ADB Distinguished Water Leaders Series Lecture, 11 November 2013

THE MDGs, THE HUMAN RIGHTS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION, AND THE POST2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: WHAT'S NEXT?
The views expressed in this paper/presentation are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper/presentation and accepts no responsibility for any 1 consequence of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms. INSPIRING CHANGE

THE MDGs, THE HUMAN RIGHTS TO SAFE DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION, AND THE POST-2015 DEVELOPMENT AGENDA: WHAT'S NEXT?

Robert Bos Senior Advisor International Water Association

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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

Overview
• The MDGs: – What was their origin ? – The WASH targets: achievements, remaining challenges. • Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation recognized as human rights: – What does it mean ? – What are the implications ? • The post-2015 process: – Objectives, process and outcome. – The bigger picture. 3 • What is next ?
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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

The Millennium Summit

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MDGs

Their origin

• The Millennium Declaration
Adopted by Heads of State in 2000. MDGs developed as a subsidiary component.

Goals derived from major summit events in the 1990s.
Achievable 2015 targets with baseline 1990

Global targets and indicators; target 8 about ODA.
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MDGs

The Drinking-water target
To halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water

• The flaws
No sanitation target. Targets developed by politicians ("affordable" vs "sustainable" determined association to Goal 1 or 7). Indicators agreed by diplomats – definition of "improved sources" as a proxy for water quality/safety.
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MDGs

"Improved"

An improved drinking water source is one that, by the nature of its construction, adequately protects the source from outside contamination, particularly fecal matter.
Piped water on premises: piped household water connection located inside the user's dwelling, plot or yard Other improved drinking water sources: public taps, standpipes, tubewells, boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, rainwater collection. Unimproved drinking water sources: unprotected dug wells, unprotected springs, cart with small tank/drum, bottled water Surface water: rivers, lakes, ponds, dams, streams, canals, irrigation channels, drainage ditches
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MDGs

"Improved" ?

WHO/UNICEF RADWQ 2005-2006 Nationally representative water quality studies in five countries v Ethiopia v Jordan v Nicaragua v Nigeria v Tajikistan showed great variability in the levels of microbiological contamination of improved sources based on the WHO Drinking Water Quality Guidelines from 100% to 33% compliance.
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RADWQ - results
Technology 2: BOREHOLES Percentage Compliance to WHO Guideline Value (Thermotolerant Coliform)
% TTC Compliance to WHO GV <1cfu/100ml

100 80 60 40 20 0 Nicaragua

67 46
Madhya Pradesh.

94 68

India Country

Ethiopia

Nigeria

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MDGs

What are the positive aspects?

Global focus on critical development issues. Commitment at Heads of State level. ODA ring-fenced even at times of financial austerity. Lots of development lessons learned. Real progress in attainment of targets, with added value of capacity built.
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MDGs

The outcomes for WASH

Between 1990 and 2011 over two billion people gained access to improved drinking-water sources. The percentage without access dropped from 24% to 11% over that period. Many countries, including in subSaharan Africa, show an aboveaverage performance in expanding access.
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MDGs

The MDG global drinking water target has been met

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MDGs

In summary

• In 2010, 89% of the world's population, or 6.1 billion people, used improved drinking-water sources.

• Since 1990, 2 billion people gained access, of whom 1.2 billion live in urban areas.
• Piped-on-premises was raised from 45% to 54% • Use of « other unimproved sources » declined from 18% to 8%. • Surface water use declined from 6% to 3%.
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MDGs

Disparities remain
Between regions (in access and service levels)

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MDGs

Disparities remain

Proportion of people without access still under 50% in 7 countries and between 50% and 75% in 17 countries

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MDGs

Disparities remain

Between urban/rural (in access and service level)

• Most unserved live in rural areas (653 million) compared to urban (130 millions) • Urban population growth impedes progress – number of unserved still increasing (109 in 1990 to 130 million in 2010) • While 17 countries still have less than 50% coverage in rural areas, no country has less than 50% coverage in urban areas.
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MDGs

Disparities remain

Between socio-economic groups (based on data from 35 countries in Africa south of the Sahara)

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MDGs

Disparities remain

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MDGs

And the most critical issues

The current indicator does not measure the drinking water target to its full extent:  No direct measurement of water quality  No direct measurement of service sustainability

 This points to the technical, capacity building and policy challenges that lie ahead in the post-2015 period.
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MDGs

Water safety

Compliance / non compliance varies by type of improved source (RADWQ)

Compliance varies by country
(RADWQ)

