HNBR for use in oilfield applications

by John E. Dato, E.C. Campomizz.i and D. Achten, Lanxess In fundamental terms, fully hydrogenated NBR can be described us a copolymer consisting of randomly distributed sequences of ethylene and acrylonitrile monomers. The intrinsic combination of good heat, extreme oil and chemical resistance, coupled with outstanding physical properties and ease of processing for HNBR, can be attributed to its composition and structural arrangement. The use of HNBR for rubber articles such as stators (drilling motors and progressive cavity pumps), packers, blow out preventors and drill bit seals, can extend the lifetime of the articles, thereby reducing the maintenance frequency or extending the replacement cycles for those parts. This benefit can potentially translate into substantial operational cost savings without compromise to safety. Furthermore, advances in technology have permitted the development of new grades. New low viscosity polymers based on Therban AT (Advanced Technology) provide polymers that can be processed as easily as regular nitrile polymers (NBR). while retaining the advantageous properties of HNBR. Otber developments in carboxylate technology have allowed development of Therban XT (HXNBR), which offers the advantages of carboxylated NBR. but with the improvements in heat resistance and abrasion (due to the reduced stiffness ofthe polymer backbone) afforded by the hydrogénation of the polymer backbone. By utilizing the new HNBR polymers, unprecedented latitude of compounding, as well as novel ways of processing, can be attained. This, in turn, opens the door for new dimensions of design. Examples will be given in the article. Discu.ssion The development of new elastomers with improved performance profiles h:is hecome increasingly important, paiiicularly for rubber parts used in the oil industry. New, demanding methodologies have emerged, such as horizontal drilling and smart well techniques, in combination with increasingly advei"se conditions of deeper wells and higher temperatures. The more extensive use of corrosion inhibitors to protect production equipment from unpredictable mixtures of hydrocarbons, possibly containing sulfur. H-,S. CO2, CH4, and the extensive use of steam and brine injections to improve yields from even the smallest oil ptx:kets have raised demands on standard elastomers to an extent that they are reaching their performance limits. Consequently, equipment containing seals, stators, packers and other parts must be maintained or replaced more frequently, leading to increased cost with respect to both parts and to operational down-time. It is readily apparent that reliability and durability of equipment become limiting factors for the total output and overall return for each drilling operation. A number of limiting performance criteria for several rubber parts used in the oil well services industry have been identified. These are: • Resistance to high temperature and to aging: • resistance to swelling by aggressive fluids and gases; • resistance to explosive decompression; • mechanical properties and resistance to deformation at elevated temperatures; " abrasion and wear resistance under extremely adverse conditions: and • processing properties to allow a greater freedom of compounding, and new part design and production techniques. It is well known that HNBR is an oil resistant polymer that is well suited to deliver the pertormance criteria needed by the oil well sector. This outstanding property profile is attributable to the saturated polymer backbone in combination with the highly polar and inert acrylonitrile functional group. Starting from NBR. still the workhorse polymer for the oil industry. HNBR has a similar oil resistance as NBR. but with significantly improved chemical and heat resistance as well as improved physical properties over a wide temperature range. Through the hydiogenation process the double bonds of NBR are eliminated, the typical sites susceptible to chemical and oxidad ve attack. At the same time, the irregularly placed butadiene units are transfonned into polyethylene sequences, which gives HNBR its ability to reversibly crystallize under strain, resulting in physical properties comparable to natural rubber. Hence, the selective hydrogénation of the double bonds in acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) produces a specialty elastomer, hydrogenated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (HNBR), which may be formulated to produce a material conveying an excellent balance of properties including mechanical and dynatnic, as well as improved resistance to hot air, oils, chemicals and abrasion. Therban is characterized by a combination of properties that make rubber goods resistant to service conditions found in oil

Figure 1 - molecular structure of HNBR
Structural elements of hydrogenated nitrile rubber

