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jOdGh NGh IMdG


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aBG L j bG Y hGC GM ` iNGC L e ` jh ,jf aJ
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jS J d e c jh ,iQdG jW Z e jh SG
hdH eCGh dG ebEh U
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M J b de jOMGC GQJ Y SCJ e dZ gh ,dG Y dGh
jJ SEG AGYC UdG YGC aJh ,eO SGh ddG J
a HOCG Ic ZQ b ,gGC Yh Y dG c a fh dh JQd
dGh OdG GJ QM e b Z GQGbGC J GJ fEa dG Gg
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e dGh dG N Lh a eqCG IMh Y adGh ,dG e MdG
.jadG Y dG LQ
fe hGj fMGC fCch eSEG dG QJ S e GH VdG Gg qGE
e) MUEG GJ e Qb Y VdG dG f N LGj d GE

TdG TGQ dG :H

a dPh ,(..fdG jdG Nh Yh faH GQhe dG Mh hdG


H j e a UdHhdG aK e af g Y fG e
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Adh d SSGC dG Sh WGdGh jOdGh jdG Y aGdG
jdG GEH dG a OOdGh VdG e b Z Qb Hj Gj dhdG
e j e c a jfdGh jdG JJh dG FY d SSGC Jjf dG
gh ,]1[ dG Yd GMh GQe dG H AfGh jG H AH ,OY
e dG J ffGE jhDQ jJ Y IUb HOCG g Y j e
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| rocnrJnCG psdG npY ronenrcnCG spEG GoanQnnpd npFnnbnh kHooT rocnrnnLnh nfoCGnh
,bGC GC ZGC a g ,H a c M dG J c ]2[ (13 GdG)
a j eY d jd e g H EG de dj ,jb CG V
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dhd SGC dG jdG QSO Ueh hd LdG SdG a dG
fGC c ,FdG jdG hGC bdG jdG e AL GC j eh
jLdG L dG SdG e eqCG H j e c S e
110 ,bGdG Sh UCG H fdG dG :dGh SdG ` HGdG dG Y M .O ]1[
OdH eDj jdG Gg" dG jdG jBG g Y ,jdG T e dG J fG ]2[
dG e ` dG H dG Y f "(GaQd) bdG GEe Y fGEh dGh NG GEe Y
1420 eQ fdG OdG dhCG dG
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TdG TGQ dG :H

hO e IMGh eGC fGC :e gLh H dh J eh" OdGh QfCGh


d jdG dSQ GE" FGdG KdG g Y e hdG j .]3[ "SdG
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d GCh ,c eqCG dG LGQ g fGEh OGaGC H hGC Oa jH j dG
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41 ,dG d SdG FKdG Ye ` dG M e .O ]3[


1412 (IQdG ` AadG QGO) 321 ,iQdG a ` hdG aJ e .O ]4[
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TdG TGQ dG :H

dBG aQj d GEh OdG QdG TGdG dG d eSEG d


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M Aj a AdG M X je dP e d ,jOhGC H dS S
e iQdG J Oc OGSG fGC e SG H cQh cdG CWJ
AGYG aGeh GE dG j dh .dG gX Y Th Z ie c
T dG iNCG dG dG IQdG ce fG Y e fM J
dG GJ e Ie jdGh YdGh jdG JGAH a GOJ
dG e cGC dG Y Z GEh ` e f Y ` LJ ffGh QdG
J ffGE a ihDQ jJ N e ffG fBGdG aBG J Y
J dG J dhO fGbh jOJ WGjO fGCh f
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dG dG Sh fG Ia a dG V e hGC ,dGE MG Gj
Y Z T jdGh Y dG Ua d aJ g GE dGE a YSh
QdG a OdGh NG fe Y GDdG j e gh ,gaJ a
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dP c SfG g eh ?dG Gg Y eSEG HdG e g


