REVIEWER IN CONFLICT OF LAWS Cheryl M. Navarro 2007-0026 Arellano Un ver!

"y S#hool o$ La% DEFINITION OF TERMS Con$l #" o$ La%! - or &r va"e In"erna" onal La% - "ha" 'ar" o$ "he ()n # 'al la% o$ a !"a"e %h #h * re#"! "! #o)r"! an* a*( n !"ra" ve a+en# e!, %hen #on$ron"e* % "h a le+al 'ro-le( nvolv n+ a $ore +n ele(en", %he"her or no" "hey !ho)l* a''ly $ore +n la% or $ore +n la%!. &)-l # In"erna" onal La% - "he -o*y o$ le+al r)le! %h #h a''ly -e"%een !overe +n !"a"e! an* !)#h o"her en" " e! a! have -een +ran"e* n"erna" onal 'er!onal " e!. .ISTINCTIONS /ETWEEN CONFLICT OF LAWS AN. &U/LIC INTERNATIONAL LAW CONFLICT OF LAW 0.1 MUNICI&AL 2.1 &RIVATE IN.IVI.UALS /ASIS Na")re &er!on! Involve* LAW OF NATIONS INTERNATIONAL SOVEREI2N STATES 3 ENTITIES &OSSESSE. OF AN INTERNATIONAL &ERSONALIT4 2ENERALL4 AFFECTIN2 &U/LIC INTEREST5 T6OSE W6IC6 IN 2ENERAL ARE OF INTEREST TO SOVEREI2N STATES MA4 /E FORCI/LE OR &EACEFUL Forcible: 0. !everan#e o$ * 'lo(a" # rela" on!, 2. re"or! on!, 0 | &a+e

&RIVATE

Tran!a#" on!

RESORT TO MUNICI&AL TRI/UNALS

Re(e* e!7 San#" on!

8. 9. :. 6.

re'r !al!, e(-ar+o, -oy#o"", nonn"er#o)r!e, 7. 'a# $ # -lo#;a*e!, <. #olle#" ve (ea!)re! )n*er "he UN Char"er, an* =. WAR Peaceful: 0.* 'lo(a" # ne+o" a" on, 2."en*er 3 e>er# !e o$ +oo* o$$ #e!, 8.(e* a" on, 9. n?) ry an* #on# l a" on, :.ar- "ra" on, 6.@)* # al !e""le(en" -y "he ICA, 7.re$eren#e "o re+ onal a+en# e!, <.re$eren#e "o "he UN Theory o$ Co( "y - %e a''ly "he $ore +n la% -e#a)!e o$ "! CONVENIENCE, an* $ nally, -e#a)!e WE WANT TO GIVE PROTECTION "o o)r # " Ben!, re! *en"! an* "ran! en"! n o)r lan*. Theory o$ Ve!"e* R +h"! - %e SEEK TO ENFORCE no" "he $ore +n la% "!el$ -)" THE RIGHTS THAT HAVE BEEN VESTED )n*er !)#h $ore +n la%!. Theory o$ Lo#al La% - We a''ly $ore +n la% no" -e#a)!e " ! $ore +n, -)" BECA SE O R O!N "A!S, -y a''ly n+ ! ( lar r)le!, RE# IRE S TO DO SO5 - I" ! a! $ "he $ore +n la% ha! -e#o(e PART AND PARCE" o$ o)r o%n lo#al la%. 2 | &a+e

Theory o$ 6ar(ony o$ La%! - In (any #a!e! %e have "o a''ly "he $ore +n la%! !o "ha" !HEREVER A CASE IS DECIDED, .e., rre!'e#" ve o$ "he $or)(, THE SO" TION SHO "D BE APPRO$IMATE"% THE SAME - "h)!, *en" #al or ! ( lar !ol)" on! any%here an* every%here. When "he +oal ! real Be*, "here % ll -e a har(ony o$ la%!. Theory o$ A)!" #e - "he P RPOSE OF A"" "A!S, n#l)* n+ Con$l #" o$ La%!, ! "he DISPENSING OF & STICE' - $ "h ! #an -e a""a ne* n (any #a!e! -y a''ly n+ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la%, %e ()!" *o !o. Co( "y - "he RECO2NITION "ha" one na" on allo%! % "h n "! "err "ory, "o "he LE2ISLATIVE, ECECUTIVE OR AU.ICIAL ACTS OF ANOT6ER NATION, hav n+ *)e re+ar* -o"h "o INTERNATIONAL .UT4 an* CONVENIENCE, an* "he RI26TS OF ITS OWN CITIDENS, or o"her 'er!on! %ho are )n*er "he 'ro"e#" on o$ "! la%!. Chara#"er Ba" on7 .OCTRINE OF EUALIFICATION - "he 'ro#e!! o$ *e"er( n n+ )n*er %ha" #a"e+ory a #er"a n !e" o$ $a#"! or r)le! $all - "he 'ro#e!! o$ *e# * n+ %he"her or no" "he $a#"! rela"e "o "he ; n* o$ ?)e!" on !'e# $ e* n a #on$l #"! r)le. - Al!o #alle* "he *o#"r ne o$ ?)al $ #a" on - The )l" (a"e ')r'o!e ! "o ena-le "he $or)( "o SE"ECT THE PROPER "A!( S"a")! - "he 'la#e o$ an n* v *)al n !o# e"y, an* - #on! !"! o$ 'er!onal ?)al " e! an* rela" on!h '!, (ore or le!! 'er(anen", % "h %h #h "he !"a"e an* "he #o(()n "y are #on#erne*. - A(on+ "he "h n+! %h #h (a;e )' "he !"a")! o$ a 'er!on are "he $$.F h ! -e n+ (arr e* or )n(arr e*, % *o%e* or * vor#e*, h ! -e n+ a le+ " (a"e or an lle+ " (a"e #h l* o$ h ! 'aren"!, h ! -e n+ a ( nor or h ! hav n+ rea#he* "he a+e o$ (a@or "y5 h ! #a'a# "y "o en"er n"o var o)! "ran!a#" on!. Ca'a# "y 8 | &a+e

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(erely a 'ar" o$ !"a")!, an* "he !)( "o"al o$ h ! r +h"! an* o-l +a" on!. The C v l Co*e * !" n+) !he! 2 ; n*! o$ #a'a# "yF CA&ACIT4 TO ACT an* AURI.ICAL CA&ACIT4. Ca'a# "y "o a#" or ACTIVE CA&ACIT4 ! "he 'o%er "o *o a#"! % "h le+al e$$e#"! A)r * #al #a'a# "y or &ASSIVE CA&ACIT4 ! "he $ "ne!! "o -e "he !)-@e#" o$ le+al rela" on!

&er!onal La% - The la% "ha" a""a#he! "o an n* v *)al, %herever he (ay +o- a la% "ha" +enerally +overn! h ! !"a")!, h ! #a'a# "y, h ! $a( ly rela" on!, an* "he #on!e?)en#e! o$ h ! a#")a" on!. - Th ! (ay -e "he NATIONA" "A! o$ h ! DOMICI"IAR% "A! or "he "A! OF THE SIT S *e'en* n+ )'on "he "heory a''l e* an* en$or#e* n "he $or)(. Na" onal "y Theory - "he "heory -y v r")e o$ %h #h "he !"a")! an* #a'a# "y o$ an n* v *)al are )e*erall+ +overne* -y "he la% o$ h ! na" onal "y. Na")ral Ba" on - a @)* # al 'ro#e!! o$ a#?) r n+ # " Ben!h ' %here $or(al " e! o$ "he la% have "o -e #o('l e* % "h, n#l)* n+ a AU.ICIAL 6EARIN2 an* A&&ROVAL OF T6E &ETITION - " (ay al!o (ean "he a#?) ! " on o$ ano"her # " Ben!h ' -y !)#h a#"! a! (arr a+e "o a # " Ben, an* "he e>er# !e o$ "he o'" on "o ele#" a 'ar" #)lar # " Ben!h '. .o( # l ary Theory - "he "heory "ha" n +eneral, "he !"a")!, #on* " on, r +h"! an* o-l +a" on!, an* #a'a# "y GSCROC1 o$ a 'er!on !ho)l* -e +overne* -y "he la% o$ h ! *o( # le. S ")! or E#le#" # Theory - n +eneral, "he #a'a# "y, le+al #on* " on, or !"a")! GC.LC.S1 o$ an n* v *)al !ho)l* -e +overne* -y "he la% o$ "he 'la#e %here an ('or"an" ele(en" o$ "he 'ro-le( o##)r! or ! ")a"e*. - I$ "he 'ar" # 'a" on o$ "he n* v *)al #on#erne* ! a#" ve a! %hen he *oe! "he a#" vol)n"ar ly, "he +overn n+ la% ! "he la% o$ "he a#")al ! ")! o$ "he 'la#e o$ "he "ran!a#" on or even". 9 | &a+e

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I$ "he 'ar" # 'a" on ! 'a!! ve, a! %hen "he e$$e#"! o$ "he a#" are !e" $or"h n "he la%, "he +overn n+ la% ! "he la% o$ "he le+al ! ")! or "he le+al ! ")! o$ an n* v *)al ! !)''o!e* "o -e h ! *o( # le.

RENVOI - l "erally (ean! REFERRIN2 /ACH5 - "he 'ro-le( ar !e! %hen "here ! *o)-" a! "o %he"her a re$eren#e "o a $ore +n la% ! a re$eren#e "o "he n"ernal la% o$ !a * $ore +n la%, or ! a re$eren#e "o "he %hole o$ "he $ore +n la%, n#l)* n+ "! #on$l #"! r)le!. - renvo G$ro( "he Fren#h, (ean n+ I!en* -a#;I or I"o re")rn )no'ene*I1 ! a !)-!e" o$ "he #ho #e o$ la% r)le! an* " (ay -e a''l e* %henever a $or)( #o)r" ! * re#"e* "o #on! *er "he la% o$ ano"her !"a"e. .OU/LE RENVOI - o##)r! %hen "he lo#al #o)r", n a*o'" n+ "he $ore +n #o)r" "heory, * !#over! "ha" "he $ore +n #o)r" a##e'"! "he renvo - .o)-le Renvo or "he Fore +n Co)r"! .o#"r ne %h #h % ll al!o en!)re 'ar "y o$ re!)l" !o lon+ a! no o"her relevan" la% ! )! n+ ". In "h ! !#enar o, "he $or)( #o)r" #on! *er! "ha" " ! ! "" n+ a! "he $ore +n #o)r" an* % ll *e# *e "he (a""er a! "he $ore +n #o)r" %o)l*. Tran!( !! on - "he 'ro#e!! o$ a''ly n+ "he la% o$ a $ore +n !"a"e "hro)+h "he la% o$ a !e#on* $ore +n !"a"e. Marr a+e a! a #on"ra#" - ARTICLE 0 FAMIL4 CO.EF Marr a+e ! a !'e# al #on"ra#" o$ 'er(anen" )n on -e"%een a (an an* a %o(an en"ere* n"o n a##or*an#e % "h la% $or "he e!"a-l !h(en" o$ #on@)+al an* $a( ly l $e. I" ! "he $o)n*a" on o$ "he $a( ly an* an nv ola-le !o# al n!" ")" on %ho!e na")re, #on!e?)en#e! an* n# *en"! are +overne* -y la% an* no" !)-@e#" "o !" ')la" on! e>#e'" "ha" (arr a+e !e""le(en"! (ay $ > "he 'ro'er"y rela" on! *)r n+ "he (arr a+e % "h n "he l ( "! 'rov *e* -y "he Fa( ly Co*e. - (arr a+e a! any o"her #on"ra#" ha! "%o ; n*! o$ re?) ! "e!F "he $or(al an* "he e!!en" al re?) ! "e!. Marr a+e a! a S"a")! - #arr e! % "h " ('l #a" on! n "%o $ el*!F 0. "he real( o$ 'er!onal r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ "he !'o)!e!5 an* : | &a+e

or rela" ve * vor#e .a (o*e o$ * !!olv n+ "he (ar "al " e! +ran"e* $or #a)!e! !)-!e?)en" "o "he (arr a+e #ere(ony. Ann)l(en" .or !e'ara" on $ro( -e* an* -oar* .The +ro)n*! are "ho!e + ven -y "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e! #on#erne* na!()#h a! "h ! ! ')rely a ?)e!" on o$ !"a")!. "he real( o$ 'ro'er"y rela" on!. "he val * "y o$ "he (arr a+e -e n+ 're!)(e* or a*( ""e*.*oe! no" !ever "he (arr a+e -on*! .2."he re(e*y "o a vo *a-le (arr a+e. a val * (arr a+e )n" l ann)lle*. There ! no . A-!ol)"e .na+e -1 $ o$ * $$eren" na" onal " e!"he +ro)n*! + ven -y /OT6 na" onal la%! !ho)l* all -e #on! *ere* 'ro'er +ro)n*! #1 a""e('" -y one !'o)!e NOTEF Re! *en#e re?) re(en" a+a n!" "he l $e o$ "he o"her $ !) " ! -ro)+h" n "he &h l '' ne!F a1 $ #a)!e o##)rre* n "he &h l '' ne!NO RESI.. vor#e . Le+al Se'ara" on .e.Re#on# l a" on 'reven"! a !) " $or le+al !e'ara" on or re!# n*! one alrea*y +ran"e*."he #o((on na" onal la% +overn! -1 Con#).or * vor#e a (en!a e" "horo . vor#e n "he &h l '' ne!.Can -e +ran"e* $or #a)!e! !)-!e?)en" "o "he #ele-ra" on o$ "he (arr a+e .ONE 4EAR 6 | &a+e . .ENCE REEUIREMENT -1 $ #a)!e o##)rre* o)"! *e "he &h l '' ne!. . So(e 2ro)n*! $or Le+al Se'ara" onF 2ro)n*! $or le+al !e'ara" on Na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e! a1 A*)l"ery a1 $ o$ "he !a(e or #o((on na" onal "y.

