The Resolution is inherently founded in the desire to “move forward” and not look back at its past mistakes

. Instead, it progresses in endless consumption and consumerism by creating this grandiose advertisement in the debate community that we should commit to investment of transportation infrastructure Pricen 10 - Ph.D., Political Economy and Government, 1988, Harvard University, M.P.A., 1983,
Harvard University, B.A. cum laude, Biology, 1975, Pomona College (Thomas, Treading Softly: Paths to Ecological Order, pg. 39-41)//EA To begin, in the climate debate, after the skeptics became marginalized in the face of overwhelming evidence, the signal would go something like this: Okay, climate change is real and it’s largely caused by humans. As leaders in politics and business, we get that. And we know there are other problems like tainted food and polluted water. We get that, too. But listen, there’s no point dwelling on the past. What’s done is done. We’ve gotta move forward. How often does such a statement sound right (no use crying over spilled milk; the past is past), and yet somehow suspicious? What this rhetoric does is divert people’s attention. It deflects real action. It lets off the hook those who have written the rules of the game—the game of endless extraction and consumption—and who themselves have profited so handsomely from that game. And it perpetuates that very same game, only with a green gloss. Here’s how. First, the very phrase move forward sounds reasonable. In fact, in one sense, it is the only option: one cannot go back to the past. What’s more, it is very agreeable: Yes, we burned fossil fuels and warmed the planet. Yes, we consumed voraciously. But we can’t go back and undo our wrongs. No point in trying. All we can do is, well, move forward. If the phrase move forward has a modern ring to it, that’s because it is the quintessential rhetorical expression of progress. Progressives never look back. Theirs is a steady march forward, right up that ridge, never looking back or down or sideways. Second, the phrase is suspicious because those who use it do not spell it out. ―Move forward” is a journey metaphor. We’re all on a path to our destination—a distant mountain peak, say—and we’ve been stopped by a fallen log or we’ve slipped on loose grave. Gotta pick ourselves up, dust of, and get going again— forward, of course; on the same path, of course. No mention of other paths. No questioning whether this path or this mountain is the right one. Third, to proclaim the need to “move forward” is to claim that what we have always done is what we will always do, what we must do. And what we must do is stay the course. Progressives (and they span the political spectrum, from left to right) use the phrase to justify the status quo. It justifies the current path and absolves of responsibility those who tread this path. It lets off the hook those who have promoted endless growth and mindless consumption, who haven’t a qualm about displacing the costs onto the poor and weak and onto future generations, who have manipulated and deceived others for self-gain. And, fourth, the “move forward” order is convenient, especially in a society dedicated to progress, to seeing bounteous plenty in the future and backward misery in the past . It is a convenient rhetorical tool for painting opponents (including those of us who question the path of continuous industrial expansion and the mountain of consumer goods) as antiprogress, as ne’er-do-wells acting against all that makes modern life good. But all kinds of “progress” are hidden in the “moving forward” rhetoric. Failures are excused, misdeeds forgiven. Everything continues, unchallenged, unchallengeable. And for defenders of endless industrial growth, commercialization, commodification, and consumerism, it means business as usual, just greener and more efficient. What to do? First, whenever the term is used, assume, until proven otherwise, that it is self-serving, self-justifying, and manipulative. It cannot, needless to say, be a basis for getting on a sustainable path. Second, do not let apologists for the status quo get away with painting the alternative to their path as going backward, turning off the lights, crawling inot the cave and shivering in the dark. There are other paths and other mountains and new valleys. They exist. And so they are possible. One might call these alternative paths “restrained consumption,” “healthy community,” “sustainable living.‖

