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# 57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4

## Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999

16
4.5 Continuity Equation

RTT can be used to obtain an integral relationship
expressing conservation of mass by defining the extensive
property B = M such that = 1.

B = M = mass
= dB/dM = 1

General Form of Continuity Equation

+
CV CS
dA V V d
dt
d
0
dt
dM

or

CV CS
V d
dt
d
dA V

net rate of outflow rate of decrease of
of mass across CS mass within CV

Simplifications:
1. Steady flow: 0 V d
dt
d
CV

2. V = constant over discreet dA (flow sections):

CS
CS
A V dA V

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
17
3. Incompressible fluid ( = constant)

CS CV
V d
dt
d
dA V conservation of volume

4. Steady One-Dimensional Flow in a Conduit:

CS
0 A V

1
V
1
A
1
+
2
V
2
A
2
= 0

for = constant Q
1
= Q
2

Some useful definitions:

Mass flux

A
dA V m&

Volume flux

A
dA V Q

Average Velocity A / Q V

Average Density

dA
A
1

Note: V m & unless = constant

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
18
Example 4-6

*Steady flow
*V
1,2,3
= 50 fps
*@ V varies linearly
from zero at wall to
V
max
at pipe center
*find
4
m& , Q
4
, V
max
0 *water,
w
= 1.94 slug/ft
3

CV CS
V d
dt
d
0 dA V

i.e., -
1
V
1
A
1
-
2
V
2
A
2
+
3
V
3
A
3
+

4
A
4 4
dA V = 0
= const. = 1.94 lb-s
2
/ft
4
= 1.94 slug/ft
3

4 4 4
dA V m& = V(A
1
+ A
2
A
3
) V
1
=V
2
=V
3
=V=50f/s
= ( )
2 2 2
5 . 1 2 1
4
50
144
94 . 1
+

= 1.45 slugs/s

Q
4
= 75 . m
4
& ft
3
/s

=

4
A
4 4
dA V

4
m&
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
19

velocity profile

Q
4
=

,
_

o
r
0
2
0
o
max
dr rd
r
r
1 V

max
2
o
2
o max
r
0
o
3
r
0
2
max
r
0
o
2
max
r
0
o
max
V r
3
1
3
1
2
1
r V 2
r 3
r
2
r
V 2
dr
r
r
r V 2
rdr
r
r
1 V 2
o 0
o
o

1
]
1

1
1
]
1

1
]
1

,
_

V
max
= 86 . 2
r
3
1
Q
2
o
4

fps
V
4
V
4
()
dA
4

2
o
max
2
o
4
r
V r
3
1
A
Q
V

=
max
V
3
1

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
20
( ) dydz dx u
x
u
1
]
1

+
outlet mass flux
Continuity at a Point

The governing equations can be expressed in both integral
and differential form. Integral form is useful for large-scale
control volume analysis, whereas the differential form is
useful for relatively small-scale point analysis.

Application of RTT to a fixed elemental control volume
yields the differential form of the governing equations. For
example for conservation of mass

CS
CV
V d
t
A V
net outflow of mass = rate of decrease
across CS of mass within CV

Consider a cubical element oriented so that its sides are to
the (x,y,z) axes

Taylor series expansion
retaining only first order term
inlet mass flux
udydz
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
21
We assume that the element is infinitesimally small such
that we can assume that the flow is approximately one
dimensional through each face.

The mass flux terms occur on all six faces, three inlets, and
three outlets. Consider the mass flux on the x faces

( )
influx outflux
flux
?udydz dydz dx ?u
x
?u ?u x
1
]
1

,
_

+ +

= dxdydz ) u (
x

V

Similarly for the y and z faces

dxdydz ) w (
z
z
dxdydz ) v (
y
y
flux
flux

The total net mass outflux must balance the rate of decrease
of mass within the CV which is
dxdydz
t

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
22
Combining the above expressions yields the desired result
0 ) V (
t
0 ) w (
z
) v (
y
) u (
x t
0 dxdydz ) w (
z
) v (
y
) u (
x t
+

1
]
1

+ V V

0 V
Dt
D
+

V
t Dt
D

Nonlinear 1
st
order PDE; ( unless = constant, then linear)
Relates V to satisfy kinematic condition of mass
conservation

Simplifications:
1. Steady flow: 0 ) V (

2. = constant: 0 V

i.e., 0
z
w
y
v
x
u

3D

0
y
v
x
u

2D
dV
per unit V
differential form of
continuity equations
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
23
4.6 Rotation and Vorticity

= fluid vorticity = 2 angular velocity = 2

= V i.e., curl V

=
w v u
z y x
k

= k

y
u
x
v
j

x
w
z
u
i

z
v
y
w

,
_

,
_

+
,
_

To show that this definition is correct consider two lines in
the fluid

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
24
Angular velocity about z axis = average rate of rotation +Q

dxdt
x
u
dx
dxdt
x
v
tan d
dt
d
dt
d
2
1
1
z

,
_

dt
x
v
lim
0 dt

i.e.,
x
v
dt
d

dydt
y
v
dy
dydt
y
u
tan d
1

dt
y
u
lim
0 dt

i.e.,
y
u
dt
d

similarly,

,
_

,
_

,
_

x
w
z
u
2
1
z
v
y
w
2
1
y
u
x
v
2
1
y
x
z

i.e., = 2
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
25
4.7 Separation, Vortices, and Turbulence

We will take this opportunity and expand on the material
provided in the text to give a general discussion of fluid
flow classifications and terminology.

1. One-, Two-, and Three-dimensional Flow
1D: V = i

) y ( u

2D: V = j

) y , x ( v i

) y , x ( u +

3D: V = V(x) = k

) z , y , x ( w j

) z , y , x ( v i

) z , y , x ( u + +

2. Steady vs. Unsteady Flow
V = V(x,t) unsteady flow

V = V(x) steady flow

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
26
3. Incompressible and Compressible Flow
0
Dt
D

incompressible flow

representative velocity
Ma =
c
V

speed of sound in fluid

Ma < .3 incompressible

Ma > .3 compressible

Ma = 1 sonic (commercial aircraft Ma.8)

Ma > 1 supersonic

Ma is the most important nondimensional parameter for
compressible flow (Chapter 8 Dimensional Analysis)

4. