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TRIANGLES

Similar Figures

All congruent figures are similar but the similar figures need not be congruent.

(i) their corresponding angles are equal and

(ii) their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion).

This again emphasises that two polygons of the same number of sides are similar, if

(i) all the corresponding angles are equal and

(ii) all the corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion).

If one polygon is similar to another polygon and this second polygon is similar to a

third polygon, then the first polygon is similar to the third polygon.

Similarity of Triangles

Two triangles are similar, if

(i) their corresponding angles are equal and

(ii) their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or proportion).

Theorem: If a line is drawn parallel to one side of a triangle to intersect the

other two sides in distinct points, the other two sides are divided in the

same ratio.

Proof : We are given a triangle ABC in which a line parallel to side BC intersects

other two sides AB and AC at D and E respectively.

M

N

D E

C

B

AD AE

We need to prove that, =

DB EC

Finish Line & Beyond

Let us join BE and CD and then draw DM ⊥ AC and EN ⊥ AB.

1 1

Now, area of Δ ADE = × base × height = × AD × EN

2 2

1

Similarly ar(BDE) = × BD × EN

2

1

ar(ADE) = × AE × DM

2

1

ar(DCE) = × EC × DM

2

ar ( ADE ) AD × EN AD

So, = = ---------------------------------- (1)

ar ( BDE ) BD × EN BD

ar ( ADE ) AE × DM AE

= = ---------------------------------- (2)

ar ( DCE ) EC × DM EC

Now, as ∆ BDE and ∆ DCE are on the same side of DE

So, ar(BDE) = ar(DCE) ---------------------------------- (3)

AD AE

=

BD EC

Theorem: If a line divides any two sides of a triangle in the same ratio, then

the line is parallel to the third side.

Proof: Draw a triangle ABC and draw a line DE such as it divides AB and AC in the

same ratio.

D E

B C

Finish Line & Beyond

AD AE

In ∆ ABC it is given that =

AB EC

Prove DE ll BC

Proof:

∠ AED + ∠ DEC = 180°

In Rectangle DECB,

∠ DEC + ∠ ECB = 180°

As per theorem of parallel lines angles on the same side of a tansverse section line of

two parallel lines are always equal.

AAA (Angle-Angle-Angle) Theorem: If in two triangles, corresponding

angles are equal, then their corresponding sides are in the same ratio (or

proportion) and hence the two triangles are similar.

D

A

P Q

B C

F

E

∠ A= ∠ D

∠ B= ∠ E

∠ C= ∠ F

So, ∠ B = ∠ P = ∠ E and PQ ll EF, because by making a similar triangle like ABC the

line PQ bisects lines DE and DF in the same ratio.

Finish Line & Beyond

AB BC

Hence, =

DE DF

So, ∆ ABC ≈ ∆ DEF proved

Note: If two angles of one triangle are respectively equal to two angles of another

triangle, then the two triangles are similar.

SSS (Side-Side-Side)Theorem: If in two triangles, sides of one triangle are

proportional to (i.e., in the same ratio of ) the sides of the other triangle,

then their corresponding angles are equal and hence the two triangles are

similiar.

Proof: This theorem can be proved by using same method as in previous theorem.

the other triangle and the sides including these angles are proportional, then the two

triangles are similar.

Theorem: The ratio of the areas of two similar triangles is equal to the square of the

ratio of their corresponding sides.

Proof : We are given two triangles ABC and PQR such that Δ ABC ~ Δ PQR

D

A

B M C

E N F

1 1

ar(ABC) = × BC × AM and ar(DEF) = × EF × DN

2 2

Finish Line & Beyond

ar ( ABC ) BC × AM

So, = --------------------------------------------- (1)

ar ( DEF ) EF × DN

ar ( ABC ) AB² BC² AC²

We need to Prove = = =

ar ( DEF ) DE² EF² DF²

BC AB AC

As triangles are similar so = =

EF DE DF

As AM ⊥ BC and DN ⊥ EF so ∆ABM ≈ ∆DEN

BC AB AC AM

So, = = = ----------------------------------------------------------- (2)

EF DE DF DN

ar ( ABC ) BC × BC

= proved.

ar ( DEF ) EF × EF

right triangle to the hypotenuse then triangles on both sides of the

perpendicular are similar to the whole triangle and to each other.

B C

Proof: As per SAS theorem,

In ∆ADB and ∆DCB, and ∆ ABC

∠ ADB = ∠ BDC = ∠ ABC

∠ ADB + ∠ DBA + ∠ BAD = 180°

Finish Line & Beyond

∠ BDC + ∠ BCD + ∠ CBD = 180°

∠ ABC + ∠ ACB + ∠ BAC = 180°

∠ BAC = ∠ BAD

∠ ACB = ∠ BCD

So, ∠ BAC = ∠ DBC

And ∠ BCD = ∠ ABD

squares of the other two sides, then the angle opposite the first side is a

right

angle.

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