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REVIEWER IN CONFLICT OF LAWS Cheryl M. Navarro 2007-0026 Arellano Un ver!

"y S#hool o$ La% DEFINITION OF TERMS Con$l #" o$ La%! - or &r va"e In"erna" onal La% - "ha" 'ar" o$ "he ()n # 'al la% o$ a !"a"e %h #h * re#"! "! #o)r"! an* a*( n !"ra" ve a+en# e!, %hen #on$ron"e* % "h a le+al 'ro-le( nvolv n+ a $ore +n ele(en", %he"her or no" "hey !ho)l* a''ly $ore +n la% or $ore +n la%!. &)-l # In"erna" onal La% - "he -o*y o$ le+al r)le! %h #h a''ly -e"%een !overe +n !"a"e! an* !)#h o"her en" " e! a! have -een +ran"e* n"erna" onal 'er!onal " e!. .ISTINCTIONS /ETWEEN CONFLICT OF LAWS AN. &U/LIC INTERNATIONAL LAW CONFLICT OF LAW 0.1 MUNICI&AL 2.1 &RIVATE IN.IVI.UALS /ASIS Na")re &er!on! Involve* LAW OF NATIONS INTERNATIONAL SOVEREI2N STATES 3 ENTITIES &OSSESSE. OF AN INTERNATIONAL &ERSONALIT4 2ENERALL4 AFFECTIN2 &U/LIC INTEREST5 T6OSE W6IC6 IN 2ENERAL ARE OF INTEREST TO SOVEREI2N STATES MA4 /E FORCI/LE OR &EACEFUL Forcible: 0. !everan#e o$ * 'lo(a" # rela" on!, 2. re"or! on!, 0 | &a+e

&RIVATE

Tran!a#" on!

RESORT TO MUNICI&AL TRI/UNALS

Re(e* e!7 San#" on!

8. 9. :. 6.

re'r !al!, e(-ar+o, -oy#o"", nonn"er#o)r!e, 7. 'a# $ # -lo#;a*e!, <. #olle#" ve (ea!)re! )n*er "he UN Char"er, an* =. WAR Peaceful: 0.* 'lo(a" # ne+o" a" on, 2."en*er 3 e>er# !e o$ +oo* o$$ #e!, 8.(e* a" on, 9. n?) ry an* #on# l a" on, :.ar- "ra" on, 6.@)* # al !e""le(en" -y "he ICA, 7.re$eren#e "o re+ onal a+en# e!, <.re$eren#e "o "he UN Theory o$ Co( "y - %e a''ly "he $ore +n la% -e#a)!e o$ "! CONVENIENCE, an* $ nally, -e#a)!e WE WANT TO GIVE PROTECTION "o o)r # " Ben!, re! *en"! an* "ran! en"! n o)r lan*. Theory o$ Ve!"e* R +h"! - %e SEEK TO ENFORCE no" "he $ore +n la% "!el$ -)" THE RIGHTS THAT HAVE BEEN VESTED )n*er !)#h $ore +n la%!. Theory o$ Lo#al La% - We a''ly $ore +n la% no" -e#a)!e " ! $ore +n, -)" BECA SE O R O!N "A!S, -y a''ly n+ ! ( lar r)le!, RE# IRE S TO DO SO5 - I" ! a! $ "he $ore +n la% ha! -e#o(e PART AND PARCE" o$ o)r o%n lo#al la%. 2 | &a+e

Theory o$ 6ar(ony o$ La%! - In (any #a!e! %e have "o a''ly "he $ore +n la%! !o "ha" !HEREVER A CASE IS DECIDED, .e., rre!'e#" ve o$ "he $or)(, THE SO" TION SHO "D BE APPRO$IMATE"% THE SAME - "h)!, *en" #al or ! ( lar !ol)" on! any%here an* every%here. When "he +oal ! real Be*, "here % ll -e a har(ony o$ la%!. Theory o$ A)!" #e - "he P RPOSE OF A"" "A!S, n#l)* n+ Con$l #" o$ La%!, ! "he DISPENSING OF & STICE' - $ "h ! #an -e a""a ne* n (any #a!e! -y a''ly n+ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la%, %e ()!" *o !o. Co( "y - "he RECO2NITION "ha" one na" on allo%! % "h n "! "err "ory, "o "he LE2ISLATIVE, ECECUTIVE OR AU.ICIAL ACTS OF ANOT6ER NATION, hav n+ *)e re+ar* -o"h "o INTERNATIONAL .UT4 an* CONVENIENCE, an* "he RI26TS OF ITS OWN CITIDENS, or o"her 'er!on! %ho are )n*er "he 'ro"e#" on o$ "! la%!. Chara#"er Ba" on7 .OCTRINE OF EUALIFICATION - "he 'ro#e!! o$ *e"er( n n+ )n*er %ha" #a"e+ory a #er"a n !e" o$ $a#"! or r)le! $all - "he 'ro#e!! o$ *e# * n+ %he"her or no" "he $a#"! rela"e "o "he ; n* o$ ?)e!" on !'e# $ e* n a #on$l #"! r)le. - Al!o #alle* "he *o#"r ne o$ ?)al $ #a" on - The )l" (a"e ')r'o!e ! "o ena-le "he $or)( "o SE"ECT THE PROPER "A!( S"a")! - "he 'la#e o$ an n* v *)al n !o# e"y, an* - #on! !"! o$ 'er!onal ?)al " e! an* rela" on!h '!, (ore or le!! 'er(anen", % "h %h #h "he !"a"e an* "he #o(()n "y are #on#erne*. - A(on+ "he "h n+! %h #h (a;e )' "he !"a")! o$ a 'er!on are "he $$.F h ! -e n+ (arr e* or )n(arr e*, % *o%e* or * vor#e*, h ! -e n+ a le+ " (a"e or an lle+ " (a"e #h l* o$ h ! 'aren"!, h ! -e n+ a ( nor or h ! hav n+ rea#he* "he a+e o$ (a@or "y5 h ! #a'a# "y "o en"er n"o var o)! "ran!a#" on!. Ca'a# "y 8 | &a+e

(erely a 'ar" o$ !"a")!, an* "he !)( "o"al o$ h ! r +h"! an* o-l +a" on!. The C v l Co*e * !" n+) !he! 2 ; n*! o$ #a'a# "yF CA&ACIT4 TO ACT an* AURI.ICAL CA&ACIT4. Ca'a# "y "o a#" or ACTIVE CA&ACIT4 ! "he 'o%er "o *o a#"! % "h le+al e$$e#"! A)r * #al #a'a# "y or &ASSIVE CA&ACIT4 ! "he $ "ne!! "o -e "he !)-@e#" o$ le+al rela" on!

&er!onal La% - The la% "ha" a""a#he! "o an n* v *)al, %herever he (ay +o- a la% "ha" +enerally +overn! h ! !"a")!, h ! #a'a# "y, h ! $a( ly rela" on!, an* "he #on!e?)en#e! o$ h ! a#")a" on!. - Th ! (ay -e "he NATIONA" "A! o$ h ! DOMICI"IAR% "A! or "he "A! OF THE SIT S *e'en* n+ )'on "he "heory a''l e* an* en$or#e* n "he $or)(. Na" onal "y Theory - "he "heory -y v r")e o$ %h #h "he !"a")! an* #a'a# "y o$ an n* v *)al are )e*erall+ +overne* -y "he la% o$ h ! na" onal "y. Na")ral Ba" on - a @)* # al 'ro#e!! o$ a#?) r n+ # " Ben!h ' %here $or(al " e! o$ "he la% have "o -e #o('l e* % "h, n#l)* n+ a AU.ICIAL 6EARIN2 an* A&&ROVAL OF T6E &ETITION - " (ay al!o (ean "he a#?) ! " on o$ ano"her # " Ben!h ' -y !)#h a#"! a! (arr a+e "o a # " Ben, an* "he e>er# !e o$ "he o'" on "o ele#" a 'ar" #)lar # " Ben!h '. .o( # l ary Theory - "he "heory "ha" n +eneral, "he !"a")!, #on* " on, r +h"! an* o-l +a" on!, an* #a'a# "y GSCROC1 o$ a 'er!on !ho)l* -e +overne* -y "he la% o$ h ! *o( # le. S ")! or E#le#" # Theory - n +eneral, "he #a'a# "y, le+al #on* " on, or !"a")! GC.LC.S1 o$ an n* v *)al !ho)l* -e +overne* -y "he la% o$ "he 'la#e %here an ('or"an" ele(en" o$ "he 'ro-le( o##)r! or ! ")a"e*. - I$ "he 'ar" # 'a" on o$ "he n* v *)al #on#erne* ! a#" ve a! %hen he *oe! "he a#" vol)n"ar ly, "he +overn n+ la% ! "he la% o$ "he a#")al ! ")! o$ "he 'la#e o$ "he "ran!a#" on or even". 9 | &a+e

I$ "he 'ar" # 'a" on ! 'a!! ve, a! %hen "he e$$e#"! o$ "he a#" are !e" $or"h n "he la%, "he +overn n+ la% ! "he la% o$ "he le+al ! ")! or "he le+al ! ")! o$ an n* v *)al ! !)''o!e* "o -e h ! *o( # le.

RENVOI - l "erally (ean! REFERRIN2 /ACH5 - "he 'ro-le( ar !e! %hen "here ! *o)-" a! "o %he"her a re$eren#e "o a $ore +n la% ! a re$eren#e "o "he n"ernal la% o$ !a * $ore +n la%, or ! a re$eren#e "o "he %hole o$ "he $ore +n la%, n#l)* n+ "! #on$l #"! r)le!. - renvo G$ro( "he Fren#h, (ean n+ I!en* -a#;I or I"o re")rn )no'ene*I1 ! a !)-!e" o$ "he #ho #e o$ la% r)le! an* " (ay -e a''l e* %henever a $or)( #o)r" ! * re#"e* "o #on! *er "he la% o$ ano"her !"a"e. .OU/LE RENVOI - o##)r! %hen "he lo#al #o)r", n a*o'" n+ "he $ore +n #o)r" "heory, * !#over! "ha" "he $ore +n #o)r" a##e'"! "he renvo - .o)-le Renvo or "he Fore +n Co)r"! .o#"r ne %h #h % ll al!o en!)re 'ar "y o$ re!)l" !o lon+ a! no o"her relevan" la% ! )! n+ ". In "h ! !#enar o, "he $or)( #o)r" #on! *er! "ha" " ! ! "" n+ a! "he $ore +n #o)r" an* % ll *e# *e "he (a""er a! "he $ore +n #o)r" %o)l*. Tran!( !! on - "he 'ro#e!! o$ a''ly n+ "he la% o$ a $ore +n !"a"e "hro)+h "he la% o$ a !e#on* $ore +n !"a"e. Marr a+e a! a #on"ra#" - ARTICLE 0 FAMIL4 CO.EF Marr a+e ! a !'e# al #on"ra#" o$ 'er(anen" )n on -e"%een a (an an* a %o(an en"ere* n"o n a##or*an#e % "h la% $or "he e!"a-l !h(en" o$ #on@)+al an* $a( ly l $e. I" ! "he $o)n*a" on o$ "he $a( ly an* an nv ola-le !o# al n!" ")" on %ho!e na")re, #on!e?)en#e! an* n# *en"! are +overne* -y la% an* no" !)-@e#" "o !" ')la" on! e>#e'" "ha" (arr a+e !e""le(en"! (ay $ > "he 'ro'er"y rela" on! *)r n+ "he (arr a+e % "h n "he l ( "! 'rov *e* -y "he Fa( ly Co*e. - (arr a+e a! any o"her #on"ra#" ha! "%o ; n*! o$ re?) ! "e!F "he $or(al an* "he e!!en" al re?) ! "e!. Marr a+e a! a S"a")! - #arr e! % "h " ('l #a" on! n "%o $ el*!F 0. "he real( o$ 'er!onal r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ "he !'o)!e!5 an* : | &a+e

2. "he real( o$ 'ro'er"y rela" on!. Ann)l(en" - "he re(e*y "o a vo *a-le (arr a+e, .e., a val * (arr a+e )n" l ann)lle*. A-!ol)"e . vor#e - a (o*e o$ * !!olv n+ "he (ar "al " e! +ran"e* $or #a)!e! !)-!e?)en" "o "he (arr a+e #ere(ony. There ! no . vor#e n "he &h l '' ne!. Le+al Se'ara" on - or * vor#e a (en!a e" "horo - or !e'ara" on $ro( -e* an* -oar* - or rela" ve * vor#e - *oe! no" !ever "he (arr a+e -on*! - Re#on# l a" on 'reven"! a !) " $or le+al !e'ara" on or re!# n*! one alrea*y +ran"e*. - Can -e +ran"e* $or #a)!e! !)-!e?)en" "o "he #ele-ra" on o$ "he (arr a+e - The +ro)n*! are "ho!e + ven -y "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e! #on#erne* na!()#h a! "h ! ! ')rely a ?)e!" on o$ !"a")!, "he val * "y o$ "he (arr a+e -e n+ 're!)(e* or a*( ""e*. So(e 2ro)n*! $or Le+al Se'ara" onF 2ro)n*! $or le+al !e'ara" on Na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e! a1 A*)l"ery a1 $ o$ "he !a(e or #o((on na" onal "y- "he #o((on na" onal la% +overn! -1 Con#)- na+e -1 $ o$ * $$eren" na" onal " e!"he +ro)n*! + ven -y /OT6 na" onal la%! !ho)l* all -e #on! *ere* 'ro'er +ro)n*! #1 a""e('" -y one !'o)!e NOTEF Re! *en#e re?) re(en" a+a n!" "he l $e o$ "he o"her $ !) " ! -ro)+h" n "he &h l '' ne!F a1 $ #a)!e o##)rre* n "he &h l '' ne!NO RESI.ENCE REEUIREMENT -1 $ #a)!e o##)rre* o)"! *e "he &h l '' ne!- ONE 4EAR 6 | &a+e

RESI.ENCE ! re?) re* n o)r #o)n"ry LE2AL SE&ARATION .ISTIN2UIS6E. FROM ANNULMENT OF MARRIA2E LE2AL SE&ARATION Can -e +ran"e* $ro( #a)!e! ar ! n+ a$"er "he #ele-ra" on o$ (arr a+e 2ro)n*! are + ven -y "he na" onal 'ar" e! #on#erne* &re!)(e! "he val * "y o$ (arr a+e ANNULMENT Can -e +ran"e* $or #a)!e! e> !" n+ 'r or "o or a" "he " (e "he %e** n+ "a;e! 'la#e 2ro)n*! are + ven -y "he le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! E)e!" on! "he very e> !"en#e o$ "he !"a")!