Pendant nitrile group Oil resistance

Residual double bond Crossiinking efficiency Chemicai-heat resistance

Polyethylene sequence Chemical inertness Dynamic crystallization

28

RUBBER WORLD

carbon dioxide and acids. Generally. use was made of mixtures consisting of diesel oil. Figure 2 shows that the retention of tensile strength of HNBR based compound is superior to that of standard FKM.5 6 30 to to to to to to to 15 45 500 20 45 40 50 Rebound resilience. In addition. the parts may be exposed to mixtures of oil with acids and amines. whereas those of FKM.resistance to sour gas. DIN 53 516 20 30 to 60 exploration . the properties of HNBR remain substantially unchanged. Appropriate compounding techniques and selection of the most suitable TTierban polymer enable the properties of the vulcanizates to be adapted to specific requirements. diesel oil and water (aged 7d ® 150 C) Tensile strength Unaged Aged Figure 4 . good retention of tensile strength for HNBR is observed when the corrosion inhibitors NACE A (figure 3) and NACE B (figure 4) are added to the mixtures. sour gas. Typical vulcanízate properties for HNBR are shown in table I. In these cases. Síahility under oilfield conditions Rubber articles for oilfield application must withstand both mechanical wear and chemical attack by drilling mud and other aggressive fluids. representing a loss in tensile of about 30%. is an aggressive media encountered with increasing frequency. the tensile at break for the HNBR based compound is still in the order of about 18 MPa. Figure 3 . especially as the well depth increases. MPa M200 50=A 15 50 3 4. which occurs in crude oil and natural gas wells.Table 1 . Resistance to hydrogen . % Compression set. For the compounds based on these polymers. MPa Elongation at break./23°C 70hrs. representing a loss in tensile in the 50-80% range. as well as hydrogen sulflde.resistance to sour gas.ind production environmenls. For the test results described below. diesel oil and water + 1 % NACE A (aged 7d @ 150 C) Tensile strength 30 Unaged Aged Therban FKM NBR XNBR Figure 2 .sulfide and corrosion inhihiiors Hydrogen sulfide. Similarly. water and amine-based corrosion inhibitors NACE A and NACE B. methane and carbon dioxide. high pressure and temperature conditions Lire encountered. diesel oil and water + 1 % NACE B (aged 7d @ 150 C) Tensile strength Unaged Aged Therban FKM NBR XNBR Therban FKM NBR XNBR AUGUST 2007 29 . Depending on the actual well conditions. Other substances found in the service environment that tend to aggressively attack rubber articles include amine corrosion inhibitors. sour gas and water. The resistance to a caustic soda solution (25%) at 100°C and to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution (18%) at 50°C is very good. NBR and XNBR when aged at 150°C in a mixture consisting of diesel oil. the tensile at break after aging is in the range of 7-8 MPa. On the other hand./150°C Abrasion loss. % Modulus. HNBR vulcanizates also exhibit good resistance to alkahne solutions and dilute acids. the chemical and oxidative stability improve with increasing degree of hydrogénation. mm^.typical properties of HNBR vulcanizates Hardness. NBR and XNBR suffer significant reduction in tensile strength. % 70 hrs. durometer Tensile strength.resistance to sour gas.

