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“Before You Go On” questions don’t have an answer key and usually call only for si !le recall of infor ation "iven in the !revious few !a"es# $his key includes “$hink %&out 't” questions and all cha!ter review questions# $hese answers will &e distri&uted &etween a te(t&ook a!!endi() instructor’s anual) and we& site# *a"e nu &ers for $%' questions are fro first !roofs of the 3/e) and so e ay chan"e# Chapter 1, The Study of Human Anatomy Think About It !# 3—%ristotle’s conce!t was that a "reat variety of co !le( entities in nature are ade fro various rearran"e ents of a s aller variety of si !le co !onents) like a vast &ody of literature co !osed with a li ited al!ha&et# $his holds true for the hu an &ody) a very co !le( entity that is co !osed of a li ited variety of cells and olecules# !# +—'t would &e i !ossi&le to falsify the idea that "ods or invisi&le de ons cause e!ile!sy) &ecause "ods could ,ust as well conceal their involve ent fro hu an detection) and invisi&le de ons would &e undetecta&le# $hus) such e(!lanations of e!ile!sy would &e unscientific# $he theory that it is caused &y a&nor al neurolo"ical activity is falsifia&le) however) &ecause one can record &rain waves durin" a sei-ure and see the a&nor al activity# !# .—$he cell theory was arrived at &y the inductive ethod) &ecause it is a "enerali-ation drawn fro o&servations of a vast array of or"anis s) all of which e(hi&it cellular structure# $he cell theory was not arrived at &y the e(!eri ental testin" of hy!otheses# !# /0—Situs inversus could affect e er"ency dia"nosis 1for e(a !le) the locations of !ain fro a!!endicitis2 or sur"ical treat ent) so it is advanta"eous for an e er"ency edical tea to know of this condition &efore they &e"in treat ent# 1't also affects the electrocardio"ra ) althou"h students would not have a &asis for knowin" this at this !oint in their study#2 !# 33—Sullivan eant that a &uildin" should &e constructed around the uses to which the occu!ants will !ut it) so that it can efficiently serve those !ur!oses# 4u an anato y evolves in a way to a(i i-e the efficiency of !hysiolo"ical function# $his cha!ter "ives the e(a !le of the len"th of the ne!hron loo! not &ein" the sa e in all a als) &ut &ein" correlated with the ani al’s ha&itat and need for water conservation# Of course) &oth evolution and e &ryonic develo! ent are i !erfect) so we have instances in which hu an for does not correlate well with function) such as vesti"ial or"ans 1the auricularis uscles cited in this cha!ter2 and de(trocardia# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# e //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# a 5# c 6# c +# a 7# c .# d /8# & /6# /+# /7# /.# 38# set !oint ne"ative feed&ack or"an stereosco!ic !rehensile) o!!osa&le
dissection 4ooke deduction !sychoso atic ho eostasis
True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# 6# +# 7# /8# %uscultation eans listenin" to &ody sounds) not ins!ectin" its a!!earance# :eeuwenhoek was a te(tile erchant who &uilt icrosco!es to e(a ine fa&ric# % scientific theory is founded on a lar"e &ody of evidence) su ari-in" what is already known# Both the treat ent and control "rou!s consist of volunteer !atients# ;e"ative feed&ack is a self<corrective !rocess with a &eneficial effect on the &ody#
Testing Your Comprehension /# 4arvey hy!othesi-ed that the &lood !u !ed out &y the heart eventually returns to it and is !u !ed out a"ain# =ro this) he !redicted that there ust &e connections &etween the arteries that carry &lood away fro the heart and the veins that &rin" it &ack# $oday) with the icrosco!e) these connections 1ca!illaries2 can &e verified# 'f the ter s definin" life are defined so ewhat &roadly) an auto o&ile could &e descri&ed as e(hi&itin" or"ani-ation 1thou"h it does not e(!end ener"y to aintain this order2) a de"ree of che ical 1if not &ioche ical2 unity with other auto o&iles) eta&olis 1co &ustion of fuel2) res!onsiveness 1to the i"nition switch) accelerator) etc#2) and a de"ree of ho eostasis 1in ther ostatically controlled syste s2# $his shows that life is not defined &y any sin"le criterion &ut &y a unique co &ination of !ro!erties# 't shares any of the individual !ro!erties with nonlivin" thin"s) &ut does not share all of the with any nonlivin" thin"# Such con"enital heart defects illustrate the co !le entarity of for and function) &ecause they show that even sli"ht<see in" structural a&nor alities can cause serious) even life<threatenin" dysfunctions#
'f not for the ar&oreal selection !ressures faced &y the forerunners of hu ans) hu ans today) if they e(isted at all) i"ht not e(hi&it such a o&ile shoulder ,oint) o!!osa&le thu &) !rehensile hand) color and stereosco!ic vision) or lar"e &rain# $his is an e(a !le of ne"ative feed&ack# $hirst is a res!onse to dehydration# 't otivates a !erson or ani al to seek and consu e water) thus rehydratin" the &ody and restorin" water &alance# $his is an e(a !le of ho eostasis) servin" to aintain &ody fluids at a level close to a set !oint# At!as A, $enera! %rientation to Human Anatomy
Think About It 1;one in %tlas %2 Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# e 0# d 5# d 6# a +# a 7# d .# & /8# d /6# enin"es /+# retro!eritoneal /7# edial /.# inferior 38# cu&ital) !o!liteal
su!ine !arietal ediastinu nuchal hand) foot
True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 0# 5# 6# .# /8# $he dia!hra" is inferior to the lun"s# $he eso!ha"us is in the ventral &ody cavity# $he liver is in the hy!ochondriac re"ion) su!erior to the lateral a&do inal re"ion# $he !eritoneu lines the outside of the sto ach and intestines# $he si" oid colon is in the lower left quadrant#
Testing Your Comprehension /# 3# 3# 1a2 $ransverse) 1b2 sa"ittal) 1c2 frontal) 1d2 sa"ittal) 1e2 frontal) 1f2 transverse# 't is a isunderstandin" of the word plantar, the surface where such warts co only occur# >edial?sternu or s!ine@ lateral?shoulders or ar s@ su!erior?clavicles or head@ inferior?a&do en or intestines@ dee!?heart or lun"s@ su!erficial?skin or !ectoralis a,or@ !osterior?sca!ula or tra!e-ius@ anterior?sternu or &reast# 1%nswers will vary@ these are e(a !les#2 1a2 *ancreas or left kidney) 1b2 cecu or a!!endi() 1c2 urinary &ladder or uterus) 1d2 !art of liver) 1e2 lun"# 1%nswers will vary@ these are e(a !les#2 4y!ochondriac !eo!le ay co !lain of “funny !ains)” !uttin" their hand to the hy!ochondriac re"ion# Chapter &, The Chemistry of 'ife Think About It !# 63—'onic &onds are not co on in the &ody &ecause the &ody is quickly dissociate in water# ostly water) and ionic co !ounds
!# 65—$e !erature is a easure of heat ener"y) not its equivalent# % "iven a ount of heat raises the te !erature of so e su&stances ore than it does others) showin" that the two are not equivalent# =or e(a !le) / calorie raises the te !erature of liquid nitro"en four ti es as uch as it does the sa e a ount of water# !# 67—% &lood !4 of +#38 is called acidosis &ecause it is on the acidic side of nor al 1+#082# !# +3—$he "eneral for ula of car&ohydrates is essentially car&on !lus water9 1A43O2n—hence the na e car&o< 1car&on2 B <hydr 1water2# !# 73—Cn-y es are very sensitive to !4 and te !erature distur&ances) so it is i !ortant for the &ody to ho eostatically aintain !4 and te !erature close to the set !oint# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# c 5# a 6# e +# & 7# c .# & /8# d /6# /+# /7# /.# 38# <ose) <ase !hos!holi!ids cyclic adenosine ono!hos!hate anaero&ic fer entation su&strate
cation free radicals catalyst) en-y es ana&olis dehydration synthesis
True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9
/# 3# 6# 7# .#
$he ono ers of a !olysaccharide are onosaccharides 1si !le su"ars2# Such olecules are called iso ers) not isoto!es# % saturated fat is one to which no ore hydro"en can &e added# %&ove a certain te !erature) en-y es denature and cease workin"# $hese solutes have different olecular wei"hts) so 3D solutions would not contain the sa e a ount of solute#
Testing Your Comprehension /# 3# $he loss of sto ach acid &y !rofuse and !rolon"ed vo itin" raises the !4 of the &ody fluids# Ehen acid is lost fro the &ody) sur!lus &ase re ains and the !4 rises# %s the car&on dio(ide concentration in the &ody fluids dro!s) the car&onic acid reaction shifts in the followin" direction9 43AO3 → 43O B AO3# $he ore AO3 that is e(!elled 1faster than it is !roduced2) the less car&onic acid re ains in the &lood# Eith less car&onic acid) the &lood !4 rises) &eco in" ore &asic# $his is an e(er"onic reaction) &ecause it releases ener"y in the for of the γ Fray# 't is neither an ana&olic nor a cata&olic reaction) however# $hese are &ranches of eta&olis ) and eta&olis is the for ation and &reakdown of che ical &onds# ;o che ical &onds are for ed or &roken in radioactive decay# $he function of an en-y e is to s!eed u! a che ical reaction# Eithout en-y es) the &ody’s rate would therefore slow down drastically) to a !oint inca!a&le of su!!ortin" life# eta&olic
%n a&nor ally low !4 slows down en-y atic reactions and ay even irreversi&ly denature en-y es# %s en-y e confor ations chan"e) their active sites chan"e and cannot &ind their su&strates# >eta&olic !athways can then shut down# Chapter (, Ce!!s
Think About It !# .6— =or one thin") this ensures that da a"e to one cell) or even to any) destroys a s aller !ortion of the or"an and is less detri ental to or"an function# =or another) it ensures a lar"e !ool of cells that can s!eciali-e for different functions within that or"an# %nother reason is that the !las a e &rane and es!ecially the cytoskeleton are una&le to !hysically su!!ort cells of e(cessive si-e# % lar"e cell) like an e(tre ely full water &alloon) will ru!ture ore easily# !# ..—'f the !las a e &rane were ade of a hydro!hilic su&stance) it would dissolve in the fluids within and around a cell# $he e &rane would fall a!art and the cell would disinte"rate# $his de onstrates) at a olecular level) the unity of for and function &ecause the hydro!ho&ic structure of the !las a e &rane serves the function of contain ent of the cyto!las # !# /83—Cach ciliu would !ush the ucus a short distance forward on the !ower stroke) &ut it would fail to “let "o” and would !ull the ucus &ack to the startin" !osition on the recovery stroke# $hus the ucus would erely oscillate &ack and forth rather than ovin" steadily alon" the ucous e &rane# !# /8+—$he fluid would rise to a lower level than &efore &ecause of a lower os otic !ressure on side %# Eith ore water on side %) ore water olecules would ove fro % to B than in the ori"inal e(!eri ent) so there would &e less net accu ulation of water on side %# !# ///—'n order to transfer a li"and to the other side of the !las a e &rane) the carrier !rotein ust chan"e sha!e# $his is induced &y the &indin" of the solute to the carrier# $hen) in order to !ick u! a new li"and !article) the !rotein ust chan"e &ack to its ori"inal sha!e# $his is induced &y the dissociation of the !revious li"and fro it# 'f a !rotein did not chan"e sha!e as a result of li"and &indin" and dissociation) it would &e una&le to !ick u! a !article on one side of the e &rane and release it on the other# Testing Your Re a!! /# e 3# & //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# & 5# e 6# e +# a 7# c .# d /8# & /6# /+# /7# /.# 38# e(ocytosis nucleus) itochondria s ooth CG) !ero(iso es li"and<re"ulated "ate cisterna
icro eters second essen"er volta"e<re"ulated hydrostatic !ressure hy!ertonic
True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# Os osis does not require %$*# 3# Second essen"ers activate en-y es in the cell@ they are not trans!ort !roteins# 5# % channel could not ove aterial fro the outside of a cell to the inside unless it e(tended all the way across the e &rane@ it ust &e an inte"ral !rotein# 6# $he !las a e &rane consists !ri arily of !hos!holi!id olecules# +# $he &rush &order is co !osed of icrovilli#
uries of this sort) &lood !otassiu level rises# *otassiu is nor ally ore concentrated in the intracellular fluid than in the e(tracellular fluids) and the in.ury &reaks u! cells and releases !otassiu into the e(tracellular fluids# 3# Because of the low level of &lood al&u in) such children have a&nor ally low &lood os olarity# $he &loodstrea os otically retains less fluid than nor al) so the water content and volu e of the &lood dro!# 0# >itochondria do not create ener"y) &ut only transfer it fro one olecule to another# Ehat they do ake is the hi"h<ener"y co !ound %$*) &ut the ener"y content of the %$* they !roduce is less than the ener"y content of the !yruvate olecules they used to do so# 5# Eithout dynein ar s) cilia and fla"ella cannot ove# 'f fla"ella are i o&ile) then s!er cannot ove) since the s!er tail is co !osed ainly of a fla"ellu # :ackin" s!er otility) a an with Harta"ener’s syndro e is sterile# 4e also suffers severe res!iratory con"estion &ecause the cilia of the res!iratory tract are una&le to ove and !ro!el ucus# >ucus continues to &e secreted) &ut accu ulates in the airway# Chapter ).# >ales have only one K chro oso e) &ut have two se( chro oso es 1the K and Y2# /8# Several G.3 ri&oso e "rowth factors autoso es cytokinesis alleles "enetic code !olyri&oso e G.3) .%# !# /07—%t inter!hase) a cell’s chro atin is too thinly dis!ersed to &e visi&le with the li"ht icrosco!e# %t eta!hase) the chro atin is a(i ally condensed into co !act) easily viewed chro oso es# !# /0.%# .Testing Your Comprehension /# 'f a saltwater fish were !laced in a freshwater aquariu ) its cells would ra!idly a&sor& water and ru!ture# >arine fish are ada!ted to have &ody fluids isotonic to seawater# $hey would &e hy!ertonic to freshwater) so water would ove &y os osis into the fish’s cells# Aonversely) if a freshwater fish were !ut in a saltwater aquariu ) its cells would &e hy!otonic to the saltwater# $hey would lose water and shrivel# Cither fish would soon die# 3# 'n crush in.% and tG.# d /8# a /6# /+# /7# /.% descri&ed would &e 38D cytosine# Since I.%) not &etween G.3 olecules of I.—Yes) she could) !rovided the father had "enoty!e DD or Dd 1D J detached) d J attached2# $o illustrate) chan"e the to! row of the *unnett square in fi"ure 0#/6 to show d and d in &oth e""s &ut leave the s!er the sa e 1re!resentin" a hetero-y"ous father2# $he to! two cells of the 3 x 3 square will then show "enoty!es Dd in the offs!rin"—&oth of which would show detached earlo&es like their father# !# /0.— % !erson only has two !arents) and can only "et one of these alleles fro each !arent# So even if there are three or ore alleles for one "ene locus in the !o!ulation as a whole) any one individual can only inherit two of those# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# e //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# c 0# c 5# e 6# & +# a 7# d .% fro the end of the S !hase until telo!hase# $his is &ecause it has 06 chro oso es@ after the S !hase each chro oso e has two chro atids@ and each chro atid contains one olecule of I.% !oly erase) and therefore una&le to carry out the cellular functions that occur in G/# $he finely dis!ersed for of chro atin in G/ akes the "enes accessi&le for transcri!tion) &ut it would &e unsuita&le for itosis &ecause it would &eco e very tan"led and difficult or i !ossi&le to divide evenly &etween dau"hter cells# .% is equal !arts adenine and thy ine) and we know it is 38D adenine) the total adenine B thy ine is 08D# $his leaves 68D of the olecule divided equally &etween cytosine and "uanine) at 38D each# !# /00—% cell has .% !oly erase True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# $here are no ri&oso es on the Gol"i co !le(@ they are on the rou"h CG# 3# $here are no "enes for steroids) car&ohydrates) or !hos!holi!ids) &ut only for !roteins# 6# $his law descri&es the !airin" of &ases &etween the two strands of I. $eneti s Think About It !# /33—$he &ase sequence co !le entary to %$$G%A$AG would &e $%%A$G%GA# $he I.# 38# cha!erones 06) .% !oly erase olecules at once can transcri&e a "ene# Testing Your Comprehension /# 'n the condensed for of a eta!hase chro oso e) "enes would &e tucked away) inaccessi&le to G.
