CONTENTS

 PREFACE  OBJECTIVE  HOW THINGS WORK? – THE GIST  BLOCK DIAGRAM  BLOCK DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION  CIRCUIT DIAGRAM  CIRCUIT DIAGRAM DESCRIPTION  HARDWARE DETAILS  SOFTWARE DETAILS  ADVANTAGES  APPLICATION  RS 232 INTERFACE  BIBLIOGRAPHY  CONCLUSION

1

PREFACE
We know that Indian Railways is the biggest of all in South Asia and perhaps most complicated all over the world. There are many routes for various locations and various types of trains in different format. There are ocal Trains! "#presses! $ast Trains! Super fast Trains! goods trains! etc. "ven if the schedules are properly planned and time table is released! maintaining the same is a tough %ob. Train accidents are becoming a casual occurrence because of drivers tend to maintain the schedule. &ur pro%ect brings out intelligence to train engines which make them to stop if a red signal is observed. 'y our model! if the signal is R"( ! then the engine starts reducing its speed inspite of drivers control and stops near signal automatically. When signal changes to )R""*! the driver can start the train and continue the travel. If the train observes a change in signal when it tends to stop! then crosses the signal at a lower speed. And drver can increase the speed later on. The "ngine becomes intelligent as it observes the signal before the driver and starts control of speed based on the signal R"( or )R""*. *o driver can %ump the signal due to this and everybody is safe. The idea came to us after knowing some drivers fear harsher punishment due to %umping the signal+ S,I--I*) in terms of railways.. We believe we had done our best to achieve a model train demonstrating the above conditions.

/

Why we have chosen this project?
TIMES IF INDIA NEWSPAPER DAILY:
NEW DELHI: Harsher punishment for "stressed" loco pilots is forcing them to take their own lives. hree drivers have alread! committed suicide fearing losing their "o#s for "umping signals. Loco pilots and assistant loco pilots are given "minimum" punishment of removal from service even in cases of preventing an accident and stopping train within safe distance after signal passing at danger $%&'D() according to %an"a! &andhi) central working president of Indian *ailwa! Loco *unning +en,s .-rgani.ation $I*L*-(.

IR R& argued that suicidal tendencies among 0scared0 loco pilots are on the rise! threatening to play havoc with public safety.
he unions are agitated over the suicide of !oung assistant loco pilot % / +ohanta from 0anda +unda $-disha( on +arch 12) 1324. +ohanta took his life for #reach of %&'D. I*L*- said the incident has ruined the deceased,s famil! as his father also e5pired after seeing the #od! of his !oung son) while his aged mother has slipped into coma. +ohanta is survived #! his wife and two infants. In 1321) driver e" %ingh "umped from the engine of a running train) near 0a#arpur in &anipat) risking the lives of scores of passengers. he union claimed %ingh "umped from the train and died on the spot fearing loss of "o# for #reach of %&'D.

1

In +arch) 1321) assistant loco pilot) %arvesh /umar) also ended his life #ecause he was removed from service for a similar 6offence,. he unions claimed that *ailwa! 0oard is ignoring loco pilots, demand which include providing weekl!7calendar da! rest schedules) putting a cap on continuous night dut! c!cles to two and shifts to si5 hours) crew8friendl! loco ca#ins and streamlining of procedures to reduce cases of %&'D accidents. It is #eing argued that all penal provisions differentiate #etween willful and involuntar! offences) while railwa!s, directives of taking awa! "o# of drivers involved in %&'D cases are contrar! to the standard norms. he rules stipulate minimum penalt! of removal from service irrespective of the fact whether the offence was intentional or caused due to other contri#utor! factors.

&unishing drivers for actuall! saving an accident and stopping a train within ade9uate distance after passing first stop signal at danger is violation of the principals of natural "ustice) the unions argued.

2

BLOCK DIAGRAM: 3 .