FROM ANNULMENT OF MARRIA2E LE2AL SE&ARATION Can -e +ran"e* $ro( #a)!e! ar ! n+ a$"er "he #ele-ra" on o$ (arr a+e 2ro)n*! are + ven -y "he na" onal 'ar" e! #on#erne* &re!)(e! "he val * "y o$ (arr a+e ANNULMENT Can -e +ran"e* $or #a)!e! e> !" n+ 'r or "o or a" "he " (e "he %e** n+ "a.+a(o)! (arr a+e. !e>)al n$ *el "y Ga*)l"ery or #on#). "o en+a+e n 'ro!" ")" on. 'hy! #al v olen#e or (oral 're!!)re "o #o('el "he 'e" " oner "o #han+e rel + o)! or 'ol " #al a$$ l a" on 8.RESI. re'ea"e* 'hy! #al v olen#e or +ro!!ly a-)! ve #on*)#" * re#"e* a+a n!" "he 'e" " oner.e! 'la#e 2ro)n*! are + ven -y "he le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! E)e!" on! "he very e> !"en#e o$ "he !"a")! 2ROUN. %he"her n "he R& or a-roa* <. No"e!F • Mere 're'on*eran#e o$ ev *en#e % ll !)$$ #e "o 'rove "he e> !"en#e o$ any o$ "he +ro)n*!. or #onn van#e n !)#h #orr)'" on or n*)#e(en" 9. *r)+ a** #" on or ha.na+e1 or 'erver! on =. $ nal @)*+(en" !en"en# n+ "he re!'on*en" "o ('r !on(en" or (ore "han 6 year!. even $ 'ar*one* :. a""e('" -y "he re!'on*en" a+a n!" "he l $e o$ "he 'e" " oner 00. 'rev o)! #r ( nal #onv #" on ! e!!en" al n v e% o$ "he ne#e!! "y o$ a J$ nal @)*+(en"K. a-an*on(en" o$ 'e" " oner -y re!'on*en" %7o @)!" $ a-le #a)!e $or (ore "han one year.")al al#ohol !( o$ "he re!'on*en" 6.S FOR LE2AL SE&ARATIONF 0.ENCE ! re?) re* n o)r #o)n"ry LE2AL SE&ARATION . #on"ra#" n+ -y "he re!'on*en" o$ a !)-!e?)en" . or a #h l* o$ "he 'e" " oner 2. 7 | &a+e . a #o((on #h l*.ISTIN2UIS6E. al"ho)+h n no. a""e('" o$ re!'on*en" "o #orr)'" or n*)#e "he 'e" " oner. le!.9.an !( or ho(o!e>)al "y o$ "he re!'on*en" 7. a #o((on #h l* or a #h l* o$ "he 'e" " oner .

i/e.T. re+ar*e* -y "he la% a! le+ " (a"e."he love o$ "he 'aren"! $or "he #h l* F l al A$$e#" on . ."he !"a")! o$ "he #h l* n rela" on "o "he $a"her or (o"her.e fa/.e.o. o$ 'aren"! %ho a" "he " (e o$ "he #on#e'" on %ere * !?)al $ e* -y any ('e* (en" "o (arry ea#h o"her.cribe2 b+ /. 21 There ()!" -e !)-!e?)en" val * (arr a+e When %e (en" on "he rela" on!h ' -e"%een "he #h l* an* "he 'aren"!."he # v l !"a")! o$ "he $a"her Gor (o"her1 % "h re!'e#" "o "he #h l* -e+o""en -y h ( Gor her1. -y $ #" on an* )'on #o('l an#e % "h #er"a n re?) re(en"!. for le)i/i0a/io* are /.e *a/io*al la3 of /.• A-an*on(en" a! )!e* here n ! !ynony(o)! "o #r ( nal *e!er" on. are.er( The $ollo% n+ #on!" ")"e "he n"ernal re?) ! "e! $or "he le+ " (a" on o$ an lle+ " (a"e #h l*F 01 The #h l* ()!" -e #on#e ve* an* -orn o)"! *e %e*lo#. a h)!-an*L! or % $eL! a-an*on(en" or % ll$)l $a l)re % "ho)" @)!" #a)!e "o 'rov *e $or "he #are. " -e n+ !)''o!e* "ha" "hey %ere -orn %hen "he r 'aren"! %ere alrea*y val *ly (arr e*. an* !ho)l* "here$ore -e or* nar ly #on! *ere* lle+ " (a"e #h l*ren.e 1re. Th ! n#l)*e! -o"h "he INTENTION "o A/AN. &aren"al A$$e#" on .e re-ui. &a"ern "y Gor (a"ern "y1 .. F l a" on . . %e n$eren" ally n#l)*e al!o "he $ollo% n+ (a""er!F a1 're!)('" on! o$ le+ " (a#y an* lle+ " (a#y -1 r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 'aren"! an* #h l*ren < | &a+e .a re(e*y or 'ro#e!! -y (ean! o$ %h #h "ho!e %ho n $a#" %ere no" -orn n %e*lo#. 'ro"e#" on or !)''or" o$ "he !'o)!e %ho ! n ll heal"h or ne#e!! "o)! # r#)(!"an#e!."he love o$ "he #h l* $or "he 'aren"! Le+ " (a" on ..ON an* "he ECTERNAL ACT -y %h #h "he n"en" on ! #arr e* n"o e$$e#".

o#"r ne o$ I(()"a. OF A CRIME INVOLVIN2 MORAL TUR&ITU.#1 'aren"al a)"hor "y *1 re# 'ro#al !)''or" A*o'" on . 'o!!e!! n +eneral "he r +h"! a##or*e* "o a le+ " (a"e #h l*.! "o a*o'" a rela" ve -y #on!an+) n "y -1 one %ho !ee.E5 An ALIEN e>#e'"F a1 a for0er Fili1i*o ci/i4e* %ho !ee. o)r #o)n"ryL! 'ro#e*)ral re?) ! "e! ()!" -e #o('l e* % "h n a##or*an#e % "h "he "heory o$ le> $or n 'ro#e*)ral (a""er.! "o a*o'" @o n"ly % "h h !7her !'o)!e a rela" ve -y #on!an+) n "y o$ "he la""er.O&TION 01 Whe"her or no" "he !"a")! o$ a*o'" on ha! -een #rea"e* *e'en*! on "he na" onal la% o$ "he a*o'"er. 81 A*o'" on #anno" -e allo%e* % "ho)" @)* # al a''roval. 91 The $ollo% n+ are no" allo%e* "o a*o'"F The 2UAR. = | &a+e .e! 'la#e n "he &h l '' ne!. CONFLICTS RULES ON A.e le)i/i0a/e c. %he"her rela"e* or no" "o "he a*o'"er.IAN WIT6 RES&ECT TO T6E WAR. 21 I$ "he a*o'" on "a. n+ a #h l*.! "o a2o1/ /. 'r or "o "he a''roval o$ "he $ nal a##o)n"! ren*ere* )'on "he "er( na" on o$ "he r +)ar* an!h ' rela" on5 Any 'er!on %ho ha! -een CONVICTE.il2 o$ h !7her F l ' no !'o)!e5 or #1 one %ho ! 0arrie2 /o a Fili1i*o ci/i4e* an* !ee. No"eF An al en % "h %ho!e +overn(en" o$ "he R& ha! no * 'lo(a" # rela" on! (ay no" -e a*o'"e*."heory "ha" "he STAT S OF A CHI"D5 HIS "EGITIMAC%5 IS NOT AFFECTED B% AN% S BSE# ENT CHANGE IN THE NATIONA"IT% OF THE PARENTS. .l "y o$ S"a")! . A*o'" on o$ a $ore +ner *oe! no" +ran" !a * $ore +ner &h l '' ne # " Ben!h '."he 'ro#e!! o$ (a.

*e!' "e any #on"rary r)le )n*er "he ne% na" onal "y..- 6o%ever. 8. Guar2ia*. 2. 6en#e. ! no" 'er( ""e* "o !)e n o"her @)r !* #" on! )nle!! h ! +)ar* an!h ' ! al!o re#o+n Be* n !)#h $ore +n #o)r"!. The 'aren"al an* $ l al r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! % ll no% -e +overne* "he NEW na" onal "y. he may litigate in his own individual or private capacity. a +)ar* an a! !)#h. no" -e$ore.e Pro1er/+M . o6er /. n*! o$ +)ar* an! 0. #on" n)e! "o -e a le+ " (a"e #h l* even $ "he 'aren"! !ho)l* !)-!e?)en"ly e(-ra#e ano"her na" onal "y. -)" "he #h l* ! #on! *ere* !" ll a le+ " (a"e* #h l*. an* #anno" have e>"ra"err "or al a''l #a" on. Can +enerally -e a''o n"e* only -y "he #o)r" o$ "he #o)n"ry %here "he %ar* ! *o( # le* an* %here "he 'ro'er" e! are lo#a"e*."here are +enerally 8M . "he ne% r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! % ll -e e$$e#" ve only $ro( "he (o(en" "he ne% na" onal "y ! e(-ra#e*. Moreover. are ('era" ve.i1 1rocee2i*). o6er /.e Per.o*M.appointed +enerally -y "he #o)r"! where the ward is domiciled. Guar2ia*.7 Gover -o"h "he 'er!on an* "he 'ro'er"y o$ "he %ar*!1. E>a('leF A F l ' no lle+ " (a"e #h l* %ho -e#o(e! a le+ " (a"e* #h l* o$ h ! F l ' no 'aren"! -y v r")e o$ re#o+n " on -y -o"h 'aren"! an* "he r !)-!e?)en" val * (arr a+e. &o%er! are #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he #o)r" "ha" *e! +na"e* "he(. a*cillar+ )uar2ia*. 00 | & a + e . 6o%ever.appointed by the court where the property of the ward may be found5 "he r 'o%er! are $ >e* -y "he a''o n" n+ #o)r". 2)ar* an!h ' . The r 'o%er! are coextensive % "h "he a)"hor "y o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r". Ge*eral Guar2ia*. Sho)l* "he %ar* have 'ro'er" e! n $ore +n !"a"e!. "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'aren"! % ll -e #han+e* !ho)l* "he 'aren"! e$$e#" a #han+e o$ na" onal "yF "he r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 'aren"! an* #h l* % ll no% -e *e"er( ne* -y "he ne% na" onal la%.

Cho!e! n 'o!!e!! on ..(ay -e "an+ -le or n"an+ -le . #a'a# "y o$ 'ar" e!.I"! ((ova. . NCC1 - al ena" on!.Cho!e! n a#" on G!)#h a! !hare! o$ !"o#. an* #o'yr +h"!1 REAL AN.+overne* -y "he la% o$ "he o%ner GMO/ILIA SEEUUNTUR &ERSONAM1 . 'ol #e 'o%er. 06.e! " lo+ #al "ha" " !hall -e !)-@e#" "o "he la%! o$ "he !"a"e! %here " ! $o)n* Gle> ! ")!7le> re ! "ae1 &er!onal &ro'er"y . e$$e#"! o$ o%ner!h '. n"er're"a" on o$ *o#)(en"!.l "y (a. #o-o%ner!h '. A*cillar+ Guar2ia*. e( nen" *o(a n. G"ho!e a''o n"e* el!e%here1 Real &ro'er"y . lea!e.INTAN2I/LES."he 'r n# 'al #on"ra#" G)!). Loan1 ! +overne* -y "he 'ro'er la% o$ "he #on"ra#" Gle> lo# vol)n"a" !7 le> lo# . $ran#h !e!. &ERSONAL &RO&ERTIES FACTUAL SITUATION 01 Real 'ro' er"y e>"r n! # an* n"r n! # val * "y o$ )!)$r)#". - E>#e'" on!F a1 !)##e!! onal r +h"! -1 #a'a# "y "o !)##ee* #1 #on"ra#"! nvolv n+ real 'ro'er"y -)" %h #h *o no" *eal % "h "he " "le "here"o *1 #on"ra#"! %here "he real 'ro'er"y ! + ven a! !e#)r "y 00 | & a + e na" onal la% o$ "he *e#e*en" . "a>a" on.na" onal la% o$ "he *e#e*en" . Do0iciliar+ Guar2ia*.(ova-le 'ro'er"y . ea!e(en".'ar" o$ "he #o)n"ry %here " ! lo#a"e*. Ga''o n"e* -y "he #o)r"! o$ "he *o( # le o$ "he %ar*!1 :. re+ !"ra" on an* 're!#r '" on &OINT OF CONTACT Le> re ! "ae GAr". "ran!$er!. ?) e" n+ o$ " "le. a##e!! on.TAN2I/LES.9. (or"+a+e!.le> lo# vol)n"a" !7 le> lo# n"en" on ! .

Sa * 'la#e ! "he r "e('orary ! ")! le> lo# vol)n"a" !7le> lo# n"en" on ! In"an+ -le 'er!onal 'ro'er"y 02 | & a + e . "he (or"+a+e %o)l* al!o -e vo * G$or la#. I$ "he 'r n# 'al #on"ra#" ! vo *. ! +overne* -y "he le> re ! "ae. *e"er ora" on . al"ho)+h -y "!el$.val * "y an* e$$e#" o$ "he !e B)re o$ "he +oo*! * !'o! " on o$ al ena" on o$ "he +oo*! la% o$ "he $la+ Gor n !o(e #a!e! o$ "he 'la#e o$ re+ !"ry1 la% o$ "he *e'o" or re!" n+ 'la#e - - la% o$ "he *e!" na" on lo#)! re+ " a#")( G%here !e Be*1 -e#.l "y "ha" "he 'r n# 'al #on"ra#" ! val * -)" "he (or"+a+e ! vo *5 or " (ay -e "he o"her %ay aro)n*. There ! a 'o!! . "he (or"+a+e #o)l* have -een val *. ho%ever.lo!!. *e!"r)#" on. n1 LEC REI SITAE E>#e'" on!F !a(e a! "ho!e $or real 'ro'er"y e>#e'" "ha" n e>a('le #on#ern n+ "he (or"+a+e "he !a(e ()!" -e #han+e* "o a 1le2)e o$ 'er!onal 'ro'er"y. Tan+ -le &er!onal &ro'er"y a1 n +eneral ECCE&TIONSF SAME AS T6OSE FOR REAL &RO&ERT4 -1 (ean! o$ "ran!'or"a" on ve!!el! o"her (ean! - #1 "h n+ n "ran! ") G"he!e "h n+! have a #han+ n+ !"a")! -e#a)!e "hey (ove1 .n"en" on ! no"eF "he (or"+a+e "!el$. o$ 'ro'er #a)!e or #on! *era" on0.

ITOR OR .E/TOR OR T6E CRE. ! ")! o$ "he n!"r)(en" a" "he " (e o$ "ran!$er.OMICILE OF T6E . *el very or ne+o" a" on +1 la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ n#or'ora" on h1 le> lo# vol)n"a" !7le> lo# n"en" on ! 1 la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ n#or'ora" on @1 la% o$ "he 'la#e %here #1 "a>a" on o$ *e-"! *1 a*( n !"ra" on o$ *e-"! e1 ne+o" a.ITOR 81 LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS 91 LEC LOCI SOLUTIONIS #1 *o( # le o$ "he #re* "or *1 le> ! ")! o$ a!!e"! o$ "he *e-"or G$or "he!e a!!e"! #an -e hel* l a-le $or "he 'ay(en" o$ "he *e-"!1 e1 "he r +h" e(-o* e* n "he n!"r)(en" $1 n +eneral. *el very or ne+o" a" on o$ "he n!"r)(en" +1 e$$e#" on a #or'ora" on o$ "he !ale #or'ora"e !hare! h1 e$$e#" -e"%een "he 'ar" e! o$ "he !ale o$ #or'ora"e !hare! 1 "a>a" on on "he * v *en*! o$ #or'ora"e !hare! @1 "a>a" on on "he n#o(e o$ "he !ale 08 | & a + e . The *o( # le1 -1 le> lo# vol)n"a" !7 le> lo# n"en" on ! G'ro'er la% o$ "he #on"ra#"1 o"her "heor e!F 01 NATIONAL LAW OF T6E CRE.E/TOR 21 .l "y or nonne+o" a.a1 re#overy o$ *e-"! or nvol)n"ary a!! +n(en" o$ *e-"! G+arn !h(en"1 -1 vol)n"ary a!! +n(en" o$ *e-"! a1 %here "he *e-"or (ay -e e$$e#" vely !erve* % "h !)((on! G)!).l "y o$ an n!"r)(en" $1 val * "y o$ "ran!$er.

"hey are 'ro"e#"e* only -y "he !"a"e "ha" +ran"e* "he(.i*).ic.e.r +h" "o re#over a *e-" or (oney Cho!e n a#" on (ean! any o$ "he $ollo% n+F 01 R +h" o$ 'ro#ee* n+ n a #o)r" o$ la% "o 1rocure 'ay(en" o$ !)( o$ (oney.. #o'yr +h"!.eir 1o./ no" re*)#e* n"o 'o!!e!! on.1 la% o$ "he 'la#e "ha" +ran"e* "he( l1 la% o$ "he 'la#e %here "he -)! ne!! ! #arr e* on (1 n "he a-!en#e o$ a "rea"y.!.io*./ /o 1er./ of ac/io* for /. 2e1e*2.a "h n+ n a#" on .ui/ a/ la3' 81 A ri). an ar" #le o$ 'er!onal 'ro'er"y . an* ! e "her IN ACTION OR IN &OSSESSION Cho!e n A#" on GIn"an+ -le &er!onal &ro'er"y1 . "ra*e na(e! "he !ale %a! #on!)((a"e* .a//el. o$ %h #h "he o%ner ha! "he 'o!!e!! on. -)" reco6erable b+ a .ic.o*al ri). are *o/ i* 1o.e.o*al c.1 $ran#h !e! l1 +oo*% ll o$ a -)! ne!! an* "a>a" on "hereon (1'a"en"!.. e>'re!! or ('l e*5 09 | & a + e . -)" (erely a ri).o*al /.! an* "ra*ena(e! n "he R& only $ F l ' no! are +ran"e* re# 'ro#al #on#e!! on! n "he !"a"e o$ "he $ore +ner!.#or'ora"e !hare! . e*/irel+ o* co*/rac/."he r +h" o$ -r n+ n+ an a#" on or . 3. Cho!e . or r +h" "o reco6er a 'er!onal #ha""el or a !)( o$ (oney -y a#" on5 21 A 1er.. "ra*e(ar.a #ha""el 'er!onal.a "h n+.io*5 91 In#l)*e! 1er. No"eF $ore +ner! (ay !)e $or n$r n+e(en" o$ "ra*e(ar. an* all 1ro1er/+ i* ac/io* 3..

