Science Lab Equipment

You should know the name of each piece and its basic use.
Pipet For exact volume measurements of liquids. Pipet on the left is a Volumetric pipet. It has only one graduation for delivering one exact volume. Pipet on the right is a Mohr pipet. It has graduations for delivering any number of exact volumes. Filter flask $sed in con%unction with a vacuum connection to a water faucet to speed up filtration. There are several styles of fillers used to draw liquids into a pipet. ! chemistry students use a standard pipet bulb" described in lab techniques below. #ever draw a liquid into a pipet with your mouth.

Pipet filler

Erlenmeyer flask The &rlenmeyer flask is the most common flask in the ! chemistry lab. It is used to contain reaction solutions. The volumetric flask is used to make solutions. It has a precise graduation line in the neck of the flask. ' solute is placed into the flask" then the solvent is used to bring the total volume up to the graduation. $sed to make

The rounded bottom of the florence flask makes it ideal for boiling liquids. It also makes this flask easy to tip over when sitting on the lab table.

Florence flask

Volumetric flask

(eakers are the

Beaker

Graduated cylinder

most versatile glassware in the lab and can be used for %ust about anything. The volume graduations on beakers should be used only for )ballpark) estimates. accurate measurements of liquid volumes. +hile it can be heated" it should not be used for )strong) heating. $est tu!e holder $sed to hold test tubes for short periods of )gentle) heating. #ot a toy noisemaker during lab. +hen attached to the ring stand" this clamp is used to hold a large test tube or Florance flask above the lab table. The bumper ring on larger cylinders is to prevent breakage if tipped over. $sed to light a lab burner. *eep it near the top. This dish is used to recover dissolved solids by evaporation. It can also be used to cover beakers. These tongs are used for picking up crucibles and crucible covers only. ' watch glass can be used like an evaporating dish for very small amounts of liquid. Striker $sed to grind solids Mortar and Pestle into powers. +hen attached to the ring stand" this iron ring is used to support glassware above the lab table. . ruci!le and cover ruci!le tongs Wire gau"e $sed as a support for beakers when placed across a support ring.rucibles are used as a container when something requires )strong) heating. Evaporating dish Watch glass Support ring Utility clamp .

' gray color in the crystals usually indicates that the dessicant is dry and will absorb moisture. . hemical spoon %ose clamps $sed to close hoses by pinching them together. Science Lab Techniques • • • • • • • measuring with a graduated cylindar measuring with a pipet measuring with an electronic balance measuring with a triple-beam balance using a laboratory burner using a calorimeter titration • • • • • • • using filter paper and funnel using litmus paper using a magnetic stirrer using a hotwater bath using a fume hood generating and collecting gases distillation Measuring the volume of a li'uid (ith a graduated cylindar) The surface of a liquid confined in a cylindar curves to form what is known as a meniscus.olored indicator crystals are usually included to tell the user the condition of the dessicant. This is critical in quantitative work where moisture can affect mass results. $sed to transfer solids from their original container to a scale for weighing. &essicators are used to provide a dry environment for a crucible &esiccator or substance to cool down. ' pink color usually means that the dessicant is )hydrated). The meniscus of most liquids curves up the sides of the container" making the center of the curve .Wash !ottle Filter funnel +hen lined with filter paper" used to filter suspended solids from a liquid. $sed for rinsing solids out of a container when filtering. +hen this happens" the water can be removed by heating it in an oven. ' common dessicant is anhydrous calcium chloride.