Accumulate in order to accumulate. it also directs us towards predetermined channels of behavior and thus it “is ultimately as constraining as it is enabling” (Miles 147). While more traditional forms of social organization “required subjects to renounce their private enjoyment in the name of social duty. This emerging society of commanded enjoyment is not concomitant with capitalism in general. McGowan starts by registering the enjoyment explosion surrounding us in consumer society and develops the hypothesis that it marks a significant shift in the structure of the social bond. Indeed. in this sense.was initially based on “postponement. the desire of the Other par excellence.” and recent consumption research is becoming increasingly more alert to this forced choice of consumerism: “It is now something of a duty to explore personal identity through consumption” . Already in 1968. The desire stimulated . the deferral of jouissances. Pages 83-103. choices and experiences as individuals. of sacrificing enjoyment for the sake of social duty. produce in order to produce” (Goux 203-4).embodies the violent dimension of an irresistible commandment.and bourgeois political economy .by advertising discourse is. Baudrillard had captured the moral dynamics of an “obligation to buy. In The System of Objects. Simply put. . in particular. with its reliance on “work ethic” and Max Weber‟s delayed gratification (Sennett 31). The ascetic mode of accumulation. It is the emergence of mass production and a consumer culture that signifies the beginning of “the turn to the command to enjoy.And this Consumerism has changed into a nuance of commanded enjoyment. advertisements. he is mainly known for his explorations of the importance of psychoanalytic theory for contemporary political and cultural analysis. in our societies of commanded enjoyment “the private enjoyment that threatened the stability of the society of prohibition becomes a stabilizing force and even acquires the status of a duty” (3). today the only duty seems to consist in enjoying oneself as much as possible” (2).” but it is only with late capitalist globalization that the transformation is completed (McGowan 33). Societies of prohibition were founded on an idealization of sacrifice. The seemingly innocent and benevolent call to “enjoy!” . in social organization (1). patient retention with a view to the supplementary jouissance that is calculated. and especially its central role in instituting and reproducing the social order in late capitalism. late capitalism. In societies of commanded enjoyment duty makes sense predominantly as a duty to enjoy: “duty is transformed into a duty to enjoy. was the foundation of a whole civilization of thrift which enjoyed its own heroic period” (172). “capitalism sustained and necessitated its own form of prohibition” (McGowan 31). A member of the Essex School of discourse analysis. Todd McGowan‟s recent book The End of Dissatisfaction? deserves much praise in this respect. Lacan was perhaps the first to perceive the importance of this paradoxical hybrid when he linked the command “enjoy!” with the superego: “The superego is the imperative of jouissance .and imposed . .as in “Enjoy Coca-Cola!” . In its initial phases. In particular. . the classical bourgeois attitude . in sacrifice . where our desires are biopolitically controlled and we enter predetermined channels of behavior established by a consuming paradox Stavrakakis 2006 (Yannis Stavrakakis. . rooted in forethought.) Recent Lacanian theorizations of consumer society have highlighted these political implications of consumerism. which is precisely the commandment of the superego” (McGowan 34). Baudrillard had also described this shift from an ascetic model of ethics organized around sacrifice to a new morality of enjoyment: “the status of a whole civilization changes along with the way in which its everyday objects make themselves present and the way in which they are enjoyed . This is the call that is addressed to us from all sides: the media. he speaks of a passage from a society of prohibition into a society of commanded enjoyment(2). is a Greek political theorist. Thus Lacan is offering a revealing insight into what has been described as the “consuming paradox”: while consumerism seems to broaden our opportunities. early capitalism “thwarted enjoyment to the same extent that [many] traditional societies did” (31). He was the first to detect in this innocent call the unmistakable mark of power and authority. Causes of Desire: Consumerism and Advertising in Societies of Commanded Enjoyment. even our own friends. it characterizes.Enjoy!” (Seminar XX 3). Objects of Consumption.