"he *a0e or .a (o*e o$ a#?) ! " on -y v r")e o$ %h #h "he 'ro'er"y. "o "a.one la% +overn! "he "ran!( !! on o$ -o"h real an* 'er!onal 'ro'er"y 0: | & a + e ."he BENEFIT a#?) re* -y an e!"a-l !h(en" BE%OND "he (ere val)e o$ "he #a' "al !"o#. . ./ore or bu."he r +h" o$ l "erary 'ro'er"y a! re#o+n Be* an* !an#" one* -y 'o! " ve la%.:1 A r +h" /o recei6e or reco6er a 2eb/8 2e0a*28 or 2a0a)e. o* a cau. ren*ere*.e of ac/io* e95co*/rac/u or for a /or/ or o( !! on o$ a *)"y. 1lace Serv #e Mar.+0bol o$ a .&er!onal "h n+ o$ %h #h one ha! 'o!!e!! on 2oo*% ll .e e$$e#" a$"er h ! *ea"h. W ll . Tra*e(ar.+0bol o$ )oo2. Co'yr +h" . Tra*e na(e ."he *a0e or . Cho!e n &o!!e!! on GTan+ -le &er!onal &ro'er"y1 ."he *a0e or . $)n*!. S)##e!! on ."he PATRONAGE o$ any e!"a-l !he* "ra*e or -)! ne!! .. or 'ro'er"y e('loye* "here n IN CONSE# ENCE OF THE GENERA" P B"IC:S PATRONAGE AND ENCO RAGEMENT %h #h " re#e ve! $ro( "! #)!"o(er!. % "h "he $or(al " e! 're!#r -e* -y la%.an a#" %here-y a 'er!on ! 'er( ""e*.er6ice.i*e.!. "o "he e>"en" o$ "he val)e o$ "he nher "an#e.+0bol o$ . r +h"! an* o-l +a" on!. "o #on"rol "o a #er"a n *e+ree "he * !'o! " on o$ h ! e!"a"e. (a*e or (an)$a#")re*. o$ a 'er!on are "ran!( ""e* "hro)+h h ! *ea"h "o ano"her or o"her! e "her -y h ! % ll or -y o'era" on o$ la%. Theor e! on "he &ro'er La% $or "he Tran!( !! on o$ S)##e!! onal R +h"! 01 Un "ary or S n+le Sy!"e(.

21 S'l " or S# !! on Sy!"e(. an* n"r n! # val * "y o$ "he 'rov ! on! o$ "he % ll1 Ca'a# "y "o !)##ee* Revo#a" on o$ % ll! $ *one n R& a1 le> na" onal Gvo * even $ val * %here (a*e1 -1 val * $ a##*+.-y a non-*o( # l ary -y a *o( # l ary 06 | & a + e . a(o)n" o$ !)##e!! onal r +h"!. WILLS.one la% +overn! real 'ro'er"y %h le ano"her *e"er( ne! !)##e!! onal r +h"! "o 'er!onal 'ro'er"y.MINISTRATION FACTUAL SITUATION 01 E>"r n! # Val * "y o$ W ll! a1 (a*e -y an al en a-roa* -1 (a*e -y a F l ' no a-roa* #1 (a*e -y an al en n "he R& 21 E>"r n! # val * "y o$ AOINT WILLS G(a*e n "he !a(e n!"r)(en"1 a1 (a*e -y F l ' no! a-roa* -1 (a*e -y al en! a-roa* &OINT OF CONTACT a1 le> na" onal 7 le> *o( # l 7 R& la%7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! -1 le> na" onal 7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! #1 le> na" onal 7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! 81 91 :1 a1 #1 (a*e -y al en! n "he &h l '' ne! In"r n! # Val * "y o$ % ll! G n#l)* n+ or*er o$ !)##e!! on. Le> na" onal 7 le> *o( # l 7 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! #1 le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! "here$ore VOI.le> *o( # l 7 le> lo# a#")! o$ REVOCATION $ *one o)"! *e R& . SUCCESSION.le> lo# #ele-ra" on ! o$ "he WILL7 le> lo# *o( # l . A. AN. Le> na" onal o$ "he *e#ea!e*re+ar*le!! o$ "he lo#a" on an* na")re o$ "he 'ro'er"y Le> na" onal o$ "he *e#ea!e* a1 le> lo# a#")! Go$ "he revo#a" on1 -1 .

*a"e* an* ! +ne* -y "he han* o$ "he "e!"a"or h (!el$. .e#e*en" an* Te!"a"or . 71 E>e#)"or! an* a*( n !"ra"or! a1 %here a''o n"e* -1 'o%er! 6olo+ra'h # W ll! . $ he le$" a % ll.%here "he a!!e"! are $o)n* -1 #o-e>"en! ve % "h "he ?)al $y n+ or "he a''o n" n+ #o)r" no"eF "he!e r)le! al!o a''ly "o 'r n# 'al. .e "he( val * a! "e!"a(en"ary * !'o! " on!."he #a'a# "y "o #o('rehen* "he na")re o$ "ran!a#" on n %h #h "he "e!"a"or ! en+a+e* a" "he " (e. .S)-@e#" "o no o"her $or( an* nee* no" -e % "ne!!e*.61 'ro-a"e o$ % ll! (a*e a-roa* a1 $ no" ye" 'ro-a"e* -1 $ alrea*y 'ro-a"e* a-roa* a1 le> $or -1 le> $or G()!" al!o -e 'ro-a"e* n "he R&5 -)" en$or#e(en" o$ "he $ore +n @)*+(en" on 'ro-a"e ! eno)+h1 a1 $ *o( # le*.a % ll %h #h ! en" rely %r ""en. an* 07 | & a + e ."o re#olle#" "he 'ro'er"y "o -e * !'o!e* o$ an* "he 'er!on! %ho %o)l* na")rally -e !)''o!e* "o have #la (! )'on "he "e!"a"or. *o( # l ary or an# ll ary a*( n !"ra"or! an* re#e ver! even n non!)##e!! on #a!e!. Te!"a(en"ary Ca'a# "y . .%here *o( # le* a" *ea"h $ no" *o( # le*. %he"her or no" he le$" a % ll.*e#e*en" ! "he +eneral "er( a''l e* "o "he 'er!on %ho!e 'ro'er"y ! "ran!( ""e* "hro)+h !)##e!! on.The * !'o! " on o$ "he "e!"a"or %r ""en -elo% h ! ! +na")re ()!" -e *a"e* an* ! +ne* -y h ( n or*er "o (a. he ! al!o #alle* a "e!"a"or.

n "he a-!en#e o$ 'roo$ "ha" "he !erv #e! %ere ren*ere* +ra") "o)!ly.a @)r * #al ne#e!! "y "o.A+ree(en" )'on !)$$ # en" #on! *era" on. E!"a"e . A""e!"a" on Cla)!e . (ay *e(an* !a" !$a#" on $ro( "he a!!e"! o$ "he la""er."he n"ere!" %h #h a 'er!on ha! n lan*!.May -e e>'re!! or ('l e*. "o *o or no" "o *o a 'ar" #)lar "h n+."he #la)!e %here n "he % "ne!!e! #er" $y "ha" "he n!"r)(en" ha! -een e>e#)"e* -e$ore "he(. ."he "er(! o$ "he a+ree(en" are *e#lare* -y "he 'ar" e! n %r " n+ or ver-ally a" "he " (e " ! en"ere* n"o I('l e* Con"ra#" .A @)r * #al rela" on %here-y a 'er!on G#re* "or1 (ay *e(an* $ro( ano"her G*e-"or1 "he o-!ervan#e o$ a *e"er( ne* #on*)#" an* n #a!e o$ -rea#h. an o-l +a" on re!)l"! "o 'ay "he rea!ona-le %or"h o$ "he !erv #e! ren*ere* )'on "he ('l e* #on"ra#" o$ h r n+. an* "he!e !erv #e! %ere a##e'"e* -y "he la""er.e. )n*er "he 'r n# 'le o$ $a# o )" *e!.An a+ree(en" %h #h #rea"e! an o-l +a" on . .%here one 'ar"y ren*ere* !erv #e! "o ano"her. E>'re!! Con"ra#" . an* "he (anner o$ "he e>e#)" on o$ "he !a(e. Con"ra#" . I *o "ha" yo) (ay + ve.(ay al!o ar !e $ro( (ere #on!en" . or any o"her !)-@e#" o$ 'ro'er"y O-l +a" on . .- "o #o('rehen* "he (anner n %h #h "he n!"r)(en" % ll * !"r -)"e h ! 'ro'er"y a(on+ "he o-@e#"! o$ h ! -o)n"y.. ."he a+ree(en" n $a#" ! 're!)(e* or n$erre* $ro( "he a#"! o$ "he 'ar" e! ."he a+ree(en" ! $or(al an* !"a"e* ver-ally or n %r " n+ . Tor" 0< | & a + e .a (ee" n+ o$ "he ( n*! -e"%een 2 'er!on! %here-y one . % "h re!'e#" "o "he o"her. "o + ve !o(e"h n+ or "o ren*er !o(e !erv #e.n*! h (!el$. "o *o or no" "o *o.

a""r -)"e!. an* !o $or"h."ran!+re!! on a+a n!" "he Rev !e* &enal Co*e O$$en!e . LEC SITUS .ere /.la% o$ "he 'la#e 3. $or n!"an#e. "he #a'a# "y "o en#)(-er or o"her% !e * !'o!e o$ "he(. "h ! r)le a''l e! "o -o"h real an* 'er!onal 'ro'er"y. . "he "rea"(en" o$ $ore +n n!)ran#e #o('an e!. LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS ."ran!+re!! on a+a n!" a !'e# al la% In$ra#" on . an* "he +ran" o$ n#en" ve! "o $ore +n nve!"or!."ran!+re!! on a+a n!" a lo#al or ()n # 'al or lo#al or* nan#e Cor'ora" on .i/ua/e2 .re+)la"e. . )r+ n+ )! "o *o %ha"ever ! r +h" an* avo * %ha"ever ! ev l.la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ "he #ele-ra" on or e>e#)" on 0= | & a + e .In "he &h l '' ne!.+overn! al(o!" every"h n+ "ha" #on#ern! real 1ro1er/+F $or(al " e! $or "he r al ena" on.cie*ce.an ar" $ # al -e n+ #rea"e* -y o'era" on o$ la%.an a#" or o( !! on ')n !ha-le -y la% Felony .e 1ro1er/+ i. an* 'ro'er" e! e>'re!!ly a)"hor Be* -y la% or n# *en" "o "! e> !"en#e. "he re?) ! "e! -e$ore an al en (ay o-"a n a #o'yr +h". hav n+ "he r +h" o$ !)##e!! on an* "he 'o%er!.r)le o$ h)(an #on*)#" i01la*/e2 b+ Go2 n o)r *a/ure an* n o)r co*. n*e'en*en" o$ a #on"ra#" Cr (e . "he #on* " on! )n*er %h #h al en re"a l "ra*e (ay !" ll #on" n)e. "he re# 'ro#al 'r v le+e! n "he (a""er! o$ 'a"en"!. S'e# al La%! .- a le+al %ron+ #o(( ""e* )'on ano"herL! 'er!on or 'ro'er"y. Na")ral Moral La% .

"hey o%e !o(e !or" o$ alle+ an#e. !)-@e#" "o "he 'r n# 'le! o$ ')-l # n"erna" onal la% an* "o "rea"y !" ')la" on!.e 1ar/ie. rea* "o+e"her % "h "he 'ro'er @)r !* #" onal la%.K . i*6ol6e28 i* 3. % ll #on$er @)r !* #" on on "he #o)r" AURIS.e.e*e6er 1ro1er/+ i.@)r !* #" on over "he 'er!on o$ "he 'la n" $$ ! a#?) re* $ro( "he (o(en" he n!" ")"e! "he a#" on -y "he 'ro'er 'lea* n+ 20 | & a + e .oul2 co*/rol( Cr ( nal La% &r n# 'le o$ Terr "or al "y . Cr ( nal La% &r n# 'le o$ 2eneral "y .n* -o"h "he # " Ben! an* "he al en! %ho are n "he !a * #o)n"ry or "err "ory. even $ " -e "e('orary."he 'la#e or "err "ory %here a #r (e ha! -een #o(( ""e* ha! @)r !* #" on "o "ry "he o$$en!e "ha" ha! -een #o(( ""e*.ICTION OVER T6E SU/AECT MATTER .Con$erre* -y la%5 "he #on!en" or "he !)-( !! on o$ "he 'ar" e! on "h ! 'o n" ! o$ no #on!e?)en#e5 only "he la% #on$er! " an* only "he la% (ay #han+e ". .$ro( "he La" n J@)! * #ereK.."he 'o%er o$ "he #o)r" "o ren*er a @)*+(en" "ha" % ll -e bi*2i*) o* /.e le9 ."he alle+a" on! n "he 'e" " on or #o('la n". . "he r +h" "o !'ea.The a)"hor "y o$ a "r -)nal "o hear an* *e# *e a #a!e an* al!o "he 'o%er "o en$or#e any @)*+(en" " (ay ren*er "hereon n $ore +n !"a"e!. a ca.J&enal la%! an* "ho!e o$ ')-l # !e#)r "y an* !a$e"y !hall -e o-l +a"ory )'on all %ho l ve or !o@o)rn n &h l '' ne "err "ory. !)-@e#" "o "he r +h"! o$ !a * !"a"e!.a/ .Al en! #o(e )n*er o)r "err "or al @)r !* #" on -e#a)!e %h le "hey are n o)r #o)n"ry. rule i. AURIS.- +overn! +enerally all "ran!a#" on! n!o$ar a! FORMA"ITIES OR SO"EMNITIES are #on#erne*.i/u. .."he a)"hor "y o$ a #o)r" "o hear an* *e# *e #a!e! o$ "he +eneral #la!! "o %h #h "he 'ro#ee* n+! n ?)e!" on -elon+ .ICTION . /.i.e i/ i. /.ICTION OVER T6E &ERSON .#r ( nal la%! o$ a #o)n"ry .ic. AURIS. 3. . O*e i01or/a*/ e9ce1/io* /o /. i*6ol6e2F "he 'la n" $$ an* "he *e$en*an" ..

ne#e!!ar ly #arr e! % "h " re#o+n " on E>"r n! # Fra)* ./i/u/e2 !erv #e o$ !)((on! AURIS.ub.$ "he la%! an* @)*+(en"! o$ "he $or)( are re#o+n Be* n a $ore +n !"a"e.nvolve! (erely "he !en!e o$ @)!" #e .2MENTS .- @)r !* #" on over "he 'er!on o$ "he *e$en*an" ! a#?) re* "hro)+h "he $ollo% n+ (ean!F 0. RE2AR."he 'ra#" #e o$ loo. COMIT4 /ASE. 1er.v r")ally ('l e! a * re#" a#" o$ !overe +n"y .2MENT . "! o%n 'er#e'" on o$ (oral!. RECO2NITION OF A FOREI2N AU.@)r !* #" on over "he 'ar" #)lar !)-@e#" (a""er n #on"rover!y. n+ over "he #o)r"! o$ "he %orl* $or 'o!! -le a*van"a+e! o)+h" "o -e #)r-e* &U/LIC &OLIC4 .ICTION OVER T6E RES . an* "! *ee'-roo"e* "ra* " on! $or "he #o((on %eal.LESS o$ 'er!on! %ho (ay -e n"ere!"e* "here n.e "he $ore +n @)*+(en" e$$e#" ve . In"r n! # Fra)* 20 | & a + e . "he $or)( n ")rn % ll re#o+n Be "he la%! an* @)*+(en"! e(ana" n+ $ro( !a * $ore +n !"a"e."ha" %h #h " *e! re! on a##o)n" o$ "! o%n $)n*a(en"al 'r n# 'le! o$ @)!" #e.(ay e> !" % "ho)" en$or#e(en" ENFORCEMENT OF FOREI2N AU.o*al .$ra)* -a!e* on $a#"! no" #on"rover"e* or re!olve* n "he #a!e %here "he @)*+(en" %a! ren*ere*. ON RECI&ROCIT4 .a 'la n" $$ %an"! "he #o)r"! "o POSITIVE"% CARR% O T AND MAKE EFFECTIVE IN THE PHI"IPPINES A FOREIGN & DGMENT . FORUM-S6O&&IN2 . 6olu*/ar+ a''earan#e 2.ne#e!! "a"e! a !e'ara"e a#" on or 'ro#ee* n+ -ro)+h" 're# !ely "o (a."he (an $e!" % ll o$ "he !"a"e .o)r #o)r"! % ll allo% !a * FOREIGN & DGMENT TO BE PRESENTED AS A DEFENSE TO A "OCA" "ITIGATION .*oe! no" re?) re e "her a#" on or a !'e# al 'ro#ee* n+ .

