoeur (e. between doing and thinking as well as skills or information and higher-order learning. it is an initial and key requirement that learning activities engage interaction and understanding.g. 1989. p. and (b) the two specific links or transformation indicated earlier which engender effective participation and then potential achievement or realization of key or convergent learning objectives. 1993). practice and theory/content • introduction and conclusion frame the learning process as an activity-reflection cycle and as dialogical stages (naive/critical/applied) Figure 3. theory/content and practice/examples • introduction and conclusions gesture towards learners prior and developing knowledge Generic activity design • initial activity context and focus encourages and frames convergent modes of participation and learning – implicit links between learner involvement and key learning objective/s • more open-ended. transformational relation between (a) initial activity context and specific 'curriculum' context and (b) content and key learning objective/s • spiral structure underlies learning design connections between doing and thinking. tasks serve the purpose of making sure that the learner's "attention is focused on meaning rather than linguistic structure" (Nunan. innovation and structure..g. activity as a generic organising structure of learning complements an associated notion that effective learning often proceeds as an activity-reflection cycle grounded in context. also..g. that is.
especially open source games which exemplify the process of collaborative learning communities -. This is consistent with how any teacher who attempts to effectively integrate ICT in his/her teaching and the learning of their pupils or students is a curriculum as well as learning designer of sorts. Educational interaction design has much to learn from the cultural and commercial contexts of how various popular and visual aspects of interaction with ICTs such as digital gaming represent transformations of old media as well as new possibilities. Practical activity-based learning with ICTs that provides pretexts for more effective curriculum learning and reflective practice exemplify a dialogical approach to educational design. requirements. and direct the attention of users through functions of virtual navigation and goal-directed interaction of some kind (Aldrich. and innovations (Bolter & Grusin.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. This inquiry has investigated how the exemplary use of practical design models (a) provide a useful focus in teacher education for encouraging teachers to become more active and innovative "designers" of ICTsupported learning in the digital age. and (b) to avoid the kind of add-on tendencies associated with still dominant assumptions about formal lesson planning and syllabus design on one hand. As Kress (2003) has recognized. engage. The alternate challenges of integrating the Internet and related ICTs in education on one hand. Such an approach to educational design goes beyond (rather than merely oppose) the linear. As Norman (2002) has argued. 1997. In contrast to the commercial purposes and various entertainment genres of many popular games -. 2000. and effective designs for ICT-supported learning need to be grounded in activity as both process and structure. critical. ICTs need to be integrated in teaching and learning to the extent that they represent a new or extended mode literacy in the digital age. Digital games in particular exemplify the importance and possibilities of designing engaging and structured participation or interaction which hook in. An important related aspect of pedagogical design for ICT integration which will be investigated further beyond the scope of this particular paper is the link between learning activity design and visual interface design as convergent aspects of the growing importance of interaction design principles. and (b) indicate the generic structure or anatomy of an effective ICT-supported learning activity. The dialogical stages of naïve. 2000). hierarchical and transmission assumptions still dominating formal education in a way which is able to ground critical and applied thinking in transferable contexts of practice and knowledge. teachers need (a) new design strategies for teaching and learning which promote the applied integration of ICTs. knowledge and innovation. CONCLUSION To more effectively harness the exciting educational implications and learner-centred possibilities of ICTs. A key to linking interface design with educational content and structures of learning thus lies in the convergent functions of visual metaphors and narrative structures for encouraging interactivity in a dialogical and applied fashion. and which may be refined further to encourage even more effective designs for learning. Murray. the design possibilities and literacy implications of multimodal learning with ICTs tools and media represent a convergent focus for language and technology in general. and encouraging innovation and applied thinking in students on the other.. any effective design process needs to be understood as an interactive communication with "users" in terms of functionality and flexibility as well as form. 2003. Manovich.effective educational multimedia designs for learning face the additional challenge of needing to extend interaction design principles to include educational content or specific learning objectives. 2001). and verbal and non-verbal modes of interaction in particular. are helping us to appreciate that the Language Learning & Technology 75 . Prensky. and are often inadvertent in the use of top-down models such as instructional design and social constructivism learning theory. The generic structure of an ICT-supported learning activity represents one strategy in this direction which many teachers are already finding useful in the guise of various models and practices. and applied learning represent a framework for not only linking educational content and process and also learner thinking and doing.. Johnson. but the very transformations which exemplify an ICT literacy transition from mere competency to applied understanding. 1997.
(2000). Dodge. The power of experiential learning: A handbook for trainers and educators. E-mail: Cameron.edu.). England: Cambridge University Press. A. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. T. Cuban. San Francisco. Some thoughts about WebQuests.au REFERENCES Aldrich. R. Barab. (1997). (2000). M. (Eds.. contexts. R. In D. Disessa..us/PBLGuide/WhyPBL. Cambridge. From practice fields to communities of practice. (1999). Jonassen & S. This paper has argued that there is a similar need to reconstruct the role of the teacher as a designer and evaluator of learning activities.. His main research and scholarly interests currently revolve around the interdisciplinary and across-the-curriculum possibilities and challenges of effectively integrating ICT in new and changing contexts of education. Theoretical foundations of learning environments (pp. Why do project-based learning. new 'literacy and learning' skills of the electronic age revolve around the complementary organizing concepts of design and evaluation. J. B. (1958). & Duffy. J. (2003). ABOUT THE AUTHOR Dr. learning and literacy. especially when using the Internet or ICT generally. In short. What video games have to teach us about learning and literacy.. S. Ma: MIT Press.sdsu. H. R. (1987). (2001). Remediation: Understanding new media. & Gray. Arendt. Cambridge. 25-56). (2002).Richards@uwa. Barab. S. (2000). Language Learning & Technology 76 . Designing for virtual communities in the service of learning. King. London: University of Chicago Press. The emergent notion of an effective ICT-supported learning activity provides a useful focus for encouraging teachers to approach the challenge of ICT integration in education more as designers of interesting and applied learning rather than mere transmitters of skills or information through an add-on use of ICTs in teaching and learning. The human condition. Mahwah. 2004. London: Kogan Page Bolter J. Retrieved June 29. Cameron Richards is a senior lecturer in the Graduate School of Education.html Cope. 2004. MA: MIT Press. and also learner doing and thinking. Land (Eds. & Wilson. New York: Routledge. Gee. (2000). Hillsdale. Project-based learning with multimedia.html Gagne. and outcomes which exemplify effective ICT-supported learning. San Diego State University. & Grusin. from http://edweb. Multiliteracies: Literacy learning and the design of social futures.. University of Western Australia.). (2003). C.. Challenge 2000 Multimedia Project.ca. Retrieved June 29.Cameron Richards The Design of Effective ICT-Supported Learning Activities. C. Instructional technology foundations. (2004).edu/courses/EDTEC596/About_WebQuests. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.k12. Oversold and underused: Computers in the classroom. from http://pblmm. B. Simulations and the future of learning: An innovative (and perhaps revolutionary) approach to e-learning. & Kalantzis. Cambridge. teachers need to consider overall design elements when outlining or setting up specific assignment contexts. Changing minds: Computers. CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer. MA: Harvard University Press. criteria. and environments in a way which more effectively links the learning process to the curriculum. (Eds). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cambridge.. L. J. Beard..
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it's obvious they were only exaggerating. oftentimes. I left the course with only two things: an ability to irritate my teacher enough never to be called upon in class and an "F" in German 1.msu. and voice-navigated games. without sacrificing its entertainment value. Naturally. Finding my high school German homework assignments frustrating and dull. At the end of the year.in turn. yet still provides enough L1 support not to detract from the game. YOU'RE JUST… Ravi Purushotma Massachussetts Institute of Technology ABSTRACT As often as language teachers lecture about the importance of continual practice to adolescent learners. While recently numerous suggestions have been advanced for enlivening the language learning experience with interactive activities and online collaboration (e. as the current dot-com generation grows up submerged in captivating and dynamic media forms. First. educators should instead embrace them. with suggestions of how technology can facilitate language learning during these times. Still. However. This principle is then extended to other applications such as music videos. in listening to their various language learning histories. This commentary examines how content originally designed for entertainment purposes can be modified to provide natural and context rich language learning environments. areas of otherwise wasted time are identified. I rarely managed to complete assignments. a sense of helplessness when confronted with lists of isolated vocabulary to memorize. Having legitimately claimed this title for myself long ago. the guidance students receive on how to continue learning a language outside of class has remained relatively the same. educators will likely need to adapt their conceptions of homework to match if they wish to capture the interests of adolescent students. it seems we all reached this conclusion from similar experiences: Frustration with our old high school workbooks. typing tutors. such as waiting for Web pages to load or walking to class. This exposes learners to abundant L2 vocabulary. as the course progressed it became increasingly difficult for me to remain an active participant in class -. Finally. the dullness of homework exercises designed primarily to be educational has difficulty competing with popular media designed solely to be entertaining. ISSN 1094-3501 80 .Language Learning & Technology http://llt. 2003). making homework assignments yet more frustrating. Number 1 pp. however. It was at this time I dubbed myself "the world's worst Copyright © 2005. much of the potential for the integration of entertainment media with mainstream language learning remains untapped -. While changes in classroom environments over the past century have allowed in-class learning to evolve considerably. I examine a modification to the number one selling video game The Sims that intelligently combines game data from the English edition with data from editions of other languages to form a bilingual gaming environment. LeLoup & Ponterio. and little connection between assignments and our everyday life.g. they fail to achieve either goal and fall instead into niche markets. 80-96 COMMENTARY: YOU'RE NOT STUDYING. I met five people each claiming to be the world's worst language learner. In a single week. beginning students are advised to set aside dedicated study time for completing practice exercises and to rehearse vocabulary items with techniques such as flashcards. Recently.something that would have been pivotal for my own early language learning experiences. In general. numerous attempts have been made to develop "edutainment" titles that seek to merge educational goals with entertainment content. Volume 9.edu/vol9num1/purushotma/ January 2005.. Rather than seeing entertainment-focused media forms as adversarial to educational content.
and so forth. most are based on designing external activities without modifying the games themselves. After assigning professions to their characters. Fortunately. I enrolled in further German study and set about developing more complex ways of using technology to increase my foreign language exposure in practical and entertaining contexts. While there have already been numerous suggestions for using commercial simulation games as language learning contexts (see.g. Surprised and encouraged by how much I learned from such a simple system. Today. guiding them through tasks such as managing personal hygiene. I noticed the vocabulary for the tasks contained many of the same words as the German homework I should have been studying instead. Traditionally. the suggestion of playing an edutainment software title unfortunately conjures up images of simplistic space invader games. deciding how to best purchase furniture and appliances to develop their house based on analysis of the emotional states of their characters. Coleman. One freely available customization tool provides users with direct access to the language data used in the game. sites like audioscrobbler connected me to modern commercial songs by analyzing youth in Germany with the same musical tastes. You're Just… language learner" and publicly declared that I was well satisfied with my monolingual status. In playing the English version of the game. with full intentions of keeping it throughout my life. finding jobs.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. When the vocabulary items then came up in class. however. e. 2003) The Sims. though so far little has been done to take advantage of this customizability for educational extensions. this has led to an explosion of enhancements for the entertainment value of the game. I was already familiar with them and could recall the relevant associated contexts and animations used in the game. Upon a closer look. some of these same entertainment-focused titles possess much of the basic content desired in an educational title. By using macros. as its programming was often locked away in compiled binary code. Rather than spending my free time on "find the conjugated form" word-search puzzles. modifying a commercial game's interface or language data was an impossible task. For games like The Sims. re-programmed to solicit foreign language vocabulary before being able to be able to shoot at a screen of sketchily drawn aliens. we see a lot of the same content one might find in an introductory language textbook. players then manage the family finances. the Internet later provided a perspective on foreign language and culture considerably more appealing than the one I received in ninth grade. educators can rapidly extract the parts of the first language (L1) game data they feel necessary for scaffolding learners and then integrate them as available translations within the second language (L2) version of the game (see Figure 1). if we look at the number one selling game (Croal. the temptation to forego all educational value for a modern software title instead designed solely to be entertaining is far too enticing. or scripts. For students in a class only because of a mandated requirement. For example.. Players control the daily routines of a virtual family. Finding that the language of the game could be changed to German simply by switching a single registry setting. however. YOU'RE JUST PLAYING THAT SIMS™ GAME OF YOURS For many adolescent language learners. The Sims is a game designed to simulate normal everyday life. 2002). Far from the German "She'll be Comin' Round the Mountain" we used to open each morning. entertaining guests. cooking food. I placed a laptop with a translation tool beside my main computer and continued playing the game in German. most game designers separate game data into external files and actively encourage third-party customizations. I practiced contextualized conversation and grammar by loading learning materials found on the Internet into my cell phone and listening to them in my spare time while walking between classes. Language Learning & Technology 81 . YOU'RE NOT STUDYING.
enough keywords are glossed for the prompt "Do you wish to save before quitting" (literally: "Wants you save. suggests that vocabulary retention can be improved if new words are glossed with multiple choices in which the learner must then decide the most appropriate choice (Figure 2). so that if a player does not know a German word such as "Kochen. yet includes tool tip data from the English dataset. Language Learning & Technology 82 . You're Just… Figure 1. The Sims German Edition. but makes it likely they will first read in the L2.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. This method of modifying video games offers a powerful vehicle for further exploring recent work on incidental learning. before you the game quit?") to ensure a player would not get frustrated trying to understand. Hulstijn (1992). annotated for English speaking students In Figure 1 we can see an edit in which the main interface uses data from the German version of the game. Also." s/he can leave the cursor over the word and receive a pop-up explanation which includes an English translation.
Figure 3. Sleepy Sim Language Learning & Technology 83 . For example. one of the variables players must keep track of is their Sim's energy level -. her/his character would take steps to notify the player until the energy variable was addressed: First. Unfortunately. Players are presented two meanings for the word "Post." If a poor learner were to guess the meaning of this word incorrectly.represented in the German version by a bar labeled "energie. the character would act sleepy and think about beds (Figure 3). in a traditional reading environment this can have adverse effects for both reading comprehension and vocabulary retention if learners make the wrong choices (Watanabe.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. You're Just… Figure 2. some incorrect assumptions by learners can be recovered through the interactions present in a typical gaming environment." making them evaluate which most likely combines with the word "angestellter" and fits in the context of being their Sim's profession. In a video game. however. 1997).
Figure 4.and videos yet even more. Language Learning & Technology 84 . By using video games as content platforms. also requires more work than simply writing text -.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. Asleep Sim Besides interactivity and flexibility. images and animations become an automatic and effortless part of the environment. however. Creating images for glosses. the game would take control and show the learner how by having the Sim fall asleep on the spot (Figure 4). it presents a window already containing images of all the game items relevant to that variable (see Figure 5). 2001). anytime a player clicks to receive elaboration on variables they need to monitor. Numerous studies report on how glossing reading passages with images and videos can enhance incidental vocabulary acquisition better than can text-only glosses (Al-Seghayer. You're Just… If the learner still failed to recognize and improve the Sim's energy level. video games provide content that is naturally rich in associations. In The Sims.
This would hopefully encourage the learner to take interest in and learn more about that variable. Detailed view provides both textual and pictorial information Another challenge in incidental learning is that materials should be personally relevant and useful to the learner (see Huckin & Coady. 1999).g.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. s/he would later be embarrassed when the Sim becomes unable to control him/herself (Figure 6). Figure 6. In a gaming environment. how their Sim starts running when by the bathroom). Failure to respond to game cues can have embarrasing consequences Language Learning & Technology 85 . You're Just… Figure 5.. content is generally presented to the user because of its direct relevance to their task. Should a player in The Sims choose to ignore messages about the variable harndrang ("bladder") and any game cues (e.