However. recognizing the extent of our “obedience” to this enjoyment commandment cannot be enough to “find a way out of this obedience” (194). authority and symbolic power are as operative as in “societies of prohibition”: “enforced happiness and enjoyment” are the equivalent of the traditional imperatives to work and produce (Consumer Society 80). where we securitize ourselves through a need to cover up these fears in a form of destructive consumerism McGregor 2003 (Dr. certain things remain unchanged.20 This was something also observed by Baudrillard. he is mainly known for his explorations of the importance of psychoanalytic theory for contemporary political and cultural analysis. to dis-invest consumption acts and dis-identify with consumerism. without such a dis-investment and the cultivation of alternative (ethical) administrations of jouissance. that what we encounter here. Pages 83-103. apart from products and advertising fantasies. It is here that “the triumph of advertising” is located. McGowan uses the word “obedience” to refer to our attachment to the enjoyment commandment. A member of the Essex School of discourse analysis. These two interrelated tasks comprise the very core of our ethico-political predicament in late modernity. Not only is this novel articulation of power and enjoyment hard to recognize and to thematize. Every society has to come to terms with the impossibility of attaining jouissance as fullness. What remains the same is. in opposition to what McGowan seems to imply. we cannot properly destroy the consumerist paradox Stavrakakis 2006 (Yannis Stavrakakis. however. From a psychoanalytic point of view. In our consumer societies.form of power. Prohibition and commanded enjoyment are two such distinct strategies designed to institute the social bond and legitimize authority and power in different ways. no real change can be effected. then the command to enjoy is only revealed as “a more nuanced form of prohibition”. Undergraduate Peace and Conflict Studies Program . 21 However. enabling facade: it does not oppose and prohibit but openly attempts to embrace and appropriate le sujet de la jouissance. albeit an important moral shift. We have seen throughout this essay how dissatisfaction and lack remain firmly inscribed within the dialectics of late capitalist consumerism. Indeed. in both cases.19 The command to enjoy is just a form of power which makes us obey to this enjoyment. The command to enjoy is nothing but an advanced. much more nuanced . Sue McGregor is Coordinator.with other means . it is even harder to de-legitimize in practice. the administration of enjoyment and the structuration of desire are always implicated in the institution of the social bond. It is more effective than the traditional model not because it is less constraining or less binding but because its violent exclusionary aspect is masked by its vow to enhance enjoyment. But if this is the case. Nevertheless. it is only the fantasies produced and circulated to mask or at least domesticate this trauma that can vary. Causes of Desire: Consumerism and Advertising in Societies of Commanded Enjoyment.) Let me make clear. Objects of Consumption. Consumerism causes a sense of fear in individuals.(Daunton and Hilton 31). is a Greek political theorist.the traditional function of symbolic Law and power (39). and in fact do vary immensely.18 In late capitalist consumer society this is the interpellating command that constructs us as social subjects: thus. the impossibility of realizing the fantasy: “The fundamental thing to recognize about the society of enjoyment is that in it the pursuit of enjoyment has misfired: the society of enjoyment has not provided the enjoyment that it promises” (McGowan 7). as Adorno and Horkheimer already knew: “consumers feel compelled to buy and use its products even though they see through them” (167). is not some kind of radical historical break of cosmological proportions. by its productive.and much more difficult to resist . thus making the command to enjoy the root of all consumerism and without recognizing it through the psychoanalyst lens and diverting the jouissance. first of all. what is also manufactured is consumers (Fine 168). it continues .

2003). and happiness. In this sense. He says that people feel they can become a new person by purchasing those products that support their self-image of whom they are. and (c) engaging in cultural endeavors as very communal. 2003).html) Unfortunately. the next generation. they spend more to cover up the fear. they conclude that they must arm themselves to protect their commodities and the ongoing access to them. prisoner (―A QUIET AND DEADLY VIOLENCE. This position justifies war and violence (Cejka. Although people perceive each of the isolated (a) personal moments of consumption. The "veil of consumerism" enables them to overlook the connections between consumerism and oppressive regimes (governments.Mount Saint Vincent University. and transnational corporations) that violate human rights.angelfire. Date made 2003. and boost military spending (Sankofa. Date retrieved May 18. and self-fulfilment. Wisalo (1999) suggests that such destructive consumerism occurs because of humans' insecurity in their hearts and minds. Halifax. Consumerism is the misplaced belief (myth) that consuming will gratify the individual. Society has ignored the "new slavery" and the resultant disposable people through ignoring the implications of consumption decisions on third world citizens. 