+e"" n+ "he la% n"en*e* -y "he 'ar" e! "o +overn "he #on"ra#" "hen a''ly n+ "he n"en*e* la% n "! "o"al "y n#l)* n+ "! 'er o*! o$ 're!#r '" on an* "! !"a")"e o$ $ra)*!."he $or)( #on! *er! "! o%n #on#e'"! "! o%n #hara#"er Ba" on.ra !e! a le+al ?)e!" on &OINT OF CONTACT OR T6E CONNECTIN2 FACTOR .2overn! a ')rely *o(e!" # 'ro-le(. TOTALIT4 A&&ROAC6 .- $ra)* %h #h +oe! "o "he very e> !"en#e o$ "he #a)!e o$ a#" on. 22 | & a + e ."he la% *en" $ e* n "he #ho #e-o$-la% !"a+e o$ "he #on$l #" 'ro#e!! a! "he one "o -e a''l e* "o *e"er( ne "he #a!e ."he la% o$ "he #o)n"ry % "h %h #h "he $a#")al ! ")a" on ! (o!" n" (a"ely #onne#"e*.!e" o$ $a#"! 're!en" n+ a #on$l #"! 'ro-le( . . an* !o(eone alle+e! a r +h" or #a'a# "y "o nher " $ro( "he $or(er. CA&ACIT4 TO SUCCEE. LEC CAUSAE T6EOR4 .a''l e! %hen "he $a#")al ! ")a" on nvolve! a $ore +n ele(en" .(erely n* re#"ly re!'on*! -y n* #a" n+ %he"her n"ernal or $ore +n la% ! "o -e a''l e*. one % "ho)" any $ore +n ele(en" . o"her% !e "here % ll -e a v r")al !)rren*er o$ !overe +n"y r +h" n "he $or)(L! o%n ho(e.*e$ ne! "! o-@e#" N#er"a n o'era" ve! $a#"! . %h #h ! "he 'r n# 'al 'o n" o$ #on"a#"."he #hara#"er Ba" on o$ "he $ore +n !"a"e. ! !)''o!e* "o -e $ollo%e*.The $a#")al ! ")a" on n* #a" n+ "ha" a 'er!on ! *ea*. FACTUAL SITUATION . re#"ly an!%er! a + ven 'ro-le( CONFLICTS RULE . &UREL4 INTERNAL RULE ."he e>a#" o''o! "e o$ "he le> ! ")! "heory . LEC FORI T6EOR4 ..

NATURAL-/ORN CITIDENS .1ru2e*ce o$ all "he !"a"e! nvolve*.OMICILE 28 | & a + e . " ! "he #hara#"er Ba" on n S"a"e C %h #h ()!" -e )!e* -y S"a"e A.UAL T6EOR4 OF LEC FORI AN.e . EFFECTIVE NATIONALIT4 T6EOR4 . CITIDENS . an* "he #on$l #"! r)le n S"a"e / re$er! "o S"a"e C a! "he 'ro'er 'o n" o$ #on"a#".UNIVERSAL ANAL4TICAL T6EOR47 COM&ARATIVE A&&ROAC6 T6EOR4 .C " Ben! %ho. -e#o(e !)#h -y #hoo! n+ or ele#" n+ &h l '' ne # " Ben!h ' a" "he a+e o$ 20 or % "h n a rea!ona-le " (e herea$"er. NATURALIDE. ON"% T!O CONCEPTS ENTER INTO THE PICT RE: THE CHARACTERI<ATION OF THE "E$ FORI AND THAT OF THE "E$ CA SAE( AUTONOMOUS T6EOR4 G(ay -e rela"e* "o TRANSMISSION1 . LEC CAUSAE .uri. ./u2+ of /.#o((on $a#"or! -o"h n "he "E$ FORI an* "he "E$ CA SAE are "a.r"h % "ho)" hav n+ "o 'er$or( any a#" "o a#?) re or 'er$e#" "he r &h l '' ne # " Ben!h '. e>#e'" "ha" n!"ea* o$ #on! *er n+ %orl*% *e #on#e'" on!.# " Ben! %ho are no" na")ral--orn # " Ben! an* "ho!e %ho -e#o(e # " Ben! "hro)+h @)* # al 'ro#ee* n+! CITIDENS /4 ELECTION .Chara#"er Ba" on #o(e! only a$"er a )e*eral co01ara/i6e a*al+/ical . -y v r")e o$ #er"a n le+al 'rov ! on!.6en#e.S ( lar "o "he Co('ara" ve A''roa#h Theory."ho!e %ho are # " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! $ro( .The $or)( !ho)l* #on! *er "he #hara#"er Ba" on o$ "he #o)n"ry re$erre* "o n "he #on$l #"! r)le o$ "he le> #a)!ae .$ "he *e#ea!e* ! no" a # " Ben o$ "he $or)(.en n"o #on! *era" on n or*er "o avo * )n@)!" re!)l"! . %e ()!" +e" "he la% o$ "he na" on o$ %h #h he %a! -o"h a na" onal an* a *o( # l ary . $ "he #hara#"er Ba" on n "he $or)( S"a"e A 'o n"! "o S"a"e / a! "he le> #a)!ae.

% ll ')" "!el$ n "he 'o! " on o$ "he $ore +n #o)r" an* %ha"ever "he $ore +n #o)r" % ll *o re!'e#" n+ "he #a!e.oor!7 ne>"r #a-le # r#le .ENCE . * o"! an* n!ane1 . *e'en* n+ )'on # r#)(!"an#e! .- - "he 'la#e %here a 'er!on ha! #er"a n !e""le*.l " e! 'reven" "he r (a.+ ven a$"er .a (ore or le!! "e('orary 'la#e o$ a-o*e %h #h (ay -e lo#a"e* n !everal 'la#e! FOREI2N COURT T6EOR4 . or (arr a+e n "he #a!e o$ a %o(an or -e#a)!e he ha! ho(e "here GCONSTR CTIVE DOMICI"E=DOMICI"E B% OPERATION OF "A!1 "ha" "o %h #h. n!an "y.a''l e! only "o n$an"! .")al re! *en#e.No na")ral 'er!on #an have (ore "han one *o( # le a" a " (e %h le a 'er!on (ay have (ore "han one re! *en#e.all "ho!e %ho la#. #a'a# "y "o #hoo!e "he r o%n *o( # le G n$an"!.r"h GDOMICI"E OF ORIGIN1 "he 'la#e a!! +ne* "o h ( -y la% a$"er . n+ a #ho #e . n *e# * n+ "he #a!e.never #han+e! $or a 'er!on ! -orn only on#e. (arr e* %o(en. he n"en*! "o re")rn GDOMICI"E OF CHOICE> . $ >e*.OMICILIUM ORI2INS1 .r"h .r"h .OMICILE OF ORI2IN G.OMICILE G.OMICILE .a re!)l" o$ "he vol)n"ary % ll an* a#" on o$ "he 'er!on #on#erne* &RINCI&LE OF ONL4 ONE .e% !e *o.Le+al * !a.OMICILIUM NECESSARIUM1 .In"erna" onal &IN2&ON27 In"erna" onal Foo"-all7 Revolv n+ .The R& #o)r". "he C v l Co*e re#o+n Be! only one *o( # leF "he 'la#e o$ ha. CONSTRUCTIVE .l "y #a)!e* $or n!"an#e -y ( nor "y. %henever he ! a-!en". RESI. le+al rela" on! -e#a)!e " ! a!! +ne* "o h ( -y "he la% a" "he (o(en" o$ .a#?) re* a" .r"h on a##o)n" o$ a le+al * !a. 29 | & a + e .May #han+e $ro( " (e "o " (e. "he R& #o)r" % ll l .OMICILE OF C6OICE .

(a@or "y #o((en#e! a" "he a+e o$ 0< yr!. I" ! e!!en" al "ha" .T6EOR4 OF . E(an# 'a" on . Unle!! o"her% !e 'rov *e*. " ! no" *ee(e* -orn $ " * e! % "h n 29 hr!.no%n . 6en#e."he #h l* ()!" have l ve* $or a" lea!" 29 hr!. A-!en#e . an* : year! n #a!e "he a-!en"ee ha! le$" a 'er!on n #har+e o$ "he a*( n !"ra" on o$ h ! 'ro'er"y.i."he R& #o)r" 2e. or refrai*. o"her% !e "he $e")! % ll -e #on! *ere* a! never hav n+ 'o!!e!!e* le+al 'er!onal "y. NCC Ar" #le 90.Mere .Ar" #le 8<9 o$ "he C v l Co*eF 2 year! hav n+ ela'!e* % "ho)" any ne%! a-o)" "he a-!en"ee or ! n#e "he re#e '" o$ "he la!" ne%!.&er!onal "y *oe! no" -e+ n a" . h ! ABSENCE (ay -e *e#lare*.r"h ! !)$$ # en" E>"raor* nary Ch l*ren . a$"er "! #o('le"e *el very $ro( "he (a"ernal %o(-./.e! 'la#e -y "he a""a n(en" o$ (a@or "y. 6o%ever."a. &re!)('" ve &er!onal "y . / r"h *e"er( ne! 'er!onal "y5 -)" "he #on#e ve* #h l* !hall -e #on! *ere* -orn $or all ')r'o!e! "ha" are $avora-le "o ". $ "he $e")! ha* an n"ra-)"er ne l $e o$ le!! "han 7 (on"h!.r"h !ho)l* o##)r la"er.% "h an n"ra-)"er ne l $e o$ a" lea!" 7 (on"h!. "he R& #o)r" a''l e! "! n"ernal la%. Or* nary Ch l*ren . 'rov *e* " -e -orn la"er % "h "he #on* " on! !'e# $ e* n "he $ollo% n+ ar" #le.$ "he n"ra-)"er ne l $e -e le!! "han 7 (on"h! . For # v l ')r'o!e!. a$"er "! #o('le"e *el very $ro( "he (a"ernal %o(NCC Ar" #le 90. . h ! %herea-o)"! -e n+ )n. " -e+ n! a" #on#e'" on. 2: | & a + e . "he $e")! ! #on! *ere* -orn $ "! ! al ve a" "he " (e " ! #o('le"ely *el vere* $ro( "he (o"herL! %o(-."he le+al !"a")! o$ a 'er!on %ho * !a''ear! $ro( h ! *o( # le.ESISTMENT . $ro( a''ly n+ a $ore +n la% -e#a)!e o$ "! i*a2e-uac+ -e n+ $o)n*e* on a * $$eren" -a! !.r"h.

an a-!en#e o$ : year! !hall -e !)$$ # en" n or*er "ha" h ! !)##e!! on (ay -e o'ene*.u0e2 "ha" THE% DIED AT THE SAME TIME AND THERE SHA"" BE NO TRANSMISSION OF RIGHTS FROM ONE TO THE OTHER. &RESUM&TION OF .EAT6 Ar" #le 8=0. 8 G@@1 R)le! o$ Co)r"F When 2 or (ore 'er!on! 'er !h n "he !a(e #ala( "y. " ! 1re.i. of /.o*.er.ucce. I$ he * !a''eare* a$"er "he a+e o$ 7: year!. a! -e"%een C or 0ore 1er. !)#h a! %re#.no%n %he"her or no" "he a-!en"ee !" ll l ve!. " -e n+ )n. . R)le 080.*ea"h ! 're!)(e* "o have o##)rre* on "he la!" *ay o$ "he 'er o* In e>"raor* nary 7 ?)al $ e* a-!en#e. an* "here are no 'ar" #)lar # r#)(!"an#e! $ro( %h #h " 26 | & a + e . !hall 'rove "he !a(e5 IN THE ABSENCE OF PROOF. a! "o 3.. ?ORDINAR% ABSENCE@ A$"er "he a-!en#e o$ 7 year!. The a-!en"ee !hall no" -e 're!)(e* DEAD for /. SURVIVORS6I& The r)le! on !)rv vor!h ' are $o)n* n Ar" #le 98 o$ "he C v l Co*e an* n R)le 080 o$ "he R)le! o$ Co)r"F Ar" #le 98 CC./. -a""le.- Ar" #le 8<6 o$ "he C v l Co*eF The @)* # al *e#lara" on o$ a-!en#e !hall no" "a. In or* nary a-!en#e.*ea"h ! 're!)(e* "o have o##)rre* a" "he -e+ nn n+ o$ "he 'er o*.e e$$e#" )n" l ! > (on"h! a$"er "! ')-l #a" on n a ne%!'a'er o$ +eneral # r#)la" on.e of o1e*i*) . I$ "here ! *o)-".. he !hall -e 're!)(e* *ea* $or all ')r'o!e!.ic.e0 2ie2 fir. %ho are calle2 /o . an* " ! no" !ho%n %ho * e* $ r!". o/.uccee2 eac. %hoever alle+e! "he *ea"h o$ one 'r or "o "he o"her. Se#. or #on$la+ra" on..io* " ll a$"er an a-!en#e o$ AB +ear.e 1ur1o. e>#e'" "ho!e o$ !)##e!! on.

e. "he !)rv vor!h ' ! 're!)(e* $ro( "he 'ro-a.. an* "he o"her -e"%een "ho!e a+e!.+a(o)! an* 'oly+a(o)! (arr a+e!1 -1 Un ver!ally #on! *ere* n#e!")o)!.+a(o)!. $ one ! )n*er 0: an* "he o"her a-ove 60.e .#an -e n$erre*. /ro"her! an* ! !"er! an* -e". "he yo)n+er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 8.e . A!#en*an"! an* *e!#en*an"!. $ -o"h %ere a-ove "he a+e o$ 60. an* n#e!")o)! (arr a+e! an* #on!)lar (arr a+e! LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS e>#e'" $ "he (arr a+e !F a1 6 +hly ((oral Gl . 1 $ #ele-ra"e* a-roa* M -e"%een F l ' no! &OINT OF CONTACT 0. LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS e>#e'" $ "he (arr a+e !F #1 6 +hly ((oral Gl . "he la""er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*. "hen "he ol*er5 :. -e". MARRIA2E AS A CONTRACT FACTUAL SITUATION 0.+a(o)! an* 27 | & a + e M -e"%een $ore +ner! M ( >e* . $ one -e )n*er 0: or over 60. a##or* n+ "o "he $ollo% n+ r)le!F 0.l " e! re!)l" n+ $ro( "he STRENGTH AND AGE OF THE SE$ES. 'oly+a(o)!. "he (ale ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 $ "he !e>e! -e "he !a(e. $ -o"h %ere )n*er "he a+e o$ 0:. an* "he !e>e! -e * $$eren". $ -o"h -e over 0: an* )n*er 60. "he ol*er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 2. "he $or(er ! 're!)(e* "o have !)rv ve*5 9.1 LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS G% "ho)" 're@)* #e "o "he e>#e'" on! )n*er .

