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1st Assignment: Essay & Grammar


1. ESSAY
1.1 How to 1 1.2 Planning and Development of Tourism Products 1 1.3 Tourism Advertising 3 1.4 Destination Image + Promoting Portugal as a Tourism Destination 4

2. GRAMMAR
2.1 Past Simple vs. Past Perfect 6 2.2 Passive Voice 6 2.3 Prepositions 6 2.4 If Clauses 7 2.5 Asking Questions 7

1. ESSAY 1.1 HOW TO


The better techniques are those where students attempt to record ideas and information in their own words. The main benefit of this approach is that it helps you to improve your own understanding on texts youve read. An essay should include: a) INTRODUCTION: Rephrasing key ideas. b) ARGUMENT: your opinion. b.1) claims and evidences: support your opinion. b.2) criticizing ideas: agreeing/disagreeing. c) RESTATING THE ARGUMENT: your opinion. d) CONCLUDING Expressions you should use: AGREEING DISAGREEING I couldnt agree with you more Im afraid I disagree Thats so true I totally disagree Thats exactly how I feel I beg to differ You have a point there Id say the exact opposite I was just going to say No, Im not so sure about that (as, because, since, due to the fact that)

1.2 PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM PRODUCTS


Tourism is in fact everyones business. It includes several areas of society which makes it a very complicated industry to be defined. Throughout the years researchers have

Pgina |2 been defining concepts such as tourist and touristic product with the purpose of making it easier to plan its development. A Touristic Product can be classified in several categories such as: accommodation services, food and beverages services, road/rail/water/air passenger transport, travel agency services, and motor vehicle rental, among loads of others. So we can start to define a Touristic Product as the activity or experience that a tourist participates in: its a service rather than a tangible good as it cannot be inspected by prospective purchasers before they buy. This last sentence allows us to conclude that any investment in a TP is a speculative investment that involves a high degree of trust that has been heightened by the development of sales via World Wide Web (dynamic packaging in which tourists themselves put their packages together through Internet suppliers). The main four characteristics of a TP is what justifies the commonly used expression Selling holidays is like selling dreams since consumers are not buying a simple collection of services, they are also buying the temporary use of a strange, new environment, hospitality and the whole atmosphere. Also, their evaluation of the service does not only include the trip itself but also the whole before and after experience (for e.g. the planning before the trip and the memories they keep afterwards). The main four characteristics are: A) INSEPARABILITY This specific characteristic refers to the fact that a touristic product generally involves several providers that cannot be individualized and that somehow are always linked to each other. B) PERISHABILITY Tourism is highly perishable in nature means one cannot store the product for a long time. Production and consumption take place while tourist is available. If the product remains unused the chances are lost. Production can only take place if the customer is actually present, and once the consumption begins, it cannot be stopped or modified meaning, most travel products are sold first and then simultaneously produced and consumed. C) INTANGIBILITY Tourism is an intangible product because it cannot be touched or seen and theres no transfer of ownership: the facilities are only available for specific time and use. D) COSTUMERS AS A PART OF THE PRODUCT As referred before, a touristic product cannot be consumed unless the consumer is actually present, so it is obvious that the costumer is going to be a part of the product itself since everyone has their own needs (such as pleasure, relaxation, health, business, education, etc), personality and believes. For e.g. we can identify all sorts of types of tourists that are oriented for a certain type of ideas: eco-oriented, culture/adventure-oriented, conservation-oriented, among others. Also, the costumer is involved in almost every stage of the product development so they are always going to influence the final result of the product itself. Other characteristics maybe be: seasonality, influence of exogenous factors, temporality and spatiality, etc.

Pgina |3 The fact that a TP cannot be brought to the consumer, rather, the consumer must be brought to the product, and taking in consideration all the characteristics that are unique to tourism, we can conclude that it is really important to apply considerable marketing skills that will make it possible to attract the right type of tourist to the right product, selling them their dream, meeting their expectations and satisfying their needs. 1.3 TOURISM ADVERTISING Marketing can be defined as a way of communication/information used by organizations that has the main purpose of establishing and develop long term relationships between company-consumer. It is separated between: A) PROMOTION first activity that allows a company to show what they have to offer (whats their service or product) through brochures or merchandising; its a short level term activity and it works on a strategic level. B) ADVERTISING used to break the boredom barrier; the ads must have punch, make the readers and viewers stop what pay them attention; they must have impact. Nowadays, advertising is everywhere and it is becoming more and more difficult to actually come up with strategies and ideas that will cause impact in the consumers since theres an appearance of phenomenons like clutter (increasing number of ads competing for audience attention). Through a well panned Marketing Plan it is possible for a company to create a brand, a unique combination of product characteristics and added value that comes from a theme or usually a catch phrase that gets the audiences attention. A Marketing Plan can be built according to 5 main stages: 1) ANALYZE SITUATION define the place where your company stands at the moment comparing with other companies of the industry. 2) OBJECTIVES what are the plans, goals, targets and aims of your company? 3) STRATEGIES whats the path your company wants to follow with the help of which particular tools? 4) TACTICS the specific actions that the company is actually using in a certain market in a certain format (media advertisements, brochures, merch, etc) 5) BUDGET how much the implementation of the whole Marketing Plan will cost you. The consumer has different stages of reaction to the Marketing Plans: 1) AWARENESS (market needs to know about the product) 2) COMPREHENSION (clients need to understand what the product involves) 3) ACCEPTANCE (clients must acknowledge that they need the product) 4) PREFERENCE (choose that brand among all others) 5) PURCHASE (clients buy the product) 6) REINFORCEMENT (confirmation of the clients choice to buy it) There are also various types of consumers: SEEKERS people who actively engage with advertising whether theyre looking for information/ideas/entertainment.