1994). http://www. isolation. Nova Scotia.html. this approach to becoming a new person. It has cocooned them to the extent that they are blinded to their destructive ways. whatever maximizes individual happiness is considered the best action and that line of thinking gets translated into accumulating goods and using more services (Goodwin. Halifax. Nova Scotia. Ironically. In a consumer society. This disregard is possible because consumerism accentuates and accelerates human fragmentation. that their priorities are mixed up.‖ accessible at http://www. 1997). Sue McGregor is Coordinator. that their moral center is being lost so . and exclusion for the profit of the few.kon. http://www.kon. It supplements work. an individual's identity is tied to what she or he consumes. ) . self-realization. Society has even gone so far as to understand consumerism to be a vehicle for freedom. want to be. the deeper needs of humanity. People eventually begin to think that things are out of whack. Constantly spending and accumulating only gives short-term fulfilment and relief from the need to have peace and security in life. “Consumerism as a Source of Structural Violence”. Undergraduate Peace and Conflict Studies Program Mount Saint Vincent University. temporary sense of inner peace because the religion of the market (a system of beliefs) co-opts aspects of humanity and spirituality. This ignorance of structural violence maintains the system—it outweighs nuclear war and is linear Mumia Abu-Jamal 98 – activist. former Black Panther member. increase drug trade. or ecological interest. 2013. and where they want to go. this practice creates a false. people allegedly consume to gain this security. In a consumer society. People "under the influence of consumerism" never feel completely satisfied because owning something cannot help meet the security of heart and mind. Date retrieved May 18. “Consumerism as a Source of Structural Violence”. world financial institutions. religion. . People buy more than they need for basic subsistence and are concerned for their self-interest rather than for mutual. (b) working within the home. To exacerbate this fear. Too often. Ackerman & Kiron. inherently tied to global economic and political processes. to developing a sense of self. And this consumerism creates an invisible violence through the institution of modern slavery to the commodity McGregor 2003 (Dr. is unsustainable. technology has left people isolated with no sense of belonging. and those not yet born (Sankofa). it is an acceptance of consumption as a way to self-development. and politics as the main mechanism by which social status and distinction are achieved. Date made 2003.html) Persons living in a consumer society live a comfortable life at the expense of impoverished labourers and fragile ecosystems in other countries. contributing significantly to violence (Board of the Commission of the Churches on International . 2013. they are actually very public actions. Unfortunately.

based solely upon its time in existence. I am contrasting "structural" with "behavioral violence" by which I mean the non-natural deaths and injuries that are caused by specific behavioral actions of individuals against individuals. Structural Violence is a direct result of the ignorance that permeates from consumer society. as shown by the thousands of cases of social and communal 20. Former Massachusetts prison official and writer. equally immersed. and custom. this violence was sanctified. Add to this the nonlethal violence that Americans daily inflict on each other. This intense selfhatred was often manifested in familial violence as when the husband beats the wife. concerning how to distribute the collective York: Vintage. without regard to the rightness of those ways. soldiers in warfare.It has often been observed that America is a truly violent nation. In the struggles over the commons in Europe. feeds on the spectacular and more common forms of violence that the system makes damn sure -that we can recognize and must react to it. MD. or be discarded as a threat and a danger to life. and commons. No system that causes this kind of harm to people should be allowed to remain. Systems are essentially ways of doing things that have concretized into tradition. and every single year. and that structure is itself a product of society's collective human choices. and un. is invisible to us and because of its invisibility. no matter how oppressive that status was. and imposed terrifying penalties on those who persisted in claiming the old rights to these resources. as omnipotent as death. two to three times as many people die from poverty throughout the world as were killed by the Nazi genocide of the Jews over a six-year period. then. turned back on the Self. throughout the world. as contrasted by those who are above them. all the more insidious. (52) The as now. and we begin to see the tracings of a nation immersed in a fever of violence. in The New Class War (Pantheon. in effect. not the most violent features of living in the midst of the American empire. or is. then. on the average. p. so that their great and terrible violence passes away with them. and is. and to a deeper degree. By "structural violence that occurs daily in the nation. 