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Means of production refers to physical, non-human inputs used in productionthe factories, machines, and tools used to produce wealth.

Engineering is cause and technology is the effect. Engineering is a lot of theory. Technology or technologists do more hands on applications. Engineering is the application of scientific and technical knowledge to solve human problems. Engineers use imagination, judgment and reasoning to apply science, technology, mathematics, and practical experience. The result is the design, production, and operation of useful objects or processes Technology refers to all tools and procedures and their interconnections

Overview:

Overview:

Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed but not measured. Colors, textures, smells, tastes, appearance, beauty, etc. Qualitative Quality

Deals with numbers. Data which can be measured. Length, height, area, volume, weight, speed, time, temperature, humidity, sound levels, cost, members, ages, etc. Quantitative Quantity

Example 1: Oil Painting

Example 1: Oil Painting

Qualitative data:

Quantitative data:

blue/green color, gold frame smells old and musty texture shows brush strokes of oil paint peaceful scene of the country masterful brush strokes

picture is 10" by 14" with frame 14" by 18" weighs 8.5 pounds surface area of painting is 140 sq. in. cost $300

Production Technology:

A system for scheduling the manufacture of products and managing stock inventory that aims to optimize costs, minimize inventory and maintain a steady work flow. The modern production technology that might be used by a manufacturing business can identify production blockages and sense capacity constraints, and it does not usually operate at full capacity if sufficient inventory to meet demand already exists. Production technology is the study, development and implementation of sources, and invention of products as well as the improvement in current products. Planning, implementation, and control of industrial production processes to ensure smooth and efficient operation. Production management techniques are used in both manufacturing and service industries. Production management responsibilities include the traditional five M's: men , machines, methods, materials, and money, product, price,promotion,place,pepole, product,plant,process,programme,people Metrology : The science that deals with measurement. A system of measurement. The primary goal of statistical quality control is to maintain and improve processes through techniques such as sampling and process improvement projects, which reduce variations in product. Statistical process control uses control charts to monitor changes in processes, machinery, labor or the environment. Inspections and sampling determine when a process is outside of the control parameters, which can result in a reduction in quality Q. 1)Concept of qaulity ? We have all probably felt that sense of disappointment when something we have purchased does not live up to expectations. It could be a CD that is scratched and does not play properly, a new car with a number of rattles or the customer service department who dont return your call. At the heart of meeting such expectations is the notion of quality. People define quality in many ways. Some think of quality as superiority or excellence, others view it as a lack of manufacturing and service defects, still others think of quality as related to product features or price. A study that asked managers of 86 firms in the eastern United States to define quality produced several dozen different responses including Perfection Consistency Eliminating wastes Speed of delivery Compliance with policies and procedures Providing a good, sable product Doing it right the first time

Pleasing customers Total customer service and satisfaction Reduce the total cost of the Product

The quality movement can trace its roots back to medieval Europe, where craftsmen began organizing into unions called guilds in the late 13th century. Until the early 19th century, manufacturing in the industrialized world tended to follow this craftsmanship model. The factory system, with its emphasis on product inspection, started in Great Britain in the mid-1750s and grew into the Industrial Revolution in the early 1800s. In the early 20th century, manufacturers began to include quality processes in quality practices. After the United States entered World War II, quality became a critical component of the war effort: Bullets manufactured in one state, for example, had to work consistently in rifles made in another. The armed forces initially inspected virtually every unit of product; then to simplify and speed up this process without compromising safety, the military began to use sampling techniques for inspection, aided by the publication of military-specification standards and training courses in Walter Shewharts statistical process control techniques. The birth of total quality in the United States came as a direct response to the quality revolution in Japan following World War II. The Japanese welcomed the input of Americans Joseph M. Juran and W. Edwards Deming and rather than concentrating on inspection, focused on improving all organizational processes through the people who used them .
Definition of Quality Books, Quality Gurus, Definition of Quality Quality Institutes Joseph M Juran Quality is fitness for use

Eugene Lodewick Quality is convenient to think of all matters related to Q of Grant & Richard S manufactured product in terms of these functions of --Leavenworth specification, production and inspection. Philip B Crosby W Edwards Deming Quality is conformance to requirement, it is respect to Humanity. Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer present and future. Armand Feigenbaum V Quality is the total product and service characteristics of maintenance

marketing, engineering, manufacturing and

through which the product and service in use will meet the expectation of the customer.

Shigeru Mizuno

Product quality encompasses those characteristics which the product must possess, if it is to be used in the intended manner.

Genechi Teguchi

Quality is the loss (from function variation and harmful effects) a product causes to society after being shipped, other than any losses caused by its intrinsic functions.

ISO 9000

Planned

and

systematic

actions

necessary

to

provide

adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. American National Totality of the features and characteristics of a product that bears on its ability to satisfy the stated or implied needs.