The uterus is composed of smooth muscle. 3. so even their functions ultimately derive from cellular function. 2.unctions serve ainly to restrict the !assa"e of aterial &etween cells# *erichondriu is lackin" fro fi&rocartila"e and fro hyaline articular cartila"e# Testing Your Comprehension 1.# & /8# & /6# /+# /7# /. growth factors. The simple squamous epithelium of the alveoli is thinner than the pseudostratified epithelium in the larger divisions of the respiratory tract.—% des oso e links two cells to"ether only at a s all s!ot@ it does not for a continuous seal around a cell# $herefore) the di"estive en-y es and acid of the sto ach could easily !ass &etween cells and di"est the underlyin" connective tissue if the cells were held to"ether only &y des oso es# !# /73—Stratified squa ous e!ithelia do not secrete ucus or have cilia# $herefore) if si"nificant areas of a s oker’s &ronchi had stratified squa ous e!ithelia) the &ronchi would &e less effective in tra!!in" inhaled dust and other de&ris and there would &e no cilia to drive this de&ris out of the res!iratory tract# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# & //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# c 0# e 5# c 6# a +# & 7# e . 4.% would have to &e at least . she is not consciously contracting her uterus.—Since s aller &odies have ore relative surface area) they lose heat ore ra!idly# Brown fat is a heat<!roducin" tissue that hel!s to co !ensate for this &y releasin" heat# !# /++—'n the ter muscle fiber. When she “pushes. No. this is not an exception to the cell theory.% !oly erase# 'f the cross<&rid"es of the I. so it is less of a barrier to the diffusion of gases between the air and blood. When the joint is not exercised.% !oly erase would read only a onotonous strin" of identical essa"es# $here would &e no diversity in the essa"e—in effect) no code# 3# >utation is unavoida&le) utation is "enetic chan"e) and "enetic chan"e in a !o!ulation is evolution# $herefore) evolution is inevita&le# 0# Such an G. No. Without this action. the fi&er is an entire cell# 'n nerve fiber. it is not a cell or !art of a cell at all) &ut a nonlivin" e(tracellular fi&er ade &y a cell !# /+.% olecule 1the “run"s” fro one &ack&one to the other2 were all deo(yri&ose) then the G.3# 'n order to code for anythin") the uncoilin" of the dou&le heli( of I.# 38# skeletal uscle &ase ent e &rane atri( 1e(tracellular aterial2 !roteo"lycans si !le necrosis esotheliu lacunae fi&ers colla"en True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 5# 6# +# /8# $he eso!ha"eal e!itheliu is nonkeratini-ed# %di!ose tissue is an e(ce!tion@ cells constitute ost of its volu e# %di!ocytes are also found in areolar tissue) either sin"ly or in s all clusters# $i"ht . the cartilage cells can suffer both from an accumulation of metabolic wastes and from poor oxygen and nutrient delivery. Histo!ogy Think About It !# /6. Bone would heal faster than cartilage because it is permeated with blood vessels.83 &ases lon"# 't would require a 3<&ase codon for each of the 388 a ino acids) !lus a sto! codon# 5# $here are any !ossi&le answers# So e e(a !les are9 1/2 $he dou&le heli( of I. Simple columnar epithelium heals faster than . Thus. bone receives a better supply of oxygen. organic nutrients. The delivery of these metabolic requirements and the removal of wastes are both aided by water being periodically soaked up by the cartilage and squeezed out of it. 5.% ust e(!ose a variety of &ase sequences to the action of G. it is only !art of a cell) the a(on# 'n connective tissue fiber. over which people rarely have any conscious control. whereas cartilage is devoid of blood vessels.% and its co !le entary &ase !airin" for a structure ca!a&le of re!lication and thus ca!a&le of trans ittin" "enetic infor ation fro "eneration to "eneration# 132 Su&stitution of a sin"le a ino acid akes a he o"lo&in olecule dysfunctional) resultin" in sickle cell disease# 132 >utations of tu or su!!ressor "enes render the nonfunctional and una&le to !rovide !rotection fro cancer# 102 $he difference &etween eta!hase and inter!hase chro oso es referred to in question /# Chapter *. cartilage cells die and the tissue degenerates.” she is contracting the skeletal muscles of her abdomen and thereby aiding the uterus in expelling the baby. These extracellular materials are made by the cells in the tissue. and other necessities than cartilage does.
. where the nearest blood vessels are located. every cell is close to the subepithelial connective tissue.stratified squamous epithelium because in the former type.
as are such sensory receptors as lamellated corpuscles and tactile corpuscles. . it is difficult to make any sense out of such facts as the patchy distribution of human hair (thick in the scalp.ect to a lot of echanical stress on the skin) so the skin here &enefits &y havin" a sli!<resistant) interdi"itatin" &oundary &etween the e!ider is and der is# $he face and a&do en are uch less su&. People who get too little exposure to UV radiation are subject to such degenerative bone disorders as rickets. which is essential for bone development and maintenance. The upper layer of dermis. 4. so it is important to protect the deep tissues of the body from excessive UV exposure. 3. smaller organs. the reticular layer. axillary. and the reason apocrine glands don’t develop until puberty and then grow and regress in phase with the menstrual cycle.Answer Key Chapter +.# Heratin is the !rotein of the e!ider is@ the der is is co !osed ainly of colla"en# Lita in I synthesis &e"ins in the keratinocytes# $he hy!oder is is not considered to &e a layer of the skin# Iifferent races have a&out the sa e density of elanocytes &ut different a ounts of elanin# % "enetic lack of elanin causes al&inis ) not !allor# *allor is a te !orary) nonhereditary !aleness of the skin# Testing Your Comprehension 1. Integument Think About It !# /. In cold weather.7— 'f the whites of the eyes are also yellow) it is a si"n of . The deoxygenated blood shows through the epidermis with the bluish color of cyanosis. cutaneous gland. is composed of densely interwoven collagen bundles well suited to lending strength and resilience to the skin. and pubic regions and sparse elsewhere). Every blood vessel. and hair is an organ.aundice# 'f the eyes look nor al and only the skin is yellow) the color is !ro&a&ly due only to dietary carotene# !# 387— $he lar"e a ount of elanin in the skin is an effective &arrier to ultraviolet radiation) lar"ely !reventin" it fro !enetratin" to the nuclei of the stratu &asale and da a"in" the I. nerve. We get considerably more insight into integumentary structure and function when we compare humans to other species of mammals and consider the evolutionary history of the human body. the dermis plays two roles (defense and providing a durable body covering) served by two different types of fibrous connective tissue. oxygen is removed from it faster than fresh blood flows in to replace it. the reason for two types of sweat glands. beard. Since the skin (an organ in itself) contains all of these other. eyebrows. 5. However.5— $he !al s and soles are su&.# 38# earwa( se&aceous "lands ana"en der al !a!illa third<de"ree insensi&le !ers!iration arrector !ili de&ride ent cyanosis der al !a!illae True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# 0# +# 7# . osteomalacia. UV radiation can mutate DNA and cause cancer. 2. Thus. the arteries of the dermis constrict so that blood is diverted away from the body surface and we lose less heat. With blood trickling slowly through the skin. The lower layer of dermis. and osteoporosis unless they get supplemental vitamin D orally. is composed of loosely organized areolar tissue well suited to the quick mobilization of immune cells against pathogens that break through the epidermal barrier. Without an evolutionary perspective on the human body and comparison to other species of mammals.ect to stress and have less need of der al !a!illae to lock the two layers of skin to"ether# !# /.# a /8# d /6# /+# /7# /. UV radiation also plays a role in the first step of synthesizing vitamin D. it serves as a good example of the point.% of the e!ider al cells there# !# 3/8— % third<de"ree &urn destroys the nerve endin"s that detect tissue da a"e and !roduce the sensation of !ain) whereas first< and second<de"ree &urns leave all or so e of the !ain rece!tors intact# Testing Your Re a!! /# d 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# & 5# a 6# e +# c 7# a . the papillary layer.
If the concentration rises above this range. the more calcium phosphate crystallizes out of solution. there would be no conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol to previtamin D3. If the calcium concentration drops below this range. The latter hormone lowers the calcium level.Answer Keys Chapter . Both of these diseases result from inadequate bone deposition in the absence or insufficiency of vitamin D.2–10. 3. bone mineralization is a self-amplifying process. the body has a way of sensing variations in blood calcium concentration and activating effectors (glands) whose hormones correct the imbalance. parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion rises and restores the concentration to normal. If the epidermis blocked all UV radiation from reaching the blood vessels in the dermis.# $he ost co on &one disease is osteo!orosis) not fractures# Bones elon"ate at the e!i!hyseal !late) not the articular cartila"e# Osteoclasts develo! fro ste cells in the &one arrow) not fro osteo&lasts# 4ydro(ya!atite is the a. The more hydroxyapatite that forms. especially in children. Thus.# & /8# d /6# /+# /7# /.. The trabeculae of spongy bone are not arranged randomly like the fibers of a kitchen sponge. If no vitamin D were taken orally to compensate for this. The first hydroxyapatite crystals that form in the bone matrix act as “seed crystals” that attract more calcium and phosphate ions from solution.or !rotein is colla"en# $he a. 2. the first step in calcitriol synthesis. . Thus.or ineral of &one@ the a. then we would expect to see rickets in children or osteomalacia in adults. Osteocytes adjacent to a central canal communicate by way of their cytoplasmic processes with osteocytes farther away.4 mg/dL). but rather.or effect of vita in I is &one resor!tion) thou"h it also !ro otes de!osition# Testing Your Comprehension 1. are aligned along lines of stress in the bone so they can bear the greatest amount of stress for the least amount of bone mass. PTH secretion falls and calcitonin secretion rises. Blood calcium concentration is hormonally regulated within a narrow range of a homeostatic set point (9. -one Tissue Think About It !# 3// Osteo&lasts !roduce a lar"e a ount of colla"en fi&er) so we would e(!ect to see an a&undance of the or"anelles involved in synthesi-in" and secretin" !rotein# $he &est answer is rou"h endo!las ic reticulu and Gol"i co !le(@ ri&oso es and Gol"i vesicles would also &e acce!ta&le# !# 337 $he la ellae farthest away fro the central canal 1around the !eri eter of the osteon2 are the oldest# $hey were laid down when the canal was a relatively wide channel at the ar"in of the eta!hysis# %s ossification !ro"ressed) la ellae were laid down inside these) akin" the canal narrower and narrower# :a ellae closest to the canal are therefore the youn"est# !# 333 $he !ri ary !ur!ose of *$4 is to raise the concentration of calciu in the &lood and tissue fluid# 't does this &y !ro otin" the li&eration of calciu fro the &ones and the a&sor!tion of calciu &y the s all intestine# By !ro otin" the e(cretion of !hos!hate) it !revents the de!osition of calciu !hos!hate in &one and other tissues and hel!s to ensure that free solu&le calciu re ains availa&le for other !hysiolo"ical needs# Testing Your Re a!! /# e 3# a //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# c 5# d 6# a +# d 7# e . the structural arrangement of spongy bone trabeculae reflects their load-bearing function. in typical negative feedback fashion. 4.# 38# osteo&lasts calcitriol M/)351O423IN osteo!orosis eta!hysis osteo alacia hydro(ya!atite canaliculi a!!ositional solu&ility !roduct hy!ocalce ia True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# 0# 5# +# . Thus. and transfer nutrients to those other osteocytes by way of these processes. 5.