2ROUN.S FOR LE2AL SE&ARATIONF 0. re'ea"e* 'hy! #al v olen#e or +ro!!ly a-)! ve #on*)#" * re#"e* a+a n!" "he 'e" " oner, a #o((on #h l*, or a #h l* o$ "he 'e" " oner 2. 'hy! #al v olen#e or (oral 're!!)re "o #o('el "he 'e" " oner "o #han+e rel + o)! or 'ol " #al a$$ l a" on 8. a""e('" o$ re!'on*en" "o #orr)'" or n*)#e "he 'e" " oner, a #o((on #h l* or a #h l* o$ "he 'e" " oner , "o en+a+e n 'ro!" ")" on, or #onn van#e n !)#h #orr)'" on or n*)#e(en" 9. $ nal @)*+(en" !en"en# n+ "he re!'on*en" "o ('r !on(en" or (ore "han 6 year!, even $ 'ar*one* :. *r)+ a** #" on or ha- ")al al#ohol !( o$ "he re!'on*en" 6. le!- an !( or ho(o!e>)al "y o$ "he re!'on*en" 7. #on"ra#" n+ -y "he re!'on*en" o$ a !)-!e?)en" - +a(o)! (arr a+e, %he"her n "he R& or a-roa* <. !e>)al n$ *el "y Ga*)l"ery or #on#)- na+e1 or 'erver! on =. a""e('" -y "he re!'on*en" a+a n!" "he l $e o$ "he 'e" " oner 00. a-an*on(en" o$ 'e" " oner -y re!'on*en" %7o @)!" $ a-le #a)!e $or (ore "han one year. No"e!F Mere 're'on*eran#e o$ ev *en#e % ll !)$$ #e "o 'rove "he e> !"en#e o$ any o$ "he +ro)n*!, al"ho)+h n no.9, 'rev o)! #r ( nal #onv #" on ! e!!en" al n v e% o$ "he ne#e!! "y o$ a J$ nal @)*+(en"K. 7 | &a+e

A-an*on(en" a! )!e* here n ! !ynony(o)! "o #r ( nal *e!er" on, .e., a h)!-an*L! or % $eL! a-an*on(en" or % ll$)l $a l)re % "ho)" @)!" #a)!e "o 'rov *e $or "he #are, 'ro"e#" on or !)''or" o$ "he !'o)!e %ho ! n ll heal"h or ne#e!! "o)! # r#)(!"an#e!. Th ! n#l)*e! -o"h "he INTENTION "o A/AN.ON an* "he ECTERNAL ACT -y %h #h "he n"en" on ! #arr e* n"o e$$e#". &a"ern "y Gor (a"ern "y1 - "he # v l !"a")! o$ "he $a"her Gor (o"her1 % "h re!'e#" "o "he #h l* -e+o""en -y h ( Gor her1. F l a" on - "he !"a")! o$ "he #h l* n rela" on "o "he $a"her or (o"her. &aren"al A$$e#" on - "he love o$ "he 'aren"! $or "he #h l* F l al A$$e#" on - "he love o$ "he #h l* $or "he 'aren"! Le+ " (a" on - a re(e*y or 'ro#e!! -y (ean! o$ %h #h "ho!e %ho n $a#" %ere no" -orn n %e*lo#;, an* !ho)l* "here$ore -e or* nar ly #on! *ere* lle+ " (a"e #h l*ren, are, -y $ #" on an* )'on #o('l an#e % "h #er"a n re?) re(en"!, re+ar*e* -y "he la% a! le+ " (a"e, " -e n+ !)''o!e* "ha" "hey %ere -orn %hen "he r 'aren"! %ere alrea*y val *ly (arr e*. - T,e re-ui.i/e. for le)i/i0a/io* are /,o.e 1re.cribe2 b+ /,e *a/io*al la3 of /,e fa/,er( The $ollo% n+ #on!" ")"e "he n"ernal re?) ! "e! $or "he le+ " (a" on o$ an lle+ " (a"e #h l*F 01 The #h l* ()!" -e #on#e ve* an* -orn o)"! *e %e*lo#; o$ 'aren"! %ho a" "he " (e o$ "he #on#e'" on %ere * !?)al $ e* -y any ('e* (en" "o (arry ea#h o"her. 21 There ()!" -e !)-!e?)en" val * (arr a+e When %e (en" on "he rela" on!h ' -e"%een "he #h l* an* "he 'aren"!, %e n$eren" ally n#l)*e al!o "he $ollo% n+ (a""er!F a1 're!)('" on! o$ le+ " (a#y an* lle+ " (a#y -1 r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 'aren"! an* #h l*ren < | &a+e

#1 'aren"al a)"hor "y *1 re# 'ro#al !)''or" A*o'" on - "he 'ro#e!! o$ (a; n+ a #h l*, %he"her rela"e* or no" "o "he a*o'"er, 'o!!e!! n +eneral "he r +h"! a##or*e* "o a le+ " (a"e #h l*. CONFLICTS RULES ON A.O&TION 01 Whe"her or no" "he !"a")! o$ a*o'" on ha! -een #rea"e* *e'en*! on "he na" onal la% o$ "he a*o'"er. 21 I$ "he a*o'" on "a;e! 'la#e n "he &h l '' ne!, o)r #o)n"ryL! 'ro#e*)ral re?) ! "e! ()!" -e #o('l e* % "h n a##or*an#e % "h "he "heory o$ le> $or n 'ro#e*)ral (a""er. 81 A*o'" on #anno" -e allo%e* % "ho)" @)* # al a''roval. 91 The $ollo% n+ are no" allo%e* "o a*o'"F The 2UAR.IAN WIT6 RES&ECT TO T6E WAR. 'r or "o "he a''roval o$ "he $ nal a##o)n"! ren*ere* )'on "he "er( na" on o$ "he r +)ar* an!h ' rela" on5 Any 'er!on %ho ha! -een CONVICTE. OF A CRIME INVOLVIN2 MORAL TUR&ITU.E5 An ALIEN e>#e'"F

a1 a for0er Fili1i*o ci/i4e* %ho !ee;! "o a*o'" a rela" ve -y #on!an+) n "y -1 one %ho !ee;! "o a2o1/ /,e le)i/i0a/e c,il2 o$ h !7her F l ' no !'o)!e5 or #1 one %ho ! 0arrie2 /o a Fili1i*o ci/i4e* an* !ee;! "o a*o'" @o n"ly % "h h !7her !'o)!e a rela" ve -y #on!an+) n "y o$ "he la""er. No"eF An al en % "h %ho!e +overn(en" o$ "he R& ha! no * 'lo(a" # rela" on! (ay no" -e a*o'"e*. A*o'" on o$ a $ore +ner *oe! no" +ran" !a * $ore +ner &h l '' ne # " Ben!h '. .o#"r ne o$ I(()"a- l "y o$ S"a")! - "heory "ha" "he STAT S OF A CHI"D5 HIS "EGITIMAC%5 IS NOT AFFECTED B% AN% S BSE# ENT CHANGE IN THE NATIONA"IT% OF THE PARENTS. = | &a+e

6o%ever, "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'aren"! % ll -e #han+e* !ho)l* "he 'aren"! e$$e#" a #han+e o$ na" onal "yF "he r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 'aren"! an* #h l* % ll no% -e *e"er( ne* -y "he ne% na" onal la%.

E>a('leF A F l ' no lle+ " (a"e #h l* %ho -e#o(e! a le+ " (a"e* #h l* o$ h ! F l ' no 'aren"! -y v r")e o$ re#o+n " on -y -o"h 'aren"! an* "he r !)-!e?)en" val * (arr a+e, #on" n)e! "o -e a le+ " (a"e #h l* even $ "he 'aren"! !ho)l* !)-!e?)en"ly e(-ra#e ano"her na" onal "y. The 'aren"al an* $ l al r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! % ll no% -e +overne* "he NEW na" onal "y, -)" "he #h l* ! #on! *ere* !" ll a le+ " (a"e* #h l*, *e!' "e any #on"rary r)le )n*er "he ne% na" onal "y. Moreover, "he ne% r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! % ll -e e$$e#" ve only $ro( "he (o(en" "he ne% na" onal "y ! e(-ra#e*, no" -e$ore. 2)ar* an!h ' - "here are +enerally 8M ; n*! o$ +)ar* an! 0. Guar2ia*. o6er /,e Per.o*M- appointed +enerally -y "he #o)r"! where the ward is domiciled. The r 'o%er! are coextensive % "h "he a)"hor "y o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r". 6en#e, a +)ar* an a! !)#h, ! no" 'er( ""e* "o !)e n o"her @)r !* #" on! )nle!! h ! +)ar* an!h ' ! al!o re#o+n Be* n !)#h $ore +n #o)r"!. 6o%ever, he may litigate in his own individual or private capacity. 2. Guar2ia*. o6er /,e Pro1er/+M - appointed by the court where the property of the ward may be found5 "he r 'o%er! are $ >e* -y "he a''o n" n+ #o)r", an* #anno" have e>"ra"err "or al a''l #a" on. Sho)l* "he %ar* have 'ro'er" e! n $ore +n !"a"e!, a*cillar+ )uar2ia*.,i1 1rocee2i*). are ('era" ve. 8. Ge*eral Guar2ia*.7 Gover -o"h "he 'er!on an* "he 'ro'er"y o$ "he %ar*!1. Can +enerally -e a''o n"e* only -y "he #o)r" o$ "he #o)n"ry %here "he %ar* ! *o( # le* an* %here "he 'ro'er" e! are lo#a"e*. &o%er! are #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he #o)r" "ha" *e! +na"e* "he(.

00 | & a + e

9. Do0iciliar+ Guar2ia*. Ga''o n"e* -y "he #o)r"! o$ "he *o( # le o$ "he %ar*!1 :. A*cillar+ Guar2ia*. G"ho!e a''o n"e* el!e%here1 Real &ro'er"y - 'ar" o$ "he #o)n"ry %here " ! lo#a"e*. - I"! ((ova- l "y (a;e! " lo+ #al "ha" " !hall -e !)-@e#" "o "he la%! o$ "he !"a"e! %here " ! $o)n* Gle> ! ")!7le> re ! "ae1 &er!onal &ro'er"y - (ova-le 'ro'er"y - +overne* -y "he la% o$ "he o%ner GMO/ILIA SEEUUNTUR &ERSONAM1 - (ay -e "an+ -le or n"an+ -le - TAN2I/LES- Cho!e! n 'o!!e!! on - INTAN2I/LES- Cho!e! n a#" on G!)#h a! !hare! o$ !"o#;, $ran#h !e!, an* #o'yr +h"!1 REAL AN. &ERSONAL &RO&ERTIES FACTUAL SITUATION 01 Real 'ro' er"y e>"r n! # an* n"r n! # val * "y o$
)!)$r)#", lea!e, ea!e(en", 'ol #e 'o%er, e( nen" *o(a n, "a>a" on, ?) e" n+ o$ " "le, re+ !"ra" on an* 're!#r '" on

&OINT OF CONTACT Le> re ! "ae GAr". 06, NCC1

al ena" on!, "ran!$er!, (or"+a+e!, #a'a# "y o$ 'ar" e!, n"er're"a" on o$ *o#)(en"!, e$$e#"! o$ o%ner!h ', #o-o%ner!h ', a##e!! on,

E>#e'" on!F a1 !)##e!! onal r +h"! -1 #a'a# "y "o !)##ee* #1 #on"ra#"! nvolv n+ real 'ro'er"y -)" %h #h *o no" *eal % "h "he " "le "here"o *1 #on"ra#"! %here "he real 'ro'er"y ! + ven a! !e#)r "y 00 | & a + e

na" onal la% o$ "he *e#e*en" - na" onal la% o$ "he *e#e*en" - le> lo# vol)n"a" !7 le> lo# n"en" on ! - "he 'r n# 'al #on"ra#" G)!). Loan1 ! +overne* -y "he 'ro'er la% o$ "he #on"ra#" Gle> lo# vol)n"a" !7 le> lo#

n"en" on ! no"eF "he (or"+a+e "!el$, ho%ever, ! +overne* -y "he le> re ! "ae. There ! a 'o!! - l "y "ha" "he 'r n# 'al #on"ra#" ! val * -)" "he (or"+a+e ! vo *5 or " (ay -e "he o"her %ay aro)n*. I$ "he 'r n# 'al #on"ra#" ! vo *, "he (or"+a+e %o)l* al!o -e vo * G$or la#; o$ 'ro'er #a)!e or #on! *era" on0, al"ho)+h -y "!el$, "he (or"+a+e #o)l* have -een val *. n1 LEC REI SITAE E>#e'" on!F !a(e a! "ho!e $or real 'ro'er"y e>#e'" "ha" n e>a('le #on#ern n+ "he (or"+a+e "he !a(e ()!" -e #han+e* "o a 1le2)e o$ 'er!onal 'ro'er"y.

Tan+ -le &er!onal &ro'er"y a1 n +eneral ECCE&TIONSF SAME AS T6OSE FOR REAL &RO&ERT4

-1 (ean! o$ "ran!'or"a" on ve!!el! o"her (ean!

#1 "h n+ n "ran! ") G"he!e "h n+! have a #han+ n+ !"a")! -e#a)!e "hey (ove1 - lo!!, *e!"r)#" on, *e"er ora" on - val * "y an* e$$e#" o$ "he !e B)re o$ "he +oo*! * !'o! " on o$ al ena" on o$ "he +oo*!

la% o$ "he $la+ Gor n !o(e #a!e! o$ "he 'la#e o$ re+ !"ry1 la% o$ "he *e'o" or re!" n+ 'la#e

la% o$ "he *e!" na" on lo#)! re+ " a#")( G%here !e Be*1 -e#. Sa * 'la#e ! "he r "e('orary ! ")! le> lo# vol)n"a" !7le> lo# n"en" on !

In"an+ -le 'er!onal 'ro'er"y 02 | & a + e

a1 re#overy o$ *e-"! or nvol)n"ary a!! +n(en" o$ *e-"! G+arn !h(en"1 -1 vol)n"ary a!! +n(en" o$ *e-"!

a1 %here "he *e-"or (ay -e e$$e#" vely !erve* % "h !)((on! G)!). The *o( # le1 -1 le> lo# vol)n"a" !7 le> lo# n"en" on ! G'ro'er la% o$ "he #on"ra#"1 o"her "heor e!F 01 NATIONAL LAW OF T6E CRE.ITOR OR .E/TOR 21 .OMICILE OF T6E .E/TOR OR T6E CRE.ITOR 81 LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS 91 LEC LOCI SOLUTIONIS #1 *o( # le o$ "he #re* "or *1 le> ! ")! o$ a!!e"! o$ "he *e-"or G$or "he!e a!!e"! #an -e hel* l a-le $or "he 'ay(en" o$ "he *e-"!1 e1 "he r +h" e(-o* e* n "he n!"r)(en" $1 n +eneral, ! ")! o$ "he n!"r)(en" a" "he " (e o$ "ran!$er, *el very or ne+o" a" on +1 la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ n#or'ora" on h1 le> lo# vol)n"a" !7le> lo# n"en" on ! 1 la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ n#or'ora" on @1 la% o$ "he 'la#e %here

#1 "a>a" on o$ *e-"! *1 a*( n !"ra" on o$ *e-"!

e1 ne+o" a- l "y or nonne+o" a- l "y o$ an n!"r)(en" $1 val * "y o$ "ran!$er, *el very or ne+o" a" on o$ "he n!"r)(en" +1 e$$e#" on a #or'ora" on o$ "he !ale #or'ora"e !hare! h1 e$$e#" -e"%een "he 'ar" e! o$ "he !ale o$ #or'ora"e !hare! 1 "a>a" on on "he * v *en*! o$ #or'ora"e !hare! @1 "a>a" on on "he n#o(e o$ "he !ale 08 | & a + e

#or'ora"e !hare! ;1 $ran#h !e! l1 +oo*% ll o$ a -)! ne!! an* "a>a" on "hereon (1'a"en"!, #o'yr +h"!, "ra*e(ar;!, "ra*e na(e!

"he !ale %a! #on!)((a"e* ;1 la% o$ "he 'la#e "ha" +ran"e* "he( l1 la% o$ "he 'la#e %here "he -)! ne!! ! #arr e* on (1 n "he a-!en#e o$ a "rea"y, "hey are 'ro"e#"e* only -y "he !"a"e "ha" +ran"e* "he(. No"eF $ore +ner! (ay !)e $or n$r n+e(en" o$ "ra*e(ar;! an* "ra*ena(e! n "he R& only $ F l ' no! are +ran"e* re# 'ro#al #on#e!! on! n "he !"a"e o$ "he $ore +ner!.