?UdH dG a dG bG Y
SG H a NGh IMdG dL :hGC
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HV qe e gh ,Yd QM RfGE ch d e c a MGfG
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e jdGh "adG"eSEG SdG dG IMhh YdG IMh MdG
YU jW a FYh IMdG Y GN gQYH dGh bdGh RdG
.Y Vjh SG gj dG YLGh badG
h ge j d dGh dG fh MdG dGE dG IYdG dh
nrnan} :dJ b ]5[ "fEG W a IRhdG "NG d AdGE gb
rseu
k pbn sGEp pVQrCnG ap OpnndrG pYn nrnrjn mspHn GrdohrGCo roprbn ep phoodrG nep ncn

n prodp
n HtQn ncn enhn @ nepp
r eo Grfocnhn pap GraopJrGCo en GronXn njpdsG nnJsGhn rorep nr
n fGCn
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n dn
n HtQn AnnT rdnhn @ e gGCh mroHp inodrG
n dpndphn
n HtQn nMpQs en sGEp @ nppn
r eo
MU j ,(118 ` 115 Og) |ronnNn

H eCG gGE H H jBG g AL"dH dhCG jBG Y QdG


e H dhCG GMCGh YL a fc d fCH YEd VQCG a gOaEGh
PGEh gaGCh a a d dP Y fj dG a IdGh FdGh MCG
dG SdG fG ` "GdG" MU J M ` dHh .]6[ "Gg d
ddh .edGh OdGh dG Y Gf fC) dG AfEH LdG :U
hdG QGO ,GAdG X a Og IQS J ` b S ]5[
244 U QdG J ]6[
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TdG TGQ dG :H

en sGEp nppn
r eo ndoGnjn nhn IknMpGhn kesGCo nSsdG nn
n dn
n HtQn AnnT rdnhn} :dG AL
]7[ (118 ` 117 Og) |
n HtQn nMpQs

GE) dG g dH OGdG GE" dH jBG g Y RGdG eEG jh


GPGE ce fc OH idG j dJ fGC dGh (Y d dG
j SG GY GC UdGh ,H a edG a e Gfc
a GhDSGC GPGE GdG dP j fGE H ,dGh d he dG GC LC
ge dG M GE :AdG b Gdh ;dGh AGjEG a GSh edG
a jh .dGh dG Y ge OdG Mh ,gdGh edG Y
j dG GC jBG eh.dG e j h dG e j dG :KCG
,OGdGh dG Y H H ej e Gfc GPGE cT OH
GY Y f fGE Th dh dUh Ogh f b GC dP Y ddGh
N b ]8[ "dG Xh SdG AGjGE e Y dG M d SG
GhPCGh QGdG a e ` IMGh W e j e Y ` e
a :IMGh eGC d dG AT dh .GQdGh fdG IdGh GdCGh LeCGh
IK NG a GQGMGC gOGQGC fC dh ,JGh IdGh dGh IdG
e OGeh UGC a Rce g H dG Y GPhT j dh ,M bY Fd
a fEG SG Ue e Ge dPQYH dG ddG GOGe
.Ajh jh jh jh jh j fGC :dG
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QeG a H NG jW fCT e f Y dG N dG GC ` jdGh
b ,eSEG dG SDe 60U 11 ,GAdG J a GdG ,FWdG M dG ]7[
dG QGO 18 80 U ,RGdG dG J ]8[
8

TdG TGQ dG :H

n dpndphn} :dJ dbh .AJQG QGe a GJhd OdGh dG eGC eh


AGQBG NH Vb IMGh L Y N qd ,d dG ,|r onnNn

h .d FZ Y NG c H dYh dG J d Gje ch
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p drG
o rnNn enhn} dP aj
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Y QOb HQ GC jh ,JYO Y eb VGYGE Y qjh ,ddGh d
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jh M e j M e H Na ,dXh OY ac eh
.H Y g e
da ,fGhYh H dh dG a aNG GO e j NG GC Y
hdG eGC ,dUGC a GC dG jdG a NG CT eMe gGC NG
da dGE eh SdGh ddG H fRGdG Y J dG jOLG
J g H NG e edGQU HGC gh ,QLCe e hGC e a
d fdG QGdG W 12 190 ` 180 U jdGh jdG J ]9[
HdG QdG RGdG dG ]10[
9

