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Master List of Supreme Court Cases 1. Classic Federalism Cases: A. Marbury v.

Madison - midnight judges case; established the power of judicial review B. McCulloch v. Maryland - bank case; states do not have the ability to tax the federal govt. It gave the supremacy clause and the necessary and proper clause more strength C. Barron v. Baltimore - Supreme Court dismissed the case because the first ten amendments did not originally apply to the states D. Dred Scott v. Sanford - the Court said that because they did not consider Dred Scott to be a person, he did not have the right to sue in court. The Court also found the Missouri Compromise to be unconstitutional E. South Dakota v. Dole - States were told to raise their drinking age to 21 or forfeit all federal highway funding. The Supreme Court ruled that this was constitutional F. Fletcher v. Peck 1810 - States cannot pass laws that impair contracts or land titles made in good faith. 1st time the feds had overturned a state law 2. Checks and Balances Cases: A. U.S. v. Nixon - Nixon was forced to give up the Watergate tapes. The Court said that while executive privilege does exist, it is never guaranteed 3. First Amendment and Religion Cases: A. Engle v. Vitale - New York passed a law that all public school children would recite a nondenominational prayer every day at school. This violates the Establishment Clause B. Abington Township v. Schempp - PA law required all public school children to recite 10 bible verses daily. It was a violation of the Establishment Clause C. Lemon v. Kurtzman - PA passed a law that statde government could pay the salaries of private school teachers as long as they only taught secular classes. The Court created the Lemon Test. Again, the Establishment Clause was being violated D. Minersville v. Gobitus - Jehovahs Witnesses were being forced to salute the flag in public school. The Court upheld the kids suspensions. State can require pledge. E. West Virginia v. Barnette - 3 years later, the Court reversed itself on the Minersville case. A person, even a student, may legally refuse to say the pledge on free expression grounds. F. Wallace v. Jaffree - Kids were forced to say a Christian prayer every day in class. Court finds that this violated the Establishment Clause 4. First Amendment and Free Speech: A. Abrams v. US - Abrams wrote pamphlets criticizing Woodrow Wilson. He was arrested for violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts. In this case his 1st amendment rights were violated. He did not push violence B. Schenck v. US - Schenck mailed out flyers denouncing the draft and pushing Socialism. The Court created the Clear and Present Danger Test and upheld his conviction under the Espionage and Sedition Acts. His speech was especially troublesome because it hampered the USs war effort C. Gitlow v. New York - Gitlow distributed the Communist Manifesto and urged people to rise up and overthrow the government. Gitlows conviction was upheld. It is the first INCORPORATION case!!!!! (States might owe people the rights contained in the Bill of Rights) D. Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire a pamphleteer was arrested after he shouted insults at a police officer. The Court held that certain types of speech were not protected by the first amendment including obscene, profane, libelous and Fighting Words. E. Tinker v. Des Moines - Kids were suspended for wearing black armbands to school protesting the Vietnam War. The Court said that students do not give up their rights at the school house gate. Symbolic Speech can be protected. Student speech can only be limited if it causes a disturbance F. Texas v. Johnson - Johnson burned an American flag as a protest. The Court overturned the conviction because people do have the right to symbolic speech. Things cannot be made illegal just because we dont like them

5. First Amendment and Free Press: A. Hustler v. Falwell - Larry Flint printed cartoons about Jerry Falwell in Hustler magazine. Falwell was upset and sued. Falwell won and then Flint appealed. The Court said that the free flow of ideas is extremely important in the US. Public figures need to be prepared to be made fun of. They found in favor of Flint because the parody was so outrageous that no one in their right mind would see it as anything other than a parody. C. Near v. Minnesota - Near won because the Court said censorship is rarely constitutional and prior restraint is definitely unconstitutional 6. Equal Protection Clause Cases: A. Plessy v. Fergusson - Separate but equal is legal B. Brown v. Board of Education - Separate but equal is inherently flawed and use all deliberate speed to put this new rule into action. C. California v. Bakke - Quotas cannot be used in entrance to college. Race can be used, as a small piece of whether or not someone gets into college, but other factors must also be considered. 7. Life, Liberty and Property Cases: A. Korematsu v. US - The court decided that the U.S. can do extreme things during the war. Putting the Japanese-Americans into camps was OK because they might pose a threat. B. Gideon v. Wainwright - Florida refused to give Gideon a lawyer and he ended up getting convicted. Now every defendant, no matter what their economic situation must be afforded counsel. C. Miranda v. Arizona - All suspects must be read their rights now. Gave us the Miranda Rights. D. Roe v. Wade - Abortion is legal through the 2nd trimester, after that, states can freely regulate it. E. Webster v. Reproductive Health Services - Set viability at 20 weeks. Basically kept Roe, but made the window of opportunity smaller. F. Planned Parenthood of Southeast PA v. Casey - again, it upheld Roe, but added new restriction (24 hour waiting period, mandatory counseling, and minors needed permission). It also created the undue burden standard - all new restrictions had to be judged by whether or not they create an undue burden for the mothers. . H. Griswald v. Connecticut- Connecticut outlawed all birth control. The Court said the Constitution Does provide for some privacy rights, therefore the Connecticut law was unconstitional. 8. 4th Amendment Cases: A. Mapp v. Ohio- Police searched Mapps house without a warrant. They found porn. She was convicted. The Court overturned her conviction and said her 4th amendment rights were violated B. TLO v. New Jersey- A student was searched at school after being caught smoking. She thought her 4th amendment rights were violated. The Court disagreed. They said principals can search students as long as they have reasonable suspicion the student has something illegal on them. Police out of school must have probable cause which is much more difficult to prove C. Weeks v. US - police searched his house twice without a warrant and seized his property. He was convicted for sending lottery tickets through the mail. The Court found the searches to be illegal. His rights were violated. It also started the Exclusionary Rule (illegally gotten evidence will not be admissible in court) 9. Voting and Election Cases: A. Reynolds v. Sims- voting districts must be apportioned as fairly as possible B. Baker v. Carr- See case above (one man; one vote) D. Buckley v. Valeo- Limiting election contributions of individuals is constitutional, but limiting the contributions of the candidates themselves is not constitutional 10. Commerce Clause Cases: A. Gibbons v. Ogden- states cannot decide who gets to use the waterways. This case

broadened the scope of the commerce clause. A. US V. Lopez - commerce clause cannot be used to stop gun violence at school narrowed the scope of the commerce clause