'++ m! -ere in o&r pro.ect we have &sed R% "or demo p&rpose! /ame idea can )e easil implemented with R% also with a little more cost! DEMONSTRATION MODE DISCRIPTION: #he train engine r&ns on '0 1 DC motor so that we can easil var its speed ) var ing applied voltage! #he switching voltage is applied in step o" *21( *'1( *31 and 41 5min speed6! #he '7+1 AC is step down to '0 1 AC ) *'.*'('Amperes step down trans"ormer! As shown in "ig&re this '01 AC line r&ns parallel with trac$ at the top o" the train! Mova)le tapping are ta$en "rom this line and "ed to the internal circ&it o" engine! #hese tapping slides as the train r&n on the trac$ and give contin&o&s s&ppl to circ&it! #he IR sensor is placed at the top o" the engine( senses the signal transmitted ) IR #ransmitter 4 .DESCRIPTION: What we have to do is we have to attach a transmitter with signal pole which will start transmitting signals onl when the red light is on! I" there is green light no transmission! #he engine has a receiver which catches these transmitted signals and ta$es desire actions! Both the transmitter and receiver are o" R% t pe with minim&m range o" 'KM( so that train can get eno&gh time to decrease its speed and stop )e"ore the signal pole with minim&m swapping distance o" *++.+.

attached to signal pole! #rain trac$ is straight and '+"t long! /ignal pole is placed at the end o" trac$ and train starts "rom "arther end! #he 8ro.ect is divided into two parts: #he transmitter is ho&sed in signal pole and it is activated onl when red light is O9! #he receiver is ho&sed in engine which senses the R% /ignal and ta$es s&ita)le action! DEMONSTRATION MODE : 5 .

' is +!3-< and .*! #h&s the o&tp&t o" .0 o" .' will start generating high p&lse at ever * sec! as this p&lse is "ed to reset pin o" .* it will one generate 72 K-< s:&are wave and give it to IR L=Ds! IR Leds will generate IR )eam o" 72 K-< "or the same time! #h&s a"ter ever c cle repeats till the red light is on! second the IR Beam o" 72Kh< is generated "or one second onl ! #his 6 .* is "ed to two IR L=Ds thro&gh Darlington pair made &p o" >*( >'( and R3! #he 41 DC )atter is connected with circ&it thro&gh /8D# switch /W* as shown! OPERATION: As shown in "ig&re when /W* is in position as shown the transmitter is O9 and also the red L=D is also O9! When switch changes its position the red L=D and transmitter is O%% and onl green L=D will on! When the circ&it is energi<ed .' is connected with reset! 8in .' controls the operation o" .* means it will switch O9 o" O%%! #he o&tp&t o" .*! #he o&tp&t o" .* is 72 K-<! #his is decided ) RC components connected with it! #he o&tp&t o" .CONNECTION: Both ICs are connected in asta)le mode! #he "re:&enc o" .

7 .

AD!ANTA"ES:  Prevent Acci#ents  Sa$ety to the Peop%e  A&to'atic Operation  (a&%t ana%ysis is easy  ess e)pensive* It is very '&ch he%p$&% in savin+ ives* 18 .

.'7' inter"ace &sed "or interconnection! 11 .ARDWARE RE-.IREMENT:  MC 24C3*  R% #ransmitter ? Receiver!  #rain Model electricall controlled!  8ower /&ppl  DC Motor 8C "or 8rogramming ? R/.

SED:  Keil so"tware  =m)edded C 1/ .SO(TWARE .

RF 11 .

The code may serve any of a number of purposes such as compressing information for transmission or storage! encrypting or adding redundancies to the input code! or translating from one code to another.. DECODER: A "e !"e# is a device which does the reverse of an encoder! undoing the encoding so that the original information can be retrieved.. In digital electronics this would mean that a decoder is a multiple9input! multiple9 output logic circuit+n9/n. HT$2E FEATURES: 12 .ENCODER AND DECODER ENCODER: An en !"e# is a device used to change a signal +such as a bitstream. The same method used to encode is usually %ust reversed in order to decode. In digital electronics this would mean that a decoder is a multiple9input! multiple9output logic circuit +/n9n. or data into a code.