Applying water quality results would significantly reduce JMP Global estimate for access to safe drinking-water.
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MDGs

Sustainability
Continuity of service varies
5 to 24 hours/day in selected countries (IBNET)

% non-functioning handpumps varies
10 to over 65 % in selected countries (RWSN)

Applying additional criteria addressing sustainability would significantly reduce JMP global estimate for access
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MDGs
• •

The sanitation conundrum

%-age of the population without access (improved sanitation) decreased from 51% in 1990 to 37% in 2010 2.5 billion people without access to improved sanitation

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The human rights recognized
28 July 2010: UN General Assembly adopts Resolution A/RES/4/292

15 September 2010: the UN Human Rights Council adopts Resolution A/HRC/RES/15/9
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Human rights resolutions: the wording
A/RES/4/292

Declares the right to safe and clean drinking water and sanitation as a human right that is essential for the full enjoyment of life and all human rights Calls upon States and international organizations to provide financial resources, capacity building and technology transfer […] in order to scale up efforts to provide safe, clean, accessible and affordable drinking water and sanitation for all.
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Human rights resolutions: the wording
A/HRC/RES/15/9

Affirms that the human right to safe drinking water and sanitation is derived from the right to an adequate standard of living and inextricably related to the right to the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health, as well as the right to life and human dignity. […] Reaffirms that States have the primary responsibility to ensure the full realization of all human rights, and that the delegation of the delivery of safe drinking water and sanitation services to a third party does not exempt the State from its human 25 rights obligations.
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Human rights resolutions: the concepts

Governments are the duty bearers with three types of obligations: to respect, protect and fulfil human rights.

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Human rights resolutions: the concepts
Governments are the duty bearers with three types of obligations: to respect, protect and fulfil human rights. As examples:
Respect – the State may not prevent people already enjoying the rights from continuing to enjoy them; the State must no disconnect an individual's water supply without respecting due process. Protect – the State must prevent third parties from polluting a water source; where water services are operated by the private sector, the State must ensure affordability through adequate pricing regulation. Fulfil – the State must ensure that the conditions are in place for everyone to realise their rights, i.e. that all persons are progressively connected to a safe drinking water supply.
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Human rights resolutions: the concepts
Central to the fulfilment of human rights is the concept of progressive realization: Governments should be able to show progress towards achieving human rights targets according to agreed criteria and principles and to the maximum of their available resources.

Governments should not allow regression on human rights achievements.
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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

Human rights to water and sanitation: criteria and principles
Criteria Availability Water quality / safety Acceptability Accessibility Affordability

Cross-cutting principles Equality & non-discrimination Accountability Sustainability Participation Access to information
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Human rights to water and sanitation: implications
For governments:
Create a legal and policy framework to ensure the human rights to water and sanitation are respected, protected and fulfilled. Attribute clear responsibilities to the various actors in a comprehensive strategy. Monitor and report on compliance with the human rights obligations and ensure the enforcement of the legal framework. Establish a regulatory framework with clear standards that can be independently monitored.
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Human rights to water and sanitation: implications
For practitioners:
Support government efforts to develop a legal framework that is relevant and based on evidence and experience. Negotiate roles and responsibilities to implement a rights-based approach, and identify gaps in capabilities and capacities. Assist in the design of realistic targets and measurable indicators to support the compliance and accountability processes. Emphasis is to be given to measuring the reduction of inequality and discrimination.
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Human rights to water and sanitation: which metric for inequality?
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
100

Advantaged

Coverage (%)

60

Disadvantaged

15

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040
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Year

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Human rights to water and sanitation: implications
For practitioners (ctnd):
Assess existing standards for their relevance and add standards for the cross-cutting principles. Incorporate a human rights dimension to all planning, design, construction, operation, maintenance and monitoring activities.

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The WHO/UNICEF JMP Process 2011-2013

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INSPIRING CHANGE This section courtesy Amanda Marlin WSSCC, and with thanks to the JMP team and the post-2015 working groups

MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

The Post 2015 Targets: Steps in the process

SCOPE

• 2009 – formulation and launch of the 2010-2015 JMP Strategy •First Consultation on Post-2015 Monitoring in Berlin, May 2011

•October 2011 – four working groups established
•October 2011 – August 2012: working groups' data collection, consultations, meetings/calls •Meeting to consolidate the working group outputs in Stockholm, August 2012 •Fine-tuning final proposal in Chapel Hill, October 2012 •Measurability meeting at UNICEF New York, November 2012 •Second Consultation on Post-2015 Monitoring in The Hague, December 2012
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Working groups post-2015 targets and indicators