finding a house. & Kötter. and automatically generates rich contexts for associations. players exist as characters in a virtual world formed through their interactions with other live players on the Internet. Laufer and Hulstijn (2001) conclude that "learner involvement" is the main factor influencing overall effectiveness. then chatting with and getting to know their roommates. 2003). a typical commercial game would consist only of a weapon and a target -. While it might be nice to get teens to spend 20 hours a week solely on their Spanish homework. "search" -. Additionally. They highlight three core components comprising learner involvement: "need" -. Gluck. educational designers can make their modifications instantly deployable by teachers worldwide. You're Just… In their review of studies on incidental vocabulary learning. 2002). and "evaluation" -. although the educational potential for MMOGs is only just beginning to be examined (Coleman.ensuring a word is relevant to the learner. Alternatively. Perhaps the most successful innovation in game designs is the development of modern massively multiplayer online games -. into the language classroom (Von der Emde. the historical predecessor to modern MMOGs. Some studies have reported success at integrating MOOs.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. technologies useful to educational designers will naturally make their way into entertainment media (Squire. 2002. 2004. in a game like The Sims Online -. 2002). but also provide learners with an L2 native from whom to learn about culture and language while performing a series of entertaining tasks requiring communicative exchanges. In stark contrast to the high school language teacher sometimes struggling to receive 30 minutes worth of homework from students. motivated players have access to countless native L2 speakers and tasks to discuss with them -. Besides merging international editions to form bilingual versions. For example. but do so in a manner that minimizes extraneous effort and stress on part of the learner. today's educators enjoy a wide variety of other gaming innovations for building pedagogical solutions. Language Learning & Technology 86 . another almost effortless modification game designers could make to interest language learners would be to create incentives and ways in which players could find and partner with native speakers of their L2 trying to learn their L1. Squire & Jenkins. Makers of the popular online game "Everquest" (commonly referred to as "Evercrack" for its addictive properties ) found the average player spends over 20 hours a week playing the game (Everquest or Evercrack?. rather than playing within a pre-programmed environment. as designers are forced to come up with more creative game elements.assessment by the learner of how the meaning does or does not fit into the current context. Simply by having such an international population together in a virtual community based on communicative interaction.MMOGs. in press). 2002) after a set of players neglecting to break for food collapsed following up to 84 hours straight at their keyboards (Farrell. by making direct changes to the game data files themselves.the MMOG version of The Sims -.though much could be done to extend this possibility to encourage shy learners to find and interact with players speaking their L2. we should consider the educational potential for leveraging the phenomenal ability of MMOGs to capture the attention of adolescent audiences and bring them into a manipulatable world with players from all over the planet. An entertainment-focused video game such as The Sims can be modified to not only fulfill each of these criteria. 2001). Previously. In these games. teachers could collaborate with classes in other countries and assign their students L2 speaking roommates.providing a means by which a learner can work to discover the meaning of an unknown word. provides repeated interactive exposures to words. the alarming success of MMOGs has prompted the establishment of government organizations to control their use and psychological addiction (Yee.players begin by choosing a city to live in. Fortunately.leaving educators little room for inserting educational enhancements. Schneider. This would not only provide the above-mentioned benefits of playing a bilingual game. Looking Ahead Besides game customization tools. The unparalleled success of these games should be of interest to anyone trying to understand adolescent motivation and attention.
a typical VirtualTalk conversation generally lasts only a couple of minutes. While in the foreign language software market it may not be feasible to create lengthy and complex dialogs -. thanks") rather than creating distinct paths a learner can meaningfully choose between ("Yes.S. in response to a question such as "Would you like some coffee?" designers may need to force learners down a single prepared path ("Yes. which they must nurture into adulthood by conversing with it about its life and conditions. additionally it could prove useful in rapidly creating content for less commonly taught languages (Figure 7). incidental learning.such that even foreign accents can be somewhat accommodated -. While there are numerous other commercial gaming innovations that could be discussed. rather than needing to develop an edutainment title from scratch. and simulated immersion. Language Learning & Technology 87 . the ability to easily edit international language files combined with advances like MMOGs and speech interfaces should be incentive enough for us to begin considering how entertainment focused games can be used for language learning. These programs allow learners to engage in a simulated conversation by presenting them with a list of possible responses to choose from whenever they have a turn to participate in the conversation. please/I'd love some/Sure. For commercial game designers. in the case of MMOGs. 2002). players are challenged to direct her entirely through vocal instructions based on over 100. The program then simply has to match the learner's response to the closest of the available responses and provide corrective feedback. speech recognition is another advancement often regarded as a promising candidate for making CALL truly interactive. For example. For researchers. Hubbard. task-based learning. While U. the collection of a large multi-lingual community of players. As a result. please/No thanks/Do you have decaf?". You're Just… Besides multiplayer interaction via the Internet. such games have been available in the Japanese market for some time: Seaman takes the old tomogachi virtual pet craze to a new level by presenting players with a virtual baby fish-creature.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. The Learning Company provides one of the better examples of speech recognition technology in their Learnto-Speak product line and freely available VirtualTalk Web site. though instead of directly controlling the main character.it significantly increases the design complexity. participatory conversation designers targeting the foreign language market often need to simplify interactions in ways that impair both the entertainment and educational value. releases have only just begun to do this.000 phrases. selling foreign language expansion packs provides a simple way to further capitalize on investments already made into creating versions for different languages and. modifying commercial games offer a quick way to develop rich content for examining student motivation. Raising a creature from birth to adulthood is expected to take about a month. games targeting the larger entertainment market should begin incorporating spoken interfaces in the near future. While pre-programming each of the expected responses greatly improves functionality -. with about 10 minutes of interaction a day. context effects. though to date the number of successful applications has been limited due to its poor performance and high system demands. For more advanced students a game such as Operator's Side (Lifeline in English) includes all the elements of a typical action/adventure game.
One possibility might simply be to assign exam words as vocabulary homework for students to memorize during independent study time. Games can be edited to support entirely new languages YOU'RE NOT STUDYING. however. a language similar to HTML/XML. YOU'RE JUST BROWSING THE WEB As game design develops further. In most browsers. In asking some of my more successful classmates how they approached vocabulary. the throbber in the top right corner displayed a German word and image Language Learning & Technology 88 . the upper right hand corner includes a logo known as a "throbber" which animates while loading a Web page. Lacking either a television or index cards. to rapidly reconfigure the layout and design of the browser interface. Being the world's worst language learner. Much like the language data for The Sims. I set about to instead make an equivalent system for browsing the Internet. During my German class. even more opportunities for practicing foreign languages within entertaining contexts will become available. I replaced my throbber with a small frame pointing to a Web site containing a randomized vocabulary word from the current chapter of my textbook. the user interface descriptions for the latest Mozilla and Netscape Web browsers are stored in editable files. You're Just… Figure 7. This allows anybody with knowledge of XUL. it always took me far longer to learn foreign vocabulary than any of my classmates. This. the main challenge for educators will be to fold the value added by games in with the structure provided by a traditional learning environment. A beginning classroom playing a bi-lingual The Sims needs a way of focusing student attention on learning the most relevant words and an intermediate Japanese class playing a bi-lingual Operator's Side needs a way of preparing students for all the vocal commands expected in the game. Instead of displaying a corporate logo. may lose some of the interest of the less motivated or less organized students. they mentioned that they studied flashcards during television commercials.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying.