T6E NATIONAL LAW OF T6E 6US/AN.IN2 NATIONAL LAW OF T6E 21 &ro'er"y Rela" on! -e"%een 2< | & a + e . AT T6E TIME OF T6E WE. -e".IT4 OF T6E MARRIA2E. I$ #ele-ra"e* n "he &h l '' ne! -e"%een $ore +ner! NATIONAL LAW 'rov *e* "he (arr a+e ! no" h +hly ((oral or )n ver!ally #on! *ere* n#e!")o)! NATIONAL LAW o$ "he F l ' no Go"her% !e ')-l # 'ol #y (ay -e ( l "a"e* a+a n!"1 LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS G% "h 're@)* #e "o "he $ore+o n+ r)le!1 ( >e* Marr a+e -y 'ro>y G#ele-ra"e* %here "he 'ro>y a''ear!1 MARRIA2E AS A STATUS FACTUAL SITUATION 01 &er!onal R +h"! an* O-l +a" on! -e"%een "he 6)!-an* an* "he W $e &OINT OF CONTACT NATIONAL LAW OF T6E 6US/AN. No"eF E$$e#" o$ !)-!e?)en" #han+e o$ na" onal "y a1 $ -o"h % ll have a ne% #o((on na" onal "y.. /ro"her! an* ! !"er! an* -e". A!#en*an"! an* *e!#en*an"!.'oly+a(o)! (arr a+e!1 *1 Un ver!ally #on! *ere* n#e!")o)!. T6E LAST COMMON NATIONALIT4 #1 $ "here %a! never any #o((on na" onal "y. . T6E NEW ONE5 -1 $ only one % ll #han+e.. T6E VALI. e.TO U&6OL.

81 W "h re!'e#" "o "he e>"r n! # val * "y o$ #on"ra#"! en"ere* n"o n "he R& -)" a$$e#" n+ 'ro'er"y ! ")a"e* n a $ore +n #o)n"ry %ho!e la%! re?) re * $$eren" $or(al " e! $or "! e>"r n! # val * "y. Th ! r)le !hall no" a''lyF 01 Where -o"h !'o)!e! are al en!5 21 W "h re!'e#" "o "he e>"r n! # val * "y o$ #on"ra#"! a$$e#" n+ 'ro'er"y no" ! ")a"e* n "he R& an* e>e#)"e* n "he #o)n"ry %here "he 'ro'er"y ! lo#a"e*. To "he .l "y n "he (a"r (on al 'ro'er"y re+ (e. <0 o$ "he FC. The $ollo% n+ !hall -e 're!)(e* *ea* $or all ')r'o!e!."he 6)!-an* an* "he W $e 6US/AN. Ar" #le 8=0.o#"r ne o$ (()"a. "he 'ro'er"y rela" on! o$ "he !'o)!e! !hall -e +overne* -y R& la%!.. "o % "F In "he a-!en#e o$ a #on"rary !" ')la" on n a (arr a+e !e""le(en". n#l)* n+ "he * v ! on o$ "he e!"a"e a(on+ "he he r!F 2= | & a + e . E$$e#" o$ Chan+e o$ Na" onal "yNo EFFECT a##*+. re+ar*le!! o$ "he 'la#e o$ "he #ele-ra" on o$ "he (arr a+e an* "he r re! *en#e. %7o 're@)* #e "o Ar".

ea 6o+a)e.n "o+e"her or "he #ele-ra" on o$ a (an an* a %o(an a! h)!-an* an* % $e % "ho)" +e"" n+ (arr e* Marr a+e -y &ro>y ."he #o('e"en#e o$ a 'er!onL! na" onal la% "o +overn h ! !"a")! Co(')l!ory R)le ."he l v n+..en 'ar" n 3ar./e*ce .One %here one o$ "he 'ar" e! ! (erely re're!en"e* a" "he #ere(ony -y a $r en* or *ele+a"e A-!ol)"e Co(()n "y Re+ (e . a 'er!on %ho ha! -een i* 2a*)er of 2ea/."he a)"hor "y "o ena#" la%! . A)r * #al A)r !* #" on .el lo!" *)r n+ a .0./a*ce.Al(o!" all "he 'ro'er" e! o$ "he (arr a+e are o%ne* n #o((on -y "he h)!-an* an* "he % $e Rela" ve Co(()n "y Re+ (e7Co(()n "y &ar"ner!h ' o$ 2a n! or "he 2anan# al Sy!"e( 80 | & a + e . %ho ha! no" -een hear* $or D +ear." ! IMPERATIVE $or "he 'ar" e! "o $ollo% "he $or(al " e! o$ "he P"ACE OF CE"EBRATION O'" onal R)le .. an* h ! e9i. Le+ !la" ve A)r !* #" on . *o/ bee* E*o3*. )n*er o/.a. 8. A 'er!on on -oar* a 6e. an* ha! -een ( !! n+ $or D +ear.er circu0. %ho ha! "a. ! n#e "he lo!! o$ "he ve!!el or a r'lane5 2.. $or D +ear."he $or(al " e! o$ BOTH THE "E$ "OCI CE"EBRATIONIS AND THE NATIONA" "A! o$ "he 'ar" e! ()!" -e #o('l e* % "h Co((on-La% Marr a+e .. or on an air1la*e %h #h ! 0i. ."he 'ar" e! (ay $ollo% EITHER THE "E$ "OCI CE"EBRATIONIS OR THEIR NATIONA" "A! E##le! a!" #al R)le . a 'er!on n "he ar0e2 force.a)"hor "y "o hear an* *e"er( ne a le+al #on"rover!y.i*).The @)r !* #" on o$ o)r "r -)nal! o$ @)!" #e ! +overne* -y o)r o%n la% on "he (a""er.

So# ally +ro"e!?)e ! ")a" on .ESERTION . ha! "o #han+e a##or* n+ly.o%ry Sy!"e( . THE ORIGINA" PROPERT% REGIME AT THE START OF THE MARRIAGE REMAINS( M)"a.6o%ever.a ! ")a" on %here a F l ' no %o(an ! !" ll (arr e* "o a (an %ho ! no lon+er her h)!-an* A-an*on(en" .A h)!-an*L! or % $eL! 3illful failure 3i/. 80 | & a + e .l "y o$ Ma"r (on al &ro'er"y Re+ (e .Synony(o)! "o CRIMINAL .REGARD"ESS OF CHANGE OF NATIONA"IT% on "he 'ar" o$ "he h)!-an* or "he % $e or -o"h.o#"r ne . "he 'ro'er"y rela" on!h '."he h)!-an* o%n! all "he 'ro'er" e! o$ "he (arr a+e. "he (ar "al re+ (e. %hen "he (arr a+e ! * !!olve*.e "o 'rov *e $or "he #are. -)" "he h)!-an* a*( n !"er! all "he 'ro'er" e!.ea#h !'o)!e !" ll o%n! h !7her 'ro'er"y."he % $e.ou/ .o"al or . ve!"e* r +h"! ()!" -e *)ly 'ro"e#"e*.ea#h o%n! h !7her earn n+! . -)" he ! l a-le $or all "he *e-"! Mar "al A*( n !"ra" on Sy!"e( .l "y o$ La% . Co('le"e A-!or'" on or A*( n !"ra" on -y "he h)!-an* .- every"h n+ earne* *)r n+ "he (arr a+e -elon+ "o "he #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h ' Co('le"e Se'ara" on o$ &ro'er"y Re+ (e! ./ cau.%hen "he la% o$ "he or + nal na" onal "y "!el$ #han+e!. 'ro"e#" on or !)''or" o$ a !'o)!e %ho ! !" ll n ll heal"h or ne#e!! "o)! # r#)(!"an#e! . "he 'ro'er"y o$ "! val)e ()!" -e re")rne*. *el ver! a *o%ry or 'ro'er"y "o "he h)!-an* "o hel' o)" n "he (arr a+e o-l +a" on!.Th ! #anno" -e hel'e* $or la% ! e!!en" ally a *yna( # "h n+5 .u.In#l)*e! -o"h "he n"en" on "o a-an*on an* "he e>"ernal a#" -y %h #h "he n"en" on ! #arr e* n"o e$$e#". -)" la"er. -e$ore "he (arr a+e. I(()"a. .

no% n+ her "o -e (arr e*.vol)n"ary !e>)al n"er#o)r!e o$ a (arr e* 'er!on o"her "han "he o$$en*erL! h)!-an* or % $e . G81#oha./I2AM4 .The 'ar" e! ()!" re! *e "o+e"her ')-l #ly n "he $a#e o$ !o# e"y a! $ #on@)+al rela" on! e> !"e* -e"%een "he(.na+e are en#o('a!!e* n "he "er( Se>)al 'erver! on .#o(( ""e* -y any 'er!on %ho !hall #on"ra#" a !e#on* or !)-!e?)en" (arr a+e -e$ore "he $or(er (arr a+e ha! -een le+ally * !!olve*. O&EN AN.ULTER4 .ee' a ( !"re!! n "he #on@)+al *%ell n+ or G21have !e>)al n"er#o)r!e )n*er !#an*alo)! # r#)(!"an#e! % "h a %o(an no" h ! % $e. Se>)al In$ *el "y .#o(( ""e* -y any h)!-an* %ho G01!hall . ILLICIT CO6A/ITATION . NOTORIOUS A.na+e ."he l v n+ "o+e"her a! (an an* % $e o$ "%o 'er!on! %ho are no" la%$)lly (arr e* % "h "he ('l #a" on "ha" "hey ha.%ho !hall #on"ra#" a !e#on* or !)-!e?)en" (arr a+e -e$ore "he a-!en" !'o)!e ha! -een *e#lare* 're!)('" vely *ea* -y (ean! o$ a @)*+(en" ren*ere* n "he 'ro'er 'ro#ee* n+!.#o(( ""e* -y a (arr e* %o(an %ho !hall have !e>)al n"er#o)r!e % "h a (an no" her h)!-an*5 an* -y a (an %ho ha! #arnal .")ally 'ra#" #e $orn #a" on G)nla%$)l !e>)al n"er#o)r!e -e"%een "%o )n(arr e* 'er!on!1. even $ "he (arr a+e -e !)-!e?)en"ly *e#lare* vo *.A*)l"ery an* #on#). an* "he r !o l v n+ an* "he $a#" "ha" "hey are no" h)!-an* an* % $e ()!" -e .an a-nor(al "y -y a 'er!on n (a""er! o$ !e> &re-(ar "al Se> . or . . A*)l"ery .Un$a "h$)lne!! n (arr a+e . 82 | & a + e ." % "h her n any o"her 'la#e.no%le*+e o$ her.n*)l+ n+ -y an )n(arr e* #o)'le n !e>)al n"er#o)r!e 'r or "o +e"" n+ (arr e*.no%n n "he #o(()n "y Con#).

Th ! ! an a+ree(en" %here-y one 'ar"y % ll 're"en* "o have #o(( ""e* "he +ro)n* rel e* )'on. 60 o$ FCF No *e#ree o$ le+al !e'ara" on !hall -e 'ro()l+a"e* )'on !" ')la" on o$ $a#"! or a #on$e!! on o$ @)*+(en". an* no" n*)#e* -y *)re!! or $ra)* -1 Co*. e>'re!! or ('l e*. a #o)n"er#har+e o$ a*)l"ery or #on#). e1 Collu. M)!" -e $ree. *e!' "e !)#h e$$or"!. :< FCF An a#" on $or le+al !e'ara" on !hall n no #a!e -e "r e* -e$ore 6 (on"h! !hall have ela'!e* ! n#e "he $ l n+ o$ "he 'e" " on. The a""e('" ()!" -e one o$ a""e('"e* or $r)!"ra"e* 'arr # *e. Nee* no" -e alle+e*.e$en!e! n Le+al Se'ara" onF a1 Co*2o*a/io*. "ha" re#on# l a" on ! h +hly ('ro-a-le.Ar". No"eF Ar".e*/."he a""e('" ()!" no" -e @)!" $ e* a! n "he #a!e o$ la%$)l !el$-*e$en!e5 nor ()!" " -e one %here "he a""e('" %a! (a*e -e#a)!e "he o"her %a! #a)+h" n $la+ran"e *el #"o % "h a lover.Ar".ATTEM&T /4 ONE S&OUSE A2AINST T6E LIFE OF T6E OT6ER . FCF No le+al !e'ara" on (ay -e *e#ree* )nle!! "he Co)r" ha! "a. vol)n"ary. " #anno" -e !a * "ha" "here %a! an a""e('".cri1/io*. M)!" -e )n#lo)*e* -y $ra)*. or !o(e" (e! even ( !"a.$or+ vene!!. No"eF Ar".io*. *)re!!.na+e (a*e -y one #har+e* % "h "he !a(e o$$en!e n a !) " $or le+al !e'ara" on.en !"e'! "o%ar* "he re#on# l a" on o$ "he !'o)!e! an* ! $)lly !a" !$ e*. .(ay -e e>'re!! or ('l e*. FCF An a#" on $or le+al !e'ara" on !hall -e $ le* % "h n : year! $ro( "he " (e o$ "he o##)rren#e o$ "he #a)!e.e c> Co**i6a*ce *1 Recri0i*a/io* or 0u/ual )uil/. :7. no" one #a)!e* -y ne+l +en#e $or n "he la""er #a!e. 88 | & a + e . a+a n!" "he 'er!on %ho ha! #har+e* h ( or her.a #har+e (a*e -y an a##)!e* 'er!on a+a n!" "he a##)!er5 n 'ar" #)lar. :=. $1 Pre.

The #o)r".e 0i*or c. 208 o$ FC 61 The o$$en* n+ !'o)!e !hall -e 2i. "he !'o)!e! !hall -e en" "le* "o l ve !e'ara"ely $ro( ea#h o"her.ucce.e 3ill o$ "he nno#en" one !hall -e revo. *o/ .e* -y o'era" on o$ la%.en -y e "her ! *e!.eri/i*) fro0 /.io*.e *e/ 1rofi/.ol6e2 a*2 li-ui2a/e2 91 The o$$en* n+ !'o)!e !hall have *o ri). i* fa6or of /..1ou.e! any 'rov ! on.1ou.e6ere2 81 The a-!ol)"e #o(()n "y or "he #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h ' !hall -e 2i.e b+ i*/e. 60 FCF A$"er "he $ l n+ o$ "he 'e" " on $or le+al !e'ara" on. are no" re?) re* "o *o !o. 981 :1 The cu.e1ara/el+ C> Marria)e bo*2. G"he 'rov ! on! o$ "he % ll -e n+ re$erre* "o here are 'rov ! on! (a*e &RIOR TO an* NOT AFTER "he *e#ree o$ le+al !e'ara" on5 o"her% !e " #anno" -e !a * "ha" "he *e#ree revo. %h le (ay -e en" "le* "o l ve !e'ara"ely $ro( ea#h o"her a$"er "he $ l n+ o$ "he 'e" " on./a/e .io*. ear*e2 by "he a-!ol)"e #o(()n "y or "he #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h '. &)r'o!eF "o ena-le "he 'ar" e! "o #ool-o$$. Ar".e 0a2e i* /. !hall *e! +na"e e "her o$ "he( or a "h r* 'er!on "o a*( n !"er "he a-!ol)"e #o(()n "y or #on@)+al 'ar"ner!h ' 'ro'er"y.-ualifie2 fro0 i*. E$$e#"! o$ le+al !e'ara" onF 01 S'o)!e! (ay li6e ./o2+ of /./ /o a*+ .e i**oce*/ .e offe*2i*) . No"eF The !'o)!e!.The J#ool n+-o$$ 'er o*K G6 (on"h!1 ! "he 'er o* o$ " (e n %h #h no a#" on (ay -e "a. %h #h !hall -e $or$e "e* G n a##or*an#e % "h "he 'rov ! on! o$ Ar".are of /. n "he a-!en#e o$ a %r ""en a+ree(en" -e"%een "he !'o)!e!... The a*( n !"ra"or a''o n"e* -y "he #o)r" !hall have "he !a(e 'o%er! an* *)" e! a! "ho!e o$ a +)ar* an )n*er "he R)le! o$ Co)r".1 89 | & a + e .il2re* !hall -e a%ar*e* "o "he nno#en" !'o)!e. $or "he % ll ha* no" ye" -een (a*e. 71 The 1ro6i. !)-@e#" "o Ar".