Cho!e - a "h n+, an ar" #le o$ 'er!onal 'ro'er"y - a #ha""el 'er!onal, an* ! e "her IN ACTION OR IN &OSSESSION Cho!e n A#" on GIn"an+ -le &er!onal &ro'er"y1 - a "h n+ n a#" on - "he r +h" o$ -r n+ n+ an a#" on or - r +h" "o re#over a *e-" or (oney Cho!e n a#" on (ean! any o$ "he $ollo% n+F 01 R +h" o$ 'ro#ee* n+ n a #o)r" o$ la% "o 1rocure 'ay(en" o$ !)( o$ (oney, or r +h" "o reco6er a 'er!onal #ha""el or a !)( o$ (oney -y a#" on5 21 A 1er.o*al ri),/ no" re*)#e* n"o 'o!!e!! on, -)" reco6erable b+ a .ui/ a/ la3' 81 A ri),/ /o 1er.o*al /,i*). o$ %h #h "he o%ner ha! "he 'o!!e!! on, -)" (erely a ri),/ of ac/io* for /,eir 1o..e..io*5 91 In#l)*e! 1er.o*al c,a//el. 3,ic, are *o/ i* 1o..e..io*, an* all 1ro1er/+ i* ac/io* 3,ic, 2e1e*2. e*/irel+ o* co*/rac/. e>'re!! or ('l e*5 09 | & a + e

:1 A r +h" /o recei6e or reco6er a 2eb/8 2e0a*28 or 2a0a)e. o* a cau.e of ac/io* e95co*/rac/u or for a /or/ or o( !! on o$ a *)"y. Cho!e n &o!!e!! on GTan+ -le &er!onal &ro'er"y1 - &er!onal "h n+ o$ %h #h one ha! 'o!!e!! on 2oo*% ll - "he PATRONAGE o$ any e!"a-l !he* "ra*e or -)! ne!! - "he BENEFIT a#?) re* -y an e!"a-l !h(en" BE%OND "he (ere val)e o$ "he #a' "al !"o#;!, $)n*!, or 'ro'er"y e('loye* "here n IN CONSE# ENCE OF THE GENERA" P B"IC:S PATRONAGE AND ENCO RAGEMENT %h #h " re#e ve! $ro( "! #)!"o(er!. Tra*e(ar; - "he *a0e or .+0bol o$ )oo2. (a*e or (an)$a#")re*. Tra*e na(e - "he *a0e or .+0bol o$ a ./ore or bu.i*e.. 1lace Serv #e Mar; - "he *a0e or .+0bol o$ .er6ice. ren*ere*. Co'yr +h" - "he r +h" o$ l "erary 'ro'er"y a! re#o+n Be* an* !an#" one* -y 'o! " ve la%. W ll - an a#" %here-y a 'er!on ! 'er( ""e*, % "h "he $or(al " e! 're!#r -e* -y la%, "o #on"rol "o a #er"a n *e+ree "he * !'o! " on o$ h ! e!"a"e, "o "a;e e$$e#" a$"er h ! *ea"h. S)##e!! on - a (o*e o$ a#?) ! " on -y v r")e o$ %h #h "he 'ro'er"y, r +h"! an* o-l +a" on!, "o "he e>"en" o$ "he val)e o$ "he nher "an#e, o$ a 'er!on are "ran!( ""e* "hro)+h h ! *ea"h "o ano"her or o"her! e "her -y h ! % ll or -y o'era" on o$ la%. Theor e! on "he &ro'er La% $or "he Tran!( !! on o$ S)##e!! onal R +h"! 01 Un "ary or S n+le Sy!"e(- one la% +overn! "he "ran!( !! on o$ -o"h real an* 'er!onal 'ro'er"y 0: | & a + e

21 S'l " or S# !! on Sy!"e(- one la% +overn! real 'ro'er"y %h le ano"her *e"er( ne! !)##e!! onal r +h"! "o 'er!onal 'ro'er"y. WILLS, SUCCESSION, AN. A.MINISTRATION FACTUAL SITUATION 01 E>"r n! # Val * "y o$ W ll! a1 (a*e -y an al en a-roa* -1 (a*e -y a F l ' no a-roa* #1 (a*e -y an al en n "he R& 21 E>"r n! # val * "y o$ AOINT WILLS G(a*e n "he !a(e n!"r)(en"1 a1 (a*e -y F l ' no! a-roa* -1 (a*e -y al en! a-roa* &OINT OF CONTACT a1 le> na" onal 7 le> *o( # l 7 R& la%7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! -1 le> na" onal 7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! #1 le> na" onal 7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on !

81

91 :1 a1

#1 (a*e -y al en! n "he &h l '' ne! In"r n! # Val * "y o$ % ll! G n#l)* n+ or*er o$ !)##e!! on, a(o)n" o$ !)##e!! onal r +h"!, an* n"r n! # val * "y o$ "he 'rov ! on! o$ "he % ll1 Ca'a# "y "o !)##ee* Revo#a" on o$ % ll! $ *one n R&

a1 le> na" onal Gvo * even $ val * %here (a*e1 -1 val * $ a##*+. Le> na" onal 7 le> *o( # l 7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! #1 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! "here$ore VOI. Le> na" onal o$ "he *e#ea!e*re+ar*le!! o$ "he lo#a" on an* na")re o$ "he 'ro'er"y

Le> na" onal o$ "he *e#ea!e* a1 le> lo# a#")! Go$ "he revo#a" on1 -1 - le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! o$ "he WILL7 le> lo# *o( # l - le> *o( # l 7 le> lo# a#")! o$ REVOCATION

$ *one o)"! *e R& - -y a non-*o( # l ary -y a *o( # l ary

06 | & a + e

61 'ro-a"e o$ % ll! (a*e a-roa* a1 $ no" ye" 'ro-a"e* -1 $ alrea*y 'ro-a"e* a-roa*

a1 le> $or -1 le> $or G()!" al!o -e 'ro-a"e* n "he R&5 -)" en$or#e(en" o$ "he $ore +n @)*+(en" on 'ro-a"e ! eno)+h1 a1 $ *o( # le*- %here *o( # le* a" *ea"h $ no" *o( # le*- %here "he a!!e"! are $o)n* -1 #o-e>"en! ve % "h "he ?)al $y n+ or "he a''o n" n+ #o)r" no"eF "he!e r)le! al!o a''ly "o 'r n# 'al, *o( # l ary or an# ll ary a*( n !"ra"or! an* re#e ver! even n non!)##e!! on #a!e!.

71 E>e#)"or! an* a*( n !"ra"or! a1 %here a''o n"e*

-1 'o%er!

6olo+ra'h # W ll! - a % ll %h #h ! en" rely %r ""en, *a"e* an* ! +ne* -y "he han* o$ "he "e!"a"or h (!el$. - S)-@e#" "o no o"her $or( an* nee* no" -e % "ne!!e*. - The * !'o! " on o$ "he "e!"a"or %r ""en -elo% h ! ! +na")re ()!" -e *a"e* an* ! +ne* -y h ( n or*er "o (a;e "he( val * a! "e!"a(en"ary * !'o! " on!. .e#e*en" an* Te!"a"or - *e#e*en" ! "he +eneral "er( a''l e* "o "he 'er!on %ho!e 'ro'er"y ! "ran!( ""e* "hro)+h !)##e!! on, %he"her or no" he le$" a % ll, $ he le$" a % ll, he ! al!o #alle* a "e!"a"or. Te!"a(en"ary Ca'a# "y - "he #a'a# "y "o #o('rehen* "he na")re o$ "ran!a#" on n %h #h "he "e!"a"or ! en+a+e* a" "he " (e, - "o re#olle#" "he 'ro'er"y "o -e * !'o!e* o$ an* "he 'er!on! %ho %o)l* na")rally -e !)''o!e* "o have #la (! )'on "he "e!"a"or, an* 07 | & a + e

"o #o('rehen* "he (anner n %h #h "he n!"r)(en" % ll * !"r -)"e h ! 'ro'er"y a(on+ "he o-@e#"! o$ h ! -o)n"y.

A""e!"a" on Cla)!e - "he #la)!e %here n "he % "ne!!e! #er" $y "ha" "he n!"r)(en" ha! -een e>e#)"e* -e$ore "he(, an* "he (anner o$ "he e>e#)" on o$ "he !a(e. E!"a"e - "he n"ere!" %h #h a 'er!on ha! n lan*!, or any o"her !)-@e#" o$ 'ro'er"y O-l +a" on - a @)r * #al ne#e!! "y "o, "o *o or no" "o *o. - A @)r * #al rela" on %here-y a 'er!on G#re* "or1 (ay *e(an* $ro( ano"her G*e-"or1 "he o-!ervan#e o$ a *e"er( ne* #on*)#" an* n #a!e o$ -rea#h, (ay *e(an* !a" !$a#" on $ro( "he a!!e"! o$ "he la""er. Con"ra#" - a (ee" n+ o$ "he ( n*! -e"%een 2 'er!on! %here-y one - n*! h (!el$, % "h re!'e#" "o "he o"her, "o + ve !o(e"h n+ or "o ren*er !o(e !erv #e. - An a+ree(en" %h #h #rea"e! an o-l +a" on - A+ree(en" )'on !)$$ # en" #on! *era" on, "o *o or no" "o *o a 'ar" #)lar "h n+. - May -e e>'re!! or ('l e*. E>'re!! Con"ra#" - "he a+ree(en" ! $or(al an* !"a"e* ver-ally or n %r " n+ - "he "er(! o$ "he a+ree(en" are *e#lare* -y "he 'ar" e! n %r " n+ or ver-ally a" "he " (e " ! en"ere* n"o I('l e* Con"ra#" - "he a+ree(en" n $a#" ! 're!)(e* or n$erre* $ro( "he a#"! o$ "he 'ar" e! - (ay al!o ar !e $ro( (ere #on!en" - %here one 'ar"y ren*ere* !erv #e! "o ano"her, an* "he!e !erv #e! %ere a##e'"e* -y "he la""er, n "he a-!en#e o$ 'roo$ "ha" "he !erv #e! %ere ren*ere* +ra") "o)!ly, an o-l +a" on re!)l"! "o 'ay "he rea!ona-le %or"h o$ "he !erv #e! ren*ere* )'on "he ('l e* #on"ra#" o$ h r n+, )n*er "he 'r n# 'le o$ $a# o )" *e!, .e., I *o "ha" yo) (ay + ve. Tor" 0< | & a + e

a le+al %ron+ #o(( ""e* )'on ano"herL! 'er!on or 'ro'er"y, n*e'en*en" o$ a #on"ra#"

Cr (e - an a#" or o( !! on ')n !ha-le -y la% Felony - "ran!+re!! on a+a n!" "he Rev !e* &enal Co*e O$$en!e - "ran!+re!! on a+a n!" a !'e# al la% In$ra#" on - "ran!+re!! on a+a n!" a lo#al or ()n # 'al or lo#al or* nan#e Cor'ora" on - an ar" $ # al -e n+ #rea"e* -y o'era" on o$ la%, hav n+ "he r +h" o$ !)##e!! on an* "he 'o%er!, a""r -)"e!, an* 'ro'er" e! e>'re!!ly a)"hor Be* -y la% or n# *en" "o "! e> !"en#e. Na")ral Moral La% - r)le o$ h)(an #on*)#" i01la*/e2 b+ Go2 n o)r *a/ure an* n o)r co*.cie*ce, )r+ n+ )! "o *o %ha"ever ! r +h" an* avo * %ha"ever ! ev l. S'e# al La%! - re+)la"e, $or n!"an#e, "he "rea"(en" o$ $ore +n n!)ran#e #o('an e!, "he re# 'ro#al 'r v le+e! n "he (a""er! o$ 'a"en"!, "he re?) ! "e! -e$ore an al en (ay o-"a n a #o'yr +h", "he #on* " on! )n*er %h #h al en re"a l "ra*e (ay !" ll #on" n)e, an* "he +ran" o$ n#en" ve! "o $ore +n nve!"or!. LEC SITUS - la% o$ "he 'la#e 3,ere /,e 1ro1er/+ i. .i/ua/e2 - +overn! al(o!" every"h n+ "ha" #on#ern! real 1ro1er/+F $or(al " e! $or "he r al ena" on, "he #a'a# "y "o en#)(-er or o"her% !e * !'o!e o$ "he(, an* !o $or"h. - In "he &h l '' ne!, "h ! r)le a''l e! "o -o"h real an* 'er!onal 'ro'er"y. LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS - la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ "he #ele-ra" on or e>e#)" on 0= | & a + e

+overn! +enerally all "ran!a#" on! n!o$ar a! FORMA"ITIES OR SO"EMNITIES are #on#erne*. O*e i01or/a*/ e9ce1/io* /o /,i. rule i. 3,e*e6er 1ro1er/+ i. i*6ol6e28 i* 3,ic, a ca.e i/ i. /,e le9 .i/u. /,a/ .,oul2 co*/rol(

Cr ( nal La% &r n# 'le o$ Terr "or al "y - "he 'la#e or "err "ory %here a #r (e ha! -een #o(( ""e* ha! @)r !* #" on "o "ry "he o$$en!e "ha" ha! -een #o(( ""e*. Cr ( nal La% &r n# 'le o$ 2eneral "y - #r ( nal la%! o$ a #o)n"ry - n* -o"h "he # " Ben! an* "he al en! %ho are n "he !a * #o)n"ry or "err "ory. - J&enal la%! an* "ho!e o$ ')-l # !e#)r "y an* !a$e"y !hall -e o-l +a"ory )'on all %ho l ve or !o@o)rn n &h l '' ne "err "ory, !)-@e#" "o "he 'r n# 'le! o$ ')-l # n"erna" onal la% an* "o "rea"y !" ')la" on!.K - Al en! #o(e )n*er o)r "err "or al @)r !* #" on -e#a)!e %h le "hey are n o)r #o)n"ry, "hey o%e !o(e !or" o$ alle+ an#e, even $ " -e "e('orary. AURIS.ICTION - $ro( "he La" n J@)! * #ereK, .e., "he r +h" "o !'ea;. - The a)"hor "y o$ a "r -)nal "o hear an* *e# *e a #a!e an* al!o "he 'o%er "o en$or#e any @)*+(en" " (ay ren*er "hereon n $ore +n !"a"e!, !)-@e#" "o "he r +h"! o$ !a * !"a"e!. AURIS.ICTION OVER T6E SU/AECT MATTER - Con$erre* -y la%5 "he #on!en" or "he !)-( !! on o$ "he 'ar" e! on "h ! 'o n" ! o$ no #on!e?)en#e5 only "he la% #on$er! " an* only "he la% (ay #han+e ". - "he a)"hor "y o$ a #o)r" "o hear an* *e# *e #a!e! o$ "he +eneral #la!! "o %h #h "he 'ro#ee* n+! n ?)e!" on -elon+ - "he alle+a" on! n "he 'e" " on or #o('la n", rea* "o+e"her % "h "he 'ro'er @)r !* #" onal la%, % ll #on$er @)r !* #" on on "he #o)r" AURIS.ICTION OVER T6E &ERSON - "he 'o%er o$ "he #o)r" "o ren*er a @)*+(en" "ha" % ll -e bi*2i*) o* /,e 1ar/ie. i*6ol6e2F "he 'la n" $$ an* "he *e$en*an" - @)r !* #" on over "he 'er!on o$ "he 'la n" $$ ! a#?) re* $ro( "he (o(en" he n!" ")"e! "he a#" on -y "he 'ro'er 'lea* n+ 20 | & a + e

@)r !* #" on over "he 'er!on o$ "he *e$en*an" ! a#?) re* "hro)+h "he $ollo% n+ (ean!F 0. 6olu*/ar+ a''earan#e 2. 1er.o*al .ub./i/u/e2 !erv #e o$ !)((on! AURIS.ICTION OVER T6E RES - @)r !* #" on over "he 'ar" #)lar !)-@e#" (a""er n #on"rover!y, RE2AR.LESS o$ 'er!on! %ho (ay -e n"ere!"e* "here n. FORUM-S6O&&IN2 - "he 'ra#" #e o$ loo; n+ over "he #o)r"! o$ "he %orl* $or 'o!! -le a*van"a+e! o)+h" "o -e #)r-e* &U/LIC &OLIC4 - "he (an $e!" % ll o$ "he !"a"e - "ha" %h #h " *e! re! on a##o)n" o$ "! o%n $)n*a(en"al 'r n# 'le! o$ @)!" #e, "! o%n 'er#e'" on o$ (oral!, an* "! *ee'-roo"e* "ra* " on! $or "he #o((on %eal. COMIT4 /ASE. ON RECI&ROCIT4 - $ "he la%! an* @)*+(en"! o$ "he $or)( are re#o+n Be* n a $ore +n !"a"e, "he $or)( n ")rn % ll re#o+n Be "he la%! an* @)*+(en"! e(ana" n+ $ro( !a * $ore +n !"a"e. RECO2NITION OF A FOREI2N AU.2MENT - o)r #o)r"! % ll allo% !a * FOREIGN & DGMENT TO BE PRESENTED AS A DEFENSE TO A "OCA" "ITIGATION - nvolve! (erely "he !en!e o$ @)!" #e - *oe! no" re?) re e "her a#" on or a !'e# al 'ro#ee* n+ - (ay e> !" % "ho)" en$or#e(en" ENFORCEMENT OF FOREI2N AU.2MENTS - a 'la n" $$ %an"! "he #o)r"! "o POSITIVE"% CARR% O T AND MAKE EFFECTIVE IN THE PHI"IPPINES A FOREIGN & DGMENT - v r")ally ('l e! a * re#" a#" o$ !overe +n"y - ne#e!! "a"e! a !e'ara"e a#" on or 'ro#ee* n+ -ro)+h" 're# !ely "o (a;e "he $ore +n @)*+(en" e$$e#" ve - ne#e!!ar ly #arr e! % "h " re#o+n " on E>"r n! # Fra)* - $ra)* -a!e* on $a#"! no" #on"rover"e* or re!olve* n "he #a!e %here "he @)*+(en" %a! ren*ere*. In"r n! # Fra)* 20 | & a + e

$ra)* %h #h +oe! "o "he very e> !"en#e o$ "he #a)!e o$ a#" on.