yet cautions that logistics and time-on-task can actually outweigh such advantages. the internal frame used in this example naturally inherits the ability to display HTML -. followed by the English translation when loading was complete. allowing them to personalize their annotations in a time efficient manner. an innovative textbook publisher could offer a Web gallery where students who enjoy authoring could share any multimedia annotations they develop (Figure 9) would then provide those students not inclined to authoring with a large point-and-click repository. Top right corner is replaced with an online flashcard system for when pages are loading Being part of the browser. You're Just… while loading a Web site. Furthermore.In my case. Figure 8. Nikolova (2002) shows how vocabulary retention is best when students author their own personalized annotations.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. this simply served to flash new vocabulary words while I was waiting for Web sites to load. although such a system could be extended in any number of ways (see Figure 8). Language Learning & Technology 89 .making the implementation of rich media annotations a simple process using commonly available authoring programs. With this in mind. this opens possibilities for direct authorship by students.
2002). Other studies show the importance of a learner being in the same mood when trying to recall an item as when learning it (Forester. a digital delivery system centralizes the logistics behind studying away from each individual student to the teacher or textbook publisher. 1999). it features many advantages over dedicating a set block of study time. For adolescent learners. the student is more likely to have seen a given word in a wider range of moods. Language Learning & Technology 90 . Keeping study content in the periphery of a student's browser interface encourages continued rehearsal. Another script may be able to monitor language-learning exercises students perform online and then automatically update its content according to their mistakes. For users who consent. You're Just… Figure 9.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. 2002). the clearest advantage is that little else can compete for the learner's attention. however.1 flashes integrated into Web site loading have a more captive audience. students must continue studying a word even after it appears to be learned (Bjork. Although learning vocabulary phrases while waiting for Web sites and programs to load fragments a student's studying into numerous quick flashes. teachers can specify the current vocabulary words and deliver them directly to the student's browser interface -. Numerous studies show long-term advantages when items to be remembered are spaced out in their presentations (Bjork & Bjork. In a dedicated study time. the Mozilla browser includes a feature that replaces advertisement banners with blank images. Besides logistical advantages. By having content stored on a Web site. By distributing and repeating exposures of a target vocabulary phrase across the whole time a student is using a computer. While a 10-minute study block could also be redirected towards Friends™. As an example of the numerous possibilities available to creative educators. 1992. that if an item is to remain accessible in the long-term. Researchers suggest. Possible gallery for classrooms who choose to author their own annotations Besides inheriting the rich media capabilities of an HTML renderer. This allows it to interact with the user and other components of the browser. a more fragmented vocabulary exposure system could also aid the longterm retention of words. a script could additionally allow the browser to automatically transmit data about student's usage back to a researcher. Forester. an internal browser frame also has access to the same scripting environment and programming capabilities as the main browser frame. Furthermore. rather than blank images. students are likely to stop studying as soon as they can successfully recall an item from memory. advertisements could be replaced with vocabulary images. For example. it could adaptively adjust its content based on which site the user is currently visiting.such that even the least disciplined student is forcibly saturated with material of the teacher's choice.
rather than clicking each word for an electronic translation. A listener follows a song through syncronized lyrics and uses an OCR translator to look up unfamiliar words In an ideal world. this allows learners to follow along with a foreign song as it is playing (see Figure 10). While music has strong potential for sharing foreign culture with students. For typing tutor programs that offer further customization. For older songs. it was not until I found artists for myself that I was able to appreciate German music enough to voluntarily listen to and study it regularly on my own free time. the only access students had to foreign music was often their teacher’s personal CD collection. Williams and Thorne (2000) report on how students learning foreign language subtitling acquired impressive language skills simply as a byproduct of their subtitling practice. Today. we would simply have a bilingual friend or teacher always standing beside us whenever we wanted to listen to a foreign song -ready to translate any unfamiliar words for us. Many high schools already include classes where students practice with a typing tutor. and 13). bi-lingual games. however.avl Figure 10. synchronized lyrics can easily be inserted or retrieved from online databases. one feature useful for language learners is that synchronized lyrics can be embedded directly into MP3 files. Combined with an OCR-capable translator. making it impossible for a teacher to find a single song that can similarly engage all students. You're Just… YOU'RE NOT STUDYING. musical tastes are often very individualized. Another challenge is that song lyrics can often be difficult to recognize accurately -. students could likely gain similar language learning side effects from their keyboarding classes. YOU'RE NOT STUDYING. Often this requires students instead to first exclusively listen to a song and then switch to studying a printout of the lyrics to try to understand what they just heard.even for native speakers. though there is little value in repeatedly telling them about how the quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog. Now that most digital songs are using ID3v2 or higher. 12.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. students may find memorizing so many sentences tedious and boring. its use in classrooms has numerous challenges. insertions can be made to songs that sound as though they are coming from a physical location different from the ambient song. One simple modification could be to set a typing tutor to use sentences in the language the student is learning. Foremost. Though I had numerous German teachers. (see Figures 11. resources like MTV international. net radios and audioscrobbler allow learners to independently explore modern music worldwide – with services such as iTunes and Napster emerging to provide affordable and legal purchases. The Online Spanish Tutorial and about. Previously. or pop-music lyrics. each preparing lessons on songs ranging from traditional folk to punkmetal. following_synced_lyrics. By delaying the timing at which a given sound is delivered to each ear. it can be simulated practically using 3D spatialized sound technology. Language Learning & Technology 91 . YOU'RE JUST LISTENING TO MUSIC In every language classroom I have attended or observed. high school language teachers could work together with keyboarding teachers to supply sentences synchronized with the current course material. it can be difficult for a teacher to provide instruction while a song is playing. however. This allows educators to embed instructional content directly into a song (or other audio content) while still maintaining a clearly audible distinction so as not to detract from the main song. YOU'RE IN TYPING CLASS Another possibility for getting students to engage in more rote forms of practice without needing to compete for their free time is to piggyback foreign language practice on time spent working with a typing tutor. there has been some attempt to use music as a medium of engaging students. Also. While always using a friend may not be so realistic.com German offer a series of model sentences students can memorize in order to learn grammatical concepts such as differentiating "por" and "para" or dative versus accusative prepositions. By using the customize sentences feature available in most typing tutors to include key L2 sentences.
