Module PMR

CHAPTER 2
SQUARES,SQUARE ROOTS.CUBES AND CUBE ROOTS
A. SQUARES
-

a number multiply by itself
a2 = a × a
examples :
a). 22 = 2 × 2 = 4
b). ( - 4 )2 = ( -4 ) × ( -4 ) = 16
3
3
3
9
c). ( ) 2 = ( ) × ( ) =
5
5
5
25
d). ( 0.3 )2 = 0.3 × 0.3 = 0.09

-

the square of any number is greater than zero and is always positive.

B. SQUARE ROOTS
-

-

-

the square roots of any number is the number when multiplied by itself,
equals to the given number.(inverse operation of squaring that number)
If x = a2, then x = a 2 = a × a = a
examples :
a). 9 = 3 × 3 = 3
2× 2 2
=
3× 3 3

b).

4
=
9

c).

0.36 = 0.6 × 0.6 = 0.6

some fractions are required to reduce to the lowest terms in order to
find the square roots.
examples:
8
4
2× 2 2
a).
=
=
=
18
9
3× 3 3

-

to find the square roots of a mixed number, change the mixed
number into an improper fraction.
example :
11
36
6×6 6
a). 1
=
=
=
25
25
5× 5 5

-

The square root of negative numbers do not exist

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 10

Module PMR

SQUARES

SQUARE ROOTS

12 = 1

1 = 1

22 = 4

4 = 2

32 = 9

9 = 3

42 = 16

16 = 4

52 = 25

25 = 5

62 = 36

36 = 6

72 = 49

49 = 7

82 = 64

64 = 8

92 = 81

81 = 9

102 = 100

100 = 10

112 = 121

121 = 11

122 = 144

144 = 12

132 = 169

169 = 13

142 = 196

196 = 14

152 = 225

225 = 15

162 = 256

256 = 16

172 = 289

289 = 17

182 = 324

324 = 18

192 = 361

361 = 19

202 = 400

400 = 20

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 11

Module PMR

C. CUBES
-

a number multiply by itself twice
a3 = a x a x a
examples :
a). 33 = 3 x 3 x 3 = 27
2
2 2 2
8
b). ( )3 = × × =
3
3 3 3 27
c). ( 0.2 )3 = 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.2 = 0.008
d). ( - 5 )3 = ( - 5 ) x ( - 5 ) x ( - 5 ) = - 125

- The cube of a positive number is positive
- The cube of a negative number is negative.

D. CUBE ROOTS
-

a number when multiply by itself twice, equal to the given number.
a3 = 3 a × a × a = a
examples :
3

a).

3

8 = 3 2× 2× 2 = 2

b).

3

8
2× 2× 2 2
=3
=
125
5×5×5 5

c).

3

0.216 = 3 0.6 × 0.6 × 0.6 = 0.6

d).

3

− 64 = 3 ( −4) × (−4) × (−4) = −4

- The cube root of a positive number is positive, the cube root of a
negative number is negative.

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 12

Module PMR

CUBES

CUBE ROOTS

13 = 1

3

1 = 1

23 = 8

3

8 = 2

33 = 27

3

27 = 3

43 = 64

3

64 = 4

53 = 125

3

125 = 5

63 = 216

3

216 = 6

73 = 343

3

343 = 7

83 = 512

3

512 = 8

93 = 729

3

729 = 9

103 = 1000

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 13

3

1000 = 10

Module PMR

QUESTIONS :
A. Find the value of the following.
1). 32 =

2). 62 =

3). 82 =

4). 92 =

5). 112 =

6). 122 =

7). ( - 2 )2 =

8). ( - 4 )2 =

9). ( - 5 )2 =

10). ( - 7 )2 =

11). ( - 9 )2 =

12). ( - 10 )2 =

2

2
14).   =
5

2

 1
16). 1  =
 5

1
13).   =
2

3
15).   =
7
2

 4
17).  −  =
 9
2

2

2

2

 1
18).  − 1  =
 3
2

 2
19).  − 3  =
 3

7
20).   =
 12 

21). ( 0.4 )2 =

22). ( 1.2 )2 =

23). ( - 0.3 )2 =

24). ( - 0.05 )2 =

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 14

Module PMR

B. Find the value of the following.

1).

4 =

2).

25 =

3).