. so under this nomenclature. the wrist has four bones and the ankle has three: the scaphoid. Ske!eta! System Think About It !# 35+ 'f the teeth had &een lost fro the skull after death) the alveoli in the andi&le and a(illa should &e dee! and there should &e o&vious alveolar !rocesses &etween the alveoli# 'f the !erson lived for so e ti e after the tooth loss) the alveoli would fill in and the alveolar !rocesses would &e resor&ed) leavin" a relatively s ooth area where the tooth had &een# !# 360 $he lower on the verte&ral colu n a verte&ra is) the ore of the &ody’s wei"ht it su!!orts# Aervical verte&rae don’t have to &e very stron" &ecause they su!!ort the wei"ht of only the head and neck# :u &ar verte&rae ust &e relatively stron" &ecause they su!!ort al ost all of the &ody’s wei"ht e(ce!t for the lower li &s# $hus the lu &ar verte&rae have heavier centru s) and the interverte&ral discs in this re"ion are lar"er) than in the cervical re"ion) and we see a steady trend in heaviness fro the cervical throu"h the thoracic and into the lu &ar s!ine# !# 366 Lerte&rae fro A3 down allow very little rotation of one &one on the ne(t) so side<to<side ove ents of the head would &e very restricted if A/ and A3 were structured like A3# %lso) if A/ and A3 had s!inous !rocesses like the others) these !rocesses would also interfere with one’s a&ility to tilt the head &ack and look u!ward# $he occi!ital &one would strike the s!inous !rocess and &e una&le to tilt &ack as far as it does now# !# 3+/ *ri ates evolved !ri arily as ar&oreal a als# $hey were a&le to ove a&out freely in this ha&itat &ecause of the !ro"ressive evolution of an a&ility to reach out in all directions—strai"ht ahead) out to the side) overhead) &ehind the &ody—and to "ras! or han" fro the &ranches# $he selection for this a&ility "ave !ri ates) in ti e) a shoulder .Answer Key Chapter . triquetral. capitate. 3. trapezoid. 236). and the navicular. 2.# e /8# & /6# /+# /7# /.u ! fro such hei"hts as a child without in. there is a navicular bone in both places. The condyloid process of her mandible was driven into the mandibular fossa and fractured her temporal bone.3. 5# %ndy could have fractured the ti&iae or the fe oral shafts) &ut since the C>$ said he had &roken his hi!s) the ost likely site would &e the necks of the fe urs# 1% fractured aceta&ulu is also !ossi&le#2 %ndy was a&le to . 4. although there are no similarities in their names: the hamate.oint that is uch ore o&ile than the shoulders of other a als 1think of the li ited ran"e of otion of a do" or horse forele") for e(a !le2# 4u ans are the heirs to this trait that evolved in the treeto!s# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# e //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# d 5# a 6# e +# c 7# & . High-heeled shoes raise the human foot into a position comparable to that of a cat or dog. however. Such a fracture in any long bone is called an epiphyseal fracture (table 7. In the proximal row. and pisiform in the wrist. with the body weight being supported on the heads of the metatarsal bones. and trapezium in the wrist. In a human.) The three proximal tarsal bones do not form a transverse row like the proximal bones of the wrist. p.# 38# dens auricular styloid !olle() hallu( edial lon"itudinal fontanels te !oral sutures s!henoid annulus fi&rosus True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# 3# +# 7# . In both the carpal and the tarsal group. lunate. much of the weight is still supported through the calcaneus and the heel of the shoe. In children and adolescents. (Note that the scaphoid of the wrist is also called the navicular. this joint has not ossified yet. and the first to third cuneiforms and the cuboid in the foot. the femoral head is attached to the neck by a cartilaginous epiphyseal plate. talus. and trauma to the femur can cause the head and neck to separate along this line. and their relatively high frequency of vehicular accidents. and calcaneus in the ankle. Cartilage is not as strong as bone. creating an opening from the auditory canal to the throat.ury &ecause a child’s . Adolescents are especially at risk of epiphyseal fractures because their greater body weight (compared to younger children) puts more stress on the femur and their participation in sports and rough play. the distal row is composed of four bones. subject them to more trauma.# Cach hand and foot has /0 !halan"es# $he fe ale !elvis is wider and shallower than the ale’s# $he lu &ar verte&rae have transverse !rocesses &ut no transverse costal facets# $he ost frequently &roken &one is the clavicle# Arm refers to the re"ion containin" only the hu erus@ leg refers to the re"ion containin" the ti&ia and fi&ula# Testing Your Comprehension 1.
&ones are o entu ore resilient and &ecause a child) &ein" li"hter in wei"ht) hits the "round with less 1force2 than an adult) so the landin" !roduces less stress on the &ones# .
knee joints. and lateral and medial excursion as you chew it.# Osteoarthritis occurs in al ost everyone after a certain a"e@ rheu atoid arthritis is less co on# % kinesiolo"ist studies .oint ove ents@ a rheu atolo"ist treats arthritis# Synovial . and (d) retraction of the mandible and cyclic elevation. so the effort arm is always shorter than the resistance arm and LE/LR is always less than 1. (6) Condyloid: radiocarpal. (a) Flexion of the hip. (3) Saddle: trapeziometacarpal joint I of the upper limb. (2) Hinge: elbow (humeroulnar). 0oints Think About It !# 3. extension of the elbow.oints that cannot &e hy!ere(tended are the inter!halan"eal . Mechanical advantage is the ratio of the length of the effort arm.ect on the "round) and e(tend the fin"ers to o!en the hand# 'n !ickin" u! the o&.ect closer to its face# Testing Your Re a!! /# c 3# & //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# e 5# c 6# c +# a 7# d . In a third-class lever. (c) depression and protraction followed by elevation of the mandible as you take a bite. the components are in the order FER.oints) el&ow) and knee# !# 38+ 't would fle( the shoulder and e(tend the el&ow as it reached forward) and would !ro&a&ly !ronate the forear to turn the fin"ers downward toward the o&. depression. (b) Such a lever would exert more force against the resistance than the force applied to the lever.Answer Key Chapter /. and metatarsophalangeal joints.55. This is the meaning of any MA > 1.oints) etacar!o!halan"eal . 2. opposition of the first digit is impossible for them. (4) Pivot: Proximal radioulnar joint of the upper limb. 3. knee.+ 'n the sacru synostoses# and coccy() the verte&rae fuse to"ether &y adulthood) thus &eco in" !# 383 So e relatively o&vious e(a !les of synovial .oint ca!sule and fills the &ursae# Testing Your Comprehension 1. (c) A third-class lever could never have such measurements because. (b) pronation of the forearm. (a) MA = 17 cm/11 cm = 1. LE. with no example in the lower limb. 4. 5. and flexion of the shoulder as you reach for the apple. with no example in the lower limb. In a second-class lever. You would not find a saddle joint in these animals. to the length of the resistance arm.# & /8# d /6# /+# /7# /.ect) it would fle( the fin"ers and o!!ose the thu & to the other fin"ers in order to "ras! the o&.ect) then !ro&a&ly su!inate the forear to turn it over) and fle( the el&ow and e(tend the shoulder to draw the o&.oints are diarthroses and a !hiarthroses &ut never synarthroses# $he round li"a ent is so ewhat slack and !ro&a&ly does not secure the fe oral head# Synovial fluid is secreted &y the synovial e &rane of the . all third-class levers have an L E < LR. LR. and elbow as you sit. (5) Gliding: intercarpal and intertarsal joints. metacarpophalangeal. For lack of a saddle joint (among other reasons). as explained in answer 1. so the effort arm is always longer than the resistance arm and LE/LR is always greater than 1.# 38# serrate e(tension ran"e of otion la&ru enisci synovial fluid &ursa !ivot kinesiolo"y "o !hosis True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 3# 3# +# . and interphalangeal joints. the components are in the order fulcrum-resistance-effort (FRE). . (1) Ball-and socket: shoulder (humeroscapular) and hip (coxal) joints.
i " q .# 38# f & k ! h o ( c a y n e " v f c y ( k d f & a u .# 38# 3/# 33# 33# 30# 35# 36# 3+# 37# 3.Answer Key At!as -.# /8# //# /3# /3# /0# /5# /6# /+# /7# /. Surfa e Anatomy /# 3# 3# 0# 5# 6# +# 7# .
or and inor) coraco&rachialis) su&sca!ularis) and anterior !ortion of the deltoid 1see ta&les /8#/8 and /8#//2# 'f the left sternocleido astoid were re oved) for e(a !le) it would the head and look downward toward the ri"ht# ake it ore difficult to &ow 3# 3# 0# 5# $ick !aralysis !resents a threat of suffocation if it affects the res!iratory uscles of the chest# 1Cntire herds of cattle have &een killed &y tick<induced res!iratory !aralysis#2 $he "astrocne ius and soleus uscles and the calcaneal tendon are affected &ecause they are stretched when a !erson walks flat<footed than when one walks in hi"h heels# 'n heavy liftin" of this sort) the quadrice!s fe oris and "luteus in e(tendin" the knee and hi!) res!ectively# a(i us !roduce ore ost of the force .ot everyone has a !al aris lon"us 1see ta&le /8#/02 or !lantaris 1see ta&le /8#/. $he downstroke is !roduced ainly &y the "luteus a(i us# :eanin" forward stretches this uscle to an o!ti u len"th for !roducin" a !owerful contraction# 1Students who have already read cha!ter /3 ay &e a&le to relate this to the len"th<tension relationshi!#2 .# /8# $he astoid !rocess is its insertion# $he tra!e-ius is su!erficial to the scalenes# .or al e(halation does not e !loy these uscles# $hey result fro ra!id e(tension of the knee) not fle(ion# $hey are on o!!osite sides of the ti&ia and act as anta"onists# Testing Your Comprehension /# Because the !ectoralis a.Answer Key Chapter 11.# d /8# c /6# /+# /7# /. 2us u!ar System Think About It !# 305 $here are any !ossi&le answers for this# $he three listed as intrinsic uscles ust &e uscles that have their ori"ins and insertions within the head) for e(a !le any of the uscles in ta&le /8#3 and several of those in /8#3# C(trinsic uscles have their ori"ins outside the head@ e(a !les could include any of the uscles in ta&le /8#0# $he uscles are the internal and e(ternal intercostal uscles# $he e &rane is !eriosteu # !# 306 !# 35+ Iifferent fi&ers of the deltoid uscle !ull in different directions# $hus) it can fle( the shoulder .2# !# 378 Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# e //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# c 5# e 6# e +# & 7# a .oint &y the action of the !osterior fi&ers# !# 366 $he !ri e overs would either &e too &ulky to fit in the hand) or if they fit) they would &e too s all to !roduce actions 1such as a !owerful "ri!2 as stron" as those !roduced &y uscles in the forear # !# 36.or fle(es the shoulder) adducts and rotates the hu erus) and de!resses the !ectoral "irdle) its a&sence would ake such actions as cli &in") !ushin") throwin") and adductin" the ar 1as in reachin" across to the other side of the chest2 difficult# So e syner"ists that could !artially take over these functions include the latissi us dorsi) teres a.# 38# uro"enital trian"le linea al&a syner"ist &i!ennate s!hincter ori"in fascicle !ri e over 1a"onist2 ha strin" fle(or retinacula True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# +# 7# .oint &y contraction of the anterior fi&ers and e(tend the .
