11 views

Uploaded by Hari Krishnan

test

test

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- MB0034 Research Methedology Assignment 1
- MB0034 Research logy Assignment
- Hypotheses.pdf
- CQE Study Questions,Answers and Solutions
- VOS_20101115
- CFA1 3.3 Significance Testing
- Applied Maths Unit1%2c 2018
- Lecture (hypothesis)print
- e 41013142
- The Evolution of Ownership Disclosure Rules Across Countries
- Hypothesis Testing
- Statistics Finals
- ICOSSAR 09
- Exam2 Practice Solutions
- Statistics/Statistical Hypothesis
- assn1sol
- Research Methodology
- Study of formative and reflective indicators effective on the sports stadium atmosphere for an optimal use of the structures
- HYPOTHESIS TEST.pptx
- 07 Hypothesis Testing

You are on page 1of 25

Sampling Theory

Population: A statistical population is the set of all possible measurements on data corresponding to the entire collection of units for which an inference is to be made. Another definition: Population is an aggregate of objects, animate or inanimate, under study. Population may be finite or infinite. Complete enumeration of population in impracticable.

Sample

A sample is a finite subset of population which is collected to draw an inference about the population. The process of selection of such samples is called sampling.

Statistical measures calculated on the basis of population are called parameters. Corresponding measures computed on the basis of sample observations are called statistics. Example: Mean of a population is a parameter and mean of a sample is a statistic.

The probability distribution of some statistic of a random sample is called the sampling distribution of the statistic.

The standard deviation of a statistic is known as its standard error. Utility of S.E: It forms the basis of the testing of hypothesis. If t is any statistic, then for large samples z=[t-E(t)]/S.E which follows std. Normal distribution.

Some characteristics of the population may be completely unknown and we may like to make a guess about this characteristic entirely on the basis of a random sample drawn from the population. This type of problem is called the problem of estimation.

Some information regarding the characteristic of the population may be known to us and we may like to whether the information can be accepted w.r.to random sample drawn from the population and if it can be accepted, to what degree of confidence it can be accepted. This type of problem is known as the problem of testing of hypotheses.

Statistical Hypotheses

Assumptions which are made about the nature of the population or about the value of some parameter of the population(which may or may not be true) on the basis of a random sample are called statistical hypotheses.

Types of Hypotheses

Null hypothesis: Hypothesis of no difference is called a null hypothesis , that is, a hypothesis which assumes there is no significant difference between sample statistic and population parameter or no difference between two sample statistics is called the null hypothesis. We denote the null hypothesis by H0.

Alternative hypothesis: A hypothesis which is complementary to the null hypothesis is called an alternative hypothesis and is denoted by H1.

Test of hypothesis

A procedure for deciding whether to accept or reject the null hypothesis is called the test of hypothesis.

Test of significance

If 0 is a parameter of the population and is the corresponding sample statistic, then usually there will be some difference between 0 and and this difference is different for different samples, since is based on sample observations. Such a difference which is due to sampling fluctuations is called insignificant difference.

The difference that arises due to the reason that either the sampling procedure is not purely random or that the sample has not been drawn from the given population is known as significant difference. The procedure of testing whether the difference between 0 and is significant or not is called the test of significance.

A region corresponding to a statistic t in the sample space S which amounts to rejection of null hypothesis is termed as the critical region or the region of rejection. The region complementary to the region of rejection is called the region of acceptance.

The probability that a random value of the statistic t belongs to the critical region is known as the level of siginificance(LOS). It is usually expressed as a percentage.

The levels of significance usually employed in testing of hypotheses are 1% and 5%. The LOS is always fixed in advance before collecting the sample information. In any test, the critical region is represented by a portion of the area under the probability curve of the

Due to the wrong judgement of LOS, the region of rejection becomes larger and the probability of rejecting a null hypothesis when it is true becomes greater. In this case we arrive at the following two types of errors: Type-I error:Rejecting H0 when it is true. This is similar to a good product

Good product being rejected by a consumer and so Type-I error is also known as producers risk. Type-II error: Accepted H0 when it is false. This error is similar to that of accepted a product of inferior quality and hence it is also known as consumers risk. It may be noted that the probability of committing Type-I error is the LOS.

If 0 is a population parameter and is the corresponding sample statistic and if we set up a null hypothesis H0: 0 = , then the alternative hypothesis H1 will be any one of the following: (i) H1: 0 ;(ii)H1: > 0 ;(iii) H1: < 0.

H1 given in (i) is called a two-tailed alternative hypothesis, whereas H1 given in (ii) is called right-tailed alternative hypothesis and in (iii) is called left-tailed alternative hypothesis. When H0 is tested while H1 is a onetailed alternative(right or left), the test of hypothesis is known as a onetailed test.

When H0 is tested while H1 is twotailed alternative, the test of hypothesis is called a two-tailed test. Note: The application of one-tailed and two-tailed tests depend upon the nature of the alternative hypothesis and the choice of the appropriate H1 depends on the situation and the nature of the problem concerned.