64 =

4).

81 =

5). 100 =

6).

144 =

7).

225 =

8).

196 =

9).

1
=
64

10).

4
=
25

12).

1

11).

9
=
100

9
=
16

13). 1

14). 11

1
=
9

1
=
4

16).

50
=
162

46
=
49

18).

4

15).

12

17).

2

19.

7
=
9

0.64 =

21. 1.21 =

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 15

21
=
25

20.

0.0025 =

22.

2.25 =

Module PMR

C. Find the values of the following:
1). 23 =

2). 43 =

3). 73 =

4). ( - 5 )3 =

5). ( - 3 )3 =

6). 103 =

3

3
8).   =
4

3

3

 1
10). 1  =
 4

2
7).   =
5

3

1
9).   =
6

3

3

 2
11).  − 1  =
 3

 7
12).  −  =
 10 

13). ( 0.1 )3 =

14). ( 0.6 )3 =

15). ( - 0.2 )3 =

16). ( - 0.03 )3 =

17). ( 1.2 )3 =

18). ( - 0.4 )3 =

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 16

Module PMR

D. Find the value of the following.

1).

3

8 =

2).

3

27 =

3).

3

216 =

4).

3

− 125 =

5).

3

− 512 =

6).

3

343 =

7).

3

− 1000 =

8).

3

1
=
8

9).

3

11).

13).

15).

27
=
64

3

3

3

10).

1000
=
125

12).

0.343 =

14).

− 0.064 =

16).

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 17

3

3

3

3

3

3
=
8

−1

61
=
64

0.000216 =

− 0.125 =

Module PMR

Common Errors.
Questions

Errors

Correct Steps

1. a). Find the value
0f 3 − 125 .

a). (-5) x (-5) x (-5)
or
5
P0

a). – 5

b).Calculate the value of
1 3

 × − 64  2 .
8

1 
b).  × 4 
8 
1
= 
2

2

1

b).  × ( − 4 ) 
8

2. a). Find the value of
3
0.216 .

K0

1
4

5 4

4 4

=

1
4

2

1m

 1  1
= −  × − 
 2  2
=

P0

b).Calculate the value of b).  5  − 13
3
4
 25 


 16 − 1 .


5 1

=
4 1
=

 1
= − 
 2

N0

a). 0.006

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 18

2

2

1 1
=  × 
2 2
=

1m

1
4

1m

a). 0.6

1m

5 
b).  − 1
4 

3

5 4
= − 
4 4
K0

1
= 
4

N0
=

1
64

3

3

1m

1m

Module PMR

3. a). Find the value of
3
 1


 .
 3

a).
 1  1  1
− ×− ×− 
 3  3  3

 1 
a).  − 
 27 

1m

or

b). Calculate the value of
( − 2) 3 × 9
16

1
27

P0

b). 8 x

9
16

9
2
1
= 4
2

K0

=

N0

Questions based on PMR format
2

1
1. a). Find the value of   .
 3
b). Calculate the value of

2. a). Find the value of

(

)

3

36 − 8 .

0.008 .
b). Calculate the value of 16 –
3

3

− 27 .

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 19

b). ( − 8) ×

3
4

= ( − 2) × 3

1m

= –6

1m

Module PMR

3. a). Find the value of

3

− 0.216 .
1 3 27
.
− −
2
8

b). Calculate the value of

4. a). Find the value of

0.81 .

(

)

2

b). Calculate the value of 4.5 ÷ 3 27 .

5. a). Find the value of

343 .
b). Calculate the value of 15 –
3

3

− 64 .

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 20

Module PMR
3

 1
6. a). Find the value of  −  .
 4
9
1
b). Calculate the value of
.
÷
64
16

24
.
25
b). Calculate the value of 92 + 122 .

7. a). Find the value of

1

8. a). Find the value of

7

1
.
9

(

)

2

b). Calculate the value of 33 − 144 .

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 21

Module PMR

9. a). Find the value of (- 0.4)2 .
2
b). Calculate the value of 5.5 ÷ 25 .

(

)

3

 1
10. a). Find the value of  −  .
 5
b). Calculate the value of 52 x

3

1
.
4
b). Calculate the value of 102 –

11. a). Find the value of

216
.
125

3

− 1000 .

