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-The Wolof were targeted by name; 1522 they revolted on a planation in Hispaniola, generally known to be disobedient.

-Senegalese committed first slave revolt by Africans in America - Beginning 1503 from Governor of Hispaniola, Nicholas de Ovando, issued warnings to not bring slaves from Africa. -Spanish had 5 Cedulas (royal decrees/ pieces of legislation) directed towards stopping the importation of African Muslims (first one 1526) -Job Ben Solomon returned to Africa. -Henry Clay of the American Colonization Society (est. 1816) said that free Blacks were useless in America and better off in Africa. -Basically did not want free Blacks in America because they had nowhere to fit in and simply their presence challenged society. -Many Africans sent back for philanthropic policy reasons like civilizing or in other words Christianizing Africa.

-There were 17+ revolts between 1816-1830 in areas surrounding Bahia; all had Muslim leadership and participation. -In 1830 there was the first actual revolt in Bahia. -In 1835 came the largest rebellion in Bahia -Slaves wore all white and turbans. -It was a Muslim plot but and African uprising. -12,000 Africans both enslaved and free were involved. -Planned to assault places of power (i.e. national guard, police, etc.) -It failed and the punishments to Africans were malicious.

-Unknown if any maroon communities were purely Muslim but major communities had Muslim leaders. -Macandal (a marabout warrior with charisma) one of the main influencers of the revolution (1540) -He was educated (reading, writing, organization skills). -Some believed he was a prophet or may have been a sharif. -Had revelations and planned for the island to be controlled by blacks and viewed the maroons as the catalyst for this change. -Boukman from Haiti came to Jamaica, he climbed the ranks of slavery. -He denounced the God of the whites. -Had many followers.

-Music is vital part of Sufi life that brings one closer to God; traces of this can be seen in folk/slave songs throughout the Americas. -Enslaved Muslims not discussed in American history for many reasons, namely the fact that the population of African Muslims died out and contemporary issues makes it a controversial topic.

-What were the Spanish so afraid of ? The spread of Islam, revolts of Muslim slaves and maroons, African Muslims allying with Indians, the wide variety of skills the Muslims possessed (i.e. being literate, skilled with horses, etc.) Ex: Wolof Maroon created own cavalry, which gave them an advantage. -Why were Muslims more successful in uprisings than other groups? Think: education, skills, devotion to Islam. -Why were so many slave leaders Muslim? Hint: Pg. 161 -Why would Muslim slaves (like Tamerlan) be the first to announce they would like to return to Africa? Why did some want to remain in the Americas? Some wanted to return to Africa so they could practice their religion and be in their homeland. Others didnt want to separate themselves from those who remained enslaved, feared that their leaving would strengthen the institution of slavery, or felt alienated from Africa (if born in the Americas).

Marabout: One who dedicated themselves to the study of Islam. Sharif: Descendent of The Prophet. Maroon: Fugitive African slaves.

-Bad ratio between men and women brought from Africa. -Hard to have families with few numbers of Women. -Cultural barriers between Africans from different regions. -Dismantling of families through sale or death. -Hard for Muslims to find each other and make a family or pass down tradition of Islam.

-Spreading Islam was nearly impossible. -Conversion was difficult because of the varying cultural, linguistic, and educational backgrounds the slaves came from. -Slave may not have been open to conversion because of previous experiences with Muslims in their homeland. -Muslim slaves did not often share their religion with others in the New World; they were likely more focused on preserving their personal faith.