&UREL4 INTERNAL RULE - 2overn! a ')rely *o(e!" # 'ro-le(, one % "ho)" any $ore +n ele(en" - . re#"ly an!%er! a + ven 'ro-le( CONFLICTS RULE - a''l e! %hen "he $a#")al ! ")a" on nvolve! a $ore +n ele(en" - (erely n* re#"ly re!'on*! -y n* #a" n+ %he"her n"ernal or $ore +n la% ! "o -e a''l e*. FACTUAL SITUATION - !e" o$ $a#"! 're!en" n+ a #on$l #"! 'ro-le( - *e$ ne! "! o-@e#" N#er"a n o'era" ve! $a#"! - ra !e! a le+al ?)e!" on &OINT OF CONTACT OR T6E CONNECTIN2 FACTOR - "he la% o$ "he #o)n"ry % "h %h #h "he $a#")al ! ")a" on ! (o!" n" (a"ely #onne#"e*. CA&ACIT4 TO SUCCEE. - The $a#")al ! ")a" on n* #a" n+ "ha" a 'er!on ! *ea*, an* !o(eone alle+e! a r +h" or #a'a# "y "o nher " $ro( "he $or(er. TOTALIT4 A&&ROAC6 - +e"" n+ "he la% n"en*e* -y "he 'ar" e! "o +overn "he #on"ra#" "hen a''ly n+ "he n"en*e* la% n "! "o"al "y n#l)* n+ "! 'er o*! o$ 're!#r '" on an* "! !"a")"e o$ $ra)*!. LEC FORI T6EOR4 - "he $or)( #on! *er! "! o%n #on#e'"! "! o%n #hara#"er Ba" on, o"her% !e "here % ll -e a v r")al !)rren*er o$ !overe +n"y r +h" n "he $or)(L! o%n ho(e. LEC CAUSAE T6EOR4 - "he e>a#" o''o! "e o$ "he le> ! ")! "heory - "he la% *en" $ e* n "he #ho #e-o$-la% !"a+e o$ "he #on$l #" 'ro#e!! a! "he one "o -e a''l e* "o *e"er( ne "he #a!e - "he #hara#"er Ba" on o$ "he $ore +n !"a"e, %h #h ! "he 'r n# 'al 'o n" o$ #on"a#", ! !)''o!e* "o -e $ollo%e*. 22 | & a + e

UNIVERSAL ANAL4TICAL T6EOR47 COM&ARATIVE A&&ROAC6 T6EOR4 - #o((on $a#"or! -o"h n "he "E$ FORI an* "he "E$ CA SAE are "a;en n"o #on! *era" on n or*er "o avo * )n@)!" re!)l"! - Chara#"er Ba" on #o(e! only a$"er a )e*eral co01ara/i6e a*al+/ical ./u2+ of /,e ;uri.1ru2e*ce o$ all "he !"a"e! nvolve*. .UAL T6EOR4 OF LEC FORI AN. LEC CAUSAE - S ( lar "o "he Co('ara" ve A''roa#h Theory, e>#e'" "ha" n!"ea* o$ #on! *er n+ %orl*% *e #on#e'" on!, ON"% T!O CONCEPTS ENTER INTO THE PICT RE: THE CHARACTERI<ATION OF THE "E$ FORI AND THAT OF THE "E$ CA SAE( AUTONOMOUS T6EOR4 G(ay -e rela"e* "o TRANSMISSION1 - The $or)( !ho)l* #on! *er "he #hara#"er Ba" on o$ "he #o)n"ry re$erre* "o n "he #on$l #"! r)le o$ "he le> #a)!ae - 6en#e, $ "he #hara#"er Ba" on n "he $or)( S"a"e A 'o n"! "o S"a"e / a! "he le> #a)!ae, an* "he #on$l #"! r)le n S"a"e / re$er! "o S"a"e C a! "he 'ro'er 'o n" o$ #on"a#", " ! "he #hara#"er Ba" on n S"a"e C %h #h ()!" -e )!e* -y S"a"e A. NATURAL-/ORN CITIDENS - "ho!e %ho are # " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! $ro( - r"h % "ho)" hav n+ "o 'er$or( any a#" "o a#?) re or 'er$e#" "he r &h l '' ne # " Ben!h '. NATURALIDE. CITIDENS - # " Ben! %ho are no" na")ral--orn # " Ben! an* "ho!e %ho -e#o(e # " Ben! "hro)+h @)* # al 'ro#ee* n+! CITIDENS /4 ELECTION - C " Ben! %ho, -y v r")e o$ #er"a n le+al 'rov ! on!, -e#o(e !)#h -y #hoo! n+ or ele#" n+ &h l '' ne # " Ben!h ' a" "he a+e o$ 20 or % "h n a rea!ona-le " (e herea$"er. EFFECTIVE NATIONALIT4 T6EOR4 - $ "he *e#ea!e* ! no" a # " Ben o$ "he $or)(, %e ()!" +e" "he la% o$ "he na" on o$ %h #h he %a! -o"h a na" onal an* a *o( # l ary .OMICILE

28 | & a + e

"he 'la#e %here a 'er!on ha! #er"a n !e""le*, $ >e*, le+al rela" on! -e#a)!e " ! a!! +ne* "o h ( -y "he la% a" "he (o(en" o$ - r"h GDOMICI"E OF ORIGIN1 "he 'la#e a!! +ne* "o h ( -y la% a$"er - r"h on a##o)n" o$ a le+al * !a- l "y #a)!e* $or n!"an#e -y ( nor "y, n!an "y, or (arr a+e n "he #a!e o$ a %o(an or -e#a)!e he ha! ho(e "here GCONSTR CTIVE DOMICI"E=DOMICI"E B% OPERATION OF "A!1 "ha" "o %h #h, %henever he ! a-!en", he n"en*! "o re")rn GDOMICI"E OF CHOICE>

.OMICILE OF ORI2IN G.OMICILIUM ORI2INS1 - a#?) re* a" - r"h - a''l e! only "o n$an"! - never #han+e! $or a 'er!on ! -orn only on#e. CONSTRUCTIVE .OMICILE G.OMICILIUM NECESSARIUM1 - + ven a$"er - r"h - all "ho!e %ho la#; #a'a# "y "o #hoo!e "he r o%n *o( # le G n$an"!, (arr e* %o(en, * o"! an* n!ane1 - Le+al * !a- l " e! 'reven" "he r (a; n+ a #ho #e - May #han+e $ro( " (e "o " (e, *e'en* n+ )'on # r#)(!"an#e! .OMICILE OF C6OICE - a re!)l" o$ "he vol)n"ary % ll an* a#" on o$ "he 'er!on #on#erne* &RINCI&LE OF ONL4 ONE .OMICILE - No na")ral 'er!on #an have (ore "han one *o( # le a" a " (e %h le a 'er!on (ay have (ore "han one re! *en#e, "he C v l Co*e re#o+n Be! only one *o( # leF "he 'la#e o$ ha- ")al re! *en#e. RESI.ENCE - a (ore or le!! "e('orary 'la#e o$ a-o*e %h #h (ay -e lo#a"e* n !everal 'la#e! FOREI2N COURT T6EOR4 - In"erna" onal &IN2&ON27 In"erna" onal Foo"-all7 Revolv n+ .oor!7 ne>"r #a-le # r#le - The R& #o)r", n *e# * n+ "he #a!e, % ll ')" "!el$ n "he 'o! " on o$ "he $ore +n #o)r" an* %ha"ever "he $ore +n #o)r" % ll *o re!'e#" n+ "he #a!e, "he R& #o)r" % ll l ;e% !e *o. 29 | & a + e

T6EOR4 OF .ESISTMENT - "he R& #o)r" 2e.i./. or refrai*. $ro( a''ly n+ a $ore +n la% -e#a)!e o$ "! i*a2e-uac+ -e n+ $o)n*e* on a * $$eren" -a! !. 6en#e, "he R& #o)r" a''l e! "! n"ernal la%. Or* nary Ch l*ren - % "h an n"ra-)"er ne l $e o$ a" lea!" 7 (on"h!. - Mere - r"h ! !)$$ # en" E>"raor* nary Ch l*ren - $ "he n"ra-)"er ne l $e -e le!! "han 7 (on"h! - "he #h l* ()!" have l ve* $or a" lea!" 29 hr!. a$"er "! #o('le"e *el very $ro( "he (a"ernal %o(NCC Ar" #le 90. / r"h *e"er( ne! 'er!onal "y5 -)" "he #on#e ve* #h l* !hall -e #on! *ere* -orn $or all ')r'o!e! "ha" are $avora-le "o ", 'rov *e* " -e -orn la"er % "h "he #on* " on! !'e# $ e* n "he $ollo% n+ ar" #le. NCC Ar" #le 90. For # v l ')r'o!e!, "he $e")! ! #on! *ere* -orn $ "! ! al ve a" "he " (e " ! #o('le"ely *el vere* $ro( "he (o"herL! %o(-. 6o%ever, $ "he $e")! ha* an n"ra-)"er ne l $e o$ le!! "han 7 (on"h!, " ! no" *ee(e* -orn $ " * e! % "h n 29 hr!. a$"er "! #o('le"e *el very $ro( "he (a"ernal %o(-. &re!)('" ve &er!onal "y - &er!onal "y *oe! no" -e+ n a" - r"h, " -e+ n! a" #on#e'" on. I" ! e!!en" al "ha" - r"h !ho)l* o##)r la"er, o"her% !e "he $e")! % ll -e #on! *ere* a! never hav n+ 'o!!e!!e* le+al 'er!onal "y. E(an# 'a" on - "a;e! 'la#e -y "he a""a n(en" o$ (a@or "y. Unle!! o"her% !e 'rov *e*, (a@or "y #o((en#e! a" "he a+e o$ 0< yr!. A-!en#e - "he le+al !"a")! o$ a 'er!on %ho * !a''ear! $ro( h ! *o( # le, h ! %herea-o)"! -e n+ )n;no%n - Ar" #le 8<9 o$ "he C v l Co*eF 2 year! hav n+ ela'!e* % "ho)" any ne%! a-o)" "he a-!en"ee or ! n#e "he re#e '" o$ "he la!" ne%!, an* : year! n #a!e "he a-!en"ee ha! le$" a 'er!on n #har+e o$ "he a*( n !"ra" on o$ h ! 'ro'er"y, h ! ABSENCE (ay -e *e#lare*. 2: | & a + e

Ar" #le 8<6 o$ "he C v l Co*eF

The @)* # al *e#lara" on o$ a-!en#e !hall no" "a;e e$$e#" )n" l ! > (on"h! a$"er "! ')-l #a" on n a ne%!'a'er o$ +eneral # r#)la" on. &RESUM&TION OF .EAT6 Ar" #le 8=0. ?ORDINAR% ABSENCE@ A$"er "he a-!en#e o$ 7 year!, " -e n+ )n;no%n %he"her or no" "he a-!en"ee !" ll l ve!, he !hall -e 're!)(e* *ea* $or all ')r'o!e!, e>#e'" "ho!e o$ !)##e!! on. The a-!en"ee !hall no" -e 're!)(e* DEAD for /,e 1ur1o.e of o1e*i*) ,i. .ucce..io* " ll a$"er an a-!en#e o$ AB +ear.. I$ he * !a''eare* a$"er "he a+e o$ 7: year!, an a-!en#e o$ : year! !hall -e !)$$ # en" n or*er "ha" h ! !)##e!! on (ay -e o'ene*. In or* nary a-!en#e- *ea"h ! 're!)(e* "o have o##)rre* on "he la!" *ay o$ "he 'er o* In e>"raor* nary 7 ?)al $ e* a-!en#e- *ea"h ! 're!)(e* "o have o##)rre* a" "he -e+ nn n+ o$ "he 'er o*. SURVIVORS6I& The r)le! on !)rv vor!h ' are $o)n* n Ar" #le 98 o$ "he C v l Co*e an* n R)le 080 o$ "he R)le! o$ Co)r"F Ar" #le 98 CC. I$ "here ! *o)-", a! -e"%een C or 0ore 1er.o*. %ho are calle2 /o .uccee2 eac, o/,er, a! "o 3,ic, of /,e0 2ie2 fir./, %hoever alle+e! "he *ea"h o$ one 'r or "o "he o"her, !hall 'rove "he !a(e5 IN THE ABSENCE OF PROOF, " ! 1re.u0e2 "ha" THE% DIED AT THE SAME TIME AND THERE SHA"" BE NO TRANSMISSION OF RIGHTS FROM ONE TO THE OTHER. R)le 080, Se#. 8 G@@1 R)le! o$ Co)r"F When 2 or (ore 'er!on! 'er !h n "he !a(e #ala( "y, !)#h a! %re#;, -a""le, or #on$la+ra" on, an* " ! no" !ho%n %ho * e* $ r!", an* "here are no 'ar" #)lar # r#)(!"an#e! $ro( %h #h " 26 | & a + e

#an -e n$erre*, "he !)rv vor!h ' ! 're!)(e* $ro( "he 'ro-a- l " e! re!)l" n+ $ro( "he STRENGTH AND AGE OF THE SE$ES, a##or* n+ "o "he $ollo% n+ r)le!F 0. $ -o"h %ere )n*er "he a+e o$ 0:, "he ol*er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 2. $ -o"h %ere a-ove "he a+e o$ 60, "he yo)n+er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 8. $ one ! )n*er 0: an* "he o"her a-ove 60, "he $or(er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 9. $ -o"h -e over 0: an* )n*er 60, an* "he !e>e! -e * $$eren", "he (ale ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 $ "he !e>e! -e "he !a(e, "hen "he ol*er5 :. $ one -e )n*er 0: or over 60, an* "he o"her -e"%een "ho!e a+e!, "he la""er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*. MARRIA2E AS A CONTRACT FACTUAL SITUATION 0. 1 $ #ele-ra"e* a-roa* M -e"%een F l ' no! &OINT OF CONTACT 0.1 LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS G% "ho)" 're@)* #e "o "he e>#e'" on! )n*er - +a(o)!, 'oly+a(o)!, an* n#e!")o)! (arr a+e! an* #on!)lar (arr a+e! LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS e>#e'" $ "he (arr a+e !F a1 6 +hly ((oral Gl ;e - +a(o)! an* 'oly+a(o)! (arr a+e!1 -1 Un ver!ally #on! *ere* n#e!")o)!, e., -e". /ro"her! an* ! !"er! an* -e". A!#en*an"! an* *e!#en*an"!. LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS e>#e'" $ "he (arr a+e !F #1 6 +hly ((oral Gl ;e - +a(o)! an* 27 | & a + e

M -e"%een $ore +ner!