• • • •

Drinking-water – Leads: WaterAid with IRC Sanitation – Lead: World Bank/WSP Hygiene – Lead: USAID Equity and non-discrimination – Lead: OHCHR

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The JMP Post 2015 process: Scope
Anchored by the
Targets should primarily focus on outcomes

Levels of service
– Not just gaining access but moving ‘up the ladder ’ – both constitute progressive realisation

simple, aspirational
vision of the universal right to water, sanitation and hygiene
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Settings beyond the household
– Schools and Health Centers

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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

The JMP Post 2015 process: Scope
Anchored by the
Targets are global
– They must be relevant to all countries. Human rights principles must be explicit - There must be a focus on the poor, disadvantaged and excluded, and on the elimination of inequalities and discrimination

simple, aspirational
vision of the universal right to water, sanitation and hygiene
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The ladder concept:
Water

options for monitoring progressive realisation
Sanitation “Safe management of excreta” (containment, extraction, and transport to a designated disposal or treatment site, safe reuse at the household or community level)

“Intermediate” (on premises, discontinuity <2 days in 2 weeks, E coli <10/100 ml) “Adequate” (pit latrine, sewer or septic tank, shared by no more than 5 families or 30 persons) “Basic” (not on premises, “improved” source, <30 min collection time) No open defecation No one practices defecation in bush or field or ditch; no excreta deposited on the ground and covered with a layer of earth or wrapped and thrown away; no defecation into surface water

Progressive realization expressed in terms of access and service levels for drinking water and sanitation
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Progressive realisation in reducing inequality
Progressive reduction of inequalities
100 100 90 80

Advantaged

70
Coverage (%) 60 60

50
40 30 20 10 15 0 2015

Disadvantaged

2020

2025 Year

2030

2035

2040

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Four detailed targets

1. By 2025:
– no one practices open defecation and inequalities in the practice of open defecation have been progressively eliminated.

2. By 2030:
– all schools and health care facilities provide all users with basic drinking water supply & adequate sanitation, hand washing facilities and menstrual hygiene facilities. – everyone uses basic drinking water supply and adequate hand washing facilities when at home and inequalities in the access to each of these services have been progressively 41 eliminated.
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Four detailed targets

3. By 2040:
– everyone uses adequate sanitation when at home. – the proportion of the population not using intermediate drinking water supply at home is reduced by half. – the excreta from at least half of schools, health centres and households with adequate sanitation are safely managed. – and inequalities in access to each of these services have been progressively eliminated or reduced.
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Four detailed targets

1, 2 and 3, while: 4. throughout :
All drinking water, sanitation and hygiene services are delivered in a progressively affordable, accountable, and financially and environmentally sustainable manner

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Definitions are critical

Example: Basic drinking water at home
Households are considered to have a basic drinking-water service when: •In rural areas, people use water from an ‘improved’ source (existing JMP definitions) •In urban areas, people use piped water into dwelling, yard or plot, or a standpipe/public tap or a tubewell/borehole •People use water with a total collection time of 30 minutes or less, including queuing
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Definitions are critical

Example: Intermediate drinking water at home
Households are considered to have intermediate drinking water service when they: •use water from an ‘improved’ source (pre-2015 JMP definitions in rural areas; piped water into dwelling, yard or plot, or a tubewell/borehole in urban areas) located on their premises, which •delivers an acceptable quantity of water with only moderate levels of discontinuity (non-functional for no more than 2 days in the last 2 weeks), •water quality at source meets a threshold of less than 10 cfu E. coli/100ml year-round, and •the water point is accessible to all household members at the times they need it.
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The bigger picture

Rio+20: sustainable development goals The UN Secretary-General's High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda The eleven thematic consultations The Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals (30 countries or clusters of countries) The Budapest summit
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The bigger picture

Rio+20: sustainable development goals
Water at the core of sustainable development. Water and sanitation critically important within the three dimensions of sustainable development. MDG targets and WSSD 2002 plan of implementation reaffirmed; commitment to progressive realisation of universal access to safe and affordable drinking water and basic sanitation. Need to reduce water pollution, increase water quality, improve wastewater treatment and water efficiency, reduce water losses. Need for improved water resources management in support of aquatic ecosystems, address floods, droughts and water 47 scarcity.
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The bigger picture The UN Secretary-General's High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda Report : a new global partnership: eradicate poverty and transform economies through sustainable development •Leave no-one behind •Put sustainable development at the core •Transform economies for jobs and inclusive growth •Build peace and effective, open and accountable institutions for all •Forge a new global partnerships
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The bigger picture The UN Secretary-General's High-level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post-2015 Development Agenda
Report : a new global partnership: eradicate poverty and transform economies through sustainable development