PIN DESCRIPTION: 13 .3: for the <T1/A /. "ach addressD data input can be set to one of the two logic states.2:. The capability to select a T" trigger on the <T1/" or a (ATA trigger on the <T1/A further enhances the application fle#ibility of the /1/ series of encoders.1@A +type.. at :((A3: <T1/A with a 16k<B carrier for infrared transmission medium >inimum transmission word • • $our words for the <T1/" &ne word for the <T1/A • • • • 'uilt9in oscillator needs only 3C resistor (ata code has positive polarity >inimal e#ternal components <T1/AD"? 169-I* (I-D/89-I* S&. The <T1/A additionally provides a 16 k<B carrier for infrared systems. The programmed addressesDdata are transmitted together with the header bits via an R$ or an infrared transmission medium upon receipt of a trigger signal.1/: for the <T1/" ow power and high noise immunity =>&S technology ow standby current? 8.package The /1/ encoders are a series of =>&S SIs for remote control system applications.2:. They are capable of encoding information which consists of * address bits and 1/* data bits.• &perating voltage • • • • • • /.

A5 setting -I* A(6.PIN A%&A': Input pins for address A8. -I* F1? 233 k<B resonator oscillator input.A(11 setting -I* (6.(11? Input pins for data (6. -I* &S=/? &scillator output pin.(11 setting and transmission enable! active low -I* (&ET? "ncoder data serial transmission output -I* D>'? atchD>omentary transmission format selection -I*? -I* ? Transmission enable! active low -I* &S=1? &scillator input pin.A(11? Input pins for addressDdata A(6. -I* F/? 233 k<B resonator oscillator output -I* :SS? *egative power supply! grounds -I* :((? -ositive power supply 14 .

This cycle will repeat the transmission enables returns high the encoder output completes its final cycle and then stops as shown 15 .(11 for the <T1/A! active low.FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OPERATION The /1/ series of encoders begin a 29word transmission cycle upon receipt of a transmission enable +T" for the <T1/" or (6..

(11.itself as long as the transmission enable +T" or (6. is held low. 16 .below.

17 . When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission! the (&ET outputs a complete word and then adds 5 words all with the G1H data code. ADDRESS(DATA WAVEFORM "ach programmable addressDdata -I* can be e#ternally set to one of the following two logic states as shown below.INFORMATION WORD If D>'A1 the device is in the latch mode +for use with the latch type of data decoders.. When the transmission enable is removed during a transmission! the (&ET pin outputs a complete word and then stops. &n the other hand! if D>'A8 the device is in the momentary mode +for use with the momentary type of data decoders. An information word consists of 2 periods as illustrated below..

PIN DESCRIPTION: /8 .

(11? &utput data pins -I* (I*? Serial data input pin -I* :T? :alid transmission! active high -I* &S=1? &scillator input pin -I* &S=/? &scillator output pin -I* :SS? *egative power supply +)*(.-I* A8.A11 setting -I* (6. -I* :((? -ositive power supply /1 .A11? Input pins for address A8.

The output of the :T pin is high only when the transmission is valid. The decoders will then check the received address three times continuously. // . The decoders receive data that are transmitted by an encoder and interpret the first * bits of code period as addresses and the last 1/@* bits as data! where * is the address code number. &therwise it is always low. OUTPUT TYPE &f the /1/ series of decoders! the <T1/$ has no data output pin but its :T pin can be used as a momentary data output. The <T1/(! on the other hand! provides 2 latch type data pins whose data remain unchanged until new data are received. This will last unless the address code is incorrect or no signal is received.FUNCTIONAL DESCRIPTION OPERATION The /1/ series of decoders provides various combinations of addresses and data pins in different packages so as to pair with the / 1/ series of encoders. If the received address codes all match the contents of the decoderHs local address! the 1/@* bits of data are decoded to activate the output pins and the :T pin is set high to indicate a valid transmission. A signal on the (I* pin activates the oscillator which in turn decodes the incoming address and data.

+-E SATI*) (=. The term is most commonly applied to electrical energy supplies! less often to mechanical ones! and rarely to others. T#3n./0 -n12 A power supply +sometimes known as a power supply unit or -SE. 118:(= +A:"RA)" :& TA)" WIT< A= R&-. T& -"A. F1/2e# Re6-/32!# Re 2141e# $ig2. is a device or system that supplies electrical or other types of energy to an output load or group of loads..".-.1 'lock diagram of power supply /1 . 123: +-"A.HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE )*$ P!+e# ..4!#5e# 151: -"A.

*ow that you know what each section does! letIs trace an ac signal through the power supply. Jou can calculate the output for this transformer by multiplying the input voltage by the ratio of turns in the primary to the ratio of turns in the secondaryK therefore! 113 volts ac L 1 A 123 volts ac +peak9to9 peak. At this point you need to see how this signal is altered within each section of the power supply. The final section! the R")E AT&R! does %ust what the name implies. It maintains the output of the power supply at a constant level in spite of large changes in load current or input line voltages. $or this reason a $I T"R section is used to convert pulsating dc to a purer! more desirable form of dc voltage. ater on in the chapter you will see how these changes take place. An input signal of 113 volts ac is applied to the primary of the transformer. The R"=TI$I"R section converts the alternating current input signal to a pulsating direct current. at the output. <owever! as you proceed in this chapter you will learn that pulsating dc is not desirable. The transformer is a step9up transformer with a turns ratio of 1?1. 'ecause each diode in the rectifier section conducts for 168 degrees of the /2 .118:(= TRA*S$&R >"R R"=TI$I" R 'RI()" $I T "R R")E AT &R The transformer steps up or steps down the input line voltage and isolates the power supply from the power line.

The reason for the lower voltage +average voltage. /3 . Jou will see the filter process more clearly in the discussion of the actual filter circuits.. The regulator maintains its output at a constant 1189volt dc level! which is used by the electronic eMuipment +more commonly called the load. The output of the filter is a signal of 118 volts dc! with ac ripple riding on the dc. The filter section! a network of resistors! capacitors! or inductors! controls the rise and fall time of the varying signalK conseMuently! the signal remains at a more constant dc level. will be e#plained later in this chapter.1489degree input! the output of the rectifier will be one9half! or appro#imately 151 volts of pulsating dc.

Simple 5V power supply for digital circuits • 'rief description of operation? )ives out well regulated N3: output! output current capability of 188 mA =ircuit protection? 'uilt9in overheating protection shuts down output when regulator I= gets too hot =ircuit comple#ity? :ery simple and easy to build =ircuit performance? :ery stable N3: output voltage! reliable operation Availability of components? "asy to get! uses only very common basic components (esign testing? 'ased on datasheet e#ample circuit! I have used this circuit successfully as part of many electronics pro%ects Applications? -art of electronics devices! small laboratory power supply -ower supply voltage? Enregulated (= 6916: power supply -ower supply current? *eeded output current N 3 mA =omponent costs? $ew dollars for the electronics components N the input transformer cost • • • • • • • • • /4 .

RF TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER: CRCUIT DIAGRAM /5 .

5122e# 1 / 1 2 $unctional block of T# section where 1!/!1!2 are the pins 1 9 Antenna / 9 (ata input 1 9 )round 2 9 :== In this transmitting section the 1st pin is the antenna pin where we can able to fi# the antenna for transmitting the data in the Radio $reMuency! the /nd pin is the data input pin in which the output of the encoder is givenK the 1rd pin is the ground and the 2th pin is the :== which is given to operate the transmitter section.RF TRANSMITTER MODULE: RF 2#3n. RF RECEIVER MODULE: /6 .

$unctional block of R# section where 1!/!1!2 are the pins 1 9 Antenna / 9 (ata input 1 9 )round 2 9 :== In this receiving section the 1st pin is the antenna pin where we can able to fi# the antenna to receive the data in the Radio $reMuency! the /nd pin is the data output pin to the decoder circuit! the 1rd pin is the ground and the 2 th pin is the :== which is given to operate the receiver section. THE CONTROLLER /7 .