Standards Institute

The Taylor System


Late in the 19th century the United States broke further from European tradition and adopted a new management approach developed by Frederick W. Taylor. Taylors goal was to increase productivity without increasing the number of skilled craftsmen. He achieved this by assigning factory planning to specialized engineers and by using craftsmen and supervisors, who had been displaced by the growth of factories, as inspectors and managers who executed the engineers plans. Taylors approach led to remarkable rises in productivity, but it had significant drawbacks: Workers were once again stripped of their dwindling power, and the new emphasis on productivity had a negative effect on quality. To remedy the quality decline, factory managers created inspection departments to keep defective products from reaching customers. If defective product did reach the customer, it was more common for upper managers to ask the inspector, Why did we let this get out? than to ask the production manager, Why did we make it this way to begin with?

Quality controls, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. Quality control (QC) is a procedure or set of procedures intended to ensure that a manufactured product or performed service adheres to a defined set of quality criteria or meets the requirements of the client or customer. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects

1) Elements such as controls, job management, defined and well managed processes performance and identification of records 2)Competence, such as knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications 3)Soft elements, such as personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation, team spirit, and quality relationships. Customer :- Automotive mirror manufacturer Challenge:-Maintain quality control to keep continuous supply of products to avoid line shutdown Solution:-Anixters technical services teams stringent quality control measures. Results Randomly tested products regardless of source location Standardized fasteners used in production Manufactured parts to specification Benefits Achieved zero parts per million defects Expanded quality offerings/Stand as good quality product Reduced shipping and freight time and costs

Challenge
, Meet or exceed regulatory requirements and release product as quickly as possible.

Solution
, Lab associates implement 5S principles, sorting material and equipment, setting everything in order by storing it in
common and highly visible locations, standardizing labels and driving sustainability with daily, weekly and monthly checklists.

Results
QC labs achieved zero observations following their most recent FDA audit. The inspectors even used the laboratories 5S processes to train their staff in best manufacturing practices. From a customer point of view, testing lead times remains constant at industryleading levels of less than five days, despite a five-fold increase in output for critical drugs. increase the production rate, cost is reduced, testing leadtime reduced. .Sort, Sort in order, shine,standardize,sustiability.

Quality Control Objective : Improved company income,Cost reduction, Interchangability,Optrimum Quality at min price,customers satifications,Quality mindness

Quality Characteristics: Appearance (dimension, chemical, sensory), performance, length of life, dependability, reliability, durability, smell, taste, feel, sound, price.

The cost of carrying out company quality function (meeting the quality needs of the customer) know as cost of quality

Value of Quality: with superior quality the company can earn higher share of market, firmer prices, few returns and complaint from the customers. It is this effect on income which makes quality to have value. Hence makes the return direct or indirect gained by the manufacturers due to mission of quality control. Value of quality composed of: 1) Value inherent in the design 2) Value inherent in the conformance to that design. The value inherent in the design usually called as grade. Grade is the variation in the specification for the same functional use. Difference in grade may involve difference in: Life of the product, appearance, interchangeability, reliability, versatility, ability to take occasional overloads luxury features etc. Quality Specification: A specification is a definition of design. The design remains a concept mind of the designer until the he defines it through verbal description, sample, drawing etc. The quality specification includes,

1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

Specification of tolerance on various parts. Material specification. Process specification. Method of test Criteria for acceptance and rejection Method of use. One Specification may be necessary or separate specification may be necessary to desired quality characteristics in the material, parts products etc.

Need of specification 1) It helps the manufacturing departments to know what exactly is to be produced. 2) The raw material, process, equipments, skill etc. required producing the product of designed quality. 3) To discriminate between defective and non defective products. 4) To decide test standards, inspections and test devices required. 5) To decide what is the exact requirements of the buyers. Once a definition is available any one of the parties in the industries can communicate any other and use the shorthand description to define a complex product. Inspection: means checking of the material, products or components of products at various stages in manufacturing. It includes 1) The interpretation of a specification. 2) Measurements of the product. 1) Receiving Inspection 2) In process Inspection 3) Finished good inspection 4) To maintain customer relationship 5) Gauge Maintains 6) Test Equipments maintains 7) Decision of Salvage.

Inspection means checking the characteristics of a product to ensure that conformity to a set of specifications is met. Sometimes it means checking 100% of a batch of product; sometimes it means checking only some samples (in that latter case, it is exactly the same as "statistical quality control".

Quality control usually means only checking the conformity of products already made. It comprises inspection and other tests such as lab tests. Some people use quality control to designate some more upstream activities that aim at preventing quality issues (usually these activities are called "quality assurance").

Acceptance Function Finished Good Only inspection Special Instrument needed

Prevention Function Data analysis for design of experiments. Several Procedure and methods No special needed

The cost of carrying out company quality function (meeting the quality needs of the customer) know as cost of quality

Value of Quality: with superior quality the company can earn higher share of market, firmer prices, few returns and complaint from the customers. It is this effect on income which makes quality to have value. Hence makes the return direct or indirect gained by the manufacturers due to mission of quality control. Value of quality composed of: 3) Value inherent in the design 4) Value inherent in the conformance to that design. The value inherent in the design usually called as grade. Grade is the variation in the specification for the same functional use. Difference in grade may involve difference in: Life of the product, appearance, interchangeability, reliability, versatility, ability to take occasional overloads luxury features etc. Quality Specification: A specification is a definition of design. The design remains a concept mind of the designer until the he defines it through verbal description, sample, drawing etc. The quality specification includes,

7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12)

Specification of tolerance on various parts. Material specification. Process specification. Method of test Criteria for acceptance and rejection Method of use. One Specification may be necessary or separate specification may be necessary to desired quality characteristics in the material, parts products etc.

