Master List of Supreme Court Cases 1. Classic Federalism Cases: A. Marbury v.

Madison - midnight judges case; established the power of judicial review B. McCulloch v. Maryland - bank case; states do not have the ability to tax the federal govt. It gave the supremacy clause and the necessary and proper clause more strength C. Barron v. Baltimore - Supreme Court dismissed the case because the first ten amendments did not originally apply to the states D. Dred Scott v. Sanford - the Court said that because they did not consider Dred Scott to be a person, he did not have the right to sue in court. The Court also found the Missouri Compromise to be unconstitutional E. South Dakota v. Dole - States were told to raise their drinking age to 21 or forfeit all federal highway funding. The Supreme Court ruled that this was constitutional F. Fletcher v. Peck 1810 - States cannot pass laws that impair contracts or land titles made in good faith. 1st time the feds had overturned a state law 2. Checks and Balances Cases: A. U.S. v. Nixon - Nixon was forced to give up the Watergate tapes. The Court said that while executive privilege does exist, it is never guaranteed 3. First Amendment and Religion Cases: A. Engle v. Vitale - New York passed a law that all public school children would recite a nondenominational prayer every day at school. This violates the Establishment Clause B. Abington Township v. Schempp - PA law required all public school children to recite 10 bible verses daily. It was a violation of the Establishment Clause C. Lemon v. Kurtzman - PA passed a law that statde government could pay the salaries of private school teachers as long as they only taught secular classes. The Court created the Lemon Test. Again, the Establishment Clause was being violated D. Minersville v. Gobitus - Jehovah’s Witnesses were being forced to salute the flag in public school. The Court upheld the kids’ suspensions. State can require pledge. E. West Virginia v. Barnette - 3 years later, the Court reversed itself on the Minersville case. A person, even a student, may legally refuse to say the pledge on free expression grounds. F. Wallace v. Jaffree - Kids were forced to say a Christian prayer every day in class. Court finds that this violated the Establishment Clause 4. First Amendment and Free Speech: A. Abrams v. US - Abrams wrote pamphlets criticizing Woodrow Wilson. He was arrested for violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts. In this case his 1st amendment rights were violated. He did not push violence B. Schenck v. US - Schenck mailed out flyers denouncing the draft and pushing Socialism. The Court created the “Clear and Present Danger Test” and upheld his conviction under the Espionage and Sedition Acts. His speech was especially troublesome because it hampered the US’s war effort C. Gitlow v. New York - Gitlow distributed the Communist Manifesto and urged people to rise up and overthrow the government. Gitlow’s conviction was upheld. It is the first INCORPORATION case!!!!! (States might owe people the rights contained in the Bill of Rights) D. Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire – a pamphleteer was arrested after he shouted insults at a police officer. The Court held that certain types of speech were not protected by the first amendment including obscene, profane, libelous and “Fighting Words”. E. Tinker v. Des Moines - Kids were suspended for wearing black armbands to school protesting the Vietnam War. The Court said that “students do not give up their rights at the school house gate”. Symbolic Speech can be protected. Student speech can only be limited if it causes a disturbance F. Texas v. Johnson - Johnson burned an American flag as a protest. The Court overturned the conviction because people do have the right to symbolic speech. Things cannot be made illegal just because we don’t like them

The Court disagreed. Falwell was upset and sued. C. Ogden. but other factors must also be considered. TLO v. Planned Parenthood of Southeast PA v. The Court overturned her conviction and said her 4th amendment rights were violated B. Reynolds v. Hustler v. Reproductive Health Services . Sims. Wainwright . Ohio. therefore the Connecticut law was unconstitional. it upheld Roe. Equal Protection Clause Cases: A. Miranda v. but limiting the contributions of the candidates themselves is not constitutional 10. Race can be used.“Separate but equal” is inherently flawed and use “all deliberate speed” to put this new rule into districts must be apportioned as fairly as possible B. US .Connecticut outlawed all birth control. Plessy v. It also started the Exclusionary Rule (illegally gotten evidence will not be admissible in court) 9. Gideon v. as a small piece of whether or not someone gets into college. . 4th Amendment Cases: A.Police searched Mapp’s house without a warrant. Now every defendant. C.Abortion is legal through the 2nd trimester. She thought her 4th amendment rights were violated. Near v.5. Roe v. US . Fergusson .Larry Flint printed cartoons about Jerry Falwell in Hustler magazine. The Court said the Constitution Does provide for some privacy rights.S. Police out of school must have probable cause which is much more difficult to prove C. Gibbons v. D. Voting and Election Cases: A.police searched his house twice without a warrant and seized his property.A student was searched at school after being caught smoking. states can freely regulate it. Bakke . Griswald v. California v.states cannot decide who gets to use the waterways. C.Near won because the Court said censorship is rarely constitutional and prior restraint is definitely unconstitutional 6. Commerce Clause Cases: A. Brown v. 8.Florida refused to give Gideon a lawyer and he ended up getting convicted. He was convicted for sending lottery tickets through the mail. First Amendment and Free Press: A.again. Casey . but made the window of opportunity smaller. Webster v. The Court said that the free flow of ideas is extremely important in the US. Wade .Limiting election contributions of individuals is constitutional. F. Basically kept Roe. Gave us the Miranda Rights. after that.Quotas cannot be used in entrance to college. Board of Education . Korematsu v. They found in favor of Flint because the parody was so outrageous that no one in their right mind would see it as anything other than a parody. Putting the Japanese-Americans into camps was OK because they might pose a threat. Connecticut. and minors needed permission).The court decided that the U. one vote) D. They found porn. H. She was convicted. Life. B. Liberty and Property Cases: A. New Jersey. Baker v. 7. can do extreme things during the war. Falwell won and then Flint appealed. E.all new restrictions had to be judged by whether or not they create an undue burden for the mothers. They said principals can search students as long as they have reasonable suspicion the student has something illegal on them. Minnesota . no matter what their economic situation must be afforded counsel.All suspects must be read their rights now. This case . mandatory counseling. but added new restriction (24 hour waiting period. His rights were violated.“Separate but equal” is legal B. Falwell . Public figures need to be prepared to be made fun of. Carr.See case above (one man. Buckley v. Weeks v. The Court found the searches to be illegal. Mapp v. Valeo. It also created the undue burden standard .Set viability at 20 weeks. Arizona .

broadened the scope of the commerce clause.commerce clause cannot be used to stop gun violence at school – narrowed the scope of the commerce clause . US V. A. Lopez .

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