!ince reading the meniscus at the top or at the bottom of the curve will make a difference in the volume measured" it is generally agreed to always read the bottom of the curve. These are expensive little gadgets that come in many different volumes" each delivering exactly its assigned volume with one click of a button. There are five graduations from one ma%or line to the next in this picture. . . To gain experience in reading liquid volumes" click on the picture to enlarge it and read the volume in the following way1 /. +hat is the volume of liquid in the picture to the nearest hundredth of a milliliter2 answer 's the diameter of the cylindar increases" the curve of the meniscus flattens out. +hat volume of liquid is represented in the picture" to three significant digits2 answer You can see that the lines drawn on the answer pictures help identify the location of the bottom of the meniscus. !ee a picture of the meniscus in a *++ ml graduated cylindar. This picture shows two of several types of pipet bulbs used to draw a liquid into a pipet. . In other words" each milliliter is divided into tenths and each small graduation represents two tenths.appear lower than the edges. If divisions between the tenths graduations are estimated" the volume can be read to hundredths of a milliliter. The largest graduations on this graduated cylindar are numbered" representing milliliters.it curves do(n at the edges. The diameter does not allow a liquid to be poured into a pipet . The red bulb is known as a standard pipet !ul!.the liquid must be drawn into the pipet.uch of the )professional) lab work today is done with automatic pipets. Pictured below is the meniscus in a /0 ml graduated cylindar.ercury is one of very few exceptions . Measuring the volume of a li'uid (ith a pipet) Pipets are much more accurate than graduated cylindars. (oth whole milliliters and tenths of milliliters can be read from the graduations in the picture. +hat whole number of milliliters are represented in the picture2 answer 3. igh school chemistry students need to know the basic techniques of pipetting" so you will be using glass pipets and the standard pipet bulb. +hile the curve is not as pronounced" because of its thickness" we must still read the bottom of the meniscus. If reading volumes in a cylindar is going to be regularly done" making a !uret card might be worthwhile. +hat volume is represented in the picture" to the nearest tenth of a milliliter2 answer 4. The black bulb is known as a safety pipet !ul!. (y holding the card behind the cylindar" and immediately below the bottom of the meniscus" the volume can be easily read. The smaller the container" the greater the curve of the meniscus. This is a small index card with a very thick hori5ontal line drawn on it with a magic marker. 6eading the volume of liquid in a pipet is %ust like reading a graduated cylindar" however there is one additional technique needed with a pipet.

Place the container on the balance and the mass of the container will be displayed. 'll that is needed is to place an ob%ect on the balance pan and the measurement can be read on the display to hundredths of a gram. 6ecord the exact volume of liquid in the pipet 9remember the meniscus:. Place the tip of the pipet below the surface of the liquid in the beaker. The soft plastic collar of the bulb is tapered inside to insure a good seal as long as you keep a steady pressure between the pipet and the bulb. Gradually release the presure of your squee5e on the bulb and allow the liquid to be drawn into the pipet.The standard pipet bulb requires manual dexterity that is improved by repetitive use. Pressing this button will change the units being measured. 9#ote1 this is the step that requires the most practice:.ur electronic balances also have a Unit button on the front. To release the liquid" slowly roll your finger to the side %ust enough to break the seal over the top of the pipet and allow the liquid to flow. &o not force the !ul! onto the pipet. +ith the tip of the pipet still below the liquid8s surface" quickly remove the bulb and place your finger or thumb over the top of the pipet to prevent the solution from draining back into the container. You may now place the substance to be weighed into the container and the balance will show only the mass of the substance. (y pressing the .ero button on the front of the balance" is less recogni5ed by beginning science students. This saves calculation time and effort. 7raw more liquid than needed" but do not allo( the li'uid to enter the !ul!.ero buttons" there are t(o things you must al(ays do before placing ob%ects onto an electric balance to be measured1 .ero button at this point" the balance will reset to 5ero and ignore the mass of the container. Never pipet directly from a reagent bottle. To stop the flow of liquid" roll your finger back. ' second advantage" using the . . Measuring mass (ith an electronic !alance) The electronic balance has many advantages over other types of balance. The technique goes something like this1 • • • • • • • Pour slightly more liquid than needed into a beaker using the )ballpark) graduations on the beaker. You may have to practice using the bulb with a pipet before you are able to accurately transfer a measured volume of liquid. (ecause one must never place a chemical directly on the !alance pan" some container must be used. !ince we have very few times when we need something other than metric units" you should not have to change the mode on the balance. The most obvious is the ease with which a measurement is obtained. (ecause of the Unit and . %o(ever" when the container is removed from the balance" the display will go into negative numbers until the . !quee5e the pipet bulb and press it firmly over the top of the pipet.ero button is pressed again.