-ort 1 has multiple#ed pins for special functions like serial communication! hardware interrupts! timer inputs and readDwrite operation from e#ternal memory.! they can be used as both input and output ports. "#cept .8 which needs e#ternal pull9ups! rest of the ports have internal pull9ups.1! -/! -1 and -8. 18 . and 1/6 bytes of RA>. In 28 pin AT67=31! there are four ports designated as .AT67=31 is an 69bit microcontroller and belongs to AtmelIs 6831 family.' of $lash programmable and erasable read only memory +-"R&>. It can be erased and program to a ma#imum of 1888 times. When 1s are written to these port pins! they are pulled high by the internal pull9ups and can be used as inputs. ATMEL 78C9$ has 2. -ort -8 and -/ are also used to provide low byte and high byte addresses! respectively! when connected to an e#ternal memory.e. All these ports are 69bit bi9directional ports! i. These ports are also bit addressable and so their bits can also be accessed individually.

P1n D136#35: 11 .AT67=31 has an inbuilt EART for serial communication. It can be programmed to operate at different baud rates . Including two timers O hardware interrupts! it has a total of si# interrupts.

1/ .

P1n De. #1.21!n: 11 .

2 -1./D A18 -/./ -1.4 -1.8 -1.4 -1.1 6 bit inputDoutput port +-1.5 =rystal / =rystal 1 )round -/.3 -1.1D A(112 -8.5 Reset -1. 6 bit inputDoutput port +-/.1D A(1 -8.3D A11 -/.4D A(4 -8. pins Reset pinK Active high Input +receiver.P1n N! 1 / 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 18 11 1/ 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 /8 /1 // /1 /2 /3 /4 /5 /6 /7 18 11 1/ 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 28 F-n 21!n N35e -1. 6 bit inputDoutput port +-8. pins -1.3 -1.8D A(8 :cc 6 bit inputDoutput port +-1.4D A12 -/.2 -1. . )round +8:.1 -1.2D A(2 -8. for serial T#( communication "#ternal interrupt 1 Int8 "#ternal interrupt / Int1 Timer1 e#ternal input T8 Timer/ e#ternal input T1 Write to e#ternal data memory Write Read from e#ternal data memory Read PuartB crystal oscillator +up to /2 ><B. pins ow9order address bits when interfacing with e#ternal memory Supply voltageK 3: +up to 4./D A(/ -8. pins D <igh9order address bits when interfacing with e#ternal memory -rogram store enableK Read from e#ternal program memory Address atch "nable -rogram pulse input during $lash programming "#ternal Access "nableK :cc for internal program e#ecutions -rogramming enable voltageK 1/: +during $lash programming.3D A(3 -8.8D A6 -/./ -1.5D A(5 -8.1 -1.2D A1/ -/.1D A11 -/.4:.5D A13 -S"* A " -rog "A :pp -8.1 -1. for serial R#( communication &utput +transmitter.8 -1.1D A7 -/.

13 .

THE BLOCK DIAGRAM 14 .

T:e 4e32-#e. Q$our register banks. 15 . !4 78C9$ 3#e: Qsingle@supply N3 volt operation using <>&S technology. Q6 bit =-E optimiBed for control applications. Q42 . Q1/6 data memory on chip. Q2874 bytes program memory on chip+not on 6811. Q"#tensive boolean processing capabilities.' e#ternal RA> siBe Q1/ bidirectional individually addressible ID& lines. QTwo multiple mode!149bit timerDcounter.