Need of specification 6) It helps the manufacturing departments to know what exactly is to be produced. 7) The raw material, process, equipments, skill etc. required producing the product of designed quality. 8) To discriminate between defective and non defective products. 9) To decide test standards, inspections and test devices required. 10) To decide what is the exact requirements of the buyers. Once a definition is available any one of the parties in the industries can communicate any other and use the shorthand description to define a complex product. Inspection: means checking of the material, products or components of products at various stages in manufacturing. It includes 1) The interpretation of a specification. 2) Measurements of the product. 2) Receiving Inspection 2) In process Inspection 3) Finished good inspection 4) To maintain customer relationship 5) Gauge Maintains 6) Test Equipments maintains 7) Decision of Salvage.

Inspection means checking the characteristics of a product to ensure that conformity to a set of specifications is met. Sometimes it means checking 100% of a batch of product; sometimes it means checking only some samples (in that latter case, it is exactly the same as "statistical quality control".

Quality control usually means only checking the conformity of products already made. It comprises inspection and other tests such as lab tests. Some people use quality control to designate some more upstream activities that aim at preventing quality issues (usually these activities are called "quality assurance").

Acceptance Function Finished Good Only inspection Special Instrument needed

Prevention Function Data analysis for design of experiments. Several Procedure and methods No special needed

Quality assurance (QA) refers to the planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. It is the systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, monitoring of processes and an associated feedback loop that confers error prevention. This can be contrasted with Quality "Control", which is focused on process outputs. Two principles included in QA are: "Fit for purpose", the product should be suitable for the intended purpose; and "Right first time", mistakes should be eliminated. QA includes management of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components, services related to production, and management, production and inspection processes

Assurance Function Special techniques are needed

Inspection planning market quality determination

Collecting data can be easy and fun. But sometimes it can be hard to tell other people about what you have found. Thats why we use statistics. Two kinds of statistics are frequently used to describe data. They are measures of central tendency and dispersion. These are often called descriptive statistics because they can help you describe your data. Mean, median and mode These are all measures of central tendency. They help summarize a bunch of scores with a single number. Suppose you want to describe a bunch of data that you collected to a friend for a particular variable like height of students in your class. One way would be to read each height you recorded to your friend. Your friend would listen to all of the heights and then come to a conclusion about how tall students generally are in your class But this would take too much time. Especially if you are in a class of 200 or 300 students! Another way to communicate with your friend would be to use measures of central tendency like the mean, median and mode. They help you summarize bunches of numbers with one or just a few numbers. They make telling people about your data easy. Range, variance and standard deviation These are all measures of dispersion. These help you to know the spread of scores within a bunch of scores. Are the scores really close together or are they really far apart? For example, if you were describing the heights of students in your class to a friend, they might want to know how much the heights vary. Are all the men about 5 feet 11 inches within a few centimeters or so? Or is there a lot of variation where some men are 5 feet and others are 6 foot 5 inches? Measures of dispersion like the range, variance and standard deviation tell you about the spread of scores in a data set. Like central tendency, they help you summarize a bunch of numbers with one or just a few numbers

An external customer of an organization is a customer who is not directly connected to that organization.[7][8]

An internal customer is a customer who is directly connected to an organization, and is usually (but not necessarily) internal to the organization. Internal customers are usually stakeholders, employees, or shareholders, but the definition also encompasses creditors and external regulators.[9][8]

Strengthened competitive position Adaptability to changing or emerging market conditions and to environmental and other government regulations Higher productivity Enhanced market image Elimination of defects and waste Reduced costs and better cost management Higher profitability Improved customer focus and satisfaction Increased customer loyalty and retention Increased job security Improved employee morale Enhanced shareholder and stakeholder value Improved and innovative processes

In statistics and probability theory, standard deviation (represented by the symbol ) shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values.

the descriptive statistics, the range is the length of the smallest interval which contains all the data. It is calculated by subtracting the smallest observation (sample minimum) from the greatest (sample maximum) and provides an indication of statistical dispersion. It is measured in the same units as the data. Since it only depends on two of the observations, it is a poor and weak measure of dispersion except when the sample size is large. Variance is the sum of the square of the deviation from the arithmetic mean divided by the no. Of observation. ` n` in the other words variance is the square of the sta. deviations.
Standard deviation is a number that tells you approximately how far the values in a data set deviate from the mean (the average).

wo types of process data: 1. Variable: continuous data. Things we can measure. Example includes length, weight, time, temperature, diameter, etc. 2. Attribute: discrete data. Things we count. Examples include number or percent defective items in a lot, number of defects per item etc.