M ( >e*

'oly+a(o)! (arr a+e!1 *1 Un ver!ally #on! *ere* n#e!")o)!, e., -e". /ro"her! an* ! !"er! an* -e". A!#en*an"! an* *e!#en*an"!. - TO U&6OL. T6E VALI.IT4 OF T6E MARRIA2E. I$ #ele-ra"e* n "he &h l '' ne! -e"%een $ore +ner! NATIONAL LAW 'rov *e* "he (arr a+e ! no" h +hly ((oral or )n ver!ally #on! *ere* n#e!")o)! NATIONAL LAW o$ "he F l ' no Go"her% !e ')-l # 'ol #y (ay -e ( l "a"e* a+a n!"1 LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS G% "h 're@)* #e "o "he $ore+o n+ r)le!1

( >e*

Marr a+e -y 'ro>y G#ele-ra"e* %here "he 'ro>y a''ear!1 MARRIA2E AS A STATUS FACTUAL SITUATION 01 &er!onal R +h"! an* O-l +a" on! -e"%een "he 6)!-an* an* "he W $e

&OINT OF CONTACT NATIONAL LAW OF T6E 6US/AN. No"eF E$$e#" o$ !)-!e?)en" #han+e o$ na" onal "y a1 $ -o"h % ll have a ne% #o((on na" onal "y, T6E NEW ONE5 -1 $ only one % ll #han+e, T6E LAST COMMON NATIONALIT4 #1 $ "here %a! never any #o((on na" onal "y, T6E NATIONAL LAW OF T6E 6US/AN. AT T6E TIME OF T6E WE..IN2 NATIONAL LAW OF T6E

21 &ro'er"y Rela" on! -e"%een 2< | & a + e

"he 6)!-an* an* "he W $e

6US/AN., %7o 're@)* #e "o Ar". <0 o$ "he FC, "o % "F In "he a-!en#e o$ a #on"rary !" ')la" on n a (arr a+e !e""le(en", "he 'ro'er"y rela" on! o$ "he !'o)!e! !hall -e +overne* -y R& la%!, re+ar*le!! o$ "he 'la#e o$ "he #ele-ra" on o$ "he (arr a+e an* "he r re! *en#e. Th ! r)le !hall no" a''lyF 01 Where -o"h !'o)!e! are al en!5 21 W "h re!'e#" "o "he e>"r n! # val * "y o$ #on"ra#"! a$$e#" n+ 'ro'er"y no" ! ")a"e* n "he R& an* e>e#)"e* n "he #o)n"ry %here "he 'ro'er"y ! lo#a"e*. 81 W "h re!'e#" "o "he e>"r n! # val * "y o$ #on"ra#"! en"ere* n"o n "he R& -)" a$$e#" n+ 'ro'er"y ! ")a"e* n a $ore +n #o)n"ry %ho!e la%! re?) re * $$eren" $or(al " e! $or "! e>"r n! # val * "y. E$$e#" o$ Chan+e o$ Na" onal "yNo EFFECT a##*+. To "he .o#"r ne o$ (()"a- l "y n "he (a"r (on al 'ro'er"y re+ (e.

Ar" #le 8=0. The $ollo% n+ !hall -e 're!)(e* *ea* $or all ')r'o!e!, n#l)* n+ "he * v ! on o$ "he e!"a"e a(on+ "he he r!F

2= | & a + e

0. A 'er!on on -oar* a 6e..el lo!" *)r n+ a .ea 6o+a)e, or on an air1la*e %h #h ! 0i..i*), %ho ha! no" -een hear* $or D +ear. ! n#e "he lo!! o$ "he ve!!el or a r'lane5 2. a 'er!on n "he ar0e2 force. %ho ha! "a;en 'ar" n 3ar, an* ha! -een ( !! n+ $or D +ear.. 8. a 'er!on %ho ha! -een i* 2a*)er of 2ea/, )n*er o/,er circu0./a*ce. an* h ! e9i./e*ce ,a. *o/ bee* E*o3*, $or D +ear.. A)r * #al A)r !* #" on - a)"hor "y "o hear an* *e"er( ne a le+al #on"rover!y. - The @)r !* #" on o$ o)r "r -)nal! o$ @)!" #e ! +overne* -y o)r o%n la% on "he (a""er. Le+ !la" ve A)r !* #" on - "he a)"hor "y "o ena#" la%! - "he #o('e"en#e o$ a 'er!onL! na" onal la% "o +overn h ! !"a")! Co(')l!ory R)le - " ! IMPERATIVE $or "he 'ar" e! "o $ollo% "he $or(al " e! o$ "he P"ACE OF CE"EBRATION O'" onal R)le - "he 'ar" e! (ay $ollo% EITHER THE "E$ "OCI CE"EBRATIONIS OR THEIR NATIONA" "A! E##le! a!" #al R)le - "he $or(al " e! o$ BOTH THE "E$ "OCI CE"EBRATIONIS AND THE NATIONA" "A! o$ "he 'ar" e! ()!" -e #o('l e* % "h Co((on-La% Marr a+e - "he l v n+- n "o+e"her or "he #ele-ra" on o$ a (an an* a %o(an a! h)!-an* an* % $e % "ho)" +e"" n+ (arr e* Marr a+e -y &ro>y - One %here one o$ "he 'ar" e! ! (erely re're!en"e* a" "he #ere(ony -y a $r en* or *ele+a"e A-!ol)"e Co(()n "y Re+ (e - Al(o!" all "he 'ro'er" e! o$ "he (arr a+e are o%ne* n #o((on -y "he h)!-an* an* "he % $e Rela" ve Co(()n "y Re+ (e7Co(()n "y &ar"ner!h ' o$ 2a n! or "he 2anan# al Sy!"e( 80 | & a + e

every"h n+ earne* *)r n+ "he (arr a+e -elon+ "o "he #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h '

Co('le"e Se'ara" on o$ &ro'er"y Re+ (e! - ea#h o%n! h !7her earn n+! .o"al or .o%ry Sy!"e( - "he % $e, -e$ore "he (arr a+e, *el ver! a *o%ry or 'ro'er"y "o "he h)!-an* "o hel' o)" n "he (arr a+e o-l +a" on!, -)" la"er, %hen "he (arr a+e ! * !!olve*, "he 'ro'er"y o$ "! val)e ()!" -e re")rne*. Co('le"e A-!or'" on or A*( n !"ra" on -y "he h)!-an* - "he h)!-an* o%n! all "he 'ro'er" e! o$ "he (arr a+e, -)" he ! l a-le $or all "he *e-"! Mar "al A*( n !"ra" on Sy!"e( - ea#h !'o)!e !" ll o%n! h !7her 'ro'er"y, -)" "he h)!-an* a*( n !"er! all "he 'ro'er" e!. I(()"a- l "y o$ Ma"r (on al &ro'er"y Re+ (e .o#"r ne - REGARD"ESS OF CHANGE OF NATIONA"IT% on "he 'ar" o$ "he h)!-an* or "he % $e or -o"h, THE ORIGINA" PROPERT% REGIME AT THE START OF THE MARRIAGE REMAINS( M)"a- l "y o$ La% - %hen "he la% o$ "he or + nal na" onal "y "!el$ #han+e!, "he (ar "al re+ (e, "he 'ro'er"y rela" on!h ', ha! "o #han+e a##or* n+ly. - Th ! #anno" -e hel'e* $or la% ! e!!en" ally a *yna( # "h n+5 - 6o%ever, ve!"e* r +h"! ()!" -e *)ly 'ro"e#"e*. So# ally +ro"e!?)e ! ")a" on - a ! ")a" on %here a F l ' no %o(an ! !" ll (arr e* "o a (an %ho ! no lon+er her h)!-an* A-an*on(en" - Synony(o)! "o CRIMINAL .ESERTION - A h)!-an*L! or % $eL! 3illful failure 3i/,ou/ ;u./ cau.e "o 'rov *e $or "he #are, 'ro"e#" on or !)''or" o$ a !'o)!e %ho ! !" ll n ll heal"h or ne#e!! "o)! # r#)(!"an#e! - In#l)*e! -o"h "he n"en" on "o a-an*on an* "he e>"ernal a#" -y %h #h "he n"en" on ! #arr e* n"o e$$e#". 80 | & a + e

/I2AM4 - #o(( ""e* -y any 'er!on %ho !hall #on"ra#" a !e#on* or !)-!e?)en" (arr a+e -e$ore "he $or(er (arr a+e ha! -een le+ally * !!olve*, or - %ho !hall #on"ra#" a !e#on* or !)-!e?)en" (arr a+e -e$ore "he a-!en" !'o)!e ha! -een *e#lare* 're!)('" vely *ea* -y (ean! o$ a @)*+(en" ren*ere* n "he 'ro'er 'ro#ee* n+!. Se>)al In$ *el "y - Un$a "h$)lne!! n (arr a+e - A*)l"ery an* #on#)- na+e are en#o('a!!e* n "he "er( Se>)al 'erver! on - an a-nor(al "y -y a 'er!on n (a""er! o$ !e> &re-(ar "al Se> - n*)l+ n+ -y an )n(arr e* #o)'le n !e>)al n"er#o)r!e 'r or "o +e"" n+ (arr e*. A*)l"ery - vol)n"ary !e>)al n"er#o)r!e o$ a (arr e* 'er!on o"her "han "he o$$en*erL! h)!-an* or % $e - #o(( ""e* -y a (arr e* %o(an %ho !hall have !e>)al n"er#o)r!e % "h a (an no" her h)!-an*5 an* -y a (an %ho ha! #arnal ;no%le*+e o$ her, ;no% n+ her "o -e (arr e*, even $ "he (arr a+e -e !)-!e?)en"ly *e#lare* vo *. O&EN AN. NOTORIOUS A.ULTER4 - The 'ar" e! ()!" re! *e "o+e"her ')-l #ly n "he $a#e o$ !o# e"y a! $ #on@)+al rela" on! e> !"e* -e"%een "he(, an* "he r !o l v n+ an* "he $a#" "ha" "hey are no" h)!-an* an* % $e ()!" -e ;no%n n "he #o(()n "y Con#)- na+e - #o(( ""e* -y any h)!-an* %ho G01!hall ;ee' a ( !"re!! n "he #on@)+al *%ell n+ or G21have !e>)al n"er#o)r!e )n*er !#an*alo)! # r#)(!"an#e! % "h a %o(an no" h ! % $e, G81#oha- " % "h her n any o"her 'la#e. ILLICIT CO6A/ITATION - "he l v n+ "o+e"her a! (an an* % $e o$ "%o 'er!on! %ho are no" la%$)lly (arr e* % "h "he ('l #a" on "ha" "hey ha- ")ally 'ra#" #e $orn #a" on G)nla%$)l !e>)al n"er#o)r!e -e"%een "%o )n(arr e* 'er!on!1. 82 | & a + e

ATTEM&T /4 ONE S&OUSE A2AINST T6E LIFE OF T6E OT6ER - "he a""e('" ()!" no" -e @)!" $ e* a! n "he #a!e o$ la%$)l !el$-*e$en!e5 nor ()!" " -e one %here "he a""e('" %a! (a*e -e#a)!e "he o"her %a! #a)+h" n $la+ran"e *el #"o % "h a lover. The a""e('" ()!" -e one o$ a""e('"e* or $r)!"ra"e* 'arr # *e, no" one #a)!e* -y ne+l +en#e $or n "he la""er #a!e, " #anno" -e !a * "ha" "here %a! an a""e('". No"eF Ar". :=. FCF No le+al !e'ara" on (ay -e *e#ree* )nle!! "he Co)r" ha! "a;en !"e'! "o%ar* "he re#on# l a" on o$ "he !'o)!e! an* ! $)lly !a" !$ e*, *e!' "e !)#h e$$or"!, "ha" re#on# l a" on ! h +hly ('ro-a-le. .e$en!e! n Le+al Se'ara" onF a1 Co*2o*a/io*- $or+ vene!!, e>'re!! or ('l e*. M)!" -e $ree, vol)n"ary, an* no" n*)#e* -y *)re!! or $ra)* -1 Co*.e*/- (ay -e e>'re!! or ('l e*. M)!" -e )n#lo)*e* -y $ra)*, *)re!!, or !o(e" (e! even ( !"a;e c> Co**i6a*ce *1 Recri0i*a/io* or 0u/ual )uil/- a #har+e (a*e -y an a##)!e* 'er!on a+a n!" "he a##)!er5 n 'ar" #)lar, a #o)n"er#har+e o$ a*)l"ery or #on#)- na+e (a*e -y one #har+e* % "h "he !a(e o$$en!e n a !) " $or le+al !e'ara" on, a+a n!" "he 'er!on %ho ha! #har+e* h ( or her. e1 Collu.io*- Ar". 60 o$ FCF No *e#ree o$ le+al !e'ara" on !hall -e 'ro()l+a"e* )'on !" ')la" on o$ $a#"! or a #on$e!! on o$ @)*+(en". Th ! ! an a+ree(en" %here-y one 'ar"y % ll 're"en* "o have #o(( ""e* "he +ro)n* rel e* )'on. $1 Pre.cri1/io*- Ar". :7, FCF An a#" on $or le+al !e'ara" on !hall -e $ le* % "h n : year! $ro( "he " (e o$ "he o##)rren#e o$ "he #a)!e. Nee* no" -e alle+e*. No"eF Ar". :< FCF An a#" on $or le+al !e'ara" on !hall n no #a!e -e "r e* -e$ore 6 (on"h! !hall have ela'!e* ! n#e "he $ l n+ o$ "he 'e" " on. 88 | & a + e

The J#ool n+-o$$ 'er o*K G6 (on"h!1 ! "he 'er o* o$ " (e n %h #h no a#" on (ay -e "a;en -y e "her ! *e!. &)r'o!eF "o ena-le "he 'ar" e! "o #ool-o$$. Ar". 60 FCF A$"er "he $ l n+ o$ "he 'e" " on $or le+al !e'ara" on, "he !'o)!e! !hall -e en" "le* "o l ve !e'ara"ely $ro( ea#h o"her. The #o)r", n "he a-!en#e o$ a %r ""en a+ree(en" -e"%een "he !'o)!e!, !hall *e! +na"e e "her o$ "he( or a "h r* 'er!on "o a*( n !"er "he a-!ol)"e #o(()n "y or #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h ' 'ro'er"y. The a*( n !"ra"or a''o n"e* -y "he #o)r" !hall have "he !a(e 'o%er! an* *)" e! a! "ho!e o$ a +)ar* an )n*er "he R)le! o$ Co)r". No"eF The !'o)!e!, %h le (ay -e en" "le* "o l ve !e'ara"ely $ro( ea#h o"her a$"er "he $ l n+ o$ "he 'e" " on, are no" re?) re* "o *o !o. E$$e#"! o$ le+al !e'ara" onF 01 S'o)!e! (ay li6e .e1ara/el+ C> Marria)e bo*2. *o/ .e6ere2 81 The a-!ol)"e #o(()n "y or "he #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h ' !hall -e 2i..ol6e2 a*2 li-ui2a/e2 91 The o$$en* n+ !'o)!e !hall have *o ri),/ /o a*+ .,are of /,e *e/ 1rofi/. ear*e2 by "he a-!ol)"e #o(()n "y or "he #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h ', %h #h !hall -e $or$e "e* G n a##or*an#e % "h "he 'rov ! on! o$ Ar". 981 :1 The cu./o2+ of /,e 0i*or c,il2re* !hall -e a%ar*e* "o "he nno#en" !'o)!e, !)-@e#" "o Ar". 208 o$ FC 61 The o$$en* n+ !'o)!e !hall -e 2i.-ualifie2 fro0 i*,eri/i*) fro0 /,e i**oce*/ .1ou.e b+ i*/e./a/e .ucce..io*. 71 The 1ro6i.io*. i* fa6or of /,e offe*2i*) .1ou.e 0a2e i* /,e 3ill o$ "he nno#en" one !hall -e revo;e* -y o'era" on o$ la%. G"he 'rov ! on! o$ "he % ll -e n+ re$erre* "o here are 'rov ! on! (a*e &RIOR TO an* NOT AFTER "he *e#ree o$ le+al !e'ara" on5 o"her% !e " #anno" -e !a * "ha" "he *e#ree revo;e! any 'rov ! on, $or "he % ll ha* no" ye" -een (a*e.1