1982/1985): They did not lose because landowners were immune to burning and preaching and rioting. yet ever present. some violence" I mean the increased rates of death and disability suffered by those who occupy the bottom rungs of society. as many people die because of relative poverty as would be killed in a nuclear war that caused 232 million deaths. 192. by church and crown. and additional 20. ruling-class protected media. Every year. as the 'Divine Right of Kings' to the spoils of class battle. as now. a weapon against the poor and impoverished. and so on. it is. in a nation that condones and ignores wide-ranging "structural' violence. buried. --(Gilligan. the equivalent of an ongoing. These are not acts of God. Scholars Frances FoxPiven and Richard A Cloward wrote.000 people are killed by others. suicide. much of that violence became internalized. in a society based on the priority of wealth. in fact accelerating. submerged beneath the sands of history. Violence: Reflections On a National Epidemic (New form of violence. It punished retail violence.) This excess deaths (or at least a demonstrably large proportion of them) are a function of the wealth of the society. This vicious. instead of the social order that promotes this self-loathing. of a kind that destroys human life with a breathtaking ruthlessness. or genocide on the weak and poor every year of every decade. the wife smacks the son. and is the worst impact as it normalizes . because. James Gilligan observes. 1996).000 folks kill themselves. [Gilligan. in a thoroughly capitalist society. and harrowing as this level and degree of violence is. corporate. such as the deaths we attribute to homicide. The law was. and invisible violence. as if something is inherently wrong with themselves. was a tool of the powerful to protect their interests. It was the state that made lawful the appropriation by landowners of the forests. This fatal and systematic violence may be called The War on the Poor. Those class structure. capital punishment. J. not covered by any of the majoritarian. Systems must serve life. by far. as remarkable. uncriticized in substandard educational systems. It was the state that imposed increased taxes or enforced the payment of increased rents. This is. It was the state that freed serfs or emancipated sharecroppers only to leave them landless. Dr. How dangerous is it--really? Gilligan notes: [E]very fifteen years. then. But. unending. It is found in every country. a tool of state power. when the peasants struggled and lost their battles for their commonal lands (a precursor to similar struggles throughout Africa and the Americas). It was "Law". We live. Such systems must pass away. thermonuclear war.. and the kids fight each other. They lost because the usurpations of owners were regularly defended by the legal authority and the armed force of the state. 196] Worse still. streams. and evicted or jailed those who could not pay the resulting debts. circular.understood by the very folks who suffer in its grips. while turning a blind eye to the wholesale violence daily done by their class masters. those who own nothing are taught to loathe themselves. utilized to protect the status quo. unacknowledged by the corporate media.

html) Johan Galtung (1969) first coined the term structural violence intending it to refer to the presence of justice (positive peace) to balance the prevailing focus on negative peace. n32 Hegel agreed with classical liberal philosophy that freedom is the essence of human nature. people of different sexual orientation. Nova Scotia. Those outside "our group" lie outside our scope of interest and justice. structural inequities usually seem ordinary. n30 Although Hegel does not use [*496] the express vocabulary of eroticism." n34 Hegel adopted the liberal Kantian conception of freedom as . Date retrieved May 18. racial. 483 According to Hegel. and religious groups. we treat them as substitutes for our true object of desire . Unequal access to resources. Injustice that would be instantaneously confronted if it occurred to someone in "our group" is barely noticed if it occurs to strangers or those who are invisible and irrelevant. economic security. and lack of opportunities due to no fault of their own. freedom can become actualized only through the type of relationship that Lacan would call "love. All desire is a desire of the Other---our endless desire to consume is no more than an unfulfillable fantasy---we always constantly desire more. may not comprehend the origin of the conflict. each abstract person (that is. they are happy not to get involved. 