The need for high filler levels often results in high compound viscosities.9 4. as might result through a sudden change in the operating conditions. as well as retention of physical properties. At a sudden pressure drop.typical properties ML 1+4 at 100°C RDB (%) 39 <0. low molecular weight hydrocarbons. elongation at break and hardness change.9 <0. are considerably more soluble in the rubber article than is the case at normal pressures. In tbe described tests. At these extreme pressure conditions.effect of explosive decompression cycle in CO2 on tensile strength Table 2 . tensile strength).9 39 <0. these additives are often detrimental to product performance. • the polymer should have high impenneability to gases.2 MPa to atmospheric pressure in less than 10 seconds. It is generally recognized that explosive decompression is improved by the following: • The solubility of gases in the polymer is low. compounds tor many oilfield applications are formulated to high durometer using high levels of fillers.9 5. 5. the dissolved gases tend to Figure 5 .2 MPa for 24 hrs. For most elastomers.explosive decompression resistance of various poiymers D) ^ Î 4 3 escape rapidly from the rubber. is strongly recommended. NBR and XNBR. Highly filled compounds lead to better results in explosive decompression tests than lightly filled conipi)unds. a bisphenol crosslinked compound was used. these problems are overcome by the introduction of plasticizers and process aids. ( ^ high tear resistance. Tbe carbon dioxide gas was introduced into the pressure vessel containing the test specimens. Advanced technology Therban AT In order to meet performance requirements. Exposure time was 24 hours at room temperature. ( — > high filler loading). Dry carbon dioxide at 5.2 MPa (750 psi) was used in the test to evaluate explosive decompression resistance. since plasticizers can be extracted and exchanged by media. such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide. aJI of which are known to withstand heat and/or oil swells. including tensile strength at break. To improve properties wherever swelling and aging in crude oil is a problem. which are contrary to good processing requirements/needs.) and then were tested one hour after the decompression step. The resistance to this "explosive decompression" is polymer and compound dependent. the use of fully hydrogenated high ACN content HNBR.0 39 39 39 39 <0. however.Results obtained with the oil soluble NACE B (figure 4) show tbe same behavior as observed when water-soluble NACE A is used. Commercially available elastomers were chosen for the tests.5 30 RUBBER WORLD . Resistance to explosive decompression Rubber articles used in the oil industry are also exposed to extremely high pressures. The specimens were aged as described (after aging in CO2 @ 23°C. • tbe physical properties are as high as possible. In the case of FKM. aiter which the specimens were explosively decompressed by opening an exhaust valve. The criteria used to rank the compound performance under these test conditions were resistance to blistering and destruction. and they influence permeation and solu- Il 1 HNBR NBR FKM Figure 6 . permeability and solubility can be adjusted by means of compounding techniques. Therban elastomer was compared with FKM. allowing the pressure to drop from 5. such as Therban A 4307. as well as other gases. Figure 6 shows the effect of explosive decompression testing on tensile strength. ( — > high ACN content is recommended). These results showed an even greater differentiation among the polymers tested. Diffusion of the gases into the article occurs until equilibrium is establisbed. Figure 5 shows that vulcanizates based on HNBR elastomer are highly resistant to explosive decompression. Typically.advanced technology Therban AT grades ACN (%) 21 34 34 39 43 43 Product range . causing internal destruction of the part.