Illustrative goal 6: achieve universal access to water and sanitation. By 2030: • Provide universal access to safe drinking water at home and in schools, health centres and refugee camps • End open defecation and ensure universal access to sanitation and school at work, and increase access to sanitation at home by x% • Bring freshwater withdrawals in line with supply and increase water efficiency in agriculture by x%, industry by y% and urban areas by z% • Recycle or treat all municipal and industrial wastewater prior to 49 discharge
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The bigger picture

The thematic consultation on Water Voices on … WASH:
Wash can become affordable through microcredit services aimed at the marginalized Big challenges? Short term: sustainability of existing infrastructure. Long term: water scarcity from overconsumption. WASH in schools – "it is an embarrassment for me to defecate openly during school time" Without WASH in schools, girls suffer most. The institutional capacity for WASH remains fragmented, with inadequate management of resources and weak regulations …. More scrutiny is needed. The current MDG framework does not cross-integrate WASH across other goals on health, education and gender equality. 50 www.worldwewant2015.org/node/366798
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The bigger picture The Open Working Group of the General Assembly on Sustainable Development Goals Interim Report UNGA September 2013: •Strong interdependencies between different water uses and function […] the value of an integrated approach to water resources management •Water scarcity and water variability are becoming more serious concerns … •.. Water use […] far more efficient […] especially in agriculture and industry •… broad support for a dedicated water sustainable development goal … http://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/index.php?menu=1549
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The bigger picture The Budapest Water Summit Statement A sustainable world is a water-secure world •A dedicated water goal, with targets for universal access to water and sanitation, integrated approached to water resources management, improved collection, treatment and re-use of water, increased resilience against global change impacts •Capacity development for water, with a sound scientific underpinning. •A robust intergovernmental institutional mechanism.

www.budapestsummit.hu
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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

Overview
• The MDGs: – What was their origin ? – The WASH targets: achievements, remaining challenges. • Access to Safe Drinking Water and Sanitation recognized as human rights: – What does it mean ? – What are the implications ? • The post-2015 process: – Objectives, process and outcome. – The bigger picture.

• What is next ?
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What is next ?
Unfinished MDG business
Sanitation drive to 2015 Stop open defecation

Carry out analysis and research to support new indicators
Review options for and design new sampling strategies

Carry out the groundwork for solid baseline studies
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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

What is next ?
Stand boldly by the proposed WASH targets
Promote a comprehensive set of water, sanitation and hygiene targets: IT CAN BE DONE and LESS IS NOT GOOD ENOUGH Ensure the human rights principles are reflected in targets and indicators. Focus on a ladder approach: basic services are only the start, incremental improvement of service levels is a key driver. Expand the scope: services in schools, health care centres are only the beginning.
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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

What is next ?
Prepare an investment plan for national capacity development
Establish the legal and institutional arrangements for the human rights to water and sanitation
Develop a harmonized national infrastructure and operations for monitoring Assist governments in creating and strengthening water and sanitation regulatory frameworks, and enforcement capacity Keep WASH linked in with the other water targets
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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

What is next ?
Address the critical issues

Quality
Sustainability

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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

What is next ?
Address the critical issues

Quality
New approaches to water quality monitoring and management should become part of investment in WASH projects Expand efforts to make water safety planning the gold standard in our efforts to ensure drinking water quality Global standards for sanitation need to be established leading to the development of complementary sanitation safety plans Water and sanitation quality monitoring should be the 58 next first priority on the national monitoring agendas
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Moving capacities and functions up in the context of socioeconomic development

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MDGs, POST-2015 & HUMAN RIGHTS TO WATER AND SANITATION

What is next ?
Address the critical issues

Sustainability
We must catch up with the backlog of aging infrastructure We must make asset management an integral part of our investment planning We must ensure local authorities can management urban sanitation and drainage to their full extent
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What is next ?
And finally:
All progress will hinge on good governance Fragmentation should be countered by integration whenever it makes practical sense Allocation of limited resources needs evidence based criteria and a balance between emergency response and long term vision Synergies should be derived from the interface between WASH, Wastewater Management and Water Resources 61 Development
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Thank you for your attention

You can reach me at robert.bos@iwahq.org

Robert.bos@iwahq.org
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