1999). Because they are longstanding. exploitation. stigmatization. Cardozo School of Law. Structural violence can also occur in a society if institutions and policies are designed in such a way that barriers result in lack of adequate food. 1998). collective humiliation. clothing. As long as their little world of peace and relative prosperity is not disturbed. as economists pretend. This perception is readily escalated because people's perceptual and cognitive processes normally divide people into in-groups and out-groups. They are invisible. education. But this desire is not. Worse yet. “Consumerism as a Source of Structural Violence”. and regular experience. Benjamin N. safe and just working conditions. we seek property and engage in market transactions out of unfulfillable desire . Schroeder 98 Professor of Law. the individual in the state of nature posited by Enlightenment political philosophy) seeks to actualize his potential freedom through recognition by others. COMMENTARY: THE END OF THE MARKET: A PSYCHOANALYSIS OF LAW AND ECONOMICS 112 Harv. and family relationships. The people most affected by structural violence are women. or legal standing are all forms of structural violence (Winter & Leighton. n33 but thought that freedom was merely potential in the "state of nature" of autonomous individuality. and sexual orientation. To Hegel. A consumer society is one that is prepared to sacrifice its ethics on the altar of the material 'feel-good' factor" (Benton. Those adversely affected by structural violence are not involved in direct conflict that is readily identifiable. per se. women. http://www. . n31 When we repress this derivative aspect of our desire for objects. inequities. We desire things derivatively as a means of achieving our true desire . even those who are victims of structural violence often do not see the systematic ways in which their plight is choreographed by unequal and unfair distribution of society's resources or by human constraint caused by economic and political structures.structural deficiencies to different races. Rev. etc. Halifax. repression. Because they. children. 2013.the desire of the Other. Date made 2003. embedded in ubiquitous social structures. . education. housing. McGregor 2003 (Dr. so we do not have to acknowledge the injustice they suffer (Winter & Leighton.kon. "Consumerism is the drug that causes people to fall into moral sleep and remain silent on all kinds of public matters. and others. utility. or are blamed. exclusion. marginalization. . Those who fall outside "our group" are easily morally excluded and become demeaned or invisible. in Lacanian psychoanalysis this longing to understand oneself through recognition is desire (specifically Eros). for their own life conditions. to the point where death becomes the only cure to our desires Jeanne L. they feel they are to blame. the way things are and always have been done. normalized by stable institutions. Whereas direct violence and war are very visible. health care. People affected by structural violence tend to live a life of oppression. structural violence is almost invisible. Yeshiva University. To Hegel. and elders. It is against this background of consumer complacency that all kinds of moral relaxation can arise . health. or wealth. political power. 1999). a desire for material things. the absence of war and violence. Undergraduate Peace and Conflict Studies Program Mount Saint Vincent University. Sue McGregor is Coordinator. those from different L.

" n47 [*499] In other words. In contrast. and market relations . the negativity in the center of the human soul is optimistically seen as the absence of constraints that makes freedom possible. appropriated.the perfect complementary soulmate who will serve as the yin to our yang. n43 In abstract right. n45 In the symbolic relation he called sexuality. and exchange of a mysterious object of desire. we can ask whether the particular moves recently in the United States to reform the financial regulatory regime and the health-care system will help rebuild. the collective containers that will make such mourning possible. more complex stages of [*497] personality) only by being recognized as a subject by a person whom one in turn recognizes as a subject . Love is always.radical negativity n35 . n36 By this I mean that Hegel posited that the abstract person can achieve legal subjectivity n37 (and. The dialectic of desire ultimately can be solved only by death.that the lovers be kept apart. To achieve one's desire is death. but only insofar as desire remains unfulfilled . but in order to bestow them on others in order to increase their dignity. closer examination reveals that their theories are linked by the recognition that subjectivity is intersubjectivity mediated by objectivity. . although Hegel and Lacan might at first blush seem like radically different the simplest and most primitive manifestation of this dialectic of desire. driven to help others fulfill and exceed their highest potential in the hope that. The negativity or "split" that lies at the center of our psyche is seen pessimistically. The regime of abstract right . we want the other to desire (recognize) us. Hegel insists that relationships be mediated . doi:10. they share the foundational figure