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7 - application 6 - presentation 5 - session 4 - transport 3 - network 2 - data link 1 - physical Each layer provides a service for the layer above it and receives service from the one below it. Layer 7 is closest to the user of the computer and Layer 1 is closest to the computer hardware. So layer 1 talks to the actual computer and as a "service" gives layer 2 the ability to talk the actual computer. Layer 2 gives a physical address. The computer is physically HERE. Example, longitude and latitude coordinates. Layer 3 gives a logical address. You can get to the computer by using this ADDRESS. Example, home address. Layer 4 does the transport. Example, the post office - get there through rain, sleet, or snow. Layer 5 lets you talk to others. Example, using the phone instead of the post office. However, remember that each layer uses the one below it. So it is sort of like using the phone but there is a little mail man delivering the messages from phone to phone. Layer 6 lets you talk to others in different languages. Take the example above but the mailman also will change your message to Russian if that is what the receiver understands. Layer 7 is like the actual phone. You use it to get things done but there is a whole bunch of other technology behind it (or really below it) that lets you do what you need to do.
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The 7 Layers of the OSI Model
quality of service is identified. This . over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy.400 » layered defense » modeling » PDU » By: Last Updated: 06-06-2013 . Communication partners are identified. user authentication and privacy are considered.Understanding Layers » OSI . Posted: 09-24-2010 The OSI. and any constraints on data syntax are identified. or Open System Interconnection. Control is passed from one layer to the next. and proceeding to the bottom layer. This article explains the 7 Layers of the OSI Model. model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. Application (Layer 7) This layer supports application and end-user processes. The OSI.Open System Interconnection » MAC Layer » Logical Link Control layer » Understanding The Data Link Layer » routing switch » dual layer » Modbus protocol » layer » EV SSL » X. Everything at this layer is application-specific. Related Terms The OSI Reference Model . model defines a networking framework to implement protocols in seven layers. starting at the application layer in one station. or Open System Interconnection.
Data Link (Layer 2) At this layer. and dialogues between the applications at each end.g. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. and vice versa. congestion control and packet sequencing. providing freedom from compatibility problems. flow control and frame synchronization. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer. error handling. for transmitting data from node to node. and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control.. known as virtual circuits. data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It ensures complete data transfer. flow control and error checking. It deals with session and connection coordination. and other network software services. . coordinates. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Transport (Layer 4) This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems. or hosts. Session (Layer 5) This layer establishes. The Network Enabled Enterprise = Empowered Business Download Now Presentation (Layer 6) This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network. as well as addressing. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. encryption) by translating from application to network format. The session layer sets up.layer provides application services for file transfers. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization. internetworking. exchanges. Network (Layer 3) This layer provides switching and routing technologies. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. creating logical paths. manages and terminates connections between applications. e-mail. and terminates conversations.
(For example. including defining cables.Physical (Layer 1) This layer conveys the bit stream . it will access that file that it stored on your hard drive and it will be like you never turned it off (it's a bit faster than shutting it down completely because it doesn't have to load the startup items) LS1 And LS2 Model of cache memory ? What is cache memory? Cache memory is random access memory (RAM) that a computer microprocessor can access more quickly than it can access regular RAM. one can think of RAM itself as a cache of memory for hard disk storage since all of RAM's contents come from the hard disk initially when you turn your computer on and load the operating system (you are loading it into RAM) and later as you start new applications and access new data. the PowerPC 601 processor has a 32 kilobyte level-1 cache built into its chip. Cache memory is sometimes described in levels of closeness and accessibility to the microprocessor.electrical impulse. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier. it does not have to do the more time-consuming reading of data from larger memory. The next time you turn on the computer. and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. light or radio signal -. meaning that your computer is technically on but most of it's components are off (such as the hard drive) hibernate on the other hand takes everything that is stored in your RAM memory and puts it onto the hard drive. then turns it off completely. cards and physical aspects.through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. As the microprocessor processes data. Memory in system . The main RAM is usually a dynamic RAM (DRAM) chip. Fast Ethernet. it looks first in the cache memory and if it finds the data there (from a previous reading of data). RS232.) L2 is usually a separate static RAM (SRAM) chip. In addition to cache memory. RAM can also contain a special area called a disk cache that contains the data most recently read in from the hard disk. An L1 cache is on the same chip as the microprocessor. __________________________________________________________________________________ Name Different types of OSI Model ? What is Adapter? Why do you need an adapter? Function of adapter ? Different between Sleep and Hibernate sleep is a low-power state.
enabling multiple threads to run on each core. Ring Topology – In ring network. In addition. every node shares the bus’s total capacity.Hyper threading Hyper-Threading Technology (Intel® HT Technology)1 uses processor resources more efficiently. Also. if the Backbone cable fails then all network becomes useless and communication fails among all the devices. On a Bus Topology network. At the ends of each bus network are 50-ohm resistors known as terminators. 10BASE2 and 10BASE-T are two popular types of the Ethernet cables used in the Bus topology. Intel HT Technology also increases processor throughput. Performance issues are likely to occur in the Bus topology if more than 1215 computers are added in a Bus Network. signals on a bus network would travel endlessly between the two ends of the network. improving overall performance on threaded software. The terminators stop signals after they have reached the end of the cable. The single cable is called Bus and can support only one channel for communication. around the ring. as a result. devices share the responsibility for getting data from one point to another. each node is connected to the two nearest nodes so that the entire network forms a circle. Name 3 topology Three types of network topology Bus Topology – This topology consists of a Backbone cable connecting all nodes on a network without intervening connectivity devices. But only the intended recipient actually receives and processes the transmitted message while a device wants to send the broadcast message to all the devices that connected to the shared cable. In a ring network. Each workstation accepts and responds to packets . this phenomenon is called signal bounce. Without these terminators. Ethernet bus topology is actually easy to install and does not require much cabling and only a main shared cable is used for network communication. and new signals could not get through. As a performance feature. Bus network works with very limited devices. all the communication messages are transmitted clockwise in one direction. L1 and L2 cache memory? Answer in Cache memory.
All the computers in the star topologies are connected to central devices like hub. Star topologies can be implemented in home. A ring topology has no “ends” and transmitted data stops at its destination. the more workstations that must participate in data transmission. because each node is separately connected to a central connectivity device. It also requires more configurations. isolated or interconnected with other networks through hubs. The functionality of all these devices is different. Twisted-pair or fiber-optic cabling is commonly used as the physical medium. Each workstation just acts as a repeater for the transmission. . Star topology requires more cabling than ring and bus. SONET or Token Ring Technology can be used to implement Ring Technology. just as in a bus topology. In addition. A failure in the central connectivity device can take down a local area networking segment.addressed to it. the slower the response time. and then forwards the other packets to the next workstation in the network. Computers in a network are usually connected with the hub. in other words. all workstations participate in delivery makes the ring topology an active topology. FDDI. Most Ethernet networks are based on the star topology. switches to form more complex topologies. Any damage of the cable of any cable or device can result in the breakdown of the whole network. Because they include a centralized connection point. offices or even in a building. Ring topologies can be found in office. Star topology networks can support a maximum of only 1024 addressable nodes on a logical network. However. star topology can easily be moved. A single malfunctioning workstation cannot disable an entire star network. school or small buildings. switch or router with the unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) or Shielded Twisted-pair cables. Star Topology – In the computer networking world the most commonly used topology in local area networking is the star topology. ring topology now has become almost obsolete. they are more fault-tolerant. Due to these shortcomings. switch or router.
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