.an a+ree(en" %here-y one 'ar"y % ll 're"en* "o have #o(( ""e* "he +ro)n* rel e* )'on. #on!e?)en#e!F a. " ()!" -e $ree.8 if .e1ara/io* . The fi*al 2ecree of le)al .a #har+e (a*e -y an a##)!e* 'er!on a+a n!" "he a##)!er . re?) r n+ #o((on #on!en". e>'re!! or ('l e* .a #o)n"er #har+e o$ an a*)l"ery or #on#). a+a n!" "he 'er!on %ho ha! #har+e* h ( or her. /4 T6E INNOCENT S&OUSEF 01 . ..are of /.all .all be . or #o((on an#e!"or. AFFINIT4 8: | & a + e . an* no" n*)#e* -y *)re!! or $ra)*. The le)al 1rocee2i*). n!h ' . RECONCILIATION .1ou. -)" "he ."he #onne#" on or rela" on o$ 'er!on! *e!#en*e* $ro( "he !a(e !"o#. COLLUSION .ereb+ be /er0i*a/e2 n %ha"ever !"a+e5 -.all /./.e! +na" on o$ "he o$$en* n+ !'o)!e a! -ene$ # ary n "he n!)ran#e #on"ra#"! o$ "he nno#en" !'o)!e. RECRIMINATION OR MUTUAL 2UILT .Shall have "he $$.In la% o$ *o(e!" # rela" on!.e alrea2+ effec/e2 ./ill 1e*2i*)8 ..e1ara/io* of 1ro1er/+ a*2 a*+ for forfei/ure of /.. .e/ a. CONSAN2UINIT4 . Con*ona" on . %he"her e>'re!! or ('l e*.$or+ vene!!.e .e )uil/+ .i.na+e (a*e -y one #har+e* % "h "he !a(e o$$en!e n a !) " $or le+al !e'ara" on.a .TWO T6IN2S T6AT MA4 /E REVOHE.la"eral a#". )nle!! "he !'o)!e! a+ree "o rev ve "he r 'ro'er"y re+ (e. re#on# l a" on ! a vol)n"ary re!)('" on o$ (ar "al rela" on! n "he $)lle!" !en!e.i2e.ona" on! (a*e n $avor o$ "he o$$en* n+ !'o)!e G()!" -e -ro)+h" % "h n : year! $ro( "he " (e "he *e#ree o$ le+al !e'ara" on ha! -e#o(e $ nal15 an* 21 .-loo* rela" on!h ' .."o #on!" ")"e val * *e$en!e. vol)n"ary.ub.

!)-! !"! -e"%een 'er!on! o$ %ho( one ! *e!#en*e* n a * re#" l ne $ro( "he o"her an* !o )'%ar*! n "he * re#" a!#en* n+ l ne an* !o *o%n%ar*! n "he * re#" *e!#en* n+ l ne. Con$l #" o$ la%! ! "ha" 'ar" o$ "he ()n # 'al la% o$ "he S"a"e 2. COLLATERAL CONSAN2UINIT4 .!)-! !"! -e"%een "he h)!-an*L! an* h ! % $eL! rela" on! -y (arr a+e COLLATERAL AFFINIT4 . -)" %ho *o no" *e!#en* or a!#en* one $ro( "he o"her .S)-! !"! -e"%een 'er!on! %ho have "he !a(e an#e!"or!.IRECT AFFINIT4 . n*re* o$ "he o"her. -e"%een ea#h o$ "he (arr e* 'er!on! an* "he .S)-! !"! -e"%een "he h)!-an* an* "he rela" on! o$ h ! % $eL! rela" on! ENUMERATION Ele(en"! o$ &r va"e In"erna" onal La%F 0.AR4 AFFINIT4 . or -e"%een "he % $e an* "he h)!-an*L! rela" on! -y -loo*. A le+al 'ro-le( nvolv n+ a $ore +n ele(en" 9.- #onne#" on e> !" n+ n #on!e?)en#e o$ a (arr a+e. L neal Con!an+)n "y . SECON.!)-! !"! -e"%een "he h)!-an*L! an* h ! % $eL! rela" on! -y -loo*. The * re#" on "o Co)r"! an* A*( n !"ra" ve a+en# e! 8. The a''l #a" on or non-a''l #a" on o$ $ore +n la%7$ore +n la%! I('or"an#e o$ Con$l #" o$ La%! 86 | & a + e .

a*c/io*. To 1re. )n*er %h #h "he #o)r" ! #o('e"en" "o en"er"a n !)#h a !) " 2.Con!" ")" on! ./a*ce. n %h #h a $ore +n @)*+(en" #an -e re#o+n Be* a! a *e# ! ve o$ "he ?)e!" on n * !')"e In o"her %or*!.Trea" e! an* Conven" on! . 'o!!e!!e* o$ $a#"! or ele(en"! o'era" n+ n "%o or (ore !"a"e!.e co*2i/io*. S#o'e o$ F)n#" on! o$ Con$l #" o$ La%! 0.cribe /.Co* $ #a" on! .eir 0u*ici1al la3( S)rely. $a( ly. To a*@)!" #on$l #" n+ r +h"! n n"erna" onal (er#an" le an* #or'ora"e "ran!a#" on! 2. 0. . S"a"e! ()!" o$ ne#e!! "y o-!erve "he !)-@e#" -e#a)!e i/ i.S'e# al La%! .A)* # al .l "y "o a 'ar" #)lar #a!e o$ e "her "he lo#al or "he $ore +n la% 8. To 2e/er0i*e $or ea#h #a!e! "he 1ar/icular /erri/orial . n* v *)al! o-!erve " -e#a)!e o$ fear of 0u*ici1al .1ecif+ /./e0 of la3 -y re$eren#e "o %h #h "he r +h"! o$ "he 'ar" e! ()!" -e a!#er"a ne* 8.Na")ral Moral La% . The *e"er( na" on o$ %h #h #o)n"ry ha! @)r !* #" on 2. o$ Wr "er! 2. re#" . SOURCES OF CONFLICT OF LAWS 0. To .e circu0.e# ! on! 87 | & a + e .0. val * "y an* e$$e#" vene!! o$ a $ore +n @)*+(en" Why #on$l #" o$ la% ! o-!erve*O 0. The *e"er( na" on o$ "he $or#e.+. ! *)"y -o)n* "o en$or#e an* re!'e#" "! o%n ()n # 'al le+ !la" on 2. To !olve 'er!onal.Wor. The a''l #a. 'ro'er"y an* !)##e!! onal #on"ra#")al 'ro-le(!. a +overn(en". any%here an* any" (e. 1ar/ of /. In* re#" .

o11i*) A''l #a" on o$ "he In"ernal or . o$ "he $or)( (ay alrea*y -e clo))e25 "o 'er( " a** " onal #a!e! %o)l* nev "a-ly ./abli. %hen "he la3 of /. a*2 *a/io*al .u. a)ai*. (ay *o/ be rea2il+ a6ailable 2./ra/io* of .o*al 1ro1er/+ ! ")a"e* n "he $or)( 81 When "he a''l #a" on o$ "he $ore +n la%. A)r !* #" on over "he re! Rea!on! $or Re$)!al "o A!!)(e A)r !* #" onF For)( Non Conven en! 0.Involve! 1roce2ural 0a//er.ou*2 a*2 e. of 0orali/+ G#on"ra -ono! (ore!1 .May %or. @)*+(en" or #on"ra#" !F . "he cour/ 2ocEe/.&)rely fi. /o /.Con"rary "o al(o!" u*i6er.o(e!" # La% 0.Pe*al la%!./ra/i6e (a""er! ./ /.a01er "he . #on"ra#"! an* @)*+(en"! .Real or 1er.e 3i/*e. A)r !* #" on over "he !)-@e#" (a""er 2. %hen "he #a!e i*6ol6e.e foru0 e>'re!!ly . *o/ bee* 1ro1erl+ 1lea2e2 a*2 1ro6e2 8.e 6i/al i*/ere. @)*+(en". "he e6i2e*ce a*2 /.cal or a20i*i.e2 1ublic 1olic+ o$ "he $or)( . "he ev l! o$ foru0 ../ice "o "he # " Ben! or re! *en"! o$ "he $or)( .e. a*+ of /.all+ co*ce2e2 1ri*ci1le.u.- In"erna" onal C)!"o(! H n*! o$ A)r !* #" on 0.o 1ro6i2e.e a11lica/io* o$ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la% E>#e'" on! To The A''l #a" on O$ Fore +n La% 01 When "he $ore +n la%.ecuri/+ o$ "he !"a"e o$ "he $or)( 8< | & a + e .. A)r !* #" on over "he 'er!on 8. u*2e*iable i*. or #on"ra#"F ./.1ee2+ a20i*i. n "! #on$l #"! r)le! 2./ice 8. %hen "he 'ro'er forei)* la3 .e e9ce1/io*.a.Con"rary "o a .May %or.. 21 When "he #a!e nvolve!F .

No 3a*/ of *o/ice. Theory o$ A)!" #e H n*! o$ Co( "y 0./ra/io* of . No lacE o$ .2ic/io*. /y "he ORA" TESTIMON% o$ e>'er" % "ne!!e! 2. They (ay co*/ra2ic/ o*e a*o/. "here ! no ne#e!! "y $or a !e'ara"e a#" on or 'ro#ee* n+ 2. an* a##o('an e* % "h a CERTIFICATE T6AT SUC6 OFFICER 6AS CUSTO. Theory o$ Co( "y 2.i6e*e. Theory o$ Ve!"e* R +h"! 8.u.. /a!e* on "he 1er. o$ $ore +n @)*+(en" Rea!on! %hy no" all $ore +n @)*+(en"! #an -e re#o+n Be* or en$or#e* n o)r #o)n"ry 0.4 Pro6i*) of a* *3ri//e* "a3 0./ *o/ co*/ra6e*e a . $ 'rove* "o -e #o((only a*( ""e* n !)#h #o)r"! Theor e! on Why "he Fore +n La% (ay n So(e Ca!e! /e 2 ven E$$e#" 0. The @)*+(en" 0u. No frau2. Proof of Forei)* &u2)0e*/ GFor re#o+n " on.4 OF T6E RECOR. Theory o$ Lo#al La% 9.Pro6i*) of a !ri//e* Forei)* "a3 0. /y a COP% ATTESTE. or -y h ! *e')"y. No collu. No clear 0i.. "he @)*+(en" ()!" -e on ci6il or co00ercial 0a//er 8.uri.ua.ou*2 a*2 e.ocEi*)l+ corru1/ n !o(e #o)n"r e! Con* " on! an* Re?) ! "e! /e$ore Fore +n A)*+(en"! (ay -e Re#o+n Be* an* En$or#e* n "he &h l '' ne! 0.e2 1ublic 1olic+ o$ "he $or)( 8= | & a + e . /a!e* on Reci1roci/+ 2. /4 T6E OFFICER 6AVIN2 T6E LE2AL CUSTO.. The re?) ! "e 1roof "hereo$ (ay *o/ be a2e-ua/e 2. /y an OFFICIA" P B"ICATION "hereo$5 2. They (ay co*/ra6e*e o)r e!"a-l !he* 1ublic 1olic+ 8.erF one #anno" -e +) *e* -y #on"ra* #" on! 9. The a20i*i./abli. /y PRINTED AND P B"ISHED BOOKS OF REPORTS OF DECISIONS o$ "he #o)n"ry nvolve*../ice 0a+ be ./aEe of la3 or fac/ 9.io*. Theory o$ 6ar(ony o$ La%! :.

LEC CAUSAE AUTONOMOUS T6EOR4 TOTALIT4 T6EOR4 90 | & a + e .ub.uri. One-S *e* R)le7 Un la"eral R)le 2.e 0eri/. nvolve* 2. All-! *e* R)le7 M)l" la"eral R)le Fa#"or! Wh #h 2 ve R !e "o "he &ro-le( o$ Chara#"er Ba" on 0.ean Fal#on-r *+e1 0. C. . The @)*+(en" ()!" -e fi*al 2. A''l #a" on o$ "he 'ro'er la% S"e'! n Chara#"er Ba" on GA##or* n+ "o E*+ar*o &ara!1 0.UAL T6EOR4 OF LEC FORI AN.arac/eri4a/io* o$ "he $a#")al ! ")a" on 8. There ()!" -e *en" "y o$ 'ar" e!. Chara#"er Ba" on o$ "he ?)e!" on! 2. an* o$ #a)!e o$ a#" on H n*! o$ Con$l #"! R)le 0. 1lea2i*) a*2 1ro6i*) o$ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la% 7.5 2. . The #o)r" ren*er n+ "he @)*+(en" ()!" have . $$eren" le+al !y!"e(! a''ly 2iffere*/ 1ri*ci1le.The Re?) ! "e! $or Re! A)* #a"a 0. Chara#"er Ba" on o$ "he 'ro-le( a! 1roce2ural or . 2. n +eneral "er(!. . 9. $$eren" le+al !y!"e(! a""a#h "o "he !a(e le+al "er( % "h 2iffere*/ 0ea*i*). are o$ #o((on na")re S"e'! n Chara#"er Ba" on GA##or* n+ "o . :./a*/i6e 6. 6. $$eren" le+al !y!"e(! (ay #on"a n *ea! or #on#e'" on! co01le/el+ u*E*o3* "o one ano"her 8. LEC FORI LEC CAUSAE UNIVERSAL ANAL4TICAL . The @)*+(en" ()!" -e o* /. Chara#"er Ba" on o$ "he 1oi*/ of co*/ac/ or /. 8. o$ !)-@e#" (a""er. . Sele#" on o$ "he 'ro'er la% 8.e"er( na" on o$ "he co*flic/.e"er( na" on o$ "he fac/. rule %h #h ! "o -e a''l e* 9.UAL LT1 0. a11lica/io* o$ "he 'ro'er $ore +n la% "o "he 'ro-le( Theor e! n Chara#"er Ba" on G. 9.2ic/io* over "he !)-@e#" (a""er an* "he 'ar" e! 8. $or "he !ol)" on o$ 'ro-le(! %h #h.e co**ec/i*) fac/or :. .