of homo economicus as the working assumption regarding the behaviour of individuals‟. and man is in a constant state of yearning. enjoyment. distributed and consumed.1057/sub. In tragedy. In particular O¨ zselc¸uk and Madra argue that „[ e]ven though New Keynesian “designers” differ from the “Chicago boys” in the way they parse out the question of when greed becomes a problem and how to govern it [with proper institutional incentives]. and as the space that permits growth and creativity. The contradictions of personality cannot be permanently resolved. to some extent. enjoyment. University of Essex. O¨ zselc¸uk and Madra do so by relying on a mix of Lacanian theory and a non-structuralist. it is precisely its postponement that creates desire. growth. n40 The desire of the Hegelian (Symbolic) marketplace is the Lacanian concept of Eros. The Hegelian dialectic shows how the contradictions within the abstract person in the state of nature are resolved through social relations.17 ebsco Given the above analysis. they will then turn around and recognize us as their equals. efficiency. therefore. this mediator is property. Instead such a regime continues to encourage individuals to fight for scarce surpluses ‘animated by fantasy frames of entrepreneurship.2010. processes of appropriation and distribution have been subject to different principles of governance. thereby keeping questions about the appropriation and distribution of surplus as „the untouchable limit of public debate‟. n51 Jouissance is the root cause of our drives to endlessly consume Glynos & Stavrakkakis 10 Jason Glynos is Senior Lecturer in Political Theory at the Department of Government. once they do so. and reinforced by Lacan in the link explicitly made by him between „surplus enjoyment‟ and Marx‟s „surplus value‟. Eros can be postponed only so long. We can bear this pain only by adopting one of a number of delusions that Lacan identified with sexual identity. upward mobility. n38 We are. however. unrequited . I mean that in order to ensure that both parties to the dialectic of recognition remain free and that neither party subsumes the other. that neo-Keynesian New Deal solutions have their limits. the death wish . nonhumanist Marxism that seeks to repoliticize the conditions under which surplus is produced. contract. therefore. n49 Hegel emphasized what might be called the comic side of this dialectic. Eros is creative. This abstract concept becomes concrete through social relations. we create legal and other rights not to claim them for ourselves." n46 This necessity for mediation is one of the meanings of Lacan's famous slogan: "There is no [direct and unmediated] sexual and exchange of external objects. Moreover. desire is always postponed. Postponement eventually turns into procrastination. When I say that Hegel postpones the consummation of desire. n48 They also both agree that the freedom at the center of human subjectivity is radical negativity. n44 Similarly. more importantly. and result in the death of one or more of the protagonists. And so we must eventually give way to Thanatos. including the market and the family . By according foundational status to economic incentives and processes of market exchange both approaches are understood by O¨ zselc¸uk and Madra as variants of neo-liberal governmentality. While consumption processes have been animated by an enjoyment (jouissance) that gorges on credit because it ‘knows nothing about rational moderation’ . n42 Hegel understands that the paradox of desire is that to be true to one's desire." n39 Man's desire is "the desire of the Other" in both senses of the expression . abstract persons seek subjectivity through mutual recognition through possession. conflicts prove to be irresolvable. 225–230. which Lacan called the "Phallus.we want to have the other. “Politics and the unconscious” Subjectivity (2010) 3. Such a relationship of mutual recognition in which each party helps the other become more than they were originally is "love. Indeed. and re-establish trust in. n50 In comedy.there are no perfect soulmates. but. n41 As the myth of Orpheus shows us. Lacan emphasizes that these relationships are always imperfect and mediated. They thereby continue in a tradition that links psychoanalyis and the economy. Maybe. Lacan insists that psychic subjectivity can be achieved only through recognition by others . abstract persons seek subjectivity through mutual recognition in a regime of possession. Yannis Stavrakakis studied political science at Panteion University (Athens) and discourse analysis at Essex. Eros is an attempt to achieve perfection through an immediate relation with another .the total absence of constraints. Eros always threatens to become Thanatos. In our search for recognition. and so on‟. by at least temporarily postponing its [*498] consummation. conflicts are resolved in a happy ending (traditionally including the marriage of two or more of the protagonists). In the regime of abstract right. If Hegel emphasizes that relationships occur. Lacan emphasized the tragic side of this dialectic. O¨ zselc¸uk and Madra suggest. starting with Freud. one must prolong it .