o phr peroxide AUGUST 2 0 0 7 31 .9% RDB.processing window for Therban AT Typical viscosity and shear rate processing windows Viscosity [kPa s] — standard HNBR — AT HNBR Table 3 .4 5.9% RDB HNBR AT g. Figure 7 . physical properties and adhesion.6 26. Modulus. Standard HNBR 7. The results shown in table 3 and figure 9 demonstrate that. 0. compression set. Therban AT provides a dramatic reduction in compound viscosity. at a constant loading of N-330 carbon black. 70 hrs. Compared with standard HNBR. improved extrusion rates and extrudates having smoother surfaces iind sharper edges. as shown in table 2. This translates to a significantly lower compound viscosity as well.5 27. including faster mixing (shorter black incorporation times).5 phr peroxide (34% ACN. Compared with conventional HNBR products having a raw polymer Mooney viscosity in the nominal range of 65. Tberban AT shows lower viscosity levels through the entire range of shear rates typically encountered in rubber prtx-essing. Previously.5 phr peroxide Polymer Compound HNBR AT 7. @ 150"C 25 c o If) E o O 0 Q.effect of peroxide level on compression set Figure 8 .000 i [1/s] •HNBR produced using advanced technology provides the broadest processing flexibility Figure 9 .polymer and compound viscosities for Therban AT Mooney viscosity (ML 1+4 at 100'C) HNBR AT 11 /Standard HNBR " 120 Effect ol peroxide dosage on compression set.bility of gases. These products have clearly demonstrated the following advantages over regular viscosity HNBR grades: • Low molecular weight (low viscosity) provides improved pnK'essability. • Processability can be maintained at higher filler loadings. ultra low viscosity HNBR polymers were impossible to manufacture because of limitations in the available viscosity for NBR feedstocks. The advantages in processing properties for Therban AT are illustrated in figure 7. both containing 34% ACN. 0. hardness and compression set of Therban AT can be easily adjusted by a minor variation in eitber filler loading or peroxide level to 100 ^ 10 >Hoses' Seals' cables/stators Compression Drill bit " N ^ ^ " ' ^ molding. thereby enabling an extended hardness range and providing cost savings potential through higher compound extension. 100°C) M-100 (MPa) Tensile strength (MPa) Ultimate elongation (%) Hardness (duro A) HNBR 40phrN330 101 6. Both polymers contain 34% ACN.effect of N-330 carbon black level on vulcanízate properties Therban AT 40 phr N330 50phrN330 Mooney viscosity 57 69 (ML 1+4. these new Therban AT products have a typical raw polymer Mooney of 39. = 0.8 256 69 237 66 • Elimination or reduction oí plasticizcr is possible to improve heat aging. Therban AT has a significantly lower raw polymer viscosity compared with standard HNBR. Comparison of vulcanizóte properties for Therban AT A study was conducted to compare various compound and vulcanizate properties for standard HNBR and Therban AT. now available commercially as Therban AT. Figure 8 compares a stand:ird HNBR with Therban AT. They are available in a wide range of ACN and residual double bond (RDB) levels.9% RDB. • Narrower molecular weight distribution helps to maintain excellent physical strength properties.5 27. seals ^^iíeeáon building Mixing Extmsion molding Shear rate BOPs 1 •- i 1 A 10 100 i 1. significantly better flow and faster moid filling (shorter cycle times). despite a drop in molecular weight.6 273 64 7. The most recent breaktiirough in HNBR technology has been the development of a new class of low viscosity HNBR prixiucts by Lanxess.

lower injection/extmsion pressure Reduction or elimination of plasticizer . In severe oilfield environments. Blends containing ZDA (available under the brand Therban ART) can achieve a Figure 10 . improved explosive decompression resistance Figure 12 . It contains 34% acrvlonitrile (ACN). To further boost physical properties. cost savings potential frirough higher compound extension.comparison of physical properties . Therban AT can be utihzed in numerous oilfield apphcations. • adhesive strength to substrates such as nylon at 125°C. Resistance to abrasion Resistance to mechanical wear is another basic requirement for elastomer parts used in the oil industry. improved metal adhesion. It is capable of providing long term service at high temperatures up to lóS^C and short term service up to 185°C. HXNBR and HXNBR in combination with ZDA Hardness Tear strength DieB® Ultimate tensile ^ Ultimate /' elongation Figure 11 . ' ^ l ^ ^ ^ Stress @ 100% Pico abrasive index HXNBR • HXNBR HNBR +ZDA 32 RUBBER WORLD .Cost reduction. A list of potential applications and benefits is summarized in figure 11. HXNBR is recommended for numerous applications. lower compression set.5% Residual double bonds Figure 13 .Retention of excellent physical properties with improved processing properties Improved mixing. • Pico abrasion resistance. faster mold filling. as well as improved hot air aging resistance over carboxylated nitrile. elongation and tear) combined with excellent property retention at high temperatures.potential oilfield applications for Therban AT Applications Seals Gaskets O-rings Hoses BOPs Cables Stators Packers Benefits -*• Retention force -*• Hardness -»Surface quality ^ •*• Flame resistance * Loading. The strucmre of HXNBR is illustrated in figure 12. ED resistance •*• Volume flow . the use of Therban XT. If severe wear is the main reason for failure of parts.hydrogenated carboxyiated nitrile butadiene rubber COOH y CN 33% Acrylonitrile 5% Cartxjxyl 3. • tear resistance from 23°C to I70°C. better flow. the vulcanizates exhibit excellent abrasion resistance and adhesive strength. Therban XT can be combined with zinc diacrylate (ZDA). Carboxylated technology Therban XT Hydrogenated carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene (HXNBR) provides vulcanizates possessing outstanding mechanical properties (tensile. In addition. and • hot air oxidation resistance. Tear strength ¿ Die B Scorch 6 @ 125''CV. Hydrogénation of carboxyiated nitrile (XNBR) to produce HXNBR achieves the following vulcanizate improvements: • Mechanical properties (tensile strength and elongation) from 23''C to elevated temperatures (170°C). including drill bit seals. pipe wipers and seals requiring enhanced metal adhesion.Extended hardness range. is recommended.Cycle times -• Metal adhesion & Intricate shapes If viscosity is a problem use Advanced Technology HNBR alone or in combination with standard HNBR to selectively customize the properties of your compound. The key benefits for using new Therban AT are summarized in figure 10.5% residual double bond (RDB) content. 5% carboxylic acid groups and 3. low plasticizer extraction or volatilization during service • Proœssability even at significantly higher filler loads . shorter cycle times . ram packers.Therban AT summary of benefits Summary of benefits of advanced technology HNBR • Narrow molecular weight distribution combined with low viscosity . a new HNBR grade containing 5% carboxyl groups.Significantly improved physical properties. Lanxess produces a commercial HXNBR polymer identified as Therban XT VP KA 8889. HNBR is recognized to be superior to most other elastomers.standard HNBR. HXNBR can be formulated alone or in blends with HNBR to target ranges within this set of outstanding properties.reach the same or even better performances than standard HNBR without losing the advantage of easier processing.