89 | & a + e

TWO T6IN2S T6AT MA4 /E REVOHE. /4 T6E INNOCENT S&OUSEF 01 .ona" on! (a*e n $avor o$ "he o$$en* n+ !'o)!e G()!" -e -ro)+h" % "h n : year! $ro( "he " (e "he *e#ree o$ le+al !e'ara" on ha! -e#o(e $ nal15 an* 21 .e! +na" on o$ "he o$$en* n+ !'o)!e a! -ene$ # ary n "he n!)ran#e #on"ra#"! o$ "he nno#en" !'o)!e. Con*ona" on - $or+ vene!!, e>'re!! or ('l e* - "o #on!" ")"e val * *e$en!e, " ()!" -e $ree, vol)n"ary, an* no" n*)#e* -y *)re!! or $ra)*. RECRIMINATION OR MUTUAL 2UILT - a #har+e (a*e -y an a##)!e* 'er!on a+a n!" "he a##)!er - a #o)n"er #har+e o$ an a*)l"ery or #on#)- na+e (a*e -y one #har+e* % "h "he !a(e o$$en!e n a !) " $or le+al !e'ara" on, a+a n!" "he 'er!on %ho ha! #har+e* h ( or her. COLLUSION - an a+ree(en" %here-y one 'ar"y % ll 're"en* "o have #o(( ""e* "he +ro)n* rel e* )'on. RECONCILIATION - a - la"eral a#", re?) r n+ #o((on #on!en", %he"her e>'re!! or ('l e*. - In la% o$ *o(e!" # rela" on!, re#on# l a" on ! a vol)n"ary re!)('" on o$ (ar "al rela" on! n "he $)lle!" !en!e. - Shall have "he $$. #on!e?)en#e!F a. The le)al 1rocee2i*).8 if ./ill 1e*2i*)8 .,all /,ereb+ be /er0i*a/e2 n %ha"ever !"a+e5 -. The fi*al 2ecree of le)al .e1ara/io* .,all be .e/ a.i2e, -)" "he .e1ara/io* of 1ro1er/+ a*2 a*+ for forfei/ure of /,e .,are of /,e )uil/+ .1ou.e alrea2+ effec/e2 .,all .ub.i./, )nle!! "he !'o)!e! a+ree "o rev ve "he r 'ro'er"y re+ (e. CONSAN2UINIT4 - ; n!h ' - -loo* rela" on!h ' - "he #onne#" on or rela" on o$ 'er!on! *e!#en*e* $ro( "he !a(e !"o#; or #o((on an#e!"or. AFFINIT4 8: | & a + e

#onne#" on e> !" n+ n #on!e?)en#e o$ a (arr a+e, -e"%een ea#h o$ "he (arr e* 'er!on! an* "he ; n*re* o$ "he o"her.

L neal Con!an+)n "y - !)-! !"! -e"%een 'er!on! o$ %ho( one ! *e!#en*e* n a * re#" l ne $ro( "he o"her an* !o )'%ar*! n "he * re#" a!#en* n+ l ne an* !o *o%n%ar*! n "he * re#" *e!#en* n+ l ne. COLLATERAL CONSAN2UINIT4 - S)-! !"! -e"%een 'er!on! %ho have "he !a(e an#e!"or!, -)" %ho *o no" *e!#en* or a!#en* one $ro( "he o"her .IRECT AFFINIT4 - !)-! !"! -e"%een "he h)!-an*L! an* h ! % $eL! rela" on! -y -loo*, or -e"%een "he % $e an* "he h)!-an*L! rela" on! -y -loo*. SECON.AR4 AFFINIT4 - !)-! !"! -e"%een "he h)!-an*L! an* h ! % $eL! rela" on! -y (arr a+e COLLATERAL AFFINIT4 - S)-! !"! -e"%een "he h)!-an* an* "he rela" on! o$ h ! % $eL! rela" on!

ENUMERATION Ele(en"! o$ &r va"e In"erna" onal La%F 0. Con$l #" o$ la%! ! "ha" 'ar" o$ "he ()n # 'al la% o$ "he S"a"e 2. The * re#" on "o Co)r"! an* A*( n !"ra" ve a+en# e! 8. A le+al 'ro-le( nvolv n+ a $ore +n ele(en" 9. The a''l #a" on or non-a''l #a" on o$ $ore +n la%7$ore +n la%! I('or"an#e o$ Con$l #" o$ La%! 86 | & a + e

0. To a*@)!" #on$l #" n+ r +h"! n n"erna" onal (er#an" le an* #or'ora"e "ran!a#" on! 2. To !olve 'er!onal, $a( ly, 'ro'er"y an* !)##e!! onal #on"ra#")al 'ro-le(!, 'o!!e!!e* o$ $a#"! or ele(en"! o'era" n+ n "%o or (ore !"a"e!. S#o'e o$ F)n#" on! o$ Con$l #" o$ La%! 0. To 1re.cribe /,e co*2i/io*. )n*er %h #h "he #o)r" ! #o('e"en" "o en"er"a n !)#h a !) " 2. To 2e/er0i*e $or ea#h #a!e! "he 1ar/icular /erri/orial .+./e0 of la3 -y re$eren#e "o %h #h "he r +h"! o$ "he 'ar" e! ()!" -e a!#er"a ne* 8. To .1ecif+ /,e circu0./a*ce. n %h #h a $ore +n @)*+(en" #an -e re#o+n Be* a! a *e# ! ve o$ "he ?)e!" on n * !')"e In o"her %or*!, 0. The *e"er( na" on o$ %h #h #o)n"ry ha! @)r !* #" on 2. The a''l #a- l "y "o a 'ar" #)lar #a!e o$ e "her "he lo#al or "he $ore +n la% 8. The *e"er( na" on o$ "he $or#e, val * "y an* e$$e#" vene!! o$ a $ore +n @)*+(en" Why #on$l #" o$ la% ! o-!erve*O 0. S"a"e! ()!" o$ ne#e!! "y o-!erve "he !)-@e#" -e#a)!e i/ i. 1ar/ of /,eir 0u*ici1al la3( S)rely, a +overn(en", any%here an* any" (e, ! *)"y -o)n* "o en$or#e an* re!'e#" "! o%n ()n # 'al le+ !la" on 2. n* v *)al! o-!erve " -e#a)!e o$ fear of 0u*ici1al .a*c/io*. SOURCES OF CONFLICT OF LAWS 0. In* re#" - Na")ral Moral La% - Wor; o$ Wr "er! 2. . re#" - Con!" ")" on! - Co* $ #a" on! - S'e# al La%! - Trea" e! an* Conven" on! - A)* # al .e# ! on! 87 | & a + e

In"erna" onal C)!"o(!

H n*! o$ A)r !* #" on 0. A)r !* #" on over "he !)-@e#" (a""er 2. A)r !* #" on over "he 'er!on 8. A)r !* #" on over "he re! Rea!on! $or Re$)!al "o A!!)(e A)r !* #" onF For)( Non Conven en! 0. "he e6i2e*ce a*2 /,e 3i/*e..e. (ay *o/ be rea2il+ a6ailable 2. "he cour/ 2ocEe/. o$ "he $or)( (ay alrea*y -e clo))e25 "o 'er( " a** " onal #a!e! %o)l* nev "a-ly ,a01er "he .1ee2+ a20i*i./ra/io* of ;u./ice 8. "he ev l! o$ foru0 .,o11i*) A''l #a" on o$ "he In"ernal or .o(e!" # La% 0. %hen "he la3 of /,e foru0 e>'re!!ly .o 1ro6i2e. n "! #on$l #"! r)le! 2. %hen "he 'ro'er forei)* la3 ,a. *o/ bee* 1ro1erl+ 1lea2e2 a*2 1ro6e2 8. %hen "he #a!e i*6ol6e. a*+ of /,e e9ce1/io*. /o /,e a11lica/io* o$ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la% E>#e'" on! To The A''l #a" on O$ Fore +n La% 01 When "he $ore +n la%, @)*+(en" or #on"ra#" !F - Con"rary "o al(o!" u*i6er.all+ co*ce2e2 1ri*ci1le. of 0orali/+ G#on"ra -ono! (ore!1 - Con"rary "o a .ou*2 a*2 e./abli.,e2 1ublic 1olic+ o$ "he $or)( - Involve! 1roce2ural 0a//er. 21 When "he #a!e nvolve!F - Pe*al la%!, #on"ra#"! an* @)*+(en"! - &)rely fi.cal or a20i*i./ra/i6e (a""er! - Real or 1er.o*al 1ro1er/+ ! ")a"e* n "he $or)( 81 When "he a''l #a" on o$ "he $ore +n la%, @)*+(en", or #on"ra#"F - May %or; u*2e*iable i*;u./ice "o "he # " Ben! or re! *en"! o$ "he $or)( - May %or; a)ai*./ /,e 6i/al i*/ere./. a*2 *a/io*al .ecuri/+ o$ "he !"a"e o$ "he $or)( 8< | & a + e

Pro6i*) of a !ri//e* Forei)* "a3 0. /y an OFFICIA" P B"ICATION "hereo$5 2. /y a COP% ATTESTE. /4 T6E OFFICER 6AVIN2 T6E LE2AL CUSTO.4 OF T6E RECOR., or -y h ! *e')"y, an* a##o('an e* % "h a CERTIFICATE T6AT SUC6 OFFICER 6AS CUSTO.4 Pro6i*) of a* *3ri//e* "a3 0. /y "he ORA" TESTIMON% o$ e>'er" % "ne!!e! 2. /y PRINTED AND P B"ISHED BOOKS OF REPORTS OF DECISIONS o$ "he #o)n"ry nvolve*, $ 'rove* "o -e #o((only a*( ""e* n !)#h #o)r"! Theor e! on Why "he Fore +n La% (ay n So(e Ca!e! /e 2 ven E$$e#" 0. Theory o$ Co( "y 2. Theory o$ Ve!"e* R +h"! 8. Theory o$ Lo#al La% 9. Theory o$ 6ar(ony o$ La%! :. Theory o$ A)!" #e H n*! o$ Co( "y 0. /a!e* on Reci1roci/+ 2. /a!e* on "he 1er.ua.i6e*e.. o$ $ore +n @)*+(en" Rea!on! %hy no" all $ore +n @)*+(en"! #an -e re#o+n Be* or en$or#e* n o)r #o)n"ry 0. The re?) ! "e 1roof "hereo$ (ay *o/ be a2e-ua/e 2. They (ay co*/ra6e*e o)r e!"a-l !he* 1ublic 1olic+ 8. They (ay co*/ra2ic/ o*e a*o/,erF one #anno" -e +) *e* -y #on"ra* #" on! 9. The a20i*i./ra/io* of ;u./ice 0a+ be .,ocEi*)l+ corru1/ n !o(e #o)n"r e! Con* " on! an* Re?) ! "e! /e$ore Fore +n A)*+(en"! (ay -e Re#o+n Be* an* En$or#e* n "he &h l '' ne! 0. Proof of Forei)* &u2)0e*/ GFor re#o+n " on, "here ! no ne#e!! "y $or a !e'ara"e a#" on or 'ro#ee* n+ 2. "he @)*+(en" ()!" -e on ci6il or co00ercial 0a//er 8. No lacE o$ ;uri.2ic/io*, No 3a*/ of *o/ice, No collu.io*, No frau2, No clear 0i./aEe of la3 or fac/ 9. The @)*+(en" 0u./ *o/ co*/ra6e*e a .ou*2 a*2 e./abli.,e2 1ublic 1olic+ o$ "he $or)( 8= | & a + e

The Re?) ! "e! $or Re! A)* #a"a 0. The @)*+(en" ()!" -e fi*al 2. The #o)r" ren*er n+ "he @)*+(en" ()!" have ;uri.2ic/io* over "he !)-@e#" (a""er an* "he 'ar" e! 8. The @)*+(en" ()!" -e o* /,e 0eri/. 9. There ()!" -e *en" "y o$ 'ar" e!, o$ !)-@e#" (a""er, an* o$ #a)!e o$ a#" on H n*! o$ Con$l #"! R)le 0. One-S *e* R)le7 Un la"eral R)le 2. All-! *e* R)le7 M)l" la"eral R)le Fa#"or! Wh #h 2 ve R !e "o "he &ro-le( o$ Chara#"er Ba" on 0. . $$eren" le+al !y!"e(! a""a#h "o "he !a(e le+al "er( % "h 2iffere*/ 0ea*i*).5 2. . $$eren" le+al !y!"e(! (ay #on"a n *ea! or #on#e'" on! co01le/el+ u*E*o3* "o one ano"her 8. . $$eren" le+al !y!"e(! a''ly 2iffere*/ 1ri*ci1le. $or "he !ol)" on o$ 'ro-le(! %h #h, n +eneral "er(!, are o$ #o((on na")re S"e'! n Chara#"er Ba" on GA##or* n+ "o .ean Fal#on-r *+e1 0. Chara#"er Ba" on o$ "he ?)e!" on! 2. Sele#" on o$ "he 'ro'er la% 8. A''l #a" on o$ "he 'ro'er la% S"e'! n Chara#"er Ba" on GA##or* n+ "o E*+ar*o &ara!1 0. .e"er( na" on o$ "he fac/. nvolve* 2. C,arac/eri4a/io* o$ "he $a#")al ! ")a" on 8. .e"er( na" on o$ "he co*flic/. rule %h #h ! "o -e a''l e* 9. Chara#"er Ba" on o$ "he 1oi*/ of co*/ac/ or /,e co**ec/i*) fac/or :. Chara#"er Ba" on o$ "he 'ro-le( a! 1roce2ural or .ub./a*/i6e 6. 1lea2i*) a*2 1ro6i*) o$ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la% 7. a11lica/io* o$ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la% "o "he 'ro-le( Theor e! n Chara#"er Ba" on G.UAL LT1 0. 2. 8. 9. :. 6. LEC FORI LEC CAUSAE UNIVERSAL ANAL4TICAL .UAL T6EOR4 OF LEC FORI AN. LEC CAUSAE AUTONOMOUS T6EOR4 TOTALIT4 T6EOR4