The spark produced will ignite the gas and your burner is lit. The lab burners at owe igh !chool use propane gas delivered through the gas outlets at student lab stations.licking on the balance picture will give you a close view of the position of the tares on the three beams. +hile the electronic balance has replaced it in many cases" good science students should be familiar with the triple-beam balance and how to read one. +hen you are sure that you have gas" bring the head of the striker over the burner and squee5e the striker handle. Filtering a precipitate from a solution) .any chemistry experiments require something to be heated. . If chemicals have covered this %et" the burner will not operate properly. Measuring mass (ith a triple0!eam !alance) The triple-beam balance was once the )standard) balance in the general chemistry lab. $he !alance is named for its three 1!eams1. (efore attempting to light any lab burner" check to see that the %et hole between the base and the burner tube is free of obstruction. !ee that the display is reading +-++ 3.FF.arefully check to see that you hear gas escaping from the mouth of the burner tube. . +hat mass is represented" to five significant digits2 answer Using a la!oratory !urner) . #ormal heating is done with an ob%ect at the top of the light blue outer cone" while strong heating is done with an ob%ect at the top of the bright blue inner cone. 2t is very important that the tares on these t(o !eams are in the notch for the (hole num!er of grams and not in !et(een notches. The tare on this beam can be positioned anywhere on the scale.The front beam is a sliding scale graduated in grams. . ' yellow flame is an indication of a lack of oxygen" meaning that the air vent needs to be opened. 's you face the balance" the back beam is graduated in /0 gram steps and the middle beam is graduated in /00 gram steps. The gas valve is turned off by turning the handle <0 degrees in either direction. This is done with one of several types of laboratory burners. The hottest part of the burner flame is %ust at the top of the bright blue inner cone. To heat a container gently" move the container back and forth through the outer cone.asses on a triple-beam balance can be read to tenths of a gram" and estimated to hundredths. !ee that the unit sign in the upper right of the display shows g +hen finished with the electronic balance" press the . 'fter attaching the hose to the gas outlet" turn the handle on the outlet parallel to the no""le to open the gas valve.n/. 'd%ust the air control vent so that the flame has the proper color pictured here.ff button and hold it down until the display shows .'n ob%ect is placed on the pan of the balance and tares on the beams are moved to balance the mass./.

To prepare the filter paper" fold the paper in half " then fold it in half again.ne buret holds the acid" the other the base. Place a )catch container) under the stem of the filter funnel and ad%ust the height of the ring on the ring stand until the tip of the stem is below the mouth of the container. If any li'uid goes over and around the paper" your procedure is ruined. +hen you look at the open edge of the folded paper you will see four edges of paper.pictured here. Using litmus paper to determine acid or !ase) . This will help it stick to the funnel. If the ob%ective of your filtration is the solid-free liquid" throw the filter paper and its contents into the trash. +hen all the original liquid has been poured into the funnel" use the wash bottle to rinse any remaining precipitate out of the original container. (e patient" it will take time for the liquid to move through the pores of the paper. . If your ob%ective is the solid" carefully remove the filter paper and set it in a secure place to dry. $itration is a neutrali"ation reaction !et(een acid and !ase) The classic lab apparatus for a titration uses a set of double burets . . This indicator is colorless in an acid" but turns dark pink in a base.Filtering a solid out of a liquid is done using filter paper and a filter funnel. The filter funnel is supported by the ring on a ring stand. The common procedure is to place a measured volume of the acid into a flask" then add two drops of phenolphthalein indicator. Place this cone of paper into the filter funnel.arefully pour the liquid to be filtered into the mouth of the funnel. You are now ready to filter. +ith thumb and finger" catch three of these edges. &o not let the liquid rise to the top of the filter paper. =ay a clay triangle across the ring" then place the filter funnel into the triangle. For more about titration" go to this (e!page. !quee5e the sides of the folded paper and a cone will form with three thicknesses of paper on one side and one thickness of paper on the other. 7o not touch or try to stir the liquid inside the filter paper. $se a wash bottle and wet down the inside of the filter paper. 't the end-point" or )neutrali5ation)" the phenolphthalein will be barely pink when viewed over a white background. $he (et paper is easily torn" which will ruin your procedure. !mall amounts of the base are added to the flask as it is being slowly twirled to mix the solution.