5 Vanfre VAM 1. All of Therban XT 65 35 85 100 the HNBR and HXNBR VP KA 8889 vulcanizates show very Therban B 3627 100 100 35 65 100 low volume changes.s conducted to assess the swelling characteristics of Therban XT compared with other typical oilfield polymers.5 2.5 0.174 1. The formulations used for the design study are shown in table 4. Figure 13 compares some basic physical properties that can be achieved using standard HNBR.75 175.5 2.compounding formulations A M vulcanizates were immersed in distilled 100 85 XT/ FKM NBR LWS 100 65 35 0 100 water at lCWC for periods NBR XT XT/35 XT/65 XT/100 B3627/ B3627/ 30 of 70. standard HNBR and FKM. it is also important to consider the perfor^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ M Pa ) compared to the FKM formula (12 MPa). inciuding tensile strengths of 40 MPa.5 1. however. Therban XT provides high hardness and modulus.5 0. 168 and 504 hours. A study wa. The other polymers included . Table 4 .5 zates were aged at IOO°C StruktolZP1014 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 for periods of 70.5 1.135 hours in calcium chloride FKM postcured 6 hours at 230°C AUGUST 2007 33 .193 1. The fumed siliHS/LG ca filler shows particularly Naugard 445 1.25 1.75 139 swell after aging 504 Specific gravity 1. Therban XT and Therban XT in combination with ZDA. For example.5 2.4 Spider sulfur 0.25 1. high tear resistance and high abrasion resistance.75 185.75 185. manee of HXNBR in Viirious aqueous fluids.25 1.169 1.5 1. The vulcaniDiak #7 2.21 1.25 1.9 170. Therban XT was evaluated in various blend ratios with standaid HNBR and also in a blend with Therban ART.9 185.193 1.5 0.standard NBR.unique combination of ptiysical properties. For this study.5 0. due to its caiboxyl functionality. 168 and Zinc oxide 5 5 504 hours.75 185. the NBR vulVulkan ox 1 1 canizates.5 distilled water to simulate DOP 5 5 brine environments enTOTM 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Stearic acid countered in oilfield ap0. DIN abrasion values < 50 mm-' and durometer A hardness of 85-95. Stress-strain properties were assessed for each of the comResistance to oilfield fluids pounds.5 1.75 185. exhibits higher water swell than NBR.5 1.25 1. 2iX)% elongation at break.5 1. including drill bit seals. All ofthe HNBR CZ/EGC and HXNBR vuicanizates Vulkacit 2 2 show low volume changThiuram/C (D) es.5 2.5 0.177 1.21 1.5 2.5 0.5 Armeen 18D 0. The values for (Kadox 920) volume swell in calcium 0. In addition. low-water-swell NBR. comparable to standard Calcium 6 hydroxide andiow-water-swellNBR. All of the NBR combination of vulcanizale properties for oilfield compoand HNBR formulas show very high tensile strengths ( > 20 nents. N990 HiSil915 55 All vulcanizates were Silane A-172 2 immersed in a solution of DLC (72%) 2% calcium chloride and 0. or FC2123 better than.25 1. The FKM Carbon black 55 55 55 55 55 55 X vulcanizate shows very N650 high volume change alter Carbon black 30 504 hours aging.25 plications. both carbon black and silica tillers were evaluated.75 185. This combination ot properties is useful in various oilfield applications.171 1. it is generally recognized that XNBR. ART B3627 B3627 B3627 Aerosil HiSil Krynac 3345C The values for volume 100 100 Krynac VP KA swell in distilled water are 8871 shown in figure 15.5 Aerosil 972V 55 low water swell. All compounds were It has been shown that Therban XT ean provide a unique designed to achieve a similar haidness range. ram packers. They Therban ART 30 VP KA 8798 provide water swell values Dyneon FKM 100 that are equivalent to. HP-XL The FKM vulcanizate Maglite D 3 shows particularly high Total (phr) 170.5 2.4 9 9 Vulcup 40KE 9 9 9 9 9 chloride are shown in figVulkacit 2 2 ure 16. Results are shown in figure 14. and pipe wipers.