In contraction. In addition.# % uscle !roduces ost of its %$* durin" this ti e &y anaero&ic fer entation) which "enerates lactic acid@ it does not consu e lactic acid# Testing Your Comprehension 1. it must activate the myosin ATPase before myosin can bind to the active sites of actin. and for the detachment of myosin from actin. The A bands remain the same width because they are defined by the length of the thick filaments. Sti ulate the uscle directly# 'f it still contracts) then the site of fati"ue ust &e at the syna!se 1the uscle was still ca!a&le of res!ondin" &ut the nerve was not ca!a&le of sti ulatin" it2# 'f it does not contract) the uscle itself ust &e fati"ued# !# 03/ 4y!ertro!hy# >uscle cells are not ca!a&le of itosis) and e(ce!t for a !ossi&le inor role of non itotic lon"itudinal s!littin" of lar"e uscle fi&ers) increased uscle ass is not thou"ht to result fro an increase in cell nu &er) &ut an increase in cell si-e# !# 035 Aalciu channel &lockers inhi&it s ooth uscle contraction# S ooth uscle contraction de!ends on calciu enterin" the cell fro the CA=) and calciu channel &lockers !revent this# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# d //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# & 0# d 5# a 6# c +# e 7# c . they are obliterated by the increasing myofilament overlap. and myofilaments do not shorten during muscle contraction. 3. These are the regions in which actin and myosin do not overlap in relaxed muscle. 4. or other muscle proteins and thus inhibit such processes as calcium-troponin binding. In accordance with the lengthtension relationship. myosin-actin cross-bridge formation. (2) the presence of myosin heads throughout the length of the thick filament enables cross-bridges to form anywhere along the filament.# 38# yo"lo&in O discs varicosities tonus lactic acid threshold tetanus ter inal cisternae yosin acetylcholine True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# % otor neuron ay su!!ly /)888 or ore uscle fi&ers@ a otor unit consists of one otor neuron and all the uscle fi&ers it innervates# 3# Aalciu &inds to tro!onin) not to yosin# 6# $hick and thin fila ents are !resent &ut not arran"ed in a way that !roduces striations# +# Pnder natural conditions) a uscle seldo or never attains co !lete tetanus# . the molecular organization of smooth muscle is the key to understanding why it is more functionally effective in organs subject to stretch. The accumulation of lactic acid in muscle fibers lowers the pH of the sarcoplasm. ATP is required for both contraction and relaxation of muscle. One ATP is needed for each cycle of cross-bridge formation and detachment. and the sliding filament process. Early symptoms of botulism include muscular weakness and depressed somatic reflexes resulting from the inability of the somatic motor neurons to stimulate the skeletal muscles. This pH change may alter the myosin ATPase.Answer Key Chapter 11. The H and I bands become narrower and may disappear.# e /8# & /6# /+# /7# /. 2us !e 3hysio!ogy Think About It !# 0/+ $he answer is 8#8/ sec 1/8 sec2# 'f the i !ulse &e"ins in the iddle of the fi&er) it travel 58 to reach either end of the fi&er# 15 x /8<3 2/15 /sec2 J /8<3 sec# ust !# 03. so even when smooth muscle is highly stretched. Thus. . Smooth muscle is less dependent on the length-tension relationship because (1) the lack of Z discs imposes less limitation on its contraction. resulting from inability of the intercostal and phrenic nerves to stimulate contraction of the respiratory muscles. when the bladder was stimulated. Suffocation is a common cause of death in botulism. In relaxation. and (3) smooth muscle myofilaments have varying degrees of overlap. actin. which is maintained by the ATP-consuming Na+-K+ pump. such as the urinary bladder and stomach. ATP is needed for the active transport pumps that remove Ca2+ from the cytosol and return it to the sarcoplasmic reticulum. During contraction. Filling and distension of the bladder would stretch the sarcomeres of skeletal muscle so much that there would be little overlap between the thick and thin filaments. some myofilaments overlap enough to start the contraction process. such overstretched skeletal muscle would contract only weakly. 2. muscle could not be stimulated to contract if not for its resting membrane potential. 5. tropomyosin movement.
Chlorpromazine.) 3.aB outflow de!olari-es the neuron and the HB inflow re!olari-es it# 5# $he threshold stays the sa e &ut an C*S* &rin"s the e &rane !otential closer to the threshold# +# $he effect of a neurotrans itter varies fro !lace to !lace de!endin" on the ty!e of rece!tor !resent# 7# $he si"nals travel ra!idly throu"h the internodes and slow down at each node of Ganvier# . thus preventing dopamine from acting and sometimes producing the effects of a dopamine deficiency.S# the !# 063 . and another is that only the postsynaptic neuron has neurotransmitter receptors that can produce cellular excitation (discounting receptors in the presynaptic cell for neurotransmitter reuptake).# d /8# & /6# /+# /7# /. It suppresses unwanted muscle contractions and contributes to smoother. blocks dopamine receptors. used to treat schizophrenia. depending on how rapidly the hyperkalemia develops. Signals would spread randomly through the nervous system and effectors everywhere would respond to a sufficiently strong stimulus anywhere. Such a change in the K+ gradient across the plasma membrane results in less net diffusion of K+ out of neurons. it contributes to the negative membrane potential. more coordinated muscular action. If the activity of the Na +-K+ pumps was reduced. 4. ion leakage would make the plasma membrane less polarized and more excitable. (Paradoxically. Because the Na+-K+ pump removes three positive charges from the cell for every two it brings in.# 38# nodes of Ganvier a(on hillock) initial se" ent nore!ine!hrine facilitated -one neuro odulators afferent conductivity a&solute refractory !eriod dendrites oli"odendrocytes True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 0# $he . The K+ concentration in the cytoplasm increases.# Syna!tic contacts are re odeled) added) and re oved throu"hout life# Testing Your Comprehension 1. the behavioral responses to stimuli would be much less specific or precise.erve cells and uscle fi&ers share the !ro!erties of e(cita&ility and conductivity) &ut neurons also carry out secretion and uscle fi&ers under"o contraction# !# 055 Ge"eneration of nerve fi&ers requires a neurile a and endoneuriu ) which for re"eneration tu&e# $hese structures are a&sent fro the A. but this is not discussed until chapter 24 and would not normally be known to students studying chapter 13. One reason for unidirectional transmission across synapses is that only the presynaptic neuron has synaptic vesicles and releases neurotransmitters. Parkinson disease involves a dopamine deficiency. If these structural differences did not exist and signals traveled in both directions. 2. hyperkalemia can also make them less excitable. partially depolarizing the membrane and making neurons more excitable. Dopamine is an inhibitory neurotransmitter found especially in the basal nuclei. as happens in some simple animals such as hydras. .o) if all :oewi had done was what the question descri&es) the result would not have &een conclusive# 't would re ain !ossi&le that saline alone slows down the heart) or that the saline taken fro the first fro" had !icked u! a che ical unrelated to the va"us nerves) and this other che ical slowed down the second fro"’s heart# $his could &e ruled out &y re ovin" saline fro a fro" whose va"us nerves had not &een sti ulated) &athin" a second fro"’s heart with this saline) and watchin" for an effect# 1Cven this is not conclusive) &ut is at least a startin" !oint for rulin" out alternative e(!lanations of the effect :oewi o&served#2 !# 065 $he !e!tide<synthesi-in" or"anelles of a neuron are li ited to the so a) so neuro!e!tides can only &e synthesi-ed there# !# 0+3 'n neuronal recruit ent) additional neurons are activated as sti ulus intensity increases# 'n otor nerves) this is the &asis for ulti!le otor unit 1>>P2 su ation# Ehen a stron"er uscle contraction is needed) ore otor nerve fi&ers fire 1neuronal recruit ent2) thus activatin" ore otor units in the uscle# Testing Your Re a!! /# e 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# a 5# c 6# e +# d 7# a . 4er5ous Tissue Think About It !# 005 .Answer Key Chapter 1&.
The production of action potentials involves Na+ inflow into a neuron through these voltageregulated gates. If the gates were inhibited. . then no action potentials and no nerve signals could be generated.5. so tissue damage would not trigger the transmission of pain signals in a nerve.
# e /8# & /6# /+# /7# /. $he in. and opposition. 3# 4. An injury to the left spinothalamic tract would thus block the transmission of these signals from the right (contralateral) side of the body.4).14).# 38# !hrenic decussation !ro!rioce!tion dorsal root ti&ial) co on fi&ular uscles or "lands 1 otor ele ents2 in the "an"lia ra us s!inocere&ellar crossed e(tensor intrafusal fi&ers True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 0# 5# 7# .erve fascicles are enclosed in !erineuriu and uscle fascicles in !eri ysiu # =inally) a nerve as a whole is enclosed in e!ineuriu and a uscle in e!i ysiu # !# 0. loss of many thumb functions (abduction. Hnife and "unshot wounds in this area often da a"e the sciatic nerve) which !asses throu"h this re"ion and !rovides otor innervation to the ha strin") "astrocne ius) and other a.# $he "racile fasciculus is an ascendin" 1sensory2 tract# %ll s!inal nerves are i(ed nerves@ none are !urely sensory or otor# $he dura is se!arated fro the &one &y a fat<filled e!idural s!ace# Ier ato es overla! each other &y as uch as 58D# So e so atic refle(es are ediated !ri arily throu"h the &rainste and cere&ellu # Testing Your Comprehension /# 2. Spina! Cord and Spina! 4er5es Think About It !# 073 $he o&ility of the neck) relative s allness of the cervical verte&rae) and frequency of accidents involvin" violent ove ents or &lows to the head ake s!inal cord in.uries in the cervical re"ion co on# S!inal cord in. flexion.ect’s te !erature) te(ture) and !ressure on the skin@ the cuneate fasciculus also contri&utes si"nals concerned with dee! touch 1!ressure2 and ove ent of the . Accidental removal of a part of the median nerve denervates flexor muscles of the forearm.oint associated with the wei"ht of the o&. see table 10. Signals for pain and heat. Therefore.3 $he enin"eal &ranch is sensory# $here are no structures that it innervates# Testing Your Re a!! /# e 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# d 5# e 6# c +# & 7# a .ury at A/ !ro&a&ly caused so uch s!inal cord da a"e there as to interru!t si"nals to the !hrenic nerves of the dia!hra" ) thus causin" res!iratory !aralysis# Signals for deep touch and limb position below that level ascend the ipsilateral side of the spinal cord in the gracile fasciculus and do not decussate until they get to the medulla oblongata.Answer Key Chapter 1(.ect u!2) te(ture 1s ooth or fu--y2) and te !erature 1iron conducts heat away fro the skin faster and so feels cooler2# $he s!inothala ic tract carries si"nals that would &e involved in the !erce!tion of the o&. and the first and second lumbrical muscles (see table 13.3 'ndividual nerve fi&ers are enclosed in an endoneuriu ) while uscle fi&ers are enclosed in an endo ysiu # Both nerve and uscle fi&ers are "rou!ed in fascicles# .8 $he differences in your !erce!tion of the two &alls would &e their wei"ht 1a ount of !ressure on your hand) a ount of tension needed to kee! your el&ow fle(ed and hold the o&. 5. and extension of the interphalangeal joints (see table 10. thenar muscles.ect# !# 0. .16).or uscles of hi!) knee) ankle) and foot ove ents 1see ta&le /3#62# It is virtually impossible to raise the left foot without losing contact with the wall. an injury to the left gracile fasciculus would block the transmission of these types of signals from the left (ipsilateral) side of the body below the injury. however. Keeping the hip and shoulder against the wall thwarts the crossed extensor reflex and the normal tendency of the body to shift its weight over the right leg. The results include inability to flex the wrist and fingers (inability to grip objects).uries do not occur at the :3 to :5 level &ecause the cord does not e(tend into those verte&rae# !# 0. decussate in the spinal cord near the point of entry and travel up the contralateral side of the cord in the spinothalamic tract.
The hypothalamus. however. . and swallowing. (b) an abnormal lack of fear. A lesion in the basal nuclei. (d) blindness. however. A lesion in the cerebellum causes uncoordinated voluntary muscle contractions. the inability to speak. 5. it is difficult or impossible to coordinate the muscles well enough to carry it out. Experiment 2 would result in a loss of some sensations from the same part of the body.# 38# !recentral frontal association areas cate"orical Broca’s area cor!us callosu ventricles) cere&ros!inal ar&or vitae hydroce!halus choroid !le(us True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 3# 5# 6# /8# $his fissure se!arates the cere&ral he is!heres) not the cere&ellar he is!heres# $he cere&ral he is!heres do not develo! fro neural crest tissue# $he choroid !le(uses !roduce only 38D of the AS=# 4earin" is a te !oral lo&e function@ vision resides in the occi!ital lo&e# Cye ove ents are controlled &y the oculo otor) trochlear) and a&ducens nerves@ the o!tic nerve serves only to carry visual infor ation# Testing Your Comprehension 1. is involved in so many basic homeostatic functions that its loss or destruction is not survivable. the inability to form new memories. result in such things as visual. 4.Answer Key Chapter 1). 3. and (c) the vagus nerve. (a) Anterograde amnesia. (b) the glossopharyngeal nerve. and cognitive deficits. motor. is a sa"ittal section of the &rainste and thus shows structures that are inferior or su!erior to each other) includin" the su!erior and inferior colliculi# =i"ure /0#/8 is a cross section that !asses su!erior to the !lane of the inferior colliculi) and thus does not include the inferior colliculi# Testing Your Re a!! /# c 3# a //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# e 0# a 5# & 6# c +# a 7# d . That is.# e /8# e /6# /+# /7# /. 2. language. by contrast. so the loss of even an entire hemisphere is not fatal. (e) inability to move the tongue normally in speech. -rain and Crania! 4er5es Think About It >s!# /0#38— =i"ure /0#. (a) The trigeminal nerve. Experiment 1 would result in paralysis of muscles inferior to the neck. The cerebral functions essential for survival are duplicated in the right and left hemispheres. (c) aphasia. It will. when one wants to perform a certain action. food manipulation. causes tremors and other unwanted (involuntary) contractions.