auditory materials sometimes required a dedicated trip to the language lab.com user surveys2 for their comprehensive Spanish series give 60 out of 72 perfect 5star ratings and overall enthusiastic reviews (Amazon Reviews. 2003): I was a definite beginner with Spanish. Example of song with spatialized translation simulating a translator standing 4 meters to the right of the listener (please use headphones. Personally.wav Figure 12. This partially encouraged written assignments to become the primary medium for practicing grammar and vocabulary -.mpg Figure 13. whereas a textbook could always be taken anywhere and studied at any time.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. Following these 50 hours of instruction. fast.. creation details) fur_mich_ans_licht_innerear_halfm_left_translation. YOU'RE JUST WALKING TO CLASS In recent years Simon and Schuster Corporation has been developing a language learning solution known as the Pimsleur series.mp3 fur_mich_ans_licht_innerear_halfm_left_translation. however. If you enjoyed Spanish in high school. I found listening to the comprehensive German series I had loaded onto my cell phone while walking between classes to be a stress-free way of incorporating an hour of practice into my daily routine. Amazon. Despite the $725 price tag. portable audio players are rapidly Language Learning & Technology 92 . written print has generally been the more practical medium for introductory level language homework. and doesn't require repetition of the same old stuff over and over . and over. Furthermore. Example of a music video combining both spatialized translations and captions in order to maximize comprehension (please use headphones) YOU'RE NOT STUDYING.wav Figure 11. This one is easy on your mind. now I speak more and better than my husband who took Spanish for years in school. I used the course while commuting and was surprised at the amount of retention in just a short period of time.despite my previous failed attempts at first level German. unlike my prior listening while walking. Most distinct about this series is the exclusive use of auditory materials on cassette or CD. an entire day worth of non-stop portable audio can fit on a common one inch flat memory chip. In the past. you probably won't like this course.rarely allowing me time to do more than temporarily memorize the contents of the next quiz and ultimately requiring some of the other learning strategies discussed in this paper by the time I finished third level German.with accompanying auditory material usually provided only to supplement listening practice where necessary. Today. And the one thing that is so great about it is that you don't need to study a book … even if you do prefer visual learning. simply for entertainment purposes. The comprehension level is amazing. I felt more than comfortable enrolling in UCLA's second level German -.. Example of song with spatialized translation simulating a nearby source to the left luftbalons_innerear_5m_right.mp3 fur_mich_ans_licht_4_meters_right_translation. you would benefit greatly from this system. receiving widespread popular reviews throughout the Internet. Unfortunately. completing assigned written exercises was always in competition with studying my other textbooks -. You're Just… fur_mich_ans_lickt_4_meters_right_translation.
YOU'RE JUST DOING WHAT YOU ENJOY -. users of the English version of the Yahoo mail service can optionally access mail and receive their advertisements in 12 different languages. Within this perspective. Rather. by devising ways to embed language instruction directly into popular media. Often as a follow-up to content based lessons. assigning at least some explicit study of linguistic features can be useful. For those aspects of popular culture with a technology component. Most media technologies include accessibility features for the blind or deaf.with predictions that by 2005 it will be possible to directly purchase. when we consider the enormous range of media forms and different literacies present in a digital society. You're Just… becoming ubiquitous in the life of the average adolescent -. perhaps because they manage to blend so naturally into a classroom environment. As both the next generation grows up fully accustomed to portable media technologies and professional digital audio production tools become more widely available. let alone sustain it for an hour of instruction in an unknown language. however. the same potential is likely to be found in virtually any digital media form.WOW Proponents of Content Based Instruction (CBI) have done a great service to students by bringing authentic and personally relevant materials into the classroom. By understanding how these and other upcoming innovations fit together. For each learner in a given country. researchers can rapidly generate engaging learning content from any internationalized media. By understanding how to merge and take advantage of multilingual datasets. and music. using these extra modalities to include the L1 can be a powerful way to modify them for language learning. there is literally a world of different popular media items they would be exposed to had they grown up in the country of their L2.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. meta-description developments such as XML give us power and flexibility when annotating content with instructional extensions. YOU'RE NOT STUDYING. Many of the more successful CBI paradigms have been those using academic content. we can identify two areas for improvement when assigning explicit study to adolescent learners: First. curriculum designers can offer students highly adaptable learning environments to explore and teachers cutting edge curriculum that can be implemented as simply as assigning textbook pages. no teacher could be expected to independently design lessons that provide language instruction for all their students' different media preferences. making Language Learning & Technology 93 . we should instead begin with the popular media forms that students would independently be interested in had they grown up in the country of their L2 and then find better ways of integrating them into the language learning process. Still. simply by changing the location setting. receive. In this case. when Squaresoft entertainment announced their intention not to create an English translation of their popular Final Fantasy V. academic content may not even be able to capture their attention to begin with. researchers should work to find the best balance between auditory and written practice materials and examine the impact of providing students materials similar to Simon and Schuster's Pimsleur series that are synchronized with course topics and examinations. and play music all by cell phone (Digital Media. explicit study tends to consume 100% of a learner's attention while performing it. Advances in internationalization programming place most language data for software outside the main program so it can rapidly be translated to other languages. In fact. As demonstrated with music videos. Lankshear and Knobel (2002) suggest that assignments should be evaluated within an economic framework of how much attention a student must invest in completing it. we really have only begun to explore the possibilities for how authentic materials can be used. accessing the corresponding L2 versions for the different media forms in one's daily life is often easier than might be thought. 2003). Finally. For example. Certainly. a group of volunteer fans was able to create one without assistance from Squaresoft. For adolescent learners. Web browsing. While this paper has provided examples of embedding language instruction into games. rather than finding what is suitable for classroom use and then working to capture student attention with it. curriculum designers should have enough flexibility for embedding instructional extensions into authentic media to alleviate either extensive teacher preparation for using commercial media resources or the need for artificial edutainment materials.