The values for volume swell in IRM 903 are shown in figure 17. the volume changes for blends of HXNBR and standard HNBR show intermediate values.solution compared with HNBR. and particularly Therban XT. 100X 34 RUBBER WORLD . HXNBR shows slightly lower volume change than standard HNBR. are both viable alternatives for high temperature environments requiring excellent resistance to water and brine media. On top of that. . A high abrasive index translates to low abrasion volume loss. for example. respectively. lOOX \s 504 tirs.volume change in IRM 903 oil 70hrs. 100X 504 hrs 10OX Figure 15 . The lower volume change for HXNBR is indicative of the higher crosslink density and higher modulus which is achieved via ionic crosslinking with HXNBR. In order to assess wear characteristics. HXNBR and FKM vulcanizates were tested for Pico abrasion. however.n 168 hrs. The oil swell for HXNBR can be further improved by blending with an HNBR containing 43% ACN content.stress-strain properties 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 CE CO Figure 16 .150°C 70 tirs. The values for abrasive index are shown in figure 18. Among the polymers tested. The NBR vulcanizates were not tested at 150°C. HNBR.volume change in 2% calcium chloride II Ü3 C D C O ^ ë g lO lO -^ l Elongation (%-MO) C Ö i*5 o Hardness P Tensile (MPa) (durometer A) 70hrs. Since NBR is still considered to be the workhiorse polymer for the oil industry. As expected. even though the ACN contents are approximately 33% and 36%. it should be noted that no HNBR polymers with high ACN content were tested in this series. In order to assess the effect of oi! swell. All of the vulcanizates that contain HNBR clearly show superior abrasion resistance compared with NBR and FKM. it can be concluded that HNBR. the compound containing only 35 phr of Figure 14 . the volume change is lowest with FKM. the NBR. HNBR and FKM vulcanizates were immersed in IRM 903 at 150°C for a period of 70 hours.volume change in distilied water Figure 17 .