TdG TGQ dG :H

jdGh dH FHGh jJ f NH e fG GC dPh ;Y


fGE .(20 bdG) |nhoprJnGCn knrap mrndp ronrHn nrnLnhn} Uh M AHG
.YL a GY Hh GOa H e
dG MdH RdGh dG S g a dG U QNG fGE
|
k nYn onMrGCn rojtGCn rconorndp Inn
n drGhn
n rndrG nnNn pdsG} :dJ b .IOYdG
j g ,NG Vh e feG dG Y TGC a .(2 dG)
YdG J g ?hdc jdG e ,aGdG e dY ddG e fEG
e jQM JQGOGE GhOGCh iQdG aK e ` H e eh ` NH IdG
,dGh dG a jJh ,GCd J e NG cH Y j
dG Y dG AL ddh ;eqCG Y SJh ,jOLG d AGKGEh
Gg ,Gj d e UGC GC d qd j d fGC edG TGdG
CG fCT e H ,Mh YdG IMh j CG d jCG fCT e NG
d HSGh ,af jL c Y MfGh gQJ aBG a Y j
j cQe eMe aQ jQM aNG a dG bdG e jL
eh jdG HGK e j ee NG He dPh ,jdG H
.GY NG a YdG IMhh ING FTh
hGC dG e Mh qbdG qS a eqCG LQO je e Se dP
,iQdG e M GC ,NG e edG a Le f :dG
T d dSG H AH ,N e H J e IQGOGE a dG JGhOGCh
dG a JdG IOY Y ,Md Yh Gfh ,jJh Jh jJh
GC Y eh GdG AGQh e J dG dGh dG H IGCOe hGC ,OdGh

10

TdG TGQ dG :H

j WH e dj Y bdGh ,RGHE Mh f e a j
.a Y Md GMGh YVH
dEG GHEG jBG e jBGh ,fc S dG be a NG GE `

n dpPn ap sGEp rofpGndrGCnhn ropnpdrGCn


o
n pNrGhn pVQrCnGhn
p GhnnsdG orNn pJpjnBG rephn}
m jnB
a NG fb dGE IH fBGdG dG jh ,(21 hdG) |npdpnrdu
nep nnfGCn nsdG sGCn nJn rdnGCn} .GHEG GH OGfGh dG IQb Y GdG dG
lrMohn lHp OlnLo pn
p drG nephn nfoGndrGCn kpn
r et
m GnnKn pHp nLrnNrCnan Aken ApnsdG
ofoGndrGCn
l pn
r eo pnfrCnGhn
u GhnsdGhn pSsdG nephn @ OloS
o HpGnZnhn nfoGndrGCn
l pn
r et
r jn nfsGEp
n dpncn
.(28 ` 27 Wa) |AnnodrG pOpnYp rep nsdG n

e S e jGE a SG" fH jBG g Y QTY HG dG j


d N e d CJ e H aQh idG b a SdG GMCG NG
.]11[ "VQG ddG Gg be Y a L Sef NG GC
R eGC SdG H NG" GC dGE BGd fBGdG dG MU gjh
LGC e No fGC dGE NG e MdG gj H ,]12[ "JM f
dh ,H ad SdG FW H dN fGE dJ dG GC YG" :j PGE adG
f j GC j d GC ]13[ "e dj a H aj GC j
LQfG dh dG dGh dG eGC T "IMGh eGC" BGdG H ,IQe
GC GE iNG e f IT e h e MGh a NG S V