5(1). students naturally consider their free time precious. Healy. Similar to how a roadside billboard manages to attract our attention to a product we might have ignored when busy. 202-232. we should now be able to eliminate the artificial separation between language instruction and everyday life -allowing even the world's worst language learner to enjoy learning a foreign language. Second. In 1989. Bjork. R. K. These are self-selected participants. requiring every academic discipline to re-evaluate its possibilities. Assessing our own competence: Heuristics and illusions.. & Wesche wrote. Retrieved October 8. S. ABOUT THE AUTHOR Ravi Purushotma recently entered the Comparative Media Studies masters program at MIT. Kosslyn. NOTE 1.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail//0671315935/ref=cm_rev_all_1/103-3935052-7739849?v=glance&s=books&vi=customer-reviews Bjork. making it difficult for educators to persuade them to direct it towards studying. Volume 2 (pp. Language Learning & Technology 94 . E.com reviews for a comparison baseline. http://www. R. & R. Estes. In D. Shiffrin (Eds. 5).S. (1999). Amazon. television show 2.msu. (2001). 2004. A new theory of disuse and an old theory of stimulus fluctuation. In A. see other amazon. He hopes to explore how emerging digital media forms can be harnessed to foster learning and help dispel global barriers.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0671521527/ref=cm_rev_prev/103-39350527739849?v=glance&s=books&vi=customer-reviews&show=-submittime&start-at=1. students are able to make a double return on any attention they invest. You're Just… it costly for the learner to invest more than is necessary to receive a satisfactory grade. Snow. pushing materials at students while waiting around for a parent's car to arrive or waiting for a Web site to load allows us to engage them when their attention is less valuable. The effect of multimedia annotation modes on L2 vocabulary acquisition: A comparative study. L. "CBI aims at eliminating the artificial separation between language instruction and subject matter which exist in most educational settings" (p. from http://www. 2003. Retrieved March 31. A. Gopher & A.amazon. 35-67).amazon. REFERENCES Al-Seghayer. Cognitive regulation of performance: Interaction of theory and application (pp.). 435-459). Friends™ is a popular U. A. (1992). from http://llt.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0671315943/ref=cm_cr_dp_2_1/103-39350527739849?v=glance&s=books&vi=customer-reviews. Brinton. In the past 15 years. By fully understanding the convergence of language instruction and digital media. & Bjork. Cambridge.edu Click here for updates or to read/post comments about this commentary. Koriat (Eds. technology has advanced into a new epoch.amazon. E-mail: ravip@mit. Language Learning & Technology. From learning processes to cognitive processes: Essays in honor of William K.com: Customer reviews: Spanish. NJ: Erlbaum. Hillsdale. Attention and performance XVII. MA: MIT Press.edu/vol5num1/alseghayer/ Amazon Reviews (2003). and http://www. Embedded language instruction allows us to capitalize on moments where attention is less scarce.). By embedding language instruction into learning to type or any daily routine.
D. 100-122. digital technologies and the education of adolescents.utoledo. 2003. W. You're Just… Brinton. J. (2001). & Hulstjn. Retrieved October 4. (2003). Studies in Second Language Acquisition.org/publications/books_references/digital_america/audio/internet_digital_recording. Content-based second language instruction.. Language Learning & Technology. Retrieved March 19. (2002. (2002). Retrieved October 3.edu/kdsquire/manuscripts/insight.. 20). 210-225. from http://llt. 99-126. & Wesche. Harnessing the power of games in education. Retrieved March 19. Calico Journal. Interactive participatory dramas for language learning. Second gamer dies after massive binge. Technically speaking: Transforming language learning through virtual learning environments (MOOs). Simulation and gaming.asp?cp1=1 Digital Media. In P. Do we have your attention? New literacies.msnbc.com? Language Learning & Technology.msu. & Kotte. L. C. from http://www. Effects of students' participation in authoring of multimedia materials on student acquisition of vocabulary.. from http://llt. (1999) Incidental vocabulary acquisition in a second language. Simulation & Gaming. R. K. Retrieved October 4. Gluck. 2003 from http://cms.. Sims family values.asp Everquest or Evercrack? (2002. from http://www. T.shtml Farrell. H.. (1989). 6-11. W.co. (1992).edu/vol6num1/NIKOLOVA/ Squire. & Jenkins. H.ce.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2499957. (2004).com/news/835533.com/stories/2002/05/28/earlyshow/living/caught/main510302. K. London: Macmillan. A. (2002).).msu. Schneider. from http://www.. from http://website. South Korea's gaming addicts. BBC News. from http://news.bbc. 217-230. Retrieved October 4. October 22). M.pdf Von der Emde.doc Squire. S. L. 2003. 33(2).com/News/1136154 Forester. M. Hulstijn. 20(1). Applied Linguistics. Langland home. Arnaud & H. (2003) Video games in education. from http://coarts_faculty. 33(2). Retrieved October 4. 6(1). New York: Peter Lang. International Journal of Intelligent Simulations and Gaming. November 22). O.edu/games/education/pubs/IJIS. B. D.stm Hubbard. 2003. 181-193. 7(2). 2003. 2004. Retrieved October 3. K. (in press). from http://www. 2004. On foot in SIM CITY: Using SIM COPTER as the basis for an ESL writing assignment.vnunet.). Alvermann (Ed. Language Learning & Technology 95 . Coleman. Incidental Vocabulary Acquisition in a Second Language: The Construct of Task-Induced Involvement. & Ponterio. R. 2003. Retention of inferred and given meanings: Experiments in incidental vocabulary learning. Retrieved on October 4. (2002.Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. (2003. Lankshear.. 2003. Vocabulary and applied linguistics (pp. 21(2). Tele-Collaborative Projects: Monsters. Coleman. J. P. J. J. N. Huckin. Vnuet. In D. Implications of research on human memory for CALL design. N. MA: Heinle & Heinle. (2002). Snow. Boston.mit. Consumer Electronics Association. (2003). M. Insight. W. November 25). Adolescents and literacies in a digital world (pp. Retrieved October 4.edu/dcoleman/Langland/ Croal.cbsnews. J.wisc. (2001). & Knobel. & Coady. Modern Language Journal 85(ii). Béjoint (Eds. Laufer.education. M.. 2003. Newsweek. 1-26. 22(1). (2002). (2)1. May 28) CBS News.com.edu/vol7num2/net/ Nikolova. D. J. 210-216. LeLoup. (2002). 113-125).