the sympathetic piloerection response would also help to retain warm air near the skin. an elevated heart rate. dry skin. add: tend to stimulate epinephrine secretion. Vagal (parasympathetic) tone would predominate and the heart would beat more slowly than normal. a condition called bradycardia. The sympathetic nervous system would INCOMPLETE. 4. promote sweating. depress the heart rate. Slower) &ecause they are un yelinated fi&ers# >s!# /5#/6 . Thus it would strongly inhibit intestinal motility and tend to cause constipation rather than the reverse situation. dilate your coronary arteries and speed up your heart.o) they would &e unaffected) &ecause no autono ic nerve fi&ers e(it the s!inal cord in the cervical re"ion# >s!# /5#33 $he sy !athetic nervous syste can influence !latelets throu"h the action of &lood<&orne nore!ine!hrine and e!ine!hrine# % direct neural connection is unnecessary# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# e 0# e 5# a 6# e +# d 7# d . 5. Physostigmine does not remove atropine from the synapses. but mostly this just causes goosebumps. In cold weather. cause your hair to stand on end. Assuming that the growling dog instilled fear in you. Thus. In humans. and inhibit digestive and urinary function. 2. the heart would not speed up as it normally does. those muscarinic receptors that are not blocked by atropine are more strongly stimulated by ACh. but it does prolong the effect of ACh by inhibiting its breakdown by acetylcholinesterase. such as a disagreement with another wolf in the pack. 3. Autonomi 4er5ous System Think About It >s!# /5#.Answer Key Chapter 1*. High levels of atropine can cause paralysis of organs that depend on cholinergic stimulation by blocking the muscarinic receptors for ACh. diarrhea. Since atropine blocks these cholinergic effects. Vapors from the onion irritate nerve endings at the surface of the eye.# a /8# c /6# /+# /7# /. dilate your pupils and respiratory passages. and cause contraction and emptying of the bladder. Signals are conducted through the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve to the pons. and urine retention. atropine poisoning is marked by pupillary dilation. In a fight or flight situation.# 38# nore!ine!hrine sy !athetic !re"an"lionic) !ost"an"lionic c%>* vaso otor tone adrener"ic dual innervation autono ic tone va"us enteric True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 3# 0# 6# Both syste s are always si ultaneously active# 'n &iofeed&ack and other circu stances) li ited voluntary control of the %. this would act through the limbic system and hypothalamus to activate the sympathetic fight-or-flight response. promote glycogen breakdown and glucose mobilization. increase blood flow to your skeletal muscles. the response causes limited piloerection (as when the hair on the back of your neck stands up or your scalp tingles). . and the lack of increased circulation would compromise one’s tolerance of physical exertion and reaction to stress. In emergency situations.S is !ossi&le# $he sy !athetic division inhi&its di"estion# Easte eli ination can occur &y autono ic s!inal refle(es without necessarily involvin" the &rain# +# %ll !arasy !athetic fi&ers are choliner"ic# Testing Your Comprehension 1. cause a dry mouth. then back through the facial nerve to the tear glands. Some effects of ACh are to constrict the pupils. the sympathetic nervous system would cause the hair to fluff up and make the wolf look larger and more intimidating to its adversaries.
the ciliary body as a whole puts less tension on the suspensory ligament on the lens.# c /8# & /6# /+# /7# /. itch. such sensory losses may be an acceptable cost of relieving pain. Referred pain results from the fact that cutaneous and visceral sensory pathways converge on the same spinal interneurons. tickle. When the ciliary muscle contracts. and pressure.Answer Key Chapter 1+. An insect crawling in one’s hair would trigger the hair receptors (peritrichial endings). . including touch.# 38# sta!es inferior colliculi taste hairs olfactory &ul& referred !ain fovea centralis "an"lion . and reading braille presumably stimulates tactile (Merkel) discs and tactile (Meissner) corpuscles. Thus.aB otoliths hair cells True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 3# 5# 6# /8# $hese fi&ers end in the edulla o&lon"ata# Because of he idecussation) the ri"ht he is!here receives si"nals fro &oth eyes# $he !osterior cha &er) the s!ace &etween iris and lens) is filled with aqueous hu or# Iescendin" anal"esic fi&ers &lock si"nals that have reached the dorsal horn of the s!inal cord# $he trochlear and a&ducens nerves control the su!erior o&lique and lateral rectus) res!ectively# Testing Your Comprehension 1. 3. the throb of a patient’s pulse is sensed by lamellated (pacinian) corpuscles in one’s fingertips. which results from the fact that multiple rods converge on the same bipolar neurons and multiple bipolar neurons converge on the same ganglion cells. so the brain cannot distinguish the original sources of pain from each other. For a terminally ill patient. Scotopic vision is characterized by high light sensitivity.ure the olfactory nerve tracts and cause a loss of s ell 1anos ia2# >s!# /6#/7 $he sta!edius and tensor ty !ani uscles are fast "lycolytic uscles# $he a&ility to res!ond quickly to loud noises is ore i !ortant in these uscles than fati"ue resistance) a characteristic of slow o(idative uscles# >s!# /6#33 Ehen the head or &ody &e"ins to turn—that is) when it is acceleratin"—the endoly !h &riefly la"s &ehind the ove ent of the se icircular duct wall# $hus) it !ushes a"ainst the cu!ula and sti ulates the hair cells of the crista a !ullaris# 'f rotary ove ent of the head is sustained) the duct and endoly !h ove at the sa e s!eed# $here is no relative otion &etween the ) so the endoly !h does not !ush a"ainst the cu!ula or sti ulate the hair cells# $hus) the crista a !ullaris res!onds only to acceleration) a chan"e in the rate of otion) not to otion per se# >s!# /6#3/ $he !ri e overs in conver"ence of the eyes are the edial rectus uscles# >s!# /6#36 Ehen we look directly at a star) we focus this !oint of li"ht on the fovea centralis# $he fovea contains only cone cells) which are not very sensitive to di li"ht# $herefore) a di star ay not sti ulate the rece!tor cells of the fovea enou"h to !roduce an i a"e# Ehen we look sli"htly away fro the star) its i a"e falls on one side of the fovea) in a re"ion with so e rod cells# Gods are ore sensitive than cones and ay therefore res!ond to the starli"ht# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# & 0# a 5# e 6# e +# d 7# c . 2. However. The anterolateral system contains the spinothalamic tract. the diameter of the ciliary body decreases. 4. Sense %rgans Think About It >s!# /6#3 Aold and war te !erature# rece!tors are !hasic rece!tors) since they soon ada!t to a sustained chan"e in >s!# /6#. temperature. allowing the lens to relax into a more strongly convex shape. it would also deaden many other sensations below that level. Severing this tract above the source of pain would thus block pain signals from reaching the brain. which carries pain signals up the spinal cord. thus allowing for spatial summation in the rod pathways. $he descendin" anal"esic fi&er syna!ses with the first<order !ain fi&er and inhi&its its release of neurotrans itter# $his is a case of !resyna!tic inhi&ition) since it &locks trans ission across the syna!se &etween the first< and second<order fi&ers in the !ain !athway# >s!# /6#/3 $he facial nerve innervates the anterior two<thirds of the ton"ue) so facial nerve da a"e could cause a loss of sensitivity to sweet) salty) and sour tastes# $he "losso!haryn"eal nerve innervates the !osterior one<third of the ton"ue) so "losso!haryn"eal nerve da a"e could result in a loss of the &itter taste# =racture of the eth oid &one can in.
5. . A drug that blocked the receptors for substance P might serve as a powerful analgesic because it would block pain signals from reaching the brain.
mRNA. Along with hyposecretion . 4. labeled something like steroid.21 with the levels. They bind to surface receptors. 3. the whole principle behind it would be misguided.Answer Key Chapter 1.# 38# "ranulosa) interstitial ne"ative feed&ack inhi&ition hy!othala o<hy!o!hyseal !ortal syste !er issive u!<re"ulation adenohy!o!hysis tyrosine acro e"aly !arathyroid "lucocorticoids True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 5# 4or ones are also secreted &y the heart) liver) kidneys) and other or"ans not "enerally re"arded as "lands# +# $he !ineal "land and thy us under"o involution with a"e# 7# Eithout iodine) there is no thyroid hor one 1$42@ without $4) there can &e no ne"ative feed&ack inhi&ition# . 2. One steroid hormone molecule activates gene transcription and the synthesis of multiple molecules of mRNA mirroring that gene locus. enzyme (or metabolic) product. which then activate second-messenger systems in the cell. because one would probably die even more quickly of widespread hemorrhaging and other cellular and tissue breakdown as a result of weakened plasma membranes. 'nsulin has a quicker effect than estro"en# 'nsulin &inds to a surface rece!tor) tyrosine kinase) which !hos!horylates !ree(istin" cyto!las ic en-y es and i ediately causes eta&olic chan"es in the tar"et cell# Cstro"en) however) &inds to a nuclear rece!tor and activates "enetic transcri!tion) leadin" to the synthesis of new en-y e olecules# C(ce!t for transcri!tion and translation) no eta&olic chan"es will &e seen in the tar"et cell until the necessary en-y es are synthesi-ed# Cstro"en therefore has a relatively delayed effect# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# d //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# c 5# c 6# c +# d 7# c . so if the body were totally purged of cholesterol. Overstimulated cells sometimes down-regulate their hormone receptors in order to maintain homeostasis. we also would have no sex steroids. the claim would be almost certainly false. Therefore. The 6ndo rine System Think About It >s!# /+#38 $he neuroendocrine refle( in %I4 secretion is an e(a !le of ho eostasis# Iehydration tri""ers a refle( that ulti ately !ro otes water conservation &y the kidneys) thus hel!in" to aintain a ho eostatic state of water &alance# >s!# /+#33 'f the thyroid "land is re oved) $S4 level rises &ecause the hy!othala us and !ituitary "land no lon"er receive ne"ative feed&ack inhi&ition fro the thyroid# >s!# /+#38 :oss of the adrenal corte( would &e ore critical than loss of the adrenal edulla# $he adrenal edulla secretes e!ine!hrine and nore!ine!hrine) erely su!!le entin" the effects of the sy !athetic nervous syste # $he adrenal corte() however) secretes ineralocorticoids and "lucocorticoids that are vital to electrolyte &alance and eta&olis and are secreted &y no other or"an in the &ody# Serious distur&ances of ho eostasis would result fro the loss of the adrenal corte(# >s!# /+#03 $he car&ohydrate oiety of a "lyco!rotein hor one is added &y the Gol"i co !le(# >s!# /+#07?0. Cholesterol is the precursor of all our steroid hormones. Each enzyme molecule may catalyze the same chemical reaction millions of times. and one’s metabolism would be seriously and fatally deranged. But even if it were true. millions of molecules of a metabolic product may be produced in response to a single molecule of a steroid hormone.# e /8# e /6# /+# /7# /. of course. or glucocorticoids. The calorigenic effect of thyroid hormone elevates the body temperature. and the hypothalamus attempts to compensate for this and thermoregulate by inducing sweating. Neither the peptide hormones nor the metabotropic neurotransmitters (such as the catecholamines) can enter their target cells.. aldosterone. Toxic goiter is characterized by thyroid hormone hypersecretion.# $he tissue at the center is the adrenal edulla# /8# $here are also two testes) two ovaries) and four !arathyroid "lands# Testing Your Comprehension 1. from top down. enzyme. First of all. Each mRNA is translated by many ribosomes and therefore results in the synthesis of many enzyme molecules. which depend on cholesterol as a structural entity. 5. Not that this would matter much. The diagrammatic answer to this question should resemble figure 17. Anabolic steroid abuse can thus cause cells to down-regulate their steroid receptors and thus become less sensitive to the naturally occurring steroids in the body.
.of GnRH and pituitary gonadotropins. this may contribute to such effects as infertility and testicular atrophy.
Therefore. poverty and concomitant poor nutrition. 5.# $he he e is e(creted@ the "lo&in is &roken down into a ino acids that can &e reused# /8# 'n leuke ia) there is an e(cess of EBAs# % EBA deficiency is leuko!enia# Testing Your Comprehension 1. Erythrocytes become clumped in both coagulation and agglutination. Lung cancer destroys pulmonary alveoli and reduces.Answer Key Chapter 1. Fibrinogen is consumed by the clotting process. those RBCs cannot load more oxygen if the respiratory membrane simply isn’t available. and her apparent alcoholism.aundice# S!leno e"aly) enlar"e ent of the s!leen) occurs &ecause the s!leen is one of the sites of the accelerated erythro!oiesis that occurs in 4I.. probable sedentary habits. sometimes drastically.<acetyl"alactosa ine fro ty!e % erythrocytes would "ive their a""lutino"ens the sa e anti"enic structure as ty!e O cells and render the transfusa&le into a reci!ient of any %BO &lood ty!e) su&stantially increasin" the availa&ility of safe donor &lood for reci!ients who are not ty!e O# 1$his question is &ased on . Even if the RBC count is increased. Thrombin (derived from prothrombin) is an enzyme. // Qanuary /.ust such an effort re!orted in Science News..+) /5/930?35#2 >s!# /7#33 'f 33D of Qa!anese % ericans have ty!e B &lood and /D are Gh?) then 18#33218#8/2 J 8#33D should &e ty!e B?# >s!# /7#30 'n he olytic disease of the new&orn) GBAs &reak down and release he o"lo&in) and the he o"lo&in is de"raded to &iliru&in at such a fast rate that the liver cannot dis!ose of the &iliru&in# 't accu ulates in the &lood and !roduces . leading in turn to reduced erythropoiesis and low RBC counts. . -!ood Think About It >s!# /7#6 %l&u in raises the os olarity of the &lood and thus !ro otes the os otic u!take and retention of water &y the &lood# 'n doin" so) it hel!s to increase and aintain &lood volu e# >s!# /7#/5 'n dehydration) the water content of the &lood is reduced) so the relative a ount of all solid atter is increased) includin" he o"lo&in# $he resultin" hi"h he o"lo&in concentration) however) does not necessarily ean the !atient has enou"h total he o"lo&in in the &lood to eet his or her eta&olic needs# >s!# /7#3/ Ge ovin" the .# >a!# /7#35 %s!irin inhi&its the en-y e cycloo(y"enase and therefore interferes with the synthesis of thro &o(anes# $hro &o(anes are a on" the factors that !ro ote !latelet a""re"ation@ thus as!irin sli"htly inhi&its he ostasis# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# c 0# a 5# & 6# d +# d 7# c .# 38# he ostasis sickle<cell disease !olycythe ia vita in B/3 erythro!oietin he o!oiesis he atocrit thro &o!lastin a""lutino"ens he o!hilia True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# O(y"en deficiency is the result of ane ia) not its cause# 0# Alottin" is one echanis of he ostasis) &ut he ostasis includes others# %""lutination is unrelated to either of these# 6# $he ost a&undant EBAs are neutro!hils# . whereas in agglutination it is because they are held together by antibodies. so it is not consumed by clotting and is needed only in very small quantity. the amount of respiratory membrane available for gas exchange. The contributing factors may include hemorrhage as a result of the accident and a low level of erythropoiesis resulting from a combination of her age. 3. 4. degenerative kidney diseases result in EPO hyposecretion. but in coagulation it is because they adhere to the fibrin mesh of the clot.# d /8# c /6# /+# /7# /. The kidneys secrete erythropoietin (EPO). 2. which is the stimulus for erythropoiesis. so it is needed in larger quantity.