eat is added to the mixture until it reaches the first boiling point. +hile the degree to which this contaminates the solution is not great" good chemistry students know not to do it. The temperature must be kept at this temperature . &istillation) In general chemistry" distillation can be used to remove dissolved substances from a liquid or to separate a mixture of liquids that have different boiling points. To successful separate a mixture of liquids" you must know the boiling point of each liquid involved and be able to measure temperature changes as heat is applied. 3l(ays use a glass stirring rod. If using exact volumes" as with a volumetric flask" be sure take the measurements !efore adding the stirring bar.3n acid turns !lue litmus paper red and a !ase turns red litmus paper !lue. The stirring bar is placed into a flask or beaker by gently sliding it along the wall of the container. $se %ust enough speed to start the bar turning in the container. To prevent breakage" do not drop the bar onto the bottom of the container. +hile there are several different styles" all will at least have a base with a speed-controlled spinning magnet inside and an external stirring bar.+hile even grade-school students know this" there is one mistake commonly made when using either litmus or p paper strips. The picture here shows the )vortex) that forms inside the continer. You should never dip the test paper into the solution being tested. Place the container on the stirrer base and turn the speed control knob to its lowest setting. 7ip a clean stirring rod into the solution" then touch the wet stirring rod to the paper. +hen stirring is completed" keep the stirring bar in the container by )decanting) the liquid into another container. (e patient" the bar might )hop) at excess speeds" causing splashing. (e sure to carefully wash the original container and the stirring bar. Using a magnetic stirrer) ' magnetic stirrer is helpful for dissolving solids in liquids.

The picture here shows an apparatus available in this class. A. 3. #o matter how the apparatus is set up" the following things must be accomplished1 • • • • The original liquid is heated. pictured at right.until all the first liquid is allowed to rise to the next removed. For water displacement" the container is filled with water then inverted into a water trough. If the gas being generated is highly soluble in water" precise measurements of the gas produced will not be possible. The temperature is then boiling point and the second liquid boiling points are together" the liquids from the mixture. The solid is placed into the bottle" then a solution is poured down the funnel.ne distillation apparatus is removed. Generating and collecting gases) ' gas generating bottle is used to produce gases from a chemical reaction. It is used for experiments known to produce noxious fumes or smoke. This is a very common procedure in general chemistry labs and has only one draw-back. 4. The gas is bubbled up under the container and pushes the water out. 7o the following to perform an experiment in the hood1 /. 's the gas builds" it will move into the collecting tube at the top of the bottle. The temperature is measured. The vapor is collected and condensed back into a liquid. This is indicated by the gas going )down) into the upright collecting container. The new liquid is collected. The closer these more difficult it is collect pure . >ases that are lighter than air must be collected by (ater displacement. ?. If the gas were lighter than air" it would not go down into the container. The picture here shows the collection of a gas that is heavier than air. Fume %ood) The fume hood is a safety glass-front cabinet with an exhaust fan. 6aise the door of the hood Turn on the light and set up the apparatus +hen all material for the experiment is ready" turn on the fan Pull the hood door at least /@4 way down Perform the experiment .