E)al $ #a" on! $or Na")ral Ba" on 0. Na" onal "y Theory. Na")ral Be* 8. n*! o$ #a'a# "yF 0. Tho!e -orn -e$ore 07 Aan)ary 0=78. "ho!e %ho are na")ral Be* n a##or*an#e % "h la%. Tho!e %ho are # " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! a" "he " (e o$ "he a*o'" on o$ "he 0=<7 Con!" ")" on 2. AGE. Tho!e %ho!e $a"her! or (o"her! are # " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! 8. @)r * #al #a'a# "y Chara#"er !" #! o$ S"a")!F GCCU&S1 0. Na")ral--orn 2. The 'e" " oner ()!" no" -e le!! "han 20 year! ol* on "he *a"e o$ "he hear n+ o$ "he 'e" " on 90 | & a + e .e"er( ne! C " Ben!h ' 0./ 8. %ho ele#" &h l '' ne # " Ben!h ' )'on rea#h n+ "he a+e o$ (a@or "y 9. A)! San+) n ! C " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! Un*er "he 0=<7 Con!" ")" on 0.ocial i*/ere. #a'a# "y "o a#" 2. +enerally !)''o!e* "o have a u*i6er.Terr "or al Theory 8.al c.o( # l ary Theory. a (a""er o$ 1ublic or . S ")! Theory.il+ /er0i*a/e2 a" "he (ere % ll or *e! re o$ "he 'ar" e! #on#erne* :.&er!onal Theory 2.T%o . co*ferre2 'r n# 'ally -y "he S"a"e 2.E#le#" # Theory 8 H n*! o$ C " Ben! o$ "he &h l '' ne! 0. ca**o/ be ea. CA&ACIT4 IN 2ENERAL 0. . C " Ben -y ele#" on 2 Theor e! on Whe"her &la#e or An#e!"ry . 2OVERN STATUS AN. a #on#e'" o$ .arac/er T6EORIES ON &ERSONAL LAW OR T6E LAW T6AT S6OUL. o$ F l ' no (o"her!. A)! Sol 2.ocial or2er 9.

"he R& #o)r" a''l e! "! n"ernal la%. RESIDENCE. *o( # le o$ #ho #e &ro'o!e* Sol)" on "o "he Renvo 0. an %r "e En+l !h or S'an !h an* any one o$ "he 'r n# 'al &h l '' ne lan+)a+e! <. COND CT."he R& #o)r" 2e. 8. A##e'" "he Renvo 8. 6e ()!" -e o$ +oo* (oral #hara#"er an* 9. Follo% "he Theory o$ .oor!7 ne>"r #a-le # r#le 92 | & a + e . or refrai*. he ()!" have enrolle* h ! ( nor #h l*ren o$ !#hool a+e n any o$ "he ')-l # !#hool!7'r va"e !#hool! re#o+n Be* -y "he /)rea) o$ &r va"e S#hool! %here R& h !"ory. +overn(en". 6en#e./. $ro( a''ly n+ a $ore +n la% -e#a)!e o$ "! i*a2e-uac+ -e n+ $o)n*e* on a * $$eren" -a! !. he ()!" -e a-le "o !'ea. he ()!" have re! *e* n "he &h l '' ne! $or a #on" n)o)! 'er o* o$ no" le!! "han 00 year!. "o % "F T6EOR4 OF . MINORS. CONSTI.In"erna" onal &IN2&ON27 In"erna" onal Foo"-all7 Revolv n+ .000.e! !"(en"7 ()")al * !#la (er o$ @)r !* #" on "heory. he ()!" have a real e!"a"e n "he &h l '' ne! %or"h no" le!! "han &6&:. he ()!" have #on*)#"e* h (!el$ n a 'ro'er an* rre'roa#ha-le (anner *)r n+ "he en" re 'er o* o$ h ! re! *en#e n "he &h l '' ne! n h ! rela" on % "h "he #on!" ")"e* +overn(en" a! %ell a! % "h "he #o(()n "y n %h #h he ! l v n+.2. #on!"r)#" ve *o( # le 8. 8 H n*! o$ . 6. *o( # le o$ or + n 2. PROPERT%. 6e ()!" -el eve n "he 'r n# 'le! )n*erly n+ "he &h l '' ne Con!" ")" on :. 7. Re@e#" "he Renvo 2. 'r or "o "he hear n+ o$ "he 'e" " on.i. or la%$)l o##)'a" on. an* # v #! are "a)+h" or 're!#r -e* a! 'ar" o$ "he !#hool #)rr #)l)( *)r n+ "he en" re 'er o* o$ "he re! *en#e re?) re* o$ h (.ESISTMENT .e )!e o$ "he $ore +n #o)r" "heory. "o % "F FOREI2N COURT T6EOR4 .00 OR ()!" have !o(e l)#ra" ve "ra*e. 9. "ANG AGE. MORA".o( # le 0. (a. 'ro$e!! on.

VOLUNTAR4 RELEASE $ro( h ! or + nal !"a"e 9.- The R& #o)r". le)al ca1aci/+ o$ "he #on"ra#" n+ 'ar" e! 2. 8. M)")al a!! !"an#e an* !)''or" 8. M)")al $ *el "y. % ll ')" "!el$ n "he 'o! " on o$ "he $ore +n #o)r" an* %ha"ever "he $ore +n #o)r" % ll *o re!'e#" n+ "he #a!e.u2icial #on#e!! on AS&ECTS OF MARRIA2E 0.e! 'la#e -yF 0."a" on. 9. . #oha.e. 2. A! a )n on. Marria)e o$ "he ( nor a""a n(en" o$ "he a)e of 0a. &er!onal La% o$ !"a"ele!! n* v *)al! 98 | & a + e . a le+al rela" on S)-!"an" al or E!!en" al Re?) ! "e! o$ Marr a+e o$ F l ' no! 0. n *e# * n+ "he #a!e. 0arria)e lice*. e>#e'" n (arr a+e o$ e>#e'" onal #a!e! 9. R +h" o$ "he % $e "o )!e "he h)!-an*L! na(e STATELESSNESS 0.ori/+ 1are*/al #on#e!! on . 2. co*.E&RIVATION o$ # " Ben!h ' $or any #a)!e. "he R& #o)r" % ll l .e% !e *o. E(an# 'a" on "a.ori/+ o$ "he 'er!on !ole(n B n+ "he (arr a+e :. RENUNCIATION o$ na" onal "y -y #er"a n a#"!.e*/ o$ "he #on"ra#" n+ 'ar" e! $reely + ven 8. /ORN n a #o)n"ry %h #h re#o+n Be! only "he 'r n# 'le o$ @)! !an+) n ! -)" %ho!e la% o$ "he 'aren"! re#o+n Be! only "he 'r n# 'le o$ @)! !ol . e>'re!! or ('l e* 8. a !"a")!. (arr a+e cere0o*+ &er!onal R +h"! an* O-l +a" on! -e"%een "he h)!-an* an* "he % $e 0. an* re!'e#" 2. au/. A! a #on"ra#" 2.

G91.i2e*ce RULES ON STATUS IN 2ENERAL FACTUAL SITUATION 0. an* val * "here a! !)#h.n " o1 &OINT OF CONTACT The la% alle+e* "o have -een v ola"e*F n o"her %or*!.e 2o0icile Gha. e>#e'" "ho!e 'roh . an* 8<. A+e o$ (a@or "y 9. 87. " ! "he la% o$ "he 'la#e o$ #ele-ra" on Gle> lo# #ele-ra" on !1 !)-@e#" "o #er"a n e>#e'" on! "ha" $)rn !h "he +ro)n*!1 ARTICLE 26. &re!)('" on! o$ *ea"h an* !)rv vor!h ' &OINT OF CONTACT Na" onal la% o$ "he #h l* Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Na" onal la% Le> $or ANNULMENT OF VOI.l "y 6. U!e o$ " "le! an* no. G:1 an* G61. Ar" #le! 86. o$ a+e even % "h "he #on!en" o$ 'aren"! or +)ar* an! 99 | & a + e . .The 6a+)e Con$eren#e o$ 0=2< on In"erna" onal &r va"e La% !)++e!"e* "ha" "he 'er!onal la% o$ !"a"ele!! n* v *)al! !hall -eF 0. !e#on*ar ly "he la3 of /. Way! an* e$$e#"! o$ e(an# 'a" on 8.ECLARATION OF NULLIT4 OF A VOI. Ar" #le 8:F The $$. MARRIA2E FACTUAL SITUATION 01 2ro)n*! $or ann)l(en" G $ "he (arr a+e ! vo *a-le (erely1 21 2ro)n*! $or *e#lara" on o$ n)ll "y G $ (arr a+e ! vo * a. (arr a+e! !hall -e vo * $ro( "he -e+ nn n+F M"ho!e #on"ra#"e* -y any 'ar"y belo3 AF +ear."e* )n*er Ar" #le! 8: G01. All (arr a+e! !ole(n Be* o)"! *e "he R& ! a##or*an#e % "h "he la%! n $or#e n "he #o)n"ry %here "hey %ere !ole(n Be*. !hall al!o -e val * n "h ! #o)n"ry.")al re! *en#e1 2. U!e o$ na(e! an* !)rna(e! :.A/LE MARRIA2E AN. /e+ nn n+ o$ 'er!onal "y 2. "he la3 of /.e 1lace of /e01orar+ re. A-!en#e 7.

%ho a" "he " (e o$ "he #ele-ra" on.e of /. -e"%een a.e a2o1/e2 #h l* an* "he a2o1/er 6. -e"%een an a2o1/e2 c. "ha" are vo * )n*er Ar". -e"%een . -e"%een "he a2o1/i*) 1are*/ an* a2o1/e2 c./er.+c.ce*2a*/.e8 or . Ar" #le 87F Marr a+e! -e"%een "he $$. % "h "he n"en" on "o (arry "he o"her. .il2re* o$ "he !a(e a*o'"er <.il2 :. -e"%een colla/eral bloo2 rela/i6e. (arr a+e! !hall -e vo * $ro( "he -e+ nn n+ $or rea!on! o$ ')-l # 'ol #yF 0. (arr a+e! no" $all n+ )n*er Ar"./uou. or 1ol+)a0ou. RE# IREMENTS TO PROVE A FOREIGN MARRIAGE: 0. 90 M "ho!e . )' "o "he 9"h # v l *e+ree 2.il2 an* a le)i/i0a/e c.i.M"ho!e bi)a0ou. or ./e15c./e151are*/.5i*5la3 an* c. -e"%een bro/.1ou.er o3* . !hall l . %he"her le+ " (a"e or lle+ " (a"e.il2 o$ "he a*o'"er 7.ub. "he e> !"en#e o$ "he 'er" nen" 'rov ! on o$ "he forei)* 0arria)e la3 9: | & a + e . a*2 2e.o*:.a/ 1er. Eille2 /. :8 Ar" #le 86F A (arr a+e #on"ra#"e* -y any 'ar"y. o$ "he $)ll or hal$ -loo* Ar" #le 8<F The $$..olo)icall+ i*ca1aci/a/e2 "o #o('ly % "h "he e!!en" al (ar "al o-l +a" on! o$ (arr a+e.1ou.e% !e -e vo * even o$ !)#h n#a'a# "y -e#o(e! (an $e!" only a$"er "! !ole(n Ba" on. an* . -e"%een a2o1/e2 c. are i*ce.e.ur6i6i*) . o$ any *e+ree 2.i. %a! 1.e-ue*/ 0arria)e. a*2 6oi2 $ro( "he -e+ nn n+ %he"her "he rela" on!h ' -e"%een "he 'ar" e! -e le+ " (a"e or lle+ " (a"eF 0. -e"%een 'ar" e! %here one.ce*2a*/.il2re*5i*5la3 9.1ou. a*2 .er.il2re* 8. -e"%een 1are*/. -e"%een "he .

le"L! !ay. • S n#e %e $ollo% "he NATIONALIT4 T6EOR4. an* are no" . SIM&L4 &UTF I$ val * %here #ele-ra"e*. "he (arr a+e ! #on! *ere* "o have -een 'er$or(e* n "he &h l '' ne!.e% !e have "he #a'a# "y "o re(arry )n*er "he R& la%. • The +ro)n*! $or LE2AL SE&ARATION are "ho!e n* #a"e* n "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e! #on#erne*. " ! "he LEC LOCI CELE/RATIONIS. Ar". 6av n+ -een #ele-ra"e* n "he R& #on!)la"e n Wa!h n+"on. "he F l ' no !'o)!e !hall l .2. Un*er o)r la%.e #o+n Ban#e o$ ann)l(en" an* n)ll "y !) "! %here "he l " +an"! are F l ' no!.C. an* VICE-CONSULS #an )n*er "he Fa( ly Co*e. 96 | & a + e . 0: % ll a''ly -e#a)!e a !) " or le+al !e'ara" on ne#e!!ar ly a*( "! "he val * "y o$ "he (arr a+e. • Ch)r#h ann)l(en"! o$ (arr a+e! an* *e#lara" on! o$ "he r n)ll "y are only $or rel + o)! ')r'o!e!. )nle!! a(en*(en"! "o o)r $a( ly Co*e are (a*e.. " ! no" "he Na" onal la% "ha" +overn!. an A(-a!!a*or ! a)"hor Be* "o 'er$or( (arr a+e!.n* n+ on o)r # v l la%! an* #o)r"! o$ o)r #o)n"ry. "he a(-a!!a*or #anno" 'er$or( a (arr a+e5 ONL4 CONSUL!2ENERAL. or %here "hey are *o( # l ar e! o$ "he &h l '' ne!. % ll !)#h (arr a+e -e + ven #o+n Ban#e n "he R&O An!F NO. NOTESF • In!o$ar a! "he +ro)n*! $or ann)l(en" or n)ll "y are #on#erne*. • T%o F l ' no! are (arr e* -y "he &h l '' ne A(-a!!a*or "o "he US n! *e "he R& Con!)la"e n Wa!h n+"on . In US. " ! al!o val * here. o)r #o)r"! have @)r !* #" on "o "a. an* no" "ho!e o$ "he 'la#e o$ #ele-ra" on o$ (arr a+e. "he celebra/io* or 1erfor0a*ce o$ "he (arr a+e n a##or*an#e % "h !a * la% Where a (arr a+e -e"%een a F l ' no # " Ben an* a $ore +ner ! val *ly #ele-ra"e* an* a * vor#e ! "herea$"er val *ly o-"a ne* a-roa* -y "he al en !'o)!e #a'a# "a" n+ h ( or her "o re(arry. !)-@e#" "o #er"a n e>#e'" on!.

An* even $ "he!e #a)!e! !ho)l* (an $e!" "he(!elve! lon+ a$"er "he %e** n+. 2a(-l n+ 9. 'ar" #)larly "he SC. Fore +ner! #1 ( >e* onal la% G"here$ore. • Un*er Ch)r#h la%!. 86 OF FCF A (arr a+e #on"ra#"e* -y any 'ar"y.• Ar". 97 | & a + e . no" val * here even $ val * a-roa*5 an* "h ! ! "r)e re+ar*le!! o$ "he * vor#e1 -1 Na" onal la% G $ val * n "he S"a"e +ran" n+ " an* val * a##or* n+ "o "he na" onal la% o$ "he 'ar" e!. A %ron+ #on#e'" o$ (ar "al vo%! an* (ar "al n$ *el "y 2. %a! '!y#holo+ #ally n#a'a# "a"e* "o #o('ly % "h "he e!!en" al (ar "al o-l +a" on! o$ (arr a+e. A/SOLUTE . Wo(an B n+ :.IVORCE FACTUAL SITUATION 01 $ !o)+h" n "he R& G%he"her -y F l ' no! or -y $ore +ner!1 21 $ o-"a ne* a-roa*F a1 -e".e% !e -e vo * $ !)#h n#a'a# "y -e#o(e! (an $e!" only a$"er "! !ole(n Ba" on. A*a(an" re$)!al "o + ve !)''or" "o a *e+ree n#o('a" -le % "h a (a")re )n*er!"an* n+ o$ re!'on! -le (arr e* l $e Th ! *e+ree ! o$ #o)r!e !)-@e#" "o *e"er( na" on -y "he #o)r"!. !hall l . F l ' no! &OINT OF CONTACT 01 le> $or G"here$ore. % ll al!o -e val * here1 #1 a''ly Ga1 an* G-1 re!'e#" vely. !a * #a)!e! are #on! *ere* "o -e 'o"en" ally e> !" n+ alrea*y a" "he " (e o$ "he #ele-ra" on o$ "he (arr a+e. Al#ohol !( 8. e>a('le! o$ &64C6OLO2ICAL INCA&ACIT4 % ll n#l)*e n"er al aF 0. %ho a" "he " (e o$ "he #ele-ra" on. % ll no" -e +ran"e*1 a1 na" -1 -e".