: The industry custom is to use an asynchronous word consisting of? a start bit! seven or eight data bits! an optional parity bit and one or two stop bits.. 16 . Three wires are sufficient? send data! receive data! and signal ground.. The baud rate at which the word sent is device9dependent. The standard RS9/1/9= connector has /3 pins! /1 pins which are used in the complete standard.. >any of the modem signals are not needed when a computer terminal is connected directly to a computer! and $igure 1 illustrates how some of the 0spare0 pins should be linked if not needed. $igure 1 also illustrates the pin numbering used in the original ('9/3 connector and that now commonly used with a ('97 connector normally used in modern computers. 'elow 138 baud! many system9uniMue rates are used. The standard allows as many as /8 signals to be defined! but gives complete freedom to the user. The baud rate is usually 138 times an integer power of /! ranging from 8 to 5 +138! 188! 488 !. C!55-n1 321!n S23n"3#". Specifying compliance to RS9/1/ only establishes that the signal levels in two devices will be compatible and that if both devices use the suggested connector! they may be able to be connected.RS&232 INTERFACE In2#!".21!n: The RS9/1/ interface is the "lectronic Industries Association +"IA. standard for the interchange of serial binary data between two devices. =ompliance to RS9/1/ does not imply that the devices will be able to communicate or even acknowledge each otherIs presence. The remaining lines can be hardwired on or off permanently. The signal transmission is bipolar! reMuiring two voltages! from 3 to /3 volts! of opposite polarity. It was initially developed by the "IA to standardiBe the connection of computers with telephone line modems.! 17!/88 ..

Timing +(T" Source. Ready RS&232C In2e#43 e S16n3/. Transmit (ata This line carries serial data from the )-I'9/1/=: to the '' 1 R#( This line carries serial data from the serial host to the )-I'9/1/=:.RS&232 Se#13/ P!#2 P1n !-2 AA 1 -) This line is connected to the chassis ground of the )-I'9 /1/=:. 4 (ata Set Ready 13 Transmission Signal "lement Timing /2 Transmit Signal "lement +(=" Source. A' 5 S) voltages. RecId. 'A / T#( serial host. (etector /1 Signal Puality (etector 2 ReMuest to Send 11 Sec.* -in (escription -in (escription -in (escription 1 -rotective )round 18 +Reserved for (ata Set Testing. 6 Received ine Signal 15 Receiver Signal "lement Timing (etector +(=" Source. 7 +Reserved for (ata Set 16 Enassigned Testing.Receive (ata =A 2 RTS This signal line is driven by the )-I'9/1/=: and when asserted indicates that ReMuest to Send the )-I'9/1/=: is ready to accept serial data. =' 3 =TS This signal line is asserted by the serial host and sensed by the )-I'9/1/=:. Since the -rotective )round )-I'9/1/=: chassis ground is not connected to earth ground! pin 1 should be connected on both serial devices.When unasserted! it indicates that data transmission should be disabled. The )-I'9/1/=: unasserts RTS when it is no longer ready to accept serial data because of a buffer full condition. ine Sig. =lear to Send When asserted! it indicates that the serial host is ready to accept serial data. 5 Signal )round +=ommon 14 Secondary Received (ata /3 Enassigned Return. 17 Secondary ReMuest to Send / Transmitted (ata 11 Enassigned /8 (ata Terminal Ready 1 Received (ata 1/ Sec. 17 . =lear to Send // Ring Indicator 3 =lear to Send 12 Secondary Transmitted (ata /1 (ata Signal Rate Selector +(T"D(=" Source. Signal )round This line establishes a reference point for all interface =( /8 (TR This signal line is asserted by the )-I'9/1/=: to signal that it has been (ata Terminal powered on! and is ready to operate.

The load impedance of the terminator side of the interface must be between 1888 and 5888 ohms! and not more than /388p$. (=" (T" wishes to transmit o =lear to Send +='. (T" (=" is ready to transmitK response to reMuest to send o (ata Set Ready +==. The standard specifies that voltages of at least 1 : in amplitude will always be recogniBed correctly at the receiver according to their polarity! so that appreciable attenuation along the line can be tolerated. The transfer rate is rated R /8 kbps and a distance of S 13m. (=" (ata generated by (T" o Received (ata +''. (=" =locking signal! transitions to &* and &$$ occur at center of each signal element o Transmitter Signal "lement Timing +('. RS&232&C C1# -12 De41n121!n.E/e 2#1 3/ C:3#3 2e#1. • (ata Signals o Transmitted (ata +'A. (T" (ata Received by (T" • Timing signals o Transmitter Signal "lement Timing +(A. )reater distance and data rates are possible with good design! but it is reasonable to assume that these limits apply in practice as well as in theory.: The RS9/1/9= specifies the signaling rate between the (T" and (="! and a digital signal is used on all interchange circuits. (T" (=" is ready to operate 28 .21 . The RS9/1/ standard specifies that logic 010 is to be sent as a voltage in the range 913 to 93 : and that logic 080 is to sent as a voltage in the range N3 to N13 :. (T" =locking signal! as aboveK both leads relate to signals on 'A o Receiver Signal "lement Timing +((. (T" =locking signal! as above! for circuit '' • =ontrol Signals o ReMuest to Send +=A.