Turn off the fan and light" then remove the equipment to a regular lab station for cleaning D. In addition to heating slowly and evenly" water baths are also safer than direct heat. +hen finished" pull the door all the way down until all smoke and fumes are removed C. eat is then applied to the water container.alorimetry involves heating the metal to a known temperature" placing it into a measured amount of cold water in an insulated container called a calorimeter and measuring the resultant rise in temperature of the water in the calorimeter. The substance is heated by the water" not the burner flame. . =eave the hood clean %ot(ater Bath) ' hotwater bath is used in the general chemistry lab to heat something slowly and evenly. +hile there are very expensive calorimeters that will absorb no heat from the reaction inside" the heat absorbed by the )coffee-cup) calorimeter shown here is negligible within the range of our measuring instruments. 'll hotwater baths put the substance to be heated in a container then place that container into a container of water.B. 'fter the water reaches a maximum temperature" it will slowly decrease. The temperature of the water in the calorimeter will rise rapidly as heat is transferred from the hot metal to the cold water. alorimeter) 9chem lab 30A: The specific heats of metals can be determined by calorimetry. 3n e'uation used in calorimetry calculations) 4ight Microscopes .any different types of glassware can be used to set up a hotwater bath. . +hat glassware you use will depend on the quantity of the substance you wish to heat. For this reason" highly volatile substances should only be heated using hotwater baths.

ur microscopes have three ob%ective lenses ?E" /0E" and ?0E.?00E.!6ective) (asically a housing for a lens. . . The lens to be used should )click) into position when the wheel is gently turned so that it is directly over the speciman slide. . #osepiece) ' rotating head that has the ob%ective lenses attached to it. 6ead about the contribution of 3ntonie van 4eeu(enhoek.the better the lenses" the better the resoultion. Stage) The speciman slides rests on this part of the microscope. 5esolution) the power to show details clearly.cular8) $sually contains a /0E lens. 9bio lab 03A: and 5o!ert %ooke . ompound microscopes use multiple lenses to produce an increase in magnification. 6esolution allows the viewer to see two ob%ects that are very close together as two ob%ects rather than as one.' microscope is an instrument that produces an enlarged image of an ob%ect. (iologists use microscopes to study things that are too small to be seen with the unaided eye. .!serving an o!6ect) (ecause the light rays from an ob%ect cross before reaching your eye" the image you see through most microscopes will be inverted and upside do(n.ost microscopes are called light microscopes because they accomplish their task by using lenses to bend light rays. If the eyepiece lens enlarges by a factor of /0 9/0E: and the ob%ective lens enlarges by a factor of ?0 9?0E:" the total magnification is the product of the two . 3rm) contains the housing for the fine and coarse ad%ustments and connects the base of the microscope to the nosepiece and ocular. Magnification) the increase of an ob%ect8s apparent si5e. 6esolution is controlled by the quality of the lenses being used . Basic parts of a compound light microscope) • • • • • Eyepiece 7.

ther materials" such as paper towel" can scratch the surface of the lens. For this reason" an ob%ect to be viewed must be fairly thin.• • • • oarse ad6ustment kno!s) The larger of two sets of knobs located on either side of the arm" %ust above the base. 3d6usta!le diaphragm) This rotating wheel on the underside of the stage allows the user to ad%ust the amount of light that passes through the specimen. • 'dd specimen to the slide. are and handling of the microscope) • • • • • ' microscope is a delicate piece of equipment and should be treated with care. Place one hand around the arm of the microscope and the other under the base for support. Making a (et0mount slide) • Place a clean slide on the lab table. If it becomes necessary to clean the lenses on the microscope" ask your facilitator for a piece of lens paper. %andle slides at the ends" not the center" to avoid getting fingerprints in the viewing area of the slide. It has a limited amount of movement and is most efficiently used after focusing with the ?E ob%ective and coarse focus" then increasing magnification and making final ad%ustments with the fine focus knob. This ad%ustment is used to make large ad%ustments in focusing by moving the lenses up and down. . . Never use this adjustment when using the 40X objective.any ob%ects do not have distinct" contrasting colors. 's a general rule" the lowest intensity of light that allows you to resolve the structure of the ob%ect you are viewing should be used. • !tained cheek cells. Place the microscope flat on the ta!le" but not too near the edge where it might be knocked off. • For liquid samples" place one small drop in the center of the slide. • #atural cheek cells. Thick ob%ects may be sliced into thin sections for viewing. . This ad%ustment is used to make small ad%ustments in focusing. This makes seeing details difficult. 9bio lab 04?: Vie(ing specimens (ith a microscope) • • In most instances" light must pass through any ob%ect to be viewed with a light microscope. $se t(o hands when carrying the microscope. . 4ight source) =ocated directly under the stage.bservation may be improved by staining with a !iological stain. Fine ad6ustment kno!s) The smaller of two sets of knobs located on either side of the arm.arry the microscope upright and close to the body. • For solid samples" place the sample in the center of the slide and add one drop of (ater or stain. • .