com/hub/addiction/adiction. Input. Williams H. 217-228.. & Thorne D. You're Just… Watanabe. 2004. 287-307. intake. from http://www.nickyee. Y. Ariadne -. The value of teletext subtitling as a medium for language learning. 28(2).Ravi Purushotma Commentary: You're Not Studying. Yee N. Unpublished manuscript. 19. Studies in Second Language Acquisition.Understanding MMORPG addiction.pdf Language Learning & Technology 96 . (2000). System. (2002).. (1997). and retention: Effects of increased processing on incidental learning of foreign language vocabulary. Retrieved March 31.
Possible topics include. graphics. language acquisition. and testing. Multimedia programs combine digital audio. This special issue of Language Learning & Technology aims at providing a variety of perspectives in this area through research articles and theoretical discussions in the domains of technology-based comprehension. to firstname.lastname@example.org. graphics. including exposure to an unprecedented selection of unfiltered native speaker materials. and video with an array of meaning aids and afford a high level of individual control. translations. • • • Copyright © 2005.Language Learning & Technology http://llt.edu/vol9num1/call. 97 Call for Papers for Special Issue of LLT Theme: Technology and Listening Comprehension Guest Editor: Philip Hubbard Developments in multimedia software and the Web offer a range of new opportunities for learners to develop listening proficiency in the target language.) to support comprehension and acquisition • studies of the use of technology for the co-development of listening and reading proficiency • studies of the impact of listening and handheld technologies (mobile phones. Number 1 p. etc. but are not limited to a comprehensive literature review of technology and listening comprehension theories or theoretical frameworks for aspects of computer-based listening research on the link between computer-based activities that promote listening comprehension and those that promote language acquisition • studies on the utilization of authentic listening materials on the Web • studies of the efficacy of technology-based meaning aids (captions.html January 2005. ISSN 1094-3501 97 . while the Web makes it possible for easy access to an assortment of listening experiences. glosses. MP3 players. Volume 9. etc. 2005.) on comprehension • research into the use of DVDs for language learning • computer-based testing of listening proficiency Please send an e-mail of intent with a 250 word abstract by May 1.
Their contribution has helped the journal to grow and continue its success.msu.Language Learning & Technology http://llt. 9.edu/vol9num1/ackn. 98 ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF REVIEWERS Language Learning & Technology would like to acknowledge and thank the following people who reviewed manuscripts for us during the production of Volume 8 and throughout the 2004 production year. Bryan Smith Maggie Sokolik Susana Sotillo Juha Suoranta Elaine Tarone Paul Tench Yukio Tono Larry Vandergrift Leo van Lier Margaret van Naerssen Lorrie Verplaetse Daniel Villa Juliette Wade Paige Ware Rob Waring Donald Weasenforth Cynthia White Anne Wichmann Lawrence Williams Lillian Wong Dolly Young Zheng-Sheng Zhang Copyright © 2005.html January 2005. Zsuzsanna Abrams Janet Anderson-Hseih Jungok Bae Kathi Bailey Naomi Baron Rick Beach Ken Beatty Peggy Beauvois Diane Belcher Julie Belz Phil Benson Sigrun Biesenbach-Lucas Robert Blake Francoise Blin George Braine Klaus Brandl Mary Ellen Butler-Pascoe Teresa Cerratto Anna Uhl Chamot Candace Chou Andrew Cohen Douglas Coleman Joseph Collentine Dave Coniam Averil Coxhead David Crookall Graham Crookes Catia Cucchiarini Alistair Cumming Mark Darhower Juliana de Nooy Pat Desloge Joy Egbert Irina Elgort Lee Forester Bob Fox David Gardner Margo Glew Keren Goldfrad Greta Gorsuch Bill Grabe Regine Hampel Barbara Hanna Mirjam Hauck Susan Herring Beth Hewett Monica Hill Elaine Horwitz Phil Hubbard Nora Hussin Sophie Ioannou-Georgiou Robert Johnson Hae-Young Kim Celeste Kinginger Keiko Kitade Markus Koetter Jim Kohn Claudia Kost Haggai Kupermintz Marie-Noelle Lamy Lina Lee John Levis Meei-Ling Liaw Hsien-Chin Liou Min Liu Lara Lomicka Alison Mackey Elaine Martyn Cristina Matas Richard Mayer Michael McCarthy Owen McGrath Kevin McLure Carla Meskill Andreas Mueller-Hartmann Noriko Nagata Paul Nation Raffaella Negretti Hillary Nesi John Norris David Novick Robert O'Dowd Lourdes Ortega Nicholas Ostler Rebecca Oxford Faridah Pawan Jill Pellettieri Joy Kreeft Peyton Lucy Pickering Jon Reyhner Warren Roby Joan Rubin Jean Schultz Sima Sengupta Jane Setter Tony Silva D. Num. ISSN 1094-3501 98 . Vol. 1 p.
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