300 U 22 ,HdG QdG QTY HG dG ]11[


dG QGO 1214 U 12 ,GAd fGAdG dG ` dG jdG Y ]12[
QdG f Y f ]13[
11

TdG TGQ dG :H

dLGC j H ,Qj Yh IM IOGQGE e ehe g H ,Ohe aNG


.GjL J YJ e
g ` dG J jW e dG e dG gh ` SG GE `
Y GQHh ,dGh dG Yhf a MGJ LhOe H f
E d AHG
QH d ,d fY dGE SdG SQGEh QNG Y IQOb IM IOGQGEh ,jOg
H :gOJQH d b jae ge a J GC Od GQNOG :MdG
dd dGh dGh GdGh dGh OdG jbh IdGh gdCG UJ a
e Y ae VGCh qa ,dGh edG AGQh dH a dG qW
.dGh edG f a dG dG Y
dG dGh QdG dG SQ Y jg
q fG dEG MdG GC Z
a cQJ ,N
C d UGCh GOYh FY e dG Id dG jj dG
YVhGC Sj e H Y fGC a dG SdG d ddG
QfGCh bY GQGMGC N b PEa ,jQdGh adG Jjeh YLG
b e Ue aNG GZ a ,Jd eY LH MdH dY
bGh Y edG MdG UC jJ hGC ,L e Mdh gdd aQ hGC
d NJ NG dP e j h ,iNGC Mf e e e
IM e NG SG ag d iQdG PGE ,H eGdGh iQdG
NG dY dGE YdG IMdG e GQb j H J fGEh ,SdG
Ze hGC ,YdG NGO ah QJh b dGE Qj GC e d e OdGh
.dG N Y dSGdGh d
Rhd Sh NH GYG g iQdH eCG GC e ZdH dh
jdH Oj CG e MGd j a ,YdG j QGb PJH eCG J c
12

TdG TGQ dG :H

dG jdG g eh ?QdG hT g e ?iQdG QGS c dh .a


GE a Qj dG jdG g eh ?qTdG YdG AYGC c a Qj
eh ?GWCG eGe eCG a dEG UdG ch ?(dGh dG gCG) UdG
?jQdG dG H dG bY
ah dG a NG W QfGE e j MdG GC dP c eh
fe c e fCT g fGEh IdG jO e dP j a .JGP dG H
JLM J JG a gjJh jJ Y jh H j ,jdG dG
IM W H aGdGh fG e e LQO YGC d Je ah
IMh ah ,JOYh MJ a dG OGe Hh IQhV NG J bY
a Rhe NBG g YL a fEG Y GC QYG Y dG YL
e hGC gN AHGh JGP M cdG dGE dG d IGRGH Ja UGC
j GC fCT e e gh ,iNGC GhP M Y j Gh ,dc j
Y H VhdGh QGdGh dG e HhV a ,YdG IMd GjJ
eY IdG FH dG JjJ Aa ,dG GOGQEG H ah
j ah dGE UJ ,iQdG YdG d ZGdG Ae cQJ
"HQ MQ e GE" MQh J NG j M Hj dh NG
njpdsG sGEp} dG dGE aj Jh GUh bJ NG dh ,IdG j
n rds knpT Grfocnhn ronjOp Grbosan
.(159 fCG) |AmrnT ap rorep
dGE YOh jdG H YG fEG W e AL NG dGE da PGEh
fh ,MdGh adGh dGh INCG Y HdGh iQdGh QGdG Y jJ
JQG e IMdG je e ie dGE UJ dPh ,dGh fdG
dG g WEH MCG MGdG PGE ,eGC h a Y H IMh j GC j

13

TdG TGQ dG :H

f f Y GE de a IMdG d S h .Oe GS e ch .Mh


NG Ye dUGC Y SCjh .NG e NGH e edH j
IdG N GEe Yh IdG jO SG H Yh fEG W a IMdGh
iQdG GCe hd ,SdG Z a MdG Y eCdG eqCG SGh
PGE ,LG QU e IQU Y H ,eh SGE H e OLGh
e Mh OLG e M eDe d ,eDe d J ,iQdc OLG
,YdG a JdhDeh JGQbh adG dG Ge M ,iQdG
.IdG Nh aSGh fEG jMGEe Y SCJ
AGQBG OJ H YdG IMh GEe jJ dGE M OS dP Ch
N bh Ye Oe e J M iQdG J Lh a ,HQJh
dG dG IQGOGE a UdGh edG cQd f dGE ,dBG e L dGE
AGQBG e j e a hGdGY dPh (VdG) dG hGC OGfG H j
M LEG je e ie dGE UJ ,dG CdH J GOLGh
OLGh GCdG MS C ,e Me a YdG Y Lj e be
LdG J H eG J GPGE H ,Ne a GE J H ,Od J
pppnS ap noJpnjo njpdsG
t
p jo nsdG sGEp} fGS e Y IMGh Gj f GC Se
.(3 dG) |lUoUres lnHo ofsCncn vnU
dG HJ a jOdGh iQdG :fK
ZQh .OdGh NG e f T OLh LdHhfG MO d
HJ hGC a gORGh f dG dG GC dG M M e fGC
H J dh Jfe c YSG jOJ H fc eSGE e
Y dG HJ a SdG NG IQGOGE fc dP e fEa ,e
14