in-depth theory of the mind. late capitalist economic-political nexus. he is mainly known for his explorations of the importance of psychoanalytic theory for contemporary political and cultural analysis. among others. in capitalist . Indeed.along its Freudian-Lacanian axis . A member of the Essex School of discourse analysis. Date retrieved March 1. Causes of Desire: Consumerism and Advertising in Societies of Commanded Enjoyment .) As Garry Cross has put it. Psychoanalytic theory . Stavrakakis 2006 (Yannis Stavrakakis. their behaviors and motivations in a wide range of arenas from . Psychoanalysis is key in understanding human behavior and solving problems on a critical scale APsaA 2013 (American Psychoanalytic Association is a group of psychoanalysts who can help people with problems. psychoanalytic insight can enrich the understanding of human beings.aspx) In addition to being a specialized type of therapy.can paradigmatically accomplish this task. Objects of Consumption. a whole way of life? In this essay I will argue that the emerging hegemony of consumerism cannot be explained without taking seriously the dimensions of desire and consumer culture marks a significant shift in the way the social bond is structured in relation to enjoyment and reveals its central role in sustaining the current. despite all the opposition.societies it is the role of consumption and consumerism and the function of advertising. seems to be “the „ism‟ that won” (1). is a Greek political theorist. psychoanalysis is also a comprehensive. public relations and branding. 2013. It succeeded where other ideologies and discourses failed. The question is how? How was the act of consumption instituted as the undisputable nodal point of a whole culture. It has many applications. Using the uniquely psychoanalytic explanatory tools of the unconscious. revealing how the symbolically conditioned desire for consumption acts is stimulated by advertising fantasies and supported by the (partial) enjoyment entailed in desiring and consuming products as well as advertisements. Only through psychoanalysis can we properly analyze methods of desire and drive in a status quo rooted in consumption.especially late capitalist . Channeling desire in particular directions. that offer perhaps the best example of how new interpellations and commands can re-shape social structure by imposing their hegemonic grip on individual and group identifications and behavior. transference and development. http://www. They also delve into issues revolving the concept and practice of psychoanalysis. consumerism. Thus the role of the ballot is such that the judge understands the concept of commanded enjoyment fantasies and decides to divert the jouissance which compels us to continue to follow commanded enjoyment. Date made 2013.Thus my partner and I advocate that we psychoanalyze the consumerism underlying in USFG transportation infrastructure.apsa. Pages 83-103.

the law. and that they can become angry and vengeful when idealized figures disappoint them. education. The careful studies of psychoanalysts have enabled us to develop an explanatory theory that puts these great passions in context and allows us to predict the course they may take. psychoanalysis is about the story of human beings. Benjamin N. Rev. Schroeder 98 Professor of Law. If we win a root cause we win---the very questioning of consumerism leads to new alternatives Jeanne L. dictate specific policy recommendations. The themes of psychoanalysis are those found in great literature – power. which is reflected in the banal cliche that "it takes a theory to beat a theory. Yeshiva University. "If law and economics analysis is flawed. family relations. philosophy) is important as a means of self-understanding and as a tool for critiquing theories. insecurity. then what do you propose as an alternative?". as an empirical matter. one of many hundreds. I would suggest that it is often this dissatisfaction with the status quo that leads the creative scholar to seek out the new alternative. and the infinite variation of human experience. As a Hegelian. but it looks at these phenomena and tells a story from a unique perspective – “what lies beneath” the surface. It cannot. . For example. 483 Although I end this Commentary with some practical advice. Cardozo School of Law. which can be phrased as. unconscious need to idealize their leaders and others in authority. attachment. This psychoanalytic concept. I do not attempt here to develop a new paradigm. Essentially. advertising." n17 Even if Kuhn is correct that. however. and so on. Indeed. n16 The policy question. longing. a given discipline will not reject an existing paradigm until an alternative is developed. and popular culture. While always acknowledging the uniqueness of the individual. ideals. isolation. To Hegel. we know that human beings often have a powerful. developed a set of useful understandings about common human psychological experiences. I believe that logical analysis (that is. is inapt if it suggests that the legal scholar should engage in "business as usual" until an alternative is proposed. L. over the decades. not logic. inspires and sometimes cripples them. one can often perceive that an existing paradigm is ripe to be replaced before one develops the revolutionary paradigm (or research program) that will replace it. what motivates. This approach is a vulgar oversimplification of Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific paradigms. ambition. the implications for policy can be decided only by pragmatism. the arts. can be extremely valuable in understanding certain political to politics to sports. COMMENTARY: THE END OF THE MARKET: A PSYCHOANALYSIS OF LAW AND ECONOMICS 112 Harv. literature. psychoanalysis has.

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