90 | & a + e

T%o ; n*! o$ #a'a# "yF 0. #a'a# "y "o a#" 2. @)r * #al #a'a# "y Chara#"er !" #! o$ S"a")!F GCCU&S1 0. co*ferre2 'r n# 'ally -y "he S"a"e 2. a (a""er o$ 1ublic or .ocial i*/ere./ 8. a #on#e'" o$ .ocial or2er 9. ca**o/ be ea.il+ /er0i*a/e2 a" "he (ere % ll or *e! re o$ "he 'ar" e! #on#erne* :. +enerally !)''o!e* "o have a u*i6er.al c,arac/er T6EORIES ON &ERSONAL LAW OR T6E LAW T6AT S6OUL. 2OVERN STATUS AN. CA&ACIT4 IN 2ENERAL 0. Na" onal "y Theory- &er!onal Theory 2. .o( # l ary Theory- Terr "or al Theory 8. S ")! Theory- E#le#" # Theory 8 H n*! o$ C " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! 0. Na")ral--orn 2. Na")ral Be* 8. C " Ben -y ele#" on 2 Theor e! on Whe"her &la#e or An#e!"ry .e"er( ne! C " Ben!h ' 0. A)! Sol 2. A)! San+) n ! C " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! Un*er "he 0=<7 Con!" ")" on 0. Tho!e %ho are # " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! a" "he " (e o$ "he a*o'" on o$ "he 0=<7 Con!" ")" on 2. Tho!e %ho!e $a"her! or (o"her! are # " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! 8. Tho!e -orn -e$ore 07 Aan)ary 0=78, o$ F l ' no (o"her!, %ho ele#" &h l '' ne # " Ben!h ' )'on rea#h n+ "he a+e o$ (a@or "y 9. "ho!e %ho are na")ral Be* n a##or*an#e % "h la%. E)al $ #a" on! $or Na")ral Ba" on 0. AGE. The 'e" " oner ()!" no" -e le!! "han 20 year! ol* on "he *a"e o$ "he hear n+ o$ "he 'e" " on 90 | & a + e

2. RESIDENCE. he ()!" have re! *e* n "he &h l '' ne! $or a #on" n)o)! 'er o* o$ no" le!! "han 00 year!. 8. MORA". 6e ()!" -e o$ +oo* (oral #hara#"er an* 9. CONSTI. 6e ()!" -el eve n "he 'r n# 'le! )n*erly n+ "he &h l '' ne Con!" ")" on :. COND CT. he ()!" have #on*)#"e* h (!el$ n a 'ro'er an* rre'roa#ha-le (anner *)r n+ "he en" re 'er o* o$ h ! re! *en#e n "he &h l '' ne! n h ! rela" on % "h "he #on!" ")"e* +overn(en" a! %ell a! % "h "he #o(()n "y n %h #h he ! l v n+. 6. PROPERT%. he ()!" have a real e!"a"e n "he &h l '' ne! %or"h no" le!! "han &6&:,000.00 OR ()!" have !o(e l)#ra" ve "ra*e, 'ro$e!! on, or la%$)l o##)'a" on. 7. "ANG AGE. he ()!" -e a-le "o !'ea; an %r "e En+l !h or S'an !h an* any one o$ "he 'r n# 'al &h l '' ne lan+)a+e! <. MINORS. he ()!" have enrolle* h ! ( nor #h l*ren o$ !#hool a+e n any o$ "he ')-l # !#hool!7'r va"e !#hool! re#o+n Be* -y "he /)rea) o$ &r va"e S#hool! %here R& h !"ory, +overn(en", an* # v #! are "a)+h" or 're!#r -e* a! 'ar" o$ "he !#hool #)rr #)l)( *)r n+ "he en" re 'er o* o$ "he re! *en#e re?) re* o$ h (, 'r or "o "he hear n+ o$ "he 'e" " on. 8 H n*! o$ .o( # le 0. *o( # le o$ or + n 2. #on!"r)#" ve *o( # le 8. *o( # le o$ #ho #e &ro'o!e* Sol)" on "o "he Renvo 0. Re@e#" "he Renvo 2. A##e'" "he Renvo 8. Follo% "he Theory o$ .e! !"(en"7 ()")al * !#la (er o$ @)r !* #" on "heory, "o % "F T6EOR4 OF .ESISTMENT - "he R& #o)r" 2e.i./. or refrai*. $ro( a''ly n+ a $ore +n la% -e#a)!e o$ "! i*a2e-uac+ -e n+ $o)n*e* on a * $$eren" -a! !. 6en#e, "he R& #o)r" a''l e! "! n"ernal la%. 9. (a;e )!e o$ "he $ore +n #o)r" "heory, "o % "F FOREI2N COURT T6EOR4 - In"erna" onal &IN2&ON27 In"erna" onal Foo"-all7 Revolv n+ .oor!7 ne>"r #a-le # r#le 92 | & a + e

The R& #o)r", n *e# * n+ "he #a!e, % ll ')" "!el$ n "he 'o! " on o$ "he $ore +n #o)r" an* %ha"ever "he $ore +n #o)r" % ll *o re!'e#" n+ "he #a!e, "he R& #o)r" % ll l ;e% !e *o.

E(an# 'a" on "a;e! 'la#e -yF 0. 2. 8. 9. Marria)e o$ "he ( nor a""a n(en" o$ "he a)e of 0a;ori/+ 1are*/al #on#e!! on ;u2icial #on#e!! on

AS&ECTS OF MARRIA2E 0. A! a #on"ra#" 2. A! a )n on, a !"a")!, a le+al rela" on S)-!"an" al or E!!en" al Re?) ! "e! o$ Marr a+e o$ F l ' no! 0. le)al ca1aci/+ o$ "he #on"ra#" n+ 'ar" e! 2. co*.e*/ o$ "he #on"ra#" n+ 'ar" e! $reely + ven 8. 0arria)e lice*.e, e>#e'" n (arr a+e o$ e>#e'" onal #a!e! 9. au/,ori/+ o$ "he 'er!on !ole(n B n+ "he (arr a+e :. (arr a+e cere0o*+ &er!onal R +h"! an* O-l +a" on! -e"%een "he h)!-an* an* "he % $e 0. M)")al $ *el "y, #oha- "a" on, an* re!'e#" 2. M)")al a!! !"an#e an* !)''or" 8. R +h" o$ "he % $e "o )!e "he h)!-an*L! na(e STATELESSNESS 0. .E&RIVATION o$ # " Ben!h ' $or any #a)!e. 2. RENUNCIATION o$ na" onal "y -y #er"a n a#"!, e>'re!! or ('l e* 8. VOLUNTAR4 RELEASE $ro( h ! or + nal !"a"e 9. /ORN n a #o)n"ry %h #h re#o+n Be! only "he 'r n# 'le o$ @)! !an+) n ! -)" %ho!e la% o$ "he 'aren"! re#o+n Be! only "he 'r n# 'le o$ @)! !ol . &er!onal La% o$ !"a"ele!! n* v *)al!

98 | & a + e

The 6a+)e Con$eren#e o$ 0=2< on In"erna" onal &r va"e La% !)++e!"e* "ha" "he 'er!onal la% o$ !"a"ele!! n* v *)al! !hall -eF 0. "he la3 of /,e 2o0icile Gha- ")al re! *en#e1 2. !e#on*ar ly "he la3 of /,e 1lace of /e01orar+ re.i2e*ce RULES ON STATUS IN 2ENERAL FACTUAL SITUATION 0. /e+ nn n+ o$ 'er!onal "y 2. Way! an* e$$e#"! o$ e(an# 'a" on 8. A+e o$ (a@or "y 9. U!e o$ na(e! an* !)rna(e! :. U!e o$ " "le! an* no- l "y 6. A-!en#e 7. &re!)('" on! o$ *ea"h an* !)rv vor!h ' &OINT OF CONTACT Na" onal la% o$ "he #h l* Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Le> $or

ANNULMENT OF VOI.A/LE MARRIA2E AN. .ECLARATION OF NULLIT4 OF A VOI. MARRIA2E FACTUAL SITUATION 01 2ro)n*! $or ann)l(en" G $ "he (arr a+e ! vo *a-le (erely1 21 2ro)n*! $or *e#lara" on o$ n)ll "y G $ (arr a+e ! vo * a- n " o1 &OINT OF CONTACT The la% alle+e* "o have -een v ola"e*F n o"her %or*!, " ! "he la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ #ele-ra" on Gle> lo# #ele-ra" on !1 !)-@e#" "o #er"a n e>#e'" on! "ha" $)rn !h "he +ro)n*!1

ARTICLE 26. All (arr a+e! !ole(n Be* o)"! *e "he R& ! a##or*an#e % "h "he la%! n $or#e n "he #o)n"ry %here "hey %ere !ole(n Be*, an* val * "here a! !)#h, !hall al!o -e val * n "h ! #o)n"ry, e>#e'" "ho!e 'roh - "e* )n*er Ar" #le! 8: G01, G91, G:1 an* G61, Ar" #le! 86, 87, an* 8<. Ar" #le 8:F The $$. (arr a+e! !hall -e vo * $ro( "he -e+ nn n+F M"ho!e #on"ra#"e* -y any 'ar"y belo3 AF +ear. o$ a+e even % "h "he #on!en" o$ 'aren"! or +)ar* an! 99 | & a + e

M"ho!e bi)a0ou. or 1ol+)a0ou. (arr a+e! no" $all n+ )n*er Ar". 90 M "ho!e .ub.e-ue*/ 0arria)e. "ha" are vo * )n*er Ar". :8 Ar" #le 86F A (arr a+e #on"ra#"e* -y any 'ar"y, %ho a" "he " (e o$ "he #ele-ra" on, %a! 1.+c,olo)icall+ i*ca1aci/a/e2 "o #o('ly % "h "he e!!en" al (ar "al o-l +a" on! o$ (arr a+e, !hall l ;e% !e -e vo * even o$ !)#h n#a'a# "y -e#o(e! (an $e!" only a$"er "! !ole(n Ba" on. Ar" #le 87F Marr a+e! -e"%een "he $$. are i*ce./uou. a*2 6oi2 $ro( "he -e+ nn n+ %he"her "he rela" on!h ' -e"%een "he 'ar" e! -e le+ " (a"e or lle+ " (a"eF 0. -e"%een a.ce*2a*/. a*2 2e.ce*2a*/. o$ any *e+ree 2. -e"%een bro/,er. a*2 .i./er. o$ "he $)ll or hal$ -loo* Ar" #le 8<F The $$. (arr a+e! !hall -e vo * $ro( "he -e+ nn n+ $or rea!on! o$ ')-l # 'ol #yF 0. -e"%een colla/eral bloo2 rela/i6e., %he"her le+ " (a"e or lle+ " (a"e, )' "o "he 9"h # v l *e+ree 2. -e"%een ./e151are*/. an* ./e15c,il2re* 8. -e"%een 1are*/.5i*5la3 an* c,il2re*5i*5la3 9. -e"%een "he a2o1/i*) 1are*/ an* a2o1/e2 c,il2 :. -e"%een "he .ur6i6i*) .1ou.e of /,e a2o1/e2 #h l* an* "he a2o1/er 6. -e"%een an a2o1/e2 c,il2 an* a le)i/i0a/e c,il2 o$ "he a*o'"er 7. -e"%een a2o1/e2 c,il2re* o$ "he !a(e a*o'"er <. -e"%een 'ar" e! %here one, % "h "he n"en" on "o (arry "he o"her, Eille2 /,a/ 1er.o*:. .1ou.e8 or ,i. or ,er o3* .1ou.e. RE# IREMENTS TO PROVE A FOREIGN MARRIAGE: 0. "he e> !"en#e o$ "he 'er" nen" 'rov ! on o$ "he forei)* 0arria)e la3 9: | & a + e

2. "he celebra/io* or 1erfor0a*ce o$ "he (arr a+e n a##or*an#e % "h !a * la% Where a (arr a+e -e"%een a F l ' no # " Ben an* a $ore +ner ! val *ly #ele-ra"e* an* a * vor#e ! "herea$"er val *ly o-"a ne* a-roa* -y "he al en !'o)!e #a'a# "a" n+ h ( or her "o re(arry, "he F l ' no !'o)!e !hall l ;e% !e have "he #a'a# "y "o re(arry )n*er "he R& la%. SIM&L4 &UTF I$ val * %here #ele-ra"e*, " ! al!o val * here. NOTESF In!o$ar a! "he +ro)n*! $or ann)l(en" or n)ll "y are #on#erne*, " ! no" "he Na" onal la% "ha" +overn!, " ! "he LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS, !)-@e#" "o #er"a n e>#e'" on!. The +ro)n*! $or LE2AL SE&ARATION are "ho!e n* #a"e* n "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e! #on#erne*, an* no" "ho!e o$ "he 'la#e o$ #ele-ra" on o$ (arr a+e. Ar". 0: % ll a''ly -e#a)!e a !) " or le+al !e'ara" on ne#e!!ar ly a*( "! "he val * "y o$ "he (arr a+e. T%o F l ' no! are (arr e* -y "he &h l '' ne A(-a!!a*or "o "he US n! *e "he R& Con!)la"e n Wa!h n+"on ..C. In US, le"L! !ay, an A(-a!!a*or ! a)"hor Be* "o 'er$or( (arr a+e!, % ll !)#h (arr a+e -e + ven #o+n Ban#e n "he R&O An!F NO. 6av n+ -een #ele-ra"e* n "he R& #on!)la"e n Wa!h n+"on, "he (arr a+e ! #on! *ere* "o have -een 'er$or(e* n "he &h l '' ne!. Un*er o)r la%, "he a(-a!!a*or #anno" 'er$or( a (arr a+e5 ONL4 CONSUL!2ENERAL, an* VICE-CONSULS #an )n*er "he Fa( ly Co*e. S n#e %e $ollo% "he NATIONALIT4 T6EOR4, o)r #o)r"! have @)r !* #" on "o "a;e #o+n Ban#e o$ ann)l(en" an* n)ll "y !) "! %here "he l " +an"! are F l ' no!, or %here "hey are *o( # l ar e! o$ "he &h l '' ne!. Ch)r#h ann)l(en"! o$ (arr a+e! an* *e#lara" on! o$ "he r n)ll "y are only $or rel + o)! ')r'o!e!, an* are no" - n* n+ on o)r # v l la%! an* #o)r"! o$ o)r #o)n"ry, )nle!! a(en*(en"! "o o)r $a( ly Co*e are (a*e. 96 | & a + e

Ar". 86 OF FCF A (arr a+e #on"ra#"e* -y any 'ar"y, %ho a" "he " (e o$ "he #ele-ra" on, %a! '!y#holo+ #ally n#a'a# "a"e* "o #o('ly % "h "he e!!en" al (ar "al o-l +a" on! o$ (arr a+e, !hall l ;e% !e -e vo * $ !)#h n#a'a# "y -e#o(e! (an $e!" only a$"er "! !ole(n Ba" on. Un*er Ch)r#h la%!, e>a('le! o$ &64C6OLO2ICAL INCA&ACIT4 % ll n#l)*e n"er al aF 0. A %ron+ #on#e'" o$ (ar "al vo%! an* (ar "al n$ *el "y 2. Al#ohol !( 8. 2a(-l n+ 9. Wo(an B n+ :. A*a(an" re$)!al "o + ve !)''or" "o a *e+ree n#o('a" -le % "h a (a")re )n*er!"an* n+ o$ re!'on! -le (arr e* l $e Th ! *e+ree ! o$ #o)r!e !)-@e#" "o *e"er( na" on -y "he #o)r"!, 'ar" #)larly "he SC. An* even $ "he!e #a)!e! !ho)l* (an $e!" "he(!elve! lon+ a$"er "he %e** n+, !a * #a)!e! are #on! *ere* "o -e 'o"en" ally e> !" n+ alrea*y a" "he " (e o$ "he #ele-ra" on o$ "he (arr a+e. A/SOLUTE .IVORCE FACTUAL SITUATION 01 $ !o)+h" n "he R& G%he"her -y F l ' no! or -y $ore +ner!1 21 $ o-"a ne* a-roa*F a1 -e". F l ' no! &OINT OF CONTACT 01 le> $or G"here$ore, % ll no" -e +ran"e*1 a1 na"

-1 -e". Fore +ner!

#1 ( >e*

onal la% G"here$ore, no" val * here even $ val * a-roa*5 an* "h ! ! "r)e re+ar*le!! o$ "he * vor#e1 -1 Na" onal la% G $ val * n "he S"a"e +ran" n+ " an* val * a##or* n+ "o "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e!, % ll al!o -e val * here1 #1 a''ly Ga1 an* G-1 re!'e#" vely.