• Methyl cellulose *-9: . This depression may hold a small drop of water" keeping it from spreading like on a flat slide.a viscous material that can be mixed with the water of a wet mount to slow the animals without harming them. these microscopes cannot be used to view living specimens.The coverslip protects the ob%ective lens from the liquid on the slide. The liquid should spread across the whole area of the coverslip. The surface of the specimen is sprayed with a fine metal coating and a beam of electrons is passed over the specimen. =ay the cotton in the center of the slide before adding the water of the coverslip. &lectrons from the metal coating are pro%ected onto a screen or photographic plate. • #ever vie( a slide (ithout a coverslip. Because of the high-energy particles involved. The disadvantage is that the animals now have more room to move up and down" instead of from side to side. • 6eturn the microscope slide to its container. There are two types of electron microscopes1 • $ransmission electron microscope 0 $EM) transmits a beam of electrons through a very thinly sliced specimen. leanup) • $nless otherwise instructed" wipe the sample and coverslip off the slide with a paper towel when finished.!serving proto"oans and crustaceans) • !mall animals are often difficult to observe because of their motion. • Electron Microscopes =ight microscopes are limited to about 3000E by the properties of light.microscope slides that have a depression in the center of the slide. !everal things can be done to help in this reguard.the natural cotton fibers will provide barriers to block some of the movement of the animals.s can magnify ob%ects up to 400"000 times. !et one edge against the slide and lower it until it contacts the liquid.• • old the coverslip by the edges to avoid fingerprints. They must be slowed if any but the lowest magnification is to be used. • . $sing a very small piece of natural cotton" pull the fibers apart. $se a toothpick to mix the two on the slide before adding a coverslip. . Scanning electron microscope 0 SEM) specimens are not sliced. • Throw the paper towel and its contents away. T&. 'nother type of microscope called an electron microscope uses a beam of electrons instead of light and magnets instead of lenses. • otton fi!ers . !&. • Well slides .s can magnify ob%ects up to /"000"000 times.

Go to this (e!site to use a virtual scanning electron microscope- Lab Station Equipment • rin g • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • stand ring stand clamp support ring utility clamp test tube holder bunsen burner burner hose striker crucible tongs wire gau5e test tube brush beaker brush clay triangle watch glass ?00ml beaker 3A0ml beaker 3A0 erlenmeyer flask stirring rod test tube /0ml graduated cylinder /00ml graduated cylinder filter funnel 'n electronic balance and a triple-beam balance are always available. .

These experiments are done at your student table" instead of at a lab station and usually don8t require PP&. plastic well-plates .periment< that e'uipment should !e returned to your science facilitator (hen you have finished (ith it 0 do not leave it at your la! station- Lab-tray Equipment !ome experiments may be done on a )lab tray)" without running water and burners. single-serving plastic pop bottles .2f you re'uest additional e'uipment for a particular e.for standard solution preparation.to replace test tubes and beakers. . !ome of this equipment is disposable and some is reusable . paper cups baggies straws balloons paper towels .for clean-up.for %ust about anything.to replace reagent bottles. =ab-tray experiments are similar to regular lab experiments" except that they are done on a )micro) scale using very small amounts of chemicals. wood splints .if you are in doubt" ask= 'll clean-up must be done with paper towels. &quipment available for a lab-tray experiment includes1 • • • • • • • • • • plastic lab tray plastic micro-bottles and stand .

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