The value of test statistic z which separates the critical region and acceptance region is called the critical value or the significant value of z and is denoted by z. It depends up on(i) the LOS used and (ii) the alternative hypothesis (one tailed or two tailed).

- MB0034 Research Methedology Assignment 1Uploaded byMadhu M Nair
- MB0034 Research logy AssignmentUploaded bysandeep singh3008
- Hypotheses.pdfUploaded byBiology
- CQE Study Questions,Answers and SolutionsUploaded byrick.pepper3948
- VOS_20101115Uploaded byJuan Antonio Garcia Garcia
- CFA1 3.3 Significance TestingUploaded bycnvb alsk
- Applied Maths Unit1%2c 2018Uploaded byLeondre
- Lecture (hypothesis)printUploaded byMuhammad Umer
- e 41013142Uploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- The Evolution of Ownership Disclosure Rules Across CountriesUploaded byvidovdan9852
- Hypothesis TestingUploaded byImran Ahmad Sajid
- Statistics FinalsUploaded byelle
- ICOSSAR 09Uploaded byxaaabbb_550464353
- Exam2 Practice SolutionsUploaded byMack Coleman Dowdall
- Statistics/Statistical HypothesisUploaded bypately5315
- assn1solUploaded byAbhay Sharma
- Research MethodologyUploaded bySanjeev Chowdhry
- Study of formative and reflective indicators effective on the sports stadium atmosphere for an optimal use of the structuresUploaded byreviewjre
- HYPOTHESIS TEST.pptxUploaded byDirick N. Ledda
- 07 Hypothesis TestingUploaded bydhanoj6522
- QMM_EPGDM_10.pptxUploaded bymanish gupta
- 35314_424334_HYPOTHESIS+TESTS+INVOLVING+A+SAMPLE+MEAN+OR+PROPORTIONUploaded byJerome Badillo
- t -test.pptUploaded byDrRuchi Garg
- original skittlesUploaded byapi-294814707
- CHAPTER 4.docxUploaded byHershe Antoque
- 1. Determinan of Financial LiquidityUploaded bya
- paswstatisticsguideparts1to4-100608162918-phpapp02Uploaded byAtthaboon Watthammawut
- 6691_01R_que_2013aerger0613Uploaded byyvg95
- qm0021-winter-2015Uploaded bysmu mba solved assignments
- rp3338Uploaded bySergei Dragunov

- 16-1 Mux Using 8-1 Mux, 4-1mux , And 2-1 MuxUploaded bysatishbojjawar1484
- HexWorkshop.licUploaded byHari Krishnan
- Debug LogUploaded byHari Krishnan
- Ld ConfigUploaded byHari Krishnan
- Syllabus.pdfUploaded byHari Krishnan
- 170224f1Uploaded byHari Krishnan
- llUploaded byHari Krishnan
- 08Uploaded byHari Krishnan
- MP-Unit-I 2marks.pdfUploaded byHari Krishnan
- AnalogicdesignUploaded byPrabhu Sakinala
- Spearman's TestUploaded byNasya Teh

- 2015-2016 Statistics for Data Analytics Mscdad1Uploaded bySunil Kamat
- Var DecompUploaded bysuperbuddy
- nmeth.3665.pdfUploaded bycfisicaster
- Using Mfp in Stata to Get the Best Polynomial Equation for StsetUploaded byalicorpanao
- Quiz 1Uploaded bylislis2722
- 131-144 .pdfUploaded byeduardo
- StatisticsUploaded byyoungbae
- MATH321-F08-LEC2-Solutions-to-all-problems-in-Chapter-7.docUploaded bycatty8
- lampiran spss wawanUploaded bysuprihatin 12
- Formula Sheets for Math 441Uploaded byLuis Montes
- Traub, 1997Uploaded byLeandro Sousa
- Analysis of the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ-3) in Spanish secondary-school students through exploratory structural equation modelingUploaded byCarlos A. Almenara
- comprehensive skittles project math 1040Uploaded byapi-316732019
- BRM Unit VUploaded byAnonymous 8G41ro6O
- coh 602-sas analysis projectUploaded byapi-290742611
- Richard Et Al, 2003Uploaded byChristian Rivera
- Hypothesis TestUploaded byMaAyur SoOni
- Final Exam Factorial DesignUploaded byFelipe Castro
- MCMCUploaded byAnupama Agarwal
- Finan DescriptivesUploaded bySathisKumar
- basic statisticsUploaded byapi-256918606
- New Microsoft Word Document.docxUploaded byLokmani
- Guests' perceptions on factors influencing customer loyalty An analysis for UK hotelsUploaded byhaseebh2O6834
- Dividend Changes and the Persistence of PastUploaded byliewk86
- Kemiringan Dan Penggunaan Standar DeviasiUploaded byProdi Arsitektur Untan
- pdf (34)Uploaded bymehdi
- Calculating Total Scale Scores and Reliability SPSS - D.boduszekUploaded byAlexandra Elena
- Business Statistics Assignment Graphs and Written AnswersUploaded byAdy Johnston
- 50819941 Edexcel Statistics S1 January 2011Uploaded byNeeraj Joanides Pavlopolous
- 30234_Chapter4Uploaded bysaliboua