5.88 :/ in# $o aintain this out!ut with a stroke volu e of 58 : would require a heart rate of 10).# 38# $ wave se ilunar auscultation !reload cardiac out!ut systole) diastole syste ic atrioventricular 1coronary2 sulcus .14 (cardiac action potential) and 12. Therefore. . The major difference is the long plateau in the cardiac action potential.#+ $he left ventricle receives ore !erfusion than the ri"ht) corres!ondin" with the fact that it has a heavier workload and ore uscular tissue than the ri"ht# $he left ventricle is su!!lied &y the anterior interventricular) circu fle() and !osterior interventricular arteries# >s!# /. leads to a reduced stroke volume. and with less calcium.7 &eats/ in# Testing Your Re a!! /# d 3# & //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# d 0# a 5# e 6# c +# d 7# e . This is why the pulmonary valve opens first and blood is expelled from the right ventricle a little earlier than from the left ventricle. 3. so the pulmonary valve does not have to overcome as much resistance as the aortic valve. 4. in turn. 2. Massaging the carotid artery at this point compresses the baroreceptors located here and results in inhibitory (vagal) signals to the heart that reduce the heart rate.# a /8# e /6# /+# /7# /. Heart Think About It >s!# /.11 (neuron action potential). since there is less blood in the ventricle to be expelled.88 :/ in2/158 :/&eat2 J .#36 'n the initial state) the cardiac out!ut is 1+8 :/&eat21+8 &eats/ in2 J 0).unctions True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# $he coronary circulation is !art of the syste ic circuit@ the other division is the !ul onary circuit# 3# $he first two<thirds of ventricular fillin" occurs &efore the atria contract# $he atria add only a&out 3/D of the &lood that fills the ventricles# 6# $he first heart sound occurs at the ti e of the RGS co !le(# +# $he heart has its own internal !ace aker and would continue &eatin"@ the nerves only alter the heart rate# /8# $he CAG is a co !osite record of the electrical activity of the entire yocardiu ) not a record fro a sin"le yocyte# 't looks uch different fro an action !otential# Testing Your Comprehension 1. there is less myosin-actin cross-bridging and a weaker contraction of the myocardium. The afterload in the pulmonary trunk is much lower than the afterload in the aorta. This condition (cardiac tamponade) interferes with the expansion and filling of the heart. two phenomena not seen in neurons. The sketches should resemble figures 19.aB "a! .#5 Lalvular stenosis reduces cardiac out!ut &ecause the valvular orifice is narrowed and less &lood flows throu"h the orifice durin" systole# Because of reduced cardiac out!ut) the lun"s) uscles) and other or"ans receive less !erfusion# % !erson’s !hysical sta ina 1endurance2 is co !ro ised &ecause the uscles are not as well su!!lied with o(y"en# >s!# /.#/0 'n a neuron) the fallin" !hase of the action !otential is caused &y HB outflow and occurs a&ru!tly# 'n a cardiac yocyte) there is a !lateau in the action !otential that results fro an inflow of Aa3B and te !orary i !er ea&ility to HB# >s!# /.Answer Key Chapter 1/. This results from the delayed opening of the potassium channels (thus delaying the outflow of K+) and the prolonged inflow of extracellular calcium ions through the slow calcium channels. the EDV is reduced and this. Verapimil has a negative inotropic effect because it reduces calcium inflow into the cardiac muscle cells.
For example.1.# e /8# d /6# /+# /7# /. At this point the capillary would have a net filtration pressure of (28 + 2 + 4 mmHg) out – 25 mmHgin = 9 mmHgout. which sends cardioacceleratory signals to the heart and increases the heart rate. -!ood 7esse!s and Cir u!ation Think About It >s!# 38#. If the blood pressure above the heart is adequate. 3. 4. it predicts that an 80-year-old should have a systolic blood pressure of 180.# %n aneurys is a weak) &ul"in" vessel which may ru!ture# /8# %na!hylactic shock is a for of venous !oolin" shock# Testing Your Comprehension 1. the “age + 100” estimate does not take into account male-female differences in normal blood pressure. 2. whereas the actual healthy systolic pressure should be 145 for men and 157 for women. the cardiac center of the medulla oblongata. . The aldosterone would have to travel “the scenic route”: adrenal cortex → suprarenal vein → inferior vena cava → heart → pulmonary trunk and arteries → lungs → pulmonary veins → heart → aorta → renal artery → kidney. The reduced perfusion of the skin accounts for its paleness and coolness. There is no direct route to the nearby kidney.# 38# transcytosis sy !athetic &arorece!tors arterial circle &asilic) ce!halic systolic) diastolic continuous ca!illaries ana!hylactic thoracic !u ! oncotic !ressure True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 0# So e veins have valves) &ut arteries do not# 5# By the for ula F ∝ r0) the flow increases /6<fold# 7# $he ca!illaries nor ally rea&sor& a&out 75D of the fluid they filter@ the rest is a&sor&ed &y the ly !hatic syste # . in turn. An adequate or even high blood pressure in the common iliac arteries or some other lower point would not necessarily mean that there was adequate pressure higher in the body. The drop in blood pressure stimulates the baroreceptors and. For one thing. because gravity draws blood downward. The pulse is weak because the blood pressure is low.Answer Key Chapter &1. It also does not compare very well with the healthy values given in table 20. it is almost certain to be adequate in the lower limbs and it is likely that the brain is also being adequately perfused. 5. $he lar"e arteries have an a&undance of elastic sheets and fi&ers in the tunica edia@ the elastic sheets are not seen in vessels of any other ty!e# $hese sheets and fi&ers "ive the lar"e arteries their a&ility to stretch and recoil# >s!# 38#// $he flow will increase &y a factor of r0 1r J radius2# 'f the flow were 5 then at r J 5 the flow would &e 15 /sec21502 J 3)/35 /sec J 3#/ /sec# /sec at r J / ) >s!# 38#3/ Lenous !oolin" results fro "ravity 1the wei"ht of the &lood2 drawin" &lood to the lower re"ions of the &ody) es!ecially the lower li &s# $he skeletal uscle !u ! serves to counteract the influence of "ravity# But when one is slee!in" 1assu in" one slee!s lyin" down2) "ravity does not !ull the &lood into the lower li &s# $he heart is on the sa e level as the li &s) and "ravity and venous !oolin" are not si"nificant factors# >s!# 38#30 Ayanosis# Testing Your Re a!! /# c 3# & //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# e 5# & 6# c +# e 7# a . however.
H2 cells &oth attack host cells that have &eco e cancerous or infected with viruses) &ut .# 38# !yro"en interleukins anti"en<&indin" site) e!ito!e clonal deletion autoi une !atho"en lyso-y e ly !hadenitis dia!edesis 1e i"ration2 o!soni-ation True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 :yso-y e is a &acteria<killin" en-y e# 'nterferons !ro ote infla ation# 4el!er $ cells are also necessary to hu oral i unity# %ner"y is a loss of ly !hocyte activity) whereas autoi une diseases result fro activity# /8# 'nterferons inhi&it viral re!lication@ !erforins lyse &acteria# Testing Your Comprehension 1. 5.H cells do not de!end on s!ecific reco"nition and are thus !art of the nons!ecific defense syste # >s!# 3/#0+ '"> is a !enta er with /8 anti"en<&indin" sites) whereas the others are ono ers with 3 or di ers with 0# $hus) '"> can &ind ore anti"en olecules to"ether than the other classes of i uno"lo&ulins can# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# a 5# d 6# & +# e 7# d . which are too large to pass through the placental barrier. Anti-D. These are pentamers. they depend upon activation by helper T cells. Removal of the axillary lymph nodes removes at least some of the pathway of lymphatic drainage from the upper limb.oined to"ether) with only narrow intercellular clefts &etween the 1and so eti es even those are sealed &y ti"ht . 4. A plasma cell is heavily loaded with rough endoplasmic reticulum. This is related to the fact that the plasma cell is so heavily engaged in protein (antibody) synthesis.Answer Key Chapter &1. /# 3# 0# .# a /8# c /6# /+# /7# /. as happened in this case. The antilymphocyte serum was given to inhibit the tendency of the girl’s T lymphocytes to attack the donor heart. With suppressed immunity. Even though B cells do not develop in the thymus. 2. The patient is thus very vulnerable to opportunistic infections. Anti-B (and anti-A) are in the IgM class of antibodies. is in the IgG class. 'ymphati and Immune Systems Think About It >s!# 3/#5 Both ly !hatic and &lood ca!illaries are co !osed of a si !le squa ous e!itheliu called the endotheliu # 'n a continuous &lood ca!illary) however) the endothelial cells are closely . 3.# isdirected . which are thymus-dependent. thus resulting in the accumulation of tissue fluid in that limb. however. Therefore. the body may also fail to respond strongly to other foreign cells such as infectious microorganisms. IgGs easily cross the placenta. which is lacking from a B cell. which they would recognize as foreign tissue. a loss of thymic function impairs both cellular and humoral immunity. however.unctions) as in the &lood<&rain &arrier2# 'n a ly !hatic ca!illary) there are "a!s &etween the endothelial cells lar"e enou"h to let even &acteria and etastatic cancer cells !ass@ the endothelial cells are anchored &y fila ents to nei"h&orin" tissue cells@ and the "a!s &etween the cells can &e o!ened and closed &y valvelike fla!s of the endotheliu # $hese structural differences are i !ortant to the functions of the res!ective syste s# $he &lood circulatory syste ust retain erythrocytes) !latelets) and &lood !roteins in the &loodstrea ) &ut the ly !hatic syste ust &e a&le to !ick u! !rotein) !atho"ens) and conta inants fro the tissues) returnin" the !rotein to circulation and directin" !atho"ens to the ly !h nodes where they can &e detected and activate an i une res!onse# >s!# 3/#33 $he !ain of infla ation results !artly fro !rosta"landins# %s!irin &locks the action of cycloo(y"enase and thus inhi&its !rosta"landin synthesis# >s!# 3/#35 Alonal deletion is a case of a!o!tosis) the nor al death of cells that have no further !ur!ose to serve# >s!# 3/#0/ Aytoto(ic 1killer2 $ cells and natural killer 1. and therefore a much smaller monomer.
The simple squamous epithelium of alveolar ducts. Respiratory System Think About It >s!# 33#7 Both the !leurae and the !ericardiu are dou&le<layered serous e &ranes that enclose one of the thoracic viscera) are lu&ricated &y a serous fluid) and allow for the e(!ansion and contraction of the enclosed or"an with ini al friction# >s!# 33#// $he lun"s inflate &ecause the chest e(!ands# $he inflowin" air does not inflate the lun"s like air &lown into a &alloon# Gather) the drivin" force in inhalation is contraction of the dia!hra" and e(ternal intercostal uscles) which enlar"es the thoracic cavity) creatin" a dro! in !ressure that causes an inward flow of air# >s!# 33#/. . in most areas these epithelia (of the first two types) are ciliated because of their role in transporting mucus. since the hemoglobin becomes about 97% saturated even with normal ventilation (eupnea). it lowers the blood Po2. and alveoli creates a minimal barrier to gas diffusion. less permeable epithelial types such as pseudostratified columnar. however. expel CO2 more rapidly than the body generates it. Therefore. raises the Pco2. hyperventilation produces alkalosis. alveolar sacs. Hyperventilation does.Answer Key Chapter &&. the epithelia range from cuboidal to (mostly) simple squamous. lowers the blood pH (producing acidosis).15 L/min). simple cuboidal. His minute respiratory volume is (650 mL/breath)(11 breaths/min) = 7. By that time. his alveolar ventilation rate is (650 – 185 mL/breath)(11 breaths/min) = 5. and (in more limited areas) stratified squamous epithelia. Emphysema entails a loss of alveolar surface area for gas exchange.150 mL/min (7. the Po2 can drop so low that a person can faint and possibly drown. 3. With an anatomic dead space of 185 mL. Therefore. Reduced Pco2 raises the blood pH. so it interferes with oxygen loading and carbon dioxide unloading. The reason a swimmer can hold his or her breath longer is that hyperventilation expels CO 2. thus. 2. the logic behind this practice is fallacious because one cannot load a significantly greater than normal amount of oxygen by hyperventilating. it takes longer for the blood Pco2 to build up to the point where it stimulates the chemoreceptors that demand one to resume breathing.# 38# anato ic dead s!ace co !liance) elasticity ins!iratory center ventilation<!erfusion cou!lin" alkalosis) hy!oca!nia "lottis &ronchial tree !ul onary surfactant intra!leural) at os!heric o&structive True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 0# 5# 7# /8# $he "lottis is the su!erior o!enin" into the laryn() not its inferior e(it# Ehen volu e increases) !ressure decreases# %telectasis can have other causes such as airway o&struction# 'n an avera"e 588 : tidal volu e) 358 : reaches the alveoli# >ost AO3 is trans!orted as &icar&onate ion# Testing Your Comprehension 1. Moreover.# d /8# a /6# /+# /7# /. In the respiratory division.12 L/min. As explained in the previous answer. $he fi&ers fro the !neu ota(ic center inhi&it the ins!iratory center so that each ins!iration is shorter than it would &e without this influence# $hus) they !roduce '*S*s on the ins!iratory center neurons# >s!# 33#33 Iurin" e(!iration) alveolar air i(es with dead air in the trachea and other !arts of the conductin" division# Since this dead air has not released o(y"en to the &lood or !icked u! car&on dio(ide fro it) it adds o(y"en to the e(!ired air and dilutes the e(!ired AO3# >s!# 33#30 O(y"en loadin" is one e(a !le of a &eneficial !ositive feed&ack loo!# Cach o(y"en olecule than &inds to he o"lo&in increases the !ro&a&ility that that he o"lo&in olecule will &ind another one 1u! to the a(i u of four2) so o(y"en loadin" has a self<acceleratin" quality reflected in the ra!id rise of the id!ortion of the o(yhe o"lo&in dissociation curve# >s!# 33#3/ % !erson with e !hyse a tends to develo! a &arrel<like chest in which the intercostal uscles are very stretched# %ccordin" to the len"th<tension relationshi!) hi"hly stretched skeletal uscles do not contract very forcefully when sti ulated# Ges!iration thus &eco es weak and shallow# Testing Your Re a!! /# c 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# e 5# e 6# c +# & 7# a . The conducting division of the respiratory tract is lined with thicker. 4. so it significantly lowers the blood Pco2. and because of the latter. Hyperventilation will raise the blood Po2 only marginally.