Pgina |4 REACTERS people who dont seek out advertising, but with sufficient exposure they are likely to respond to it. REJECTERS People who are aware of advertising but for one reason/another reject it. IGNORERS people who will always be oblivious to ads. There are also various models whilst planning the type of advertising a company should use to promote its product: A) SALES RESPONSE (price-based strategy that encourages the purchase of a product purely on the basis of its price) B) PERSUASION (ability to shift attitudes towards the brand and motivate the purchase) C) INVOLVEMENT (make the consumer relate to and empathize with the ad) D) SALIENCY (attempt to move the target audience emotionally closer to the brand product). Marketing as a huge importance in Tourism because the images produced by it are simply the only tangible element the consumer is going to have whilst forming their expectations. Creating your own brochure 1. Objectives: sell packages, highlight a new feature, tap into a new market segment, feature a special offer in cooperation with another operator. 2. Think costumer, think costumer, think costumer: show empathy for costumers needs/aspirations. 3. Unique selling factors: maximum impact, relevant information. 4. Format: AIDA (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action) 5. Use the right approach: be emotive 6. Maps 7. Images: natural/built patrimony, local people (natives) 8. Text: Adjectives (superlative form e.g. the eldest, the most authentic) + Imperative form (e.g. invest, come) + short sentences 9. Style and Layout: distinctive and attractive 10. Use of type of faces, pictures, colors 11. Sequence of presentation. 12. Distribution 13. Planning

1.4. DESTINATION IMAGE + PROMOTING PORTUGAL


What is destination image? Destination image can be defined has the sum of beliefs, ideas and impressions a person has of a certain destination. The image is a mental picture resulting from the cognitive and affective components and is essentially stereotypes of a destination. That image is never static, has always several levels of influence and can never be completely positive due to exogenous factors like epidemics, political riots, civil right violations, among others.

Pgina |5 What are the factors that influence destination image? PERSONAL FACTORS: - Previous experience that the tourist has/doesnt have of a destination - Gender - Age - Level of education - Motivations - Social Class - Country of origin DESTINATION FACTORS: - Atmosphere of the place - Natural Resources - General Infrastructure - Tourist Infrastructures - Culture, History and Art - Political and Economical Factors - Natural Environment - Social Environment What can be the information sources used by tourists? PRIMARY - Previous experience - Intensity of the visit SECUNDARY - Induced (brochures) - Organic (family/friends) - Autonomous (guidebooks) Promotion in Portugal: who and how? Turismo de Portugal is responsible for the promotion of Portugal as a destination providing technical and financial support for public and private bodies in the tourism sector, managing financial support and encouraging practices aimed at achieving excellence. The organization has the following goals: - increase Portugals reputation at a national and international level, consolidating the countrys image as a unique destination that is rich in experiences with a wide variety of landscapes and culture. - planning out the promotion of the country and its brands with the cooperation of Regional Tourism Promotion Agencies and local economic players. - make direct contact and articulating promotional activities in international tourism markets. - publicizing large-scale events and coordinate Portuguese participation in international trade fairs. - implementing new ways of interacting with tourists.

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2. GRAMMAR 2.1 PAST SIMPLE VS PAST PERFECT


PAST SIMPLE - Past event, finished action - Usually there is a date - 2nd column (verbs) E.g. I visited China in 2009. PAST PERFECT - Action started in the past but it still continues - Usually includes expressions like: never, ever, since, for, yet, already - Form: [present] to have + [3rd column] Past Participle of main verb E.g. I have never visited China.

2.2 PASSIVE VOICE


FORM: To be/same verb tense + Past Participle (3rd)/Main Verb E.G. PRESENT: The tourists visit the museum -> The museum is visited by the tourists. E.G. FUTURE: The tourists will visit the museum -> The museum will be visited by the tourists.

2.3 PREPOSITIONS
(http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/prepositions)

"at" (very specific info -> smallest) "on" (more specific info -> smaller) "in" (general info -> bigger)

TIME On: days of the week In: times of the day, months, year At: night, weekend

SPACE In: room, building, street, town, country, car, taxi, book At: meaning next to an object, for events or a place where you do typical things On: attached, being on a surface, for left/right, for public transport

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2.4 IF CLAUSES
FORM If + Past Perfect -> would have + Past Participle For example: - If I had been there, I would have visited the gallery. - If I had planned the event, I would have included a tour to Sintra. Useful to give opinions but its always about an action that already happened.

2.5 QUESTIONS
George is in France. - Who is in France? - Where is George? Auxiliaries (e.g.) Where does George study? or Where did George study last year?