Advances in carboxylate technology have enabled the development of Therban XT (HXNBR).sistance are achieved when combined with Zn-diacrylates (ZDA): . and • good compression set and low temperature behavior.rubber. Therhan provides a good combination of mechanical properties. can be attained. surface). From the results of this compounding study. In addition to its good heat. oil and wear resistance cable jackets: diaphragms. its carboxylated Therban XT and its zinc-diucrylate reinforced Therban ART.drilling motor and pump). Tlie more extensive use of corrosion inhibitors to protect production equipment from unpredictable mixtures of hydrocarbons. unprecedenled latitude of compounding. possibly containing sulfur. {continued on page 86) Figure 18 . and the extensive use of steam and brine injections to improve yields from even the smallest oil pockets have raised demands on standard elastomers to an extent that they are reaching their performance limits. Some typical applications of the wide variety of oilfield components in which the Therban product range can be used include: stators (. low abrasion and high modulus. • low water swell. Some of the key properties for HNBR are: • Excellent physical properties and abrasion resistance at elevated temperatures. COi. The sample containing HXNBR and Therban ART shows the highest abrasion resistance of all samples tested. Abrasion resistance can be further enhanced by using blends with Therban ART. drill pipe protectors. as well as novel ways ot"processing. for HXNBR are: • HNBR is recognized as a superior polymer for long-term service at temperatures up to 165°C and for short-term use up tol85X. Typical application examples have been recommended. Therban. CED This article is based on a paper given at a meeting of the Rubber Division. This article has illustrated the performance profile and property improvements for new^ Therban polymers in various oilfield components. low viscosity AT line. pipe wipers and rubber-to-metal bonded seals.000 AUGUST 2007 35 . . such as horizontal drilling and smart well techniques. such as drill bit seals. low volume chLinge in IRM 903 oil and excellent Pico abrasion resistance. Advances in polymer technology have enabled the introduction of new grades specifically addressing the needs of the oil-well industry. • Enhanced physical properties and wear re. fuel and chemical resistance.DIN abrasion < 50 mm• HXNBR (as well as ZDA combinations) can be used in applications requiring high dynamic stress. The use of HNBR for oilfield components can extend the lifetime of the articles. tear strength and abrasion resistance. H2S. low volume change in water and brine. particularly for rubber paits used in the oil industiy. New.hardness of 85-95 durometer A. CH4. pipe wipers. it can be concluded that Therban XT provides high physical properties. thereby reducing the maintenance frequency or extending the replacement cycles for those parts. This article has illustrated some of the many benefits that can be achieved by using HNBR elastomers. drilling hose (rotary. oil.HXNBR even shows a two-fold improvement in abrasion resistance compared to standard HNBR. • very good hot air and oil resistance. while retaining or even improving the advantageous properties of HNBR.tensile strength up to 45 MPa with elongation at break 200% . ACS (www. By utilizing these new HNBR polymers. choke and kill). Some of the key properties. • good resistance to alkali and hydrogen sulfide. ram packer BOPs. with its new. blow out preventors (ram and annular types). packers: seals for exploration and production equipment (valve. which offers the advantages of carboxylated NBR but with the improvements in heat resistance afforded by the hydrogénation of the polymer backbone. specifically addresses the needs of state-of-the-art oilfield technologies and demanding production methods that have to meet increasingly severe conditions and adverse environments. and rubber-to-metal bonded seals Conclusions The development of new elastomers with improved performance profiles has become increasingly important. drill bit seals. These benefits translate into substantial operational cost savings without compromise to safety. New low viscosity polymers based on Therban AT (Advanced Technology) provide polymers which can be processed as easily as regular nitrile polymers (NBR). in combination with increasingly adverse conditions of deeper wells and higher tempei alures. demanding methodologies have emerged. wellhead.500 3. ZDA-modified HNBRs (Therban ART) provide excellent resistance to mechanical wear. the use of HXNBR provides both wear resistance and high temperature service.Pico abrasion 3. • For severe wear applications. • very good resistance to "extrusion" and "explosive decompression".org). and potential oilfield applications.

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