and soon died. In this incident (from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports). the nasoenteric tube was misdirected down the woman’s trachea and bronchus instead of her esophagus. It pierced the lung surface and admitted air into the pleural cavity. The patient exhibited pneumothorax and atelectasis.5. .
one of the forces opposing glomerular filtration.# 38# trans!ort a(i u antidiuretic hor one internal urethral !rotein arcuate //# icturition /3# renal autore"ulation /3# tri"one /0# acula densa /5# !odocytes True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# *arathyroid hor one re"ulates calciu a&sor!tion &y the *A$# 3# $here is ore urea and chloride ion than sodiu ion in the urine# 0# % su&stantial a ount of tu&ular fluid is rea&sor&ed &y the !aracellular route) !assin" throu"h leaky ti"ht . This patient was showing poor renal perfusion already. This is slightly below normal. 8rinary System Think About It >s!# 33#+ $he !athway fro afferent arteriole to "lo erulus to efferent arteriole to !eritu&ular ca!illaries is a !ortal syste ) since the &lood flows throu"h two ca!illary &eds in series &efore returnin" to the heart# >s!# 33#/8 Iro! in &lood !ressure → reduced G=G → slower flow of tu&ular fluid → increased rea&sor!tion → reduced . In fact.Answer Key Chapter &(. and this condition would become even worse if the blood pressure dropped significantly.35 g/day.unctions# 5# Glycosuria does not occur in dia&etes insi!idus# 7# Prine can &e as dilute as 58 Os /:# Testing Your Comprehension 1. This reduces capillary reabsorption. The GFR would therefore rise. the concentration of protein in the blood plasma is greatly reduced. 2. causing hydronephrosis. (b) Her rate of urea excretion is (8.6 mg/mL)(55 mL/hr)(24 hr/day) = 11.aAl concentration in IA$ detected &y acula densa → dilation of afferent arteriole or constriction of efferent arteriole → increased G=G# >s!# 33#// %n %AC inhi&itor would reduce the !roduction of an"iotensin '') inhi&itin" constriction of the efferent arteriole# Aonsequently) the &lood !ressure in the !eritu&ular ca!illaries would &e hi"her than it is in the !resence of an"iotensin '') and this &lood !ressure would o!!ose and reduce tu&ular rea&sor!tion# >s!# 33#33 $he renal clearance of "lucose is nor ally -ero# %lthou"h "lucose is filtered &y the "lo erulus) nor ally all of it is rea&sor&ed &y the *A$ and none re ains in the urine# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# d 3# & 0# c 5# & 6# & +# d 7# e .5 mL/min. 3.6 mg/mL)(55 mL/hr)/(0. Both differences suggest that the PCT has a much greater absorptive function than the DCT.25 mg/mL = 1. ACE inhibitors cause vasodilation and thus reduce blood pressure. whereas the DCT is much shorter and its epithelial cells are almost smooth-surfaced.# c /8# a /6# /+# /7# /.892 mL/hr = 31. the PCT reabsorbs about 65% of the glomerular filtrate. 4.352 mg/day = 11. her rate of renal clearance is C = (8. the ureters could become kinked like a garden hose. This would explain the renal failure (drop in renal clearance) brought on by the drug. The PCT is much longer and has a prominent brush border on its epithelial cells. As the bladder filled and expanded superiorly. In kwashiorkor. whereas the DCT reabsorbs an average of only 14%. . Urine would back up in the ureters and kidneys. (a) Using the formula C = UV/P. 5.
in case there is any question. down! (d up. Blood loss results in a drop in blood volume and pressure. Volume excess resulted in the infant’s edema. This alters the electrical gradient across the plasma membrane and induces H+ to diffuse into the cells. the respiratory and urinary systems continually eliminate CO2. The drop in blood pressure stimulates the production of angiotensin II. 4.# d /8# & /6# /+# /7# /. Thus. 2. the left and right arrows. The situation is complicated by the fact that an infant’s kidneys also are less able to conserve sodium than adult kidneys are. and A id:-ase -a!an e Think About It >s!# 30#+ $he e(cessive level of %I4 !roduced &y such tu ors causes the kidneys to retain water even thou"h they continue to e(crete sodiu # $his leads to hy!otonic hydration# >s!# 30#/3 C(cess aldosterone secretion !ro otes sodiu retention and !otassiu de!letion) !otentially leadin" to hy!okale ia# 4y!ernatre ia does not occur &ecause !ro!ortionate a ounts of water are retained with the sodiu # 4owever) the retention of &oth sodiu and water can lead to the fluid i &alance called volu e e(cess# 4y!okale ia can lead to !aralysis &ecause it induces "reater diffusion of HB fro the 'A= to the CA=) causin" nerve and uscle cells to &eco e hy!er!olari-ed and less e(cita&le than nor al# >s!# 30#/6 By the ti e &lood !asses throu"h the syste ic ca!illaries and enters the veins) it has !icked u! AO3 fro res!irin" tissues# $he AO3 lowers its !4# >s!# 30#/+ $he ost i !ortant !rotein &uffer in the &lood !las a is al&u in and the !rotein &uffer in the erythrocytes is he o"lo&in# ost i !ortant >s!# 30#3/ % !erson with e !hyse a can &e e(!ected to show a lower urine !4 and hi"her a oniu chloride concentration than a healthy individual# $his is &ecause e !hyse a !roduces res!iratory acidosis) the kidneys secrete ore acid into the tu&ular fluid) and they !roduce ore a onia to &uffer the acid# Testing Your Re a!! /# c 3# a //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# a 5# d 6# c +# e 7# & . 9ater. down! (b up.Answer Key Chapter &). and the seizures from cerebral edema in particular. less H+ is secreted and more H+ is retained in the body (these are linked by the Na+-H+ antiport). ↓ K+ Effect ↓ Na+ ↑ Cl– ↓ H+ Reason Water dilutes the ECF.# /8# %ldosterone has only a s all influence on &lood !ressure# *$4 !ro otes calciu a&sor!tion &ut !hos!hate e(cretion# *rotein &uffers ore acid than &icar&onate or !hos!hates# >ore water than salt is lost) so the &ody fluids &eco e hy!ertonic# %qua!orins are found in the distal tu&ule and collectin" duct# Testing Your Comprehension 1.* Cause a. and would not buffer very much acid. 3. the H+ concentration of the ECF drops. while the mother was replacing this with sodium-free water. In this case from Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (9 September 1994). however. respectively. 6!e tro!yte. this keeps the reaction moving to the right and neutralizing more acid. which stimulates the thirst center. ↑ H2O b. In vivo. the carbonic acid reaction HCO3– + H+ → H2CO3 → H2O + CO2 would not proceed very far to the right in vitro. Hypokalemia causes excess K+ to diffuse out of cells into the ECF. the baby was suffering from hypotonic hydration and hyponatremia because it was losing sodium and other electrolytes in the ordinary course of urination. Cl– passively follows Na+ when Na+ is reabsorbed or retained in the ECF.# 38# hy!erkale ia hy!onatre ia res!iratory acidosis li itin" !4 os olarity . causing relative hyponatremia. Therefore. The volume excess also produced a state of acidosis. down.aB HB eta&olic water cutaneous trans!iration fluid sequestration True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 3# 5# 6# . . should be as follows: (a up. By the law of mass action. ↑ Na+ c. because with less Na+ reabsorption by the renal tubules. * Note: Up and down arrows sometimes do not transmit electronically or show up on one computer the same as on another. up! (c down. At the pH of the extracellular fluid. up! (e down.
which in turn can lead to cardiac arrest. for example) can result in hypovolemia and hypotension. while promoting phosphate excretion. 5. PTH induces increased calcium reabsorption by the kidneys.d. especially if there is an inadequate dietary intake of potassium to compensate for it. thus causing hyperkalemia. . ↑ H+ e. Hypocalcemia stimulates parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion. The K+ diffuses out of the cells into the ECF. Hypokalemia can also be a contributing factor in heart failure. Chronic diarrhea caused by pathogens in contaminated drinking water (in cholera. ↓ Ca2+ ↑ K+ ↓ PO43– In acidosis. ensuring that the calcium remains dissolved in the ECF rather than combining with phosphate and being deposited in the bones. Hypokalemia also develops as diarrhea flushes potassium from the body. H+ diffuses into cells and displaces K+.
.aw uscles) and it is the !ro!rioce!tors that !rovide the &rain with this infor ation# >s!# 35#/+ $he eso!ha"us has a stratified squa ous e!itheliu ) a ty!e that is well ada!ted to resist a&rasion &y the food !assin" down it# $he sto ach has a si !le colu nar e!itheliu # 't is less su&. The commonalities between carboxypeptidase and aminopeptidase are: (1) They are both brush border enzymes. Removal of the pancreas would have the most severe (indeed fatal) effect. . whereas carboxypeptidase is found not only there.# 38# "astrin sinusoids altase) altose chylo icrons iron occlusal a ylase) li!ase !arotid enteric va"us True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 3# 3# +# /8# =at di"estion &e"ins in the sto ach# >ost of the tooth is dentin# 4e!atocytes secrete &ile into the &ile canaliculi# 'ntrinsic factor is involved in the a&sor!tion of vita in B/3# Eater) "lucose) and other nutrients !ass &etween cells) throu"h the ti"ht . in this case. and digestion can proceed (although not as well) without bile. The stomach is dispensible as long as its absence is compensated for by injections of vitamin B 12 or intrinsic factor. and (2) they both work by removing one amino acid at a time from oligopeptides.Answer Key Chapter &*. so anything that delays gastric emptying also slows down the process of alcohol absorption and intoxication.igesti5e System Think About It >s!# 35#. we cannot live without it. and (2) aminopeptidase removes amino acids from the –NH2 end of an oligopeptide. Most alcohol is absorbed by the small intestine.ect to a&rasion) and the a!ical !ortion of the tall colu nar cells reflects their secretory function@ it is filled with secretory vesicles containin" ucin# >s!# 35#36 'f the liver cannot reclai the &ile acids it secretes) it ust ake ore &ile acids to re!lace the # Bile acids are synthesi-ed fro cholesterol# $hus) the ore we &lock the recyclin" of &ile acids) the ore we consu e cholesterol to ake new) re!lace ent &ile acids# >s!# 35#3+ 4i"h duodenal !4 → secretin secretion → increased &icar&onate secretion &y the !ancreas and liver → &ufferin" of sto ach acid &y &icar&onate → reduced duodenal !4# >s!# 35#3. 2. delays gastric emptying. Both the s all intestine and !ro(i al convoluted tu&ule are characteri-ed 1es!ecially in co !arison to the lar"e intestine and distal convoluted tu&ule2 &y relatively "reat len"th and !ro inent &rush &orders# $his is &ecause &oth of these or"ans are hi"hly en"a"ed in a&sor!tion# :en"th and icrovilli &oth contri&ute to a&sor!tive surface area# $hus) in kee!in" with the for and function the e) we see that the structure of these two !assa"es 1lar"e surface area2 reflects their a&sor!tive function# >s!# 35#36 $he ri"ht ly !hatic duct drains the head) neck) and ri"ht u!!er li &# 't does not drain the intestines) so it has no o!!ortunity to a&sor& dietary fat# >s!# 35#3+ Eo en of re!roductive a"e lose iron &y !eriodic enstruation# $he relative a&undance of iron trans!ort !roteins in the intestine hel!s to co !ensate for this# >s!# 35#3+ Because it is !oorly a&sor&ed) a"nesiu sulfate re ains in the intestinal lu en) where it raises the os olarity and !ro otes the retention of water in the lu en# $he retained water softens the stool and thus accounts for the la(ative effect# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# d //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# c 0# e 5# a 6# c +# a 7# a . But the pancreas produces most of the digestive enzymes as well as the important hormones insulin and glucagon. The differences between them are: (1) Aminopeptidase is limited to the brush border. Bile is secreted even when the gallbladder has been removed.# a /8# a /6# /+# /7# /. The fat in cream. anyway. 3.unctions# Testing Your Comprehension 1. but also in the pancreatic juice. $o kee! fro &itin" the ton"ue any ore than we already do) it is i !ortant that the neuro uscular syste coordinate ton"ue and chewin" ove ents# $o do this) it ust &e “aware” at all ti es of the contraction of the lin"ual and . whereas carboxypeptidase removes them from the –COOH end.