&ne reason why the range of the RS9/1/= standard is limited is the need to charge and discharge the capacitance of the cable connecting the transmitter and receiver. >echanical =haracteristics? The connector for the RS9/1/9= is a /3 pin connector with a specific arrangement of wires.o (ata Terminal Ready +=(. The (T" is a device that is acting as a 21 . (=" Asserted to select the higher of two possible data rates (ata Signal Rate Selector +=I. to the (ata =ommunication "Muipment +(=". (T" Asserted to select the higher of two possible data rates )round -rotective )round +AA. (T" Asserted when there is reason to believe there is an error in the received data (ata Signal Rate Selector +=<. (T" Indicates that (=" is receiving a ringing signal on the communication channel o =arrier (etect +=$. (=" (T" is ready to operate Ring Indicator +=". *A Attached to machine frame and possibly e#ternal grounds Signal )round +A'. The limited range of the RS9/1/= standard is one of its ma%or shortcomings compared with other standards which offer greater ranges within their specifications. *A "stablishes common ground reference for all circuits Range? The RS9/1/9= standard specifies that the ma#imum length of cable between the transmitter and receiver should not e#ceed 188 feet! Although in practice many systems are used in which the distance between transmitter and receiver e#ceeds this rather low figure. (T" Indicates that (=" is receiving a carrier signal o o o o o o Signal Puality (etector +=). In theory! a /3 wire cable could be used to connect the (ata Terminal "Muipment +(T"..

a modem. S-553#0 !4 2:e RS&232&C (ata $ormat 39 to 69 bit serial Transfer Type Asynchronous "rror <andling &ptional -arity 'it =onnector /39pin female connector on (="K /39pin male connector on (T" ength /8 meters Speed /8 kbDs Remarks RS9/1/ is used in the microcomputer world for communications between two (T"s. The null modem is included into one or both connecting devices! andDor cable and is seldom documented.data source ! data sink! or both! e.g. 2/ . As a result! establishing an RS9/1/ connection between two (T"s is freMuently a difficult task.g. The (=" is a device that provides the functions reMuired to establish! maintain!and terminate a data9 transmission connecting! as well as the signal conversion! and coding reMuired for communication between data terminal eMuipment and data circuitK e. a terminal! peripheral or computer.

21 .INTERFACING MICROCONTROLLER 78C9$ 2! PC We need to interface the microcontroller for programming purpose.

22 .

C!n /-.e. 'y this mechanism! the accidents are averted and automatic operation of the signal control an *o skipping of signal is achieved.1!n The idea of automating the process of railway Signal control and intelligent Train control are undertaken.! sensing by software coding written for the controller. As the system is completely automated! it avoids manual errors and thus provides ultimate safety to everybody. 23 . The mechanism works on a simple principle and there is not much of comple#ity needed in the circuit. >icrocontroller 67=31 performs the complete operation i.

)-* !5 +++*:123 :1* !5 +++*325e/* !5 +++*+1<1.INES:  " "=TR&*I=S $&R E  -RA=TI=A " "=TR&*I=S  TI>"S &$ I*(IA WEBSITES : +++* En61nee#.IDI A =&>. 3#36e* !5 +++*"323.:ee2.23* !5 24 . MAGA."T" R"$"R"*=" &$ >I=R& =&*TR& "RS! & NATWAR SINGH* RAI WAJS &:"R:I"W T various sources.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS: A(:A*="( >I=R&-R&="SS&R A*( >I=R&=&*TR& 9 >I=R&=&*TR& "R 9 B*P*SINGH "R A*( ">'"(("( SJST"> MOHAMMED ALI MA.e"13* !5 +++*3/23=1.

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