97 | & a + e

A/SOLUTE .IVORCE . !" n+) !he* $ro( ANNULMENT A/SOLUTE .IVORCE &re!)''o!e! a VA"ID"% E$ISTING MARRIAGE ANNULMENT En*! a (arr a+e %h #h "ho)+h #on! *ere* val * n "he n"er (, none"hele!!, ! DEFECTIVE 2ran"e* $or #a)!e! 2ran"e* $or #a)!e! AT THE S BSE# ENT "o "he (arr a+e VER% TIME THE MARRIAGE #ere(ony IS ENTERED INTO HIN.S OF .IVORCEF 01 A/SOLUTE .IVORCE G. vor#e a v n#)lo (a"r (on ee1 N (ar "al " e! are * !!olve*. 21 RELATIVE .IVORCE G* vor#e a (en!a e" "horo1!e'ara" on $ro( -e* an* -oar* or le+al !e'ara" on, %here 'ar" e! re(a n (arr e*, al"ho)+h "h ! " (e, "hey are allo%e* "o l ve !e'ara"ely $ro( ea#h o"her. &ATERNIT4 AN. FILIATION, A.O&TION, 2UAR.IANS6I&, AN. FUNERALS FACTUAL SITUATION - &a"ern "y an* $ l a" on - In#l)* n+ &aren"al A)"hor "y an* - Re# 'ro#al !)''or" - Le+ " (a#y - Le+ " (a" on - Re#o+n " on - &re!)('" on! o$ le+ " (a#y - R +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 'aren"! an* #h l*ren - In#l)* n+ 'aren"al a)"hor "y an* re# 'ro#al !)''or" &OINT OF CONTACT I$ le+ " (a"e, NATIONAL LAW OF T6E FAT6ER I$ lle+ " (a"e, NATIONAL LAW OF T6E MOT6ER. I$ lle+ " (a"e -)" re#o+n Be* -y "he $a"her, "he NATIONAL LAW OF T6E FAT6ER. .e"er( na" on o$ %he"her le+ " (a"e or lle+ " (a"e, NATIONAL LAW OF T6E FAT6ER, n +eneral. .o#"r ne o$ I(()"a- l "y o$ S"a")!- #han+e o$ 'aren"!L na" onal "y *oe! no" a$$e#" "he !"a")! o$ "he #h l*. In +eneral, NATIONAL LAW OF T6E A.O&TER.

A*o'" on- #rea" on o$ "he !"a")! o$ a*o'" on5 r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$

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a*o'"er an* a*o'"e*.

In "he &h l '' ne!, a*o'" on -y a F l ' no *oe! no" #on$er F l ' no # " Ben!h ' on an a*o'"e* al en #h l*.

2)ar* an!h ' #o)r" o$ "he *o( # le o$ "he %ar* #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r" Gla% o$ "he a''o n" n+ !"a"e1 #o)r" %here "he 'ro'er"y $ $o)n* Gle> re ! "ae1 #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r"

a1 Over "he 'er!on - a''o n" n+ #o)r" 'o%er! o$ +)ar* an

-1 Over "he 'ro'er"y - a''o n" n+ #o)r" 'o%er! o$ +)ar* an

#1 over "he 'er!on an* over "he 'ro'er"y G+eneral +)ar* an1 - a''o n" n+ #o)r" 'o%er! o$ +)ar* an

#o)r" %here "he 'ro'er"y an* "he %ar* are $o)n* #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r"

- F)neral!- n# *en"! "hereo$ FUNERALS -

Where "he -o*y ! -)r e*.

"he n# *en"! o$ $)neral! are +overne* -y "he la% o$ "he #o)n"ry %here "he -o*y ! "o -e -)r e*. The *)"y an* "he r +h" "o (a;e arran+e(en"! $or "he $)neral o$ a rela" ve *evolve on "he 'er!on! o-l +e* "o !)''or" "he *e#ea!e* %h le !" ll al ve. Every $)neral !hall -e n ;ee' n+ % "h "he !o# al !"an* n+ o$ "he *e#ea!e*. The h +her "he !o# al !"an* n+ o$ "he *e#ea!e* n l $e, "he (ore * +n $ e* an* e>'en! ve h ! $)neral -e, a! a +eneral r)e. &roh - "e* ! 'o('o)! an* ela-ora"e $)neral o$ a #r ( nal on %ho( "he *ea"h 'enal"y ha! -een n$l #"e*.

The I#en"er o$ +rav "yI a''roa#h, $ r!" a*o'"e* -y "he Co)r" o$ A''eal! o$ Ne% 4or;, ( +h" -e #hara#"er Be* a! a ! ('l $ e* 9= | & a + e

ver! on o$ "he I(o!" ! +n $ #an" rela" on!h 'I "e!" o$ "he Se#on* Re!"a"e(en". Th ! a''roa#h a)"hor Be! #o)r"! "o loo; a" all "he e> !" n+ #on"a#"! -e"%een "he var o)! 'ar" e! "o a !) " an* var o)! @)r !* #" on!. Ul" (a"ely, "he #o)r" !ho)l* #hoo!e "he la% o$ %ha"ever @)r !* #" on ! (o!" #lo!ely " e* "o "he #a!e.

HOW FOREIGN LAW IS GIVEN APPLICATION IN THE PHILIPPINES: 1. '. +. ,. By statutory dire ti!es " o#se#t o$ t%e State& By a(ree)e#t o$ t%e *arties By treaty or o#!e#tio# By o#$-i t o$ -a.s ru-e

In their absence -A. Principles governing Conflict of Law Cases 1. Substance vs. Procedural Principles A-- )atters o$ *ro edure are (o!er#ed /y t%e -a. o$ t%e $oru) .%ere t%e ase is $i-ed0 .%i-e )atters o$ su/sta# e are (o!er#ed /y t%e -a. o$ t%e ou#try .%ere t%e ause o$ a tio# arose.

PROBLE1: So)e -a.s )ay /e treated /y o#e ou#try as *ro edura- a#d /y a#ot%er ou#try as su/sta#ti!e "e.(. statute o$ -i)itatio#s&

SOL2TIONS:

Go!er#)e#t I#terest A#a-ysis 3 t%e -a. o$ t%e ou#try .%ose i#terest is )ost i)*aired /y $ai-ure to a**-y its statute s%ou-d /e a**-ied Borro.i#( Statute 3 t%e -a. o$ t%e ou#try %as a statute 4/orro.i#(5 t%e *res ri*ti!e *eriod *ro!ided i# t%e $orei(# statute6 E7CEPTION: .%e# o#trary to *u/-i *o-i y or *ro%i/iti!e -a.s

2. Center of Gravity Doctrine (Grouping of Contacts Principle or State of t e !ost Significant "elations ip # eory$ La. o$ t%e state .%i % %as t%e )ost si(#i$i a#t re-atio#s%i* .it% t%e o urre# e a#d .it% t%e *arties deter)i#es t%eir ri(%ts a#d -ia/i-ities i# tort or i# o#tra t %. "envoi Doctrine (#able #ennis # eory$ T%e o#$-i t o$ -a. ru-e o$ t%e $oru) resorts to t%e $orei(# -a.0 .%i % i# tur# re$ers

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/a 8 to t%e -a. o$ t%e $oru).

RENVOI DOCTRINE APPLIED A9#ar !s. Gar ia0 G.R. No. L31:;,<0 =a#. +0 1<:+

&AC#S' Ed.ard C%riste#se#0 .%o at %is deat% .as a 2S iti9e# /ut do)i i-ed i# t%e P%i-i**i#es0 -e$t a .i--0 de!isi#( u#to 1aria He-e# a ertai# a)ou#t o$ )o#ey a#d (i!i#( t%e rest o$ %is estate to 1aria Lu y. He-e# o**osed t%e *artitio# o# t%e (rou#d t%at s%e is de*ri!ed o$ %er -e(iti)e. Her o#te#tio# is t%at t%e -a. o$ Ca-i$or#ia dire ts t%at t%e -a. o$ t%e do)i i-e "P%i-i**i#es& s%ou-d (o!er# t%e .i--. (SS)*' + et er or not t e national law or t e do,iciliary law s ould apply -*LD' T%e i#tri#si !a-idity o$ .i--s is (o!er#ed /y t%e #atio#a- -a. o$ t%e de ede#t. I# t%e *rese#t ase0 t%e #atio#a- -a. o$ Ed.ard is t%e -a.s o$ Ca-i$or#ia. Ho.e!er0 t%ere .ere t.o o#$-i ti#( Ca-i$or#ia -a.s re(ardi#( su essio#. O#e is e#u# iated i# I# Re >au$)a# ".%i % does #ot *ro!ide $or -e(iti)es& a#d a#ot%er is Art. <,: o$ t%e Ca-i$or#ia Ci!i- Code ".%i % *ro!ides t%at t%e -a. o$ t%e do)i i-e a**-ies&. SC %e-d t%at t%e #atio#a- -a. is Art. <,:0 .%i % is t%e o#$-i t o$ -a.s ru-e o$ Ca-i$or#ia. T%e reaso# is t%at I# Re >au$)a# a**-ies o#-y to reside#ts .%i-e Art. <,: is s*e i$i to #o#3 reside#ts. T%us0 si# e Art. <,: o#tai#s a re$er3/a 8 to P%i-i**i#e -a.s "t%e -a. o$ t%e do)i i-e&0 t%e# 1aria He-e# is e#tit-ed to %er -e(iti)e. .. Le/ &ori T%e -a. o$ t%e $oru) (o!er#s a-- )atters *ertai#i#( to *ro edura- or re)edia- ri(%ts. 0. Applicability of &oreign Laws and its */ceptions WHEN FOREIGN LAW0 EVEN THO2GH APPLICABLE0 1A? NOT BE GIVEN APPLICATION: 1. '. +. ,. Forei(# -a. o#tra!e#es *ro%i/iti!e -a. or *u/-i *o-i y o$ t%e $oru) Re-atio#s%i* o$ t%e *arties a$$e ts *u/-i i#terest Rea- *ro*erty is i#!o-!ed "a**-y -e@ rei sitae& Forei(# -a.0 Aud()e#t or o#tra t is o#trary to a sou#d a#d esta/-is%ed *u/-i *o-i y o$ t%e $oru)

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B. Forei(# -a. is *ro edura- i# #ature "-e@ $ori (o!er#s *ro edura- )atters& :. Forei(# -a. is *e#a- i# #ature

EXCEPTION: CONTRARY TO SOUND PUBLIC POLICY Ba#8 o$ A)eri a0 NT !s. A)eri a# Rea-ty Cor*oratio#0 .G.R No. 1++C;:0 De . '<0 1<<<

&AC#S' Ba#8 o$ A)eri a0 du-y -i e#sed to do /usi#ess i# t%e P%i-i**i#es a#d e@isti#( u#der t%e -a.s o$ Ca-i$or#ia0 2SA0 (ra#ted 2S Do--ar -oa#s to ertai# $orei(# or*orate /orro.ers. T%ese -oa#s .ere se ured /y t.o rea- estate )ort(a(es /y A)eri a# Rea-ty0 a do)esti or*oratio#. W%e# t%e /orro.ers de$au-ted0 Ba#8 o$ A)eri a sued t%e) /e$ore E#(-is% ourts. W%i-e t%ese ases .ere *e#di#(0 Ba#8 o$ A)eri a -i8e.ise Audi ia--y $ore -osed t%e rea- estate )ort(a(es i# t%e P%i-i**i#es. T%us0 A)eri a# Rea-ty sued $or da)a(es a(ai#st Ba#8 o$ A)eri a. (SS)*' + et er or not 0an1 of A,erica can 2udicially foreclose t e real estate ,ortgages despite pendency of t e civil suits before *nglis courts -*LD' E#(-is% -a. *ur*orted-y a--o.s t%e $i-i#( o$ Audi ia- $ore -osure o$ )ort(a(e des*ite *e#de# y o$ i!i- suit $or o--e tio#. But E#(-is% -a. .as #e!er *ro*er-y i)*-eaded a#d *ro!e#. T%us0 t%e do tri#e o$ *ro essua- *resu)*tio# a**-ies. SC $urt%er %e-d t%at e!e# assu)i#( ar(ue#do t%at E#(-is% -a.s .ere *ro!e#0 said $orei(# -a. .ou-d sti-- #o $i#d a**-i a/i-ity. W%e# t%e $orei(# -a.0 Aud()e#t or o#tra t is o#trary to a sou#d a#d esta/-is%ed *u/-i *o-i y o$ t%e $oru)0 t%e said $orei(# -a.0 Aud()e#t or order s%a-- #ot /e a**-ied. Additio#a--y0 *ro%i/iti!e -a.s o# er#i#( *erso#s0 t%eir a ts or *ro*erty0 a#d t%ose .%i % %a!e $or t%eir o/Ae t *u/-i order0 *u/-i *o-i y a#d (ood usto)s s%a-- #ot /e re#dered i#e$$e ti!e / -a.s or Aud()e#ts *ro)u-(ated0 or /y deter)i#atio#s or o#!e#tio#s a(reed u*o# i# a $orei(# ou#try. T%e *u/-i *o-i y sou(%t to /e *rote ted i# t%e i#sta#t ase is t%e *ri# i*-e i)/edded i# our Aurisdi tio# *ros ri/i#( t%e s*-itti#( o$ a si#(-e ause o$ a tio#. 1oreo!er0 t%e $orei(# -a. s%ou-d #ot /e a**-ied .%e# its a**-i atio# .ou-d .or8 u#de#ia/-e i#Austi e to t%e iti9e#s or reside#ts o$ t%e $oru). C. Aut entication3 *lectronic *vidence and 4udicial Cogni5ance of &oreign 4udg,ents

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**T be rec !ni"e# b$ Phi%i&&ine c 'rts( ) rei!n %a*s an# +'#!,ents ,'st be a%%e!e# an# &r -e#. HOW FOREIGN P2BLIC DOC21ENTS ARE PROVED: 1. O$$i ia- *u/-i atio# '. Certi$ied true o*y or o#e attested /y t%e o$$i er %a!i#( t%e -e(a- ustody o$ t%e re ord0 or /y %is de*uty0 a#d a o)*a#ied .it% a erti$i ate t%at su % o$$i er %as ustody

T%e erti$i ate )ust /e )ade /y a se retary o$ t%e e)/assy or -e(atio#0 o#su(e#era-0 o#su-0 !i e o#su-0 or o#su-ar a(e#t or /y a#y o$$i er i# t%e $orei(# ser!i e o$ t%e P%i-i**i#es statio#ed i# t%e $orei(# ou#try i# .%i % t%e re ord is 8e*t Aut%e#ti ated /y %is sea- o$ o$$i e

**I) the ) rei!n %a* r +'#!,ent # es n t c ,&%$ *ith the ab -e re/'ire,ents( it *i%% n t be rec !ni"e# an# the D ctrine ) Pr cess'a% Pres',&ti n *i%% a&&%$ 0Phi%i&&ine c 'rts *i%% ass',e the ) rei!n %a* is the sa,e as Phi%i&&ine %a*s1. GENERAL R2LE: P%i-i**i#e ourts are #ot aut%ori9ed to ta8e Audi ia- #oti e o$ $orei(# -a.s.

E7CEPTIONS:

W%ere t%ere are e@ e*tio#a- ir u)sta# es .%e# t%e $orei(# -a.s are a-ready .it%i# t%e a tua- 8#o.-ed(e o$ t%e ourt "(e#era--y 8#o.# or a tua--y ru-ed u*o# i# a *rior ase& W%ere t%e ourts are $a)i-iar .it% t%e s*e i$i $orei(# -a.s "e.(. S*a#is% i!i-a.& W%ere t%e ad!erse *arty did #ot dis*ute t%e a**-i atio# o$ $orei(# -a. W%ere t%e tri/u#a- is a Euasi3Audi ia- /ody .%i % is #ot /ou#d /y stri t ru-es o$ te %#i a-ity

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Related Interests