Most dietary lipid is absorbed in the form of chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are much too big to pass between or through the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries. whereas chylomicrons are coated with protein. and (3) micelles are coated with bile acids and lecithin. (2) micelles are produced and found in the lumen of the small intestine. the differences are: (1) Micelles are smaller. Both micelles and chylomicrons are small droplets of lipid with hydrophilic coatings. a necessary adaptation for distributing hydrophobic lipids in the aqueous medium of the lymph and blood. but the endothelial cells of a lacteal have large spaces between them through which the chylomicrons and even larger objects (such as bacteria) can pass. 5. However.4. . whereas chylomicrons are produced within the intestinal epithelial cells and are found mainly in the lymph and blood.
they still cannot transfer electrons to it. epinephrine.itro"en intake thus e(ceeds nitro"en e(cretion in such circu stances# >s!# 36#38 :actic acid has ore free ener"y than !yruvic acid# $he fer entation ste! that converts !yruvic acid to lactic acid is a reduction reaction# Geduction reactions increase the free ener"y content of the !roduct# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# c //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# & 0# e 5# & 6# e +# c 7# a . Glucagon. The liver disposes of bilirubin and thyroid hormone. which would otherwise promote glucose storage by means of glycogenesis. It would be ineffective to give supplemental oxygen because. 5.# d /8# d /6# /+# /7# /. growth hormone antagonizes the effect of insulin.# :e!tin su!!resses the a!!etite# >ost of the cholesterol is endo"enous) not dietary# C(cessive !rotein intake can cause renal da a"e# Gluconeo"enesis is a !osta&sor!tive !heno enon# Brown fat does not "enerate %$*# Testing Your Comprehension 1. women in general have lower average metabolic rates than men and gain more weight for the same caloric intake. if the mitochondria are poisoned by cyanide. Vitamins are not a significant source of energy. The body contains enough ATP to support only a few minutes of life. and growth hormone act synergistically to promote glycogenolysis and lipolysis. The energy in one’s diet comes mainly from carbohydrates and fats and to some extent from proteins. . Jones is correct that she eats less than her husband and son. 2. While mobilizing glucose. Moreover. her son is younger than she is and would also have a higher metabolic rate than she does for that reason. 4. By blocking electron transfer at this point.# 38# insulin core te !erature hy!othala us cytochro es %$* synthase) %$* inco !lete "lyco"enolysis "luconeo"enesis urea liver True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 0# 5# 7# . but not from vitamins or minerals. 3. 2etabo!ism Think About It >s!# 36#3 AAH is a !rotein) so if taken orally) it would !ro&a&ly &e di"ested and would have no !har acolo"ical effect# >s!# 36#+ By the ti e &lood !asses throu"h the ca!illaries and into the veins) it has "iven u! so e of its "lucose to the tissues# $hus) less "lucose is found in the venous &lood than in the arterial &lood 1e(ce!tions &ein" in the he!atic !ortal syste durin" the a&sor!tive state) and fro the he!atic veins to the left ventricle in the !osta&sor!tive state2# >s!# 36#/3 Such a !erson will &e in a state of !ositive nitro"en &alance) &ecause the individual is usin" a ino acids to synthesi-e !rotein and re&uild da a"ed tissue# . releasing glucose and fatty acids into circulation. Even if Mrs. cyanide blocks most of the body’s ATP synthesis. so any degenerative liver disease such as hepatitis interferes with this function and allows those substances to accumulate in the body fluids.Answer Key Chapter &+.
4. Drugs that lower the blood pressure (antihypertensive medications) can thus reduce engorgement of the penis with blood. Sexual responses to nongenital stimuli and psychological factors. Thus.# $here is no such !heno enon as ale eno!ause# Testing Your Comprehension 1. and remain possible even in cases of cervical spinal cord injury.o) &ecause the whole idea of the &lood<testis &arrier is to isolate the "er cells fro the circulatory syste # 'f there were &lood ca!illaries in the tu&ule wall) $ cells or anti&odies would attack the "er cells and cause sterility# $his trait 1vasculari-ation of the se iniferous tu&ules2 would not !ersist for lon" in the "ene !oolS >s!# 3+#/3 Aastration is followed &y a rise in =S4 and :4 levels &ecause of the sudden a&sence of ne"ative feed&ack inhi&ition of the !ituitary &y the "onads# >s!# 3+#38 'f the cor!us s!on"iosu en"or"ed as urethra and interfere with e.aculation# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# a //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# a 0# c 5# a 6# d +# e 7# c . it unloads less oxygen to the testes than elsewhere. as shown by the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. because meiosis I renders the cells genetically different from the somatic cells and thus capable of stimulating an immune attack if they are exposed to the blood. 3. must migrate to the other side of the blood-testis barrier before they undergo meiosis I. Primary spermatocytes. 2. are typically abolished.. Testosterone acts as a hormone (endocrine secretion) insofar as it is secreted into the bloodstream and affects organs throughout the body. According to one theory. Spermatogonia have the same diploid genome as the somatic cells of the body and therefore do not stimulate an immune response.# d /8# d /6# /+# /7# /. 2a!e Reprodu ti5e System Think About It >s!# 3+#+ . Erection is brought about by high blood pressure in the erectile tissues of the penis.# 38# se inal vesicles sustentacular secondary s!er atocyte dee! acroso e uch as the cor!ora cavernosa) it would co !ress the esone!hric fructose !a !inifor !le(us secondary s!er atocytes tunica al&u"inea True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 0# Only the testes are !ri ary se( or"ans# 5# =e ale develo! ent results fro a low testosterone level) not fro +# $he !a !inifor !le(us !revents the testes fro overheatin"# 7# S!er are stored in the e!ididy is# .Answer Key Chapter &. and the sperm develop in a hypoxic environment. It also acts as a paracrine secretion insofar as it diffuses from the interstitial cells to the nearby seminiferous tubules and stimulates spermatogenesis. 5. estro"en# . however. however. Erection and ejaculation are controlled by autonomic and somatic reflexes mediated by lumbar and sacral segments of the spinal cord. this hypoxia induces sperm to develop their unusually large mitochondria and preconditions them for vigor in the hypoxic environment of the female reproductive tract. Hemoglobin unloads less oxygen at lower temperatures than at higher ones.
ust one &reast# Testing Your Re a!! /# a 3# d //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# c 0# a 5# e 6# & +# & 7# & . the regulatory effect of the hypothalamus on pituitary function is disrupted. 4. respectively.ect ilk) &ecause ilk e. the corpus luteum is the major source of progesterone. Thus. because lactation results (in part) from the absence of prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH). 3. They are growing rapidly.# 38# antru cli acteric conce!tus infundi&ulu ) fi &riae lochia follicle endo etriu enarche cor!us luteu corona radiata True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# Only the ovu and corona radiata cells enter the uterine tu&e) not the whole follicle# 3# 4AG is secreted &y the !lacenta# 5# >any e""s and follicles under"o atresia durin" childhood) so their nu &er is reduced &y the a"e of !u&erty# 6# *rolactin is secreted durin" !re"nancy &ut does not induce lactation then# /8# Only the su!erficial layer 1functionalis2 is shed# Testing Your Comprehension 1. However. Consequently. 5. Hearing the cry of an infant can lead to stimulation of the hypothalamus. the pregnancy is aborted. triggering milk ejection. 2.ection is not a direct res!onse to sucklin" at one ni!!le) &ut a res!onse to o(ytocin in the &loodstrea # O(ytocin cannot &e selectively directed to . Prostaglandins are one of the stimuli that induce labor contractions.Answer Key Chapter &. After 6 weeks. Severance of the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system merely ensures that PIH will not be able to exert its inhibitory effect. Furthermore. the corpus luteum has degenerated by then and the ovaries are dormant. milk ejection does not absolutely require physical stimulation of the areola or nipple. the accident will affect her future ovarian cycles because gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) will be unable to reach the anterior pituitary. but the difference in effect arises because of the difference between the inhibitory and stimulatory effects of PIH and GnRH. Children in puberty exhibit positive nitrogen balance. "ema!e Reprodu ti5e System Think About It >s!# 37#5 $he conversion of the va"inal ucosa to stratified squa ous e!itheliu !reada!ts the va"ina to the a&rasive forces of intercourse and child&irth# . Aspirin and ibuprofen inhibit cyclooxygenase and thus inhibit prostaglandin synthesis. In both cases. if the ovaries are removed within that time.# c /8# c /6# /+# /7# /. which in turn can stimulate the posterior pituitary gland to release oxytocin.o other e!itheliu is as a&rasion<resistant as stratified squa ous e!itheliu # >s!# 37#/8 Iurin" cli acteric) the ovaries &eco e less and less functional as follicles are de!leted# $hus) the levels of ovarian hor ones 1estro"en and !ro"esterone2 decline and with this) there is less ne"ative feed&ack inhi&ition of the !ituitary# Eithout this inhi&ition) the !ituitary secretes ore =S4 and :4 than nor ally# >s!# 37#/5 P!<re"ulation) the synthesis of increased nu &ers of hor one rece!tors) resultin" in increased hor one sensitivity of the tar"et cell) is e(e !lified &y the way that estro"en sti ulates follicles to !roduce ore =S4 rece!tors and thus &eco e ore sensitive to =S4# $he !er issive effect) in which one hor one ena&les tar"et cells to res!ond to another hor one to co e later) is e(e !lified &y the way the estro"en of the first half of the cycle induces the synthesis of !ro"esterone rece!tors in the uterus) so the uterus res!onds to the !ro"esterone secretion that follows ovulation# >s!# 37#38 Both &reasts will e. In the first 6 weeks.. . A loss of the vascular connection between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland should not affect milk production. which is needed to maintain the pregnancy. the placenta produces the necessary progesterone and the pregnancy is no longer dependent on the corpus luteum. their rate of protein (nitrogen) intake exceeds the rate of excretion. Therefore. thus synthesizing new protein.
where it is lower. and discounting conceivably undesirable side effects. If 300 million sperm are normally ejaculated and only 3. They drain out of the vagina. With these odds. A patent ductus arteriosus allows blood to flow from the aorta. 1a2 C!ithelial tissue is derived fro ectoder and endoder @ 1b2 connective tissue is derived fro esoder @ 1c2 >uscular tissue is derived fro esoder @ and 1d2 nervous tissue is derived fro ectoder # >s!# 3. The diversion of blood to the pulmonary circuit raises the afterload in the pulmonary trunk. such a drug might slow the progress of atherosclerosis.#. this might not be enough to create a path for a sperm to fertilize the egg.Answer Key Chapter &/. into the pulmonary trunk. reduced cardiac stroke volume. 3.000. Most sperm never reach the vicinity of the egg. thus putting a stress on the right ventricle that can eventually lead to right ventricular hypertrophy and right-sided congestive heart failure (c).# d /8# d /6# /+# /7# /. It would likely make her infertile because the blastocyst would be unable to implant on the uterine wall and the embryoblast would have no room for growth. like any other enzyme.000 of them reach the egg. or migrate into the wrong uterine tube. 4. 5. In principle. Human . Systemic diastolic pressure is reduced because of the blood diverted from the systemic to the pulmonary circuit ( b). presbyopia. Even in the unlikely event that they all attacked the same point on the egg (or on the corona radiata).unction life s!an life e(!ectancy chorionic villi True or "a!se# Only the followin" state ents are false) for the reasons "iven9 /# 3# 3# 7# /8# S!er require a&out /8 hours to &eco e ca!acitated and a&le to fertili-e an e""# =ertili-ation occurs in the uterine tu&e# Several early<arrivin" s!er clear a !ath for the one that fertili-es the e""# Blood &y!asses the lun"s via the fora en ovale# C(ercise i !roves the quality of life in old a"e) &ut has not &een shown to increase life e(!ectancy si"nificantly# Testing Your Comprehension 1. .e5e!opment Think About It >s!# 3.#33 %ne ia → renal hy!o(ia → death of ne!hrons → reduced erythro!oietin secretion → de!ressed erythro!oiesis → ane ia# $he feed&ack loo! could start at any !oint in this sequence) as lon" as it is co !leted &y co in" &ack to the startin" !oint# Testing Your Re a!! /# & 3# & //# /3# /3# /0# /5# 3# c 0# c 5# a 6# e +# c 7# a . Therefore it is unlikely to have any enzymatic activity in the body. approximately 100 of them would reach the egg. Thus. SOD. if a man ejaculated only 10 million sperm. Of those that do reach the egg. raising pulmonary blood pressure (a). where blood pressure is high. hearing loss.# 38# acroso e colla"en Iown syndro e fora en ovale e &ryo terato"ens nondis. 2. is a protein and would almost certainly be digested if it were swallowed. some of the systemic blood is misdirected into the pulmonary circuit. hundreds may be needed to digest a path for the one sperm that fertilizes it.#3 Both the slow &lock to !olys!er y and acetylcholine release &y a neuron are !rocesses of e(ocytosis tri""ered &y an inflow of calciu ions# >s!# 3. then the chance of reaching the egg is about 1 in 100. and joint stiffness. restrictive respiratory disease. die during migration.
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