NATIONAL LAW OF T6E A. FUNERALS FACTUAL SITUATION .e"er( na" on o$ %he"her le+ " (a"e or lle+ " (a"e. 21 RELATIVE . I$ lle+ " (a"e -)" re#o+n Be* -y "he $a"her. AN.&a"ern "y an* $ l a" on .Le+ " (a#y .IVORCEF 01 A/SOLUTE . ! DEFECTIVE 2ran"e* $or #a)!e! 2ran"e* $or #a)!e! AT THE S BSE# ENT "o "he (arr a+e VER% TIME THE MARRIAGE #ere(ony IS ENTERED INTO HIN. !" n+) !he* $ro( ANNULMENT A/SOLUTE . NATIONAL LAW OF T6E FAT6ER I$ lle+ " (a"e.#rea" on o$ "he !"a")! o$ a*o'" on5 r +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 9< | & a + e . .#han+e o$ 'aren"!L na" onal "y *oe! no" a$$e#" "he !"a")! o$ "he #h l*. A.S OF . FILIATION.In#l)* n+ 'aren"al a)"hor "y an* re# 'ro#al !)''or" &OINT OF CONTACT I$ le+ " (a"e.O&TION. %here 'ar" e! re(a n (arr e*. 2UAR.IVORCE . "he NATIONAL LAW OF T6E FAT6ER.&re!)('" on! o$ le+ " (a#y . "hey are allo%e* "o l ve !e'ara"ely $ro( ea#h o"her. al"ho)+h "h ! " (e. NATIONAL LAW OF T6E FAT6ER.Re# 'ro#al !)''or" . In +eneral. vor#e a v n#)lo (a"r (on ee1 N (ar "al " e! are * !!olve*.l "y o$ S"a")!.IANS6I&. NATIONAL LAW OF T6E MOT6ER.o#"r ne o$ I(()"a.A/SOLUTE .In#l)* n+ &aren"al A)"hor "y an* .IVORCE G. - A*o'" on.IVORCE G* vor#e a (en!a e" "horo1!e'ara" on $ro( -e* an* -oar* or le+al !e'ara" on. &ATERNIT4 AN.R +h"! an* o-l +a" on! o$ 'aren"! an* #h l*ren . none"hele!!. .Le+ " (a" on .Re#o+n " on .O&TER.IVORCE &re!)''o!e! a VA"ID"% E$ISTING MARRIAGE ANNULMENT En*! a (arr a+e %h #h "ho)+h #on! *ere* val * n "he n"er (. n +eneral.

$ r!" a*o'"e* -y "he Co)r" o$ A''eal! o$ Ne% 4or.e arran+e(en"! $or "he $)neral o$ a rela" ve *evolve on "he 'er!on! o-l +e* "o !)''or" "he *e#ea!e* %h le !" ll al ve. - 2)ar* an!h ' #o)r" o$ "he *o( # le o$ "he %ar* #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r" Gla% o$ "he a''o n" n+ !"a"e1 #o)r" %here "he 'ro'er"y $ $o)n* Gle> re ! "ae1 #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r" a1 Over "he 'er!on .ee' n+ % "h "he !o# al !"an* n+ o$ "he *e#ea!e*. The h +her "he !o# al !"an* n+ o$ "he *e#ea!e* n l $e. a*o'" on -y a F l ' no *oe! no" #on$er F l ' no # " Ben!h ' on an a*o'"e* al en #h l*. Every $)neral !hall -e n .a''o n" n+ #o)r" 'o%er! o$ +)ar* an - #o)r" %here "he 'ro'er"y an* "he %ar* are $o)n* #oe>"en! ve % "h "ho!e o$ "he a''o n" n+ #o)r" ."e* ! 'o('o)! an* ela-ora"e $)neral o$ a #r ( nal on %ho( "he *ea"h 'enal"y ha! -een n$l #"e*. "he n# *en"! o$ $)neral! are +overne* -y "he la% o$ "he #o)n"ry %here "he -o*y ! "o -e -)r e*.F)neral!. ( +h" -e #hara#"er Be* a! a ! ('l $ e* 9= | & a + e . a! a +eneral r)e. &roh .n# *en"! "hereo$ FUNERALS - Where "he -o*y ! -)r e*. The *)"y an* "he r +h" "o (a.a''o n" n+ #o)r" 'o%er! o$ +)ar* an -1 Over "he 'ro'er"y . In "he &h l '' ne!. "he (ore * +n $ e* an* e>'en! ve h ! $)neral -e..a*o'"er an* a*o'"e*. The I#en"er o$ +rav "yI a''roa#h.a''o n" n+ #o)r" 'o%er! o$ +)ar* an - #1 over "he 'er!on an* over "he 'ro'er"y G+eneral +)ar* an1 .

• PROBLE1: So)e -a. statute o$ -i)itatio#s& SOL2TIONS: • • Go!er#)e#t I#terest A#a-ysis 3 t%e -a.s )ay /e treated /y o#e ou#try as *ro edura.i#(5 t%e *res ri*ti!e *eriod *ro!ided i# t%e $orei(# statute6 E7CEPTION: . .%i % %as t%e )ost si(#i$i a#t re-atio#s%i* . o$ t%e ou#try %as a statute 4/orro. +.a#d /y a#ot%er ou#try as su/sta#ti!e "e.it% t%e o urre# e a#d . a" all "he e> !" n+ #on"a#"! -e"%een "he var o)! 'ar" e! "o a !) " an* var o)! @)r !* #" on!. "envoi Doctrine (#able #ennis # eory$ T%e o#$-i t o$ -a. By statutory dire ti!es " o#se#t o$ t%e State& By a(ree)e#t o$ t%e *arties By treaty or o#!e#tio# By o#$-i t o$ -a. Substance vs.i#( Statute 3 t%e -a. o$ t%e ou#try . ru-e o$ t%e $oru) resorts to t%e $orei(# -a. o$ t%e state . o$ t%e $oru) .%e# o#trary to *u/-i *o-i y or *ro%i/iti!e -a.%i % i# tur# re$ers :0 | & a + e .0 . Principles governing Conflict of Law Cases 1.it% t%e *arties deter)i#es t%eir ri(%ts a#d -ia/i-ities i# tort or i# o#tra t %.ver! on o$ "he I(o!" ! +n $ #an" rela" on!h 'I "e!" o$ "he Se#on* Re!"a"e(en".s ru-e In their absence -A. o$ t%e ou#try . Ul" (a"ely.%i-e )atters o$ su/sta# e are (o!er#ed /y t%e -a.%ere t%e ause o$ a tio# arose.(.%ose i#terest is )ost i)*aired /y $ai-ure to a**-y its statute s%ou-d /e a**-ied Borro.. Procedural Principles A-. '.)atters o$ *ro edure are (o!er#ed /y t%e -a. HOW FOREIGN LAW IS GIVEN APPLICATION IN THE PHILIPPINES: 1. "he #o)r" !ho)l* #hoo!e "he la% o$ %ha"ever @)r !* #" on ! (o!" #lo!ely " e* "o "he #a!e.s 2.%ere t%e ase is $i-ed0 . Center of Gravity Doctrine (Grouping of Contacts Principle or State of t e !ost Significant "elations ip # eory$ La. Th ! a''roa#h a)"hor Be! #o)r"! "o loo.

%i-e Art. +0 1<:+ &AC#S' Ed. T%e reaso# is t%at I# Re >au$)a# a**-ies o#-y to reside#ts . He-e# o**osed t%e *artitio# o# t%e (rou#d t%at s%e is de*ri!ed o$ %er -e(iti)e.ere t.. +. L31:. <. o$ t%e do)i i-e a**-ies&.0 Aud()e#t or o#tra t is o#trary to a sou#d a#d esta/-is%ed *u/-i *o-i y o$ t%e $oru) :0 | & a + e .-a.)atters *ertai#i#( to *ro edura.-a. o$ t%e do)i i-e&0 t%e# 1aria He-e# is e#tit-ed to %er -e(iti)e. '. 0.s ru-e o$ Ca-i$or#ia. o$ Ed. <. SC %e-d t%at t%e #atio#a.: is s*e i$i to #o#3 reside#ts. Gar ia0 G.%i % *ro!ides t%at t%e -a.s re(ardi#( su essio#.ri(%ts. T%us0 si# e Art.o o#$-i ti#( Ca-i$or#ia -a.i--s is (o!er#ed /y t%e #atio#a. o#tra!e#es *ro%i/iti!e -a.s o$ Ca-i$or#ia.i--0 de!isi#( u#to 1aria He-e# a ertai# a)ou#t o$ )o#ey a#d (i!i#( t%e rest o$ %is estate to 1aria Lu y. Ho. o$ t%e do)i i-e "P%i-i**i#es& s%ou-d (o!er# t%e . I# t%e *rese#t ase0 t%e #atio#a.e!er0 t%ere .%i % does #ot *ro!ide $or -e(iti)es& a#d a#ot%er is Art./a 8 to t%e -a.<0 =a#. Her o#te#tio# is t%at t%e -a.s "t%e -a. o$ Ca-i$or#ia dire ts t%at t%e -a. o$ t%e $oru) (o!er#s a-.%i % is t%e o#$-i t o$ -a. .as a 2S iti9e# /ut do)i i-ed i# t%e P%i-i**i#es0 -e$t a . Applicability of &oreign Laws and its */ceptions WHEN FOREIGN LAW0 EVEN THO2GH APPLICABLE0 1A? NOT BE GIVEN APPLICATION: 1. Forei(# -a.or re)edia.iciliary law s ould apply -*LD' T%e i#tri#si !a-idity o$ .:0 . <.ard is t%e -a. (SS)*' + et er or not t e national law or t e do..R.%o at %is deat% . or *u/-i *o-i y o$ t%e $oru) Re-atio#s%i* o$ t%e *arties a$$e ts *u/-i i#terest Rea. o$ t%e de ede#t. <. o$ t%e $oru).: o#tai#s a re$er3/a 8 to P%i-i**i#e -a.ard C%riste#se#0 .. is Art. Le/ &ori T%e -a. .: o$ t%e Ca-i$or#ia Ci!i.*ro*erty is i#!o-!ed "a**-y -e@ rei sitae& Forei(# -a. No. O#e is e#u# iated i# I# Re >au$)a# ".Code ".i--. RENVOI DOCTRINE APPLIED A9#ar !s.-a.

Aut entication3 *lectronic *vidence and 4udicial Cogni5ance of &oreign 4udg.s or Aud()e#ts *ro)u-(ated0 or /y deter)i#atio#s or o#!e#tio#s a(reed u*o# i# a $orei(# ou#try.ere *ro!e#0 said $orei(# -a. s%ou-d #ot /e a**-ied . T%us0 A)eri a# Rea-ty sued $or da)a(es a(ai#st Ba#8 o$ A)eri a. 1oreo!er0 t%e $orei(# -a.as #e!er *ro*er-y i)*-eaded a#d *ro!e#.ortgages despite pendency of t e civil suits before *nglis courts -*LD' E#(-is% -a.0 Aud()e#t or order s%a-.ou-d sti-.s .s o$ Ca-i$or#ia0 2SA0 (ra#ted 2S Do--ar -oa#s to ertai# $orei(# or*orate /orro.ise Audi ia--y $ore -osed t%e rea. . .:0 De .G.R No.)atters& :. Additio#a--y0 *ro%i/iti!e -a. *ur*orted-y a--o.%e# its a**-i atio# .ers de$au-ted0 Ba#8 o$ A)eri a sued t%e) /e$ore E#(-is% ourts.estate )ort(a(es i# t%e P%i-i**i#es. T%ese -oa#s . T%us0 t%e do tri#e o$ *ro essua.%i % %a!e $or t%eir o/Ae t *u/-i order0 *u/-i *o-i y a#d (ood usto)s s%a-. Forei(# -a. '<0 1<<< &AC#S' Ba#8 o$ A)eri a0 du-y -i e#sed to do /usi#ess i# t%e P%i-i**i#es a#d e@isti#( u#der t%e -a. SC $urt%er %e-d t%at e!e# assu)i#( ar(ue#do t%at E#(-is% -a. But E#(-is% -a.i# #ature "-e@ $ori (o!er#s *ro edura.#ot /e re#dered i#e$$e ti!e / -a.s t%e $i-i#( o$ Audi ia.o rea.i# #ature EXCEPTION: CONTRARY TO SOUND PUBLIC POLICY Ba#8 o$ A)eri a0 NT !s. (SS)*' + et er or not 0an1 of A. W%i-e t%ese ases . is *e#a.s o# er#i#( *erso#s0 t%eir a ts or *ro*erty0 a#d t%ose .#ot /e a**-ied. T%e *u/-i *o-i y sou(%t to /e *rote ted i# t%e i#sta#t ase is t%e *ri# i*-e i)/edded i# our Aurisdi tio# *ros ri/i#( t%e s*-itti#( o$ a si#(-e ause o$ a tio#.$ore -osure o$ )ort(a(e des*ite *e#de# y o$ i!i.suit $or o--e tio#.#o $i#d a**-i a/i-ity.ers.ere *e#di#(0 Ba#8 o$ A)eri a -i8e. Forei(# -a.0 Aud()e#t or o#tra t is o#trary to a sou#d a#d esta/-is%ed *u/-i *o-i y o$ t%e $oru)0 t%e said $orei(# -a.B. 1++C. A)eri a# Rea-ty Cor*oratio#0 . C.ents :2 | & a + e .or8 u#de#ia/-e i#Austi e to t%e iti9e#s or reside#ts o$ t%e $oru). W%e# t%e /orro.*resu)*tio# a**-ies.estate )ort(a(es /y A)eri a# Rea-ty0 a do)esti or*oratio#.erica can 2udicially foreclose t e real estate .ou-d . is *ro edura.ere se ured /y t. W%e# t%e $orei(# -a.

is a Euasi3Audi ia. Certi$ied true o*y or o#e attested /y t%e o$$i er %a!i#( t%e -e(a.& W%ere t%e ad!erse *arty did #ot dis*ute t%e a**-i atio# o$ $orei(# -a. O$$i ia.# or a tua--y ru-ed u*o# i# a *rior ase& W%ere t%e ourts are $a)i-iar .&%$ *ith the ab -e re/'ire.%i % is #ot /ou#d /y stri t ru-es o$ te %#i a-ity :8 | & a + e .8#o. W%ere t%e tri/u#a.ir u)sta# es .%e# t%e $orei(# -a.ents( it *i%% n t be rec !ni"e# an# the D ctrine ) Pr cess'a% Pres'.o$ o$$i e **I) the ) rei!n %a* r +'#!.&ti n *i%% a&&%$ 0Phi%i&&ine c 'rts *i%% ass'. HOW FOREIGN P2BLIC DOC21ENTS ARE PROVED: 1.ent # es n t c .ustody o$ t%e re ord0 or /y %is de*uty0 a#d a o)*a#ied .ents .it% a erti$i ate t%at su % o$$i er %as ustody • • T%e erti$i ate )ust /e )ade /y a se retary o$ t%e e)/assy or -e(atio#0 o#su(e#era-0 o#su-0 !i e o#su-0 or o#su-ar a(e#t or /y a#y o$$i er i# t%e $orei(# ser!i e o$ t%e P%i-i**i#es statio#ed i# t%e $orei(# ou#try i# .(.s "e.*u/-i atio# '. • E7CEPTIONS: • • • • W%ere t%ere are e@ e*tio#a.**T be rec !ni"e# b$ Phi%i&&ine c 'rts( ) rei!n %a*s an# +'#!.s are a-ready .it%i# t%e a tua.-ed(e o$ t%e ourt "(e#era--y 8#o. S*a#is% i!i-a.e as Phi%i&&ine %a*s1.s.it% t%e s*e i$i $orei(# -a. GENERAL R2LE: P%i-i**i#e ourts are #ot aut%ori9ed to ta8e Audi ia./ody .e the ) rei!n %a* is the sa.#oti e o$ $orei(# -a.'st be a%%e!e# an# &r -e#.%i % t%e re ord is 8e*t Aut%e#ti ated /y %is sea.

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