20

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 22

Module PMR

12. a). Find the value of

3

0.216 .

b). Calculate the value of

(

0.81 + 0.3 .

)

27
.
8

( 3 marks )

)

( 3 marks )

2

PMR Past Years Questions
2004
a). Find the value of

3

0.512 .

b). Calculate the value of 42 x

3

2005
3

 1
a). Find the value of  −  .
 4

(

2

b). Calculate the value of 4.2 ÷ 3 27 .

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 23

Module PMR

2006
a). Find the value of

0.49 .

 25 
− 1
b). Calculate the value of 
16

3

( 3 marks )

2007
a). Find the value of

3

− 64 .
3

1

b). Calculate the value of  × 36  .
2

( 3 marks )

2008
a). Find the value of

3

1
.
27

(

)

2

b). Calculate the value of 16 − 81 .

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 24

( 3 marks )

Module PMR

CHAPTER 2 : SQUARES ROOTS,CUBES,&CUBE ROOTS
ANSWERS
A.
1). 9

2). 36

3). 64

4). 81

5). 121

6). 144

7). 4

8). 16

9). 25

10). 49

11). 81

12). 100

13).

1
4

14).

4
25

15).

9
49

16).

36
11
=1
25
25

17).

16
81

18).

16
7
=1
9
9

19).

121
4
= 13
9
9

20).

49
144

21). 0.16

22). 1.44

23). 0.09

24). 0.0025

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 25

Module PMR

B.
1). 2

2). 5

3). 8

4). 9

5). 10

6). 12

7). 15

8). 14

9).

1
8

2
5

10).

11).

3
10

12).

4
1
=1
3
3

13).

5
1
=1
4
4

14).

10
1
=3
3
3

15).

7
1
=3
2
2

16).

5
9

17).

12
5
=1
7
7

18).

11
1
=2
5
5

19). 0.8

20). 0.05

21). 1.1

22). 1.5

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 26

Module PMR

C.
1). 8

2). 64

3). 343

4). – 125

5). – 27

6). 1000

7).

8
125

8).

9).

1
216

10).

11). −

125
17
= −4
27
27

27
64
125
61
=1
64
64

12). −

343
1000

13). 0.001

14). 0.216

15). – 0.008

16). – 0.00027

17). 1.728

18). – 0.064

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 27

Module PMR

D.
1). 2

2). 3

3). 6

4). – 5

5). – 8

6). 7

7). – 10

9).

11).

3
4
10
=2
5

8).

1
2

10).

3
1
=1
2
2

12). −

3
1
= −1
2
2

13). 0.7

14). 0.5

15). – 0.4

16). – 0.5

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 28

Module PMR

No.

Marking Scheme

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 29

Marks

Module PMR

1.

1
9

1

b). ( - 2 )3

1

-8

1

a).

=3

2.
a). 0.2

1

b). 16 + 3

1

19

1
=3

3.
a). – 0.6

1

1 3
+
2 2

1

4
=2
2

1

b).

=3

4.
a). 0.9

1

b). ( 1.5 )2

1

2.25

1
=3

5.
a). 7

1

b). 15 + 4

1

19

1
=3

6.

1
64

1

3 4
×
8 1

1

3
1
=1
2
2

1

a). −

b).

7.
Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 30

=3

Module PMR

a).
b).

8.

7
2
=1
5
5
225

1
1
1
=3

15
8
2
=2
a).
3
3

1

b). 152

1

225

1
=3

9.
a). 0.16

1

b). ( 1.1)2

1

1.21

1
=3

10.

a). −

1
125

1

b).

 6
25 ×  − 
 5

1

- 30

1
=3

11.

a).

9
1
=4
2
2

1

b). 100 + 10

1

110

1

a). 0.6

1

b). ( 1.2 )2

1

=3

12.

1.44

1
=3

2004
Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 31

Module PMR

a). 0.8

1

b). 16 × −

2005

3
2

1

- 24

1

1
64

1

a). −

b). ( 1.4)2
1.96

=3

1
1
=3

2006
a). 0.7
1
b).  
4

1
3

1

1
64

1

a). – 4

1

b). ( 3 )3

1

=3

2007

27

1
=3

2008

1
a). −
3

1

b). 72

1

49

1

Squares, Square Roots,Cubes & Cube Roots 32

=3

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