TdG TGQ dG :H

dG aKh dG jQGdG Z H dP c HQh ,GJ h GL


fGNh JUGd IY :ddG Sh a c GC aGdG jVh OGSGh
eYd eW d VZ L H MhdGh jOdG JGSG OQGe gC
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L GfcGC AGS ,dG ie a ` d M ` Y HGC GEh M
e eh eSEG dG CG QYG Y ,bCG hCG gcCG c CG e
Fb e e V jOJ c ,dhO T a eSGE LG hGC :jdG
QSO dJ ,iNGC Ge dGE J ah ,e YLG jeh
L e H WGdG LGhh M J "dG" a e jdG
d ]14[ "dG J M"SdG hO e IMGh eGC aNG Y e
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H b Y GE dG a jdG a chSG GEh ,GhLj M AT e jh e d e
.b
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a dG Z bCG WGe cDj dG QW PS


C d jGCQ a OQhGC Y jdG L.O dCJ
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.SEG gGC e Gfc jdG Oj GC Y J fBG
15

TdG TGQ dG :H

j Oe d SCdG a GL e HS jdG QSO e d


dG CT Mh GOGaGC gQYH Jfe d WGdG H
dG Oqa aKh bY HGhQ GP Ye gQYH H IUdG
g IMh YdG g c e jdG QSO c d .YL IY S
dG J dG SdG IMdGh jdG IMdGh dG IMh e je
K .JGH IMh e c dG Fb .FMh jb ce V OdGh
e OdG K IMh J e c OdG Fbh IMGh IMh L dG
dG K IMGh IMh fj OdGh dG K .IMGh IMh fj
OdG GE" dG Hh .IjdG YdG g IMh fj L OdGh
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efH ddH e J GC dG bd j HS eb c
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HdGh QdGh cBdG Feh GdGh ISCc dG GMG
Z WGdG H j c e dG SDeh IOdG ceGCh OYGh
ZQ eSEG jQdG OGeG Y dG S a UGJh jdG a dG
a J jdG QSO aCG ie Y dG a QfG dG NG H
Qj e Y M hGC JUN QXGE e d e ,dG Z bG
(29 HdG) |nhoZpnU rgohn mjn Yn njnr
p drG Grorjo sMn} Ld WN jhCH H
.cT c OGdG HdG de WGdG j

16

TdG TGQ dG :H

GC dh ,dG J e eJ a QSd ah dG X a e g ch
a UdHh edG iQdG j c .dhO a GMG JGf J
M ch gGSGC ah QH a dG QGb a M c dGh dG hDT
jOdG IQSG j c c..dG QM ah MGC a hdG b a
UdHh dG UhGC OJ H hj HUGC ch ,]15[ edG Z
OJh OLd dG j M SdG Uh Hh ,HQ Y dG Uh
.GdCS eCG Y SG GPEa bGdG
GC J dh cGC Gf Mh f Y GMG FN SGC dh
a eSEG dhdG SCd fdG dH AH ITGdG adG N QJ
.QfGh jLdG HM H fdG dG H a hG SCdG H dG
J dG SdG dG QGSG Y IOL IOGQGE VH RH dG a
S Hh fGh N If H dH Y Yh Y SCJ jdG a
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20

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25

TdG TGQ dG :H

26