About the report The State of the World Population 2013, “Motherhood in Childhood: Facing the Challenge of Adolescent

Pregnancy ! examines the circumstances that often lead to adolescent pregnancy and provides new statistics on the impact of adolescent pregnancy on girls’ health, education and future economic productivity. Who is affected? • Every day, 20,000 girls below age 18 give birth in developing countries. (p. iv) • Of the 7.3 million girls below age ! who give birth each year in developing countries, 2 million of them are under age ". (p. iv) • Each year, 13.1 million children are born to mothers aged 1 !1". • " per cent of adolescent births occur in developing countries. (p. iv) • #dolescent girls between the ages of " and $ account for as many as 3.2 million unsafe abortions annually in developing countries. • %n developed countries, there are #80,000 births to adolescent mothers annually. &early half of these occur in the 'nited (tates. (p. )) • #mong developing regions, *est and +entral #frica have the largest percentage of reported births to mothers under age ! (,! per cent) and under age " (- per cent). (p. ).") What are the implications of adolescent pregnanc$ o%er the ne&t decade? Wh$ act now? • #dolescents ma/e up about 18 per cent of the world’s population. 'ight$!eight per cent of them live in developing countries. (p. 0) • #bout half ((" per cent) of adolescent girls live in 1ust six countries2 +hina, %ndia, %ndonesia, &igeria, 3a/istan and the 'nited (tates. (p. 0) Even though we are experiencing the largest adolescent population in human history4with an estimated 1.2 billion adolescents living in ,5 5 4the international community directs less than two cents of e%er$ dollar spent on international de%elopment towards adolescent girls. (p. )0) What effect does adolescent pregnanc$ ha%e on economic de%elopment? • 6he lifetime opportunity cost related to adolescent pregnancy4measured by the mother’s foregone annual income over her lifetime4ranges from 1 per cent of annual )*+ in +hina to 30 per cent of annual )*+ in 'ganda. (p. ,-) o %f the 220,0"8 adolescent mothers in 7enya were employed instead of having become pregnant, ,3.( billion could have been added to the economy, an amount e8uivalent to the value of 7enya’s entire construction sector. (p. ,-) o %f adolescent girls in 9ra:il and %ndia had been able to wait to have children until their early ,5s, the countries would have greater economic productivity e8ual to o%er ,3. billion and ,7.7 billion, respectively. (p. ,;) o #dolescent pregnancy and childbirth account for nearly ,11 billion per $ear in costs to 'nited (tates taxpayers. (p. ,$) What effect does adolescent pregnanc$ ha%e on health? • #n estimated ;5,555 adolescents in developing countries die each year from complications during pregnancy and childbirth. (p. v) • #lthough fistula can occur to women at any reproductive age, studies in Ethiopia, <alawi, &iger and &igeria show that about 1 in 3 women living with obstetric fistula reported developing it as an adolescent (p. $) • 6here are also significant health ris/s to the infants and children of adolescent mothers2

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(tillbirths and newborn deaths are 0 per cent higher among infants of adolescent mothers than among infants of mothers between the ages of ,5 and ,$. (p. ,,) #bout 1 million children born to adolescent mothers do not ma/e it to their first birthday (p. ,,)

6he health ris/s to girls under " are great2 o =irls who become pregnant before age " in low. and middle.income countries have double the ris/ for maternal death and obstetric fistula than older women, especially in sub.(aharan #frica and (outh #sia. (p. ,)) o %n more than 30 countries, 10 per cent of adolescents have had sexual intercourse by age ", with rates as high as 2# per cent in &iger. (page ,0) o =irls who become pregnant at " or younger are more li/ely to experience premature delivery, low infant birth weight, perinatal mortality and health problems with their newborns. (page ,))

What is the relationship between adolescent pregnanc$ and education? • Education continues to be the single most important predictor of age at marriage over time (p. -5). +hild marriage is strongly associated with early pregnancy. • 9ecoming pregnant often prevents girls from completing their education2 o %n the '(, only about half of the girls who become pregnant as adolescents are able to complete their high school education by age ,,, compared to nine out of 10 girls who do not become pregnant as teenagers (p. ,-) • >esearch indicates better age.appropriate, comprehensive sexuality education is needed o %n the '(, the highest rates of adolescent pregnanc$ tend to occur in states with abstinence.only education (p. --) o %n some countries, two!thirds of girls between the ages of , and 0 are not in school, and receive no school.based sexuality education (p.0") Adolescent pregnanc$ and child marriage • 3",000 girls under ! are married every day (p. 0;) • ?espite near.universal commitments to end child marriage, one in three girls in developing countries is married before age ! (p. $) • "0 per cent of adolescent pregnancies in developing countries are within marriage (p. 0!) • #dolescents who are married or in a union have both the lowest use of contraception and the highest le%els of unmet need (p. )!) • 0 million girls could still be at ris/ of being married before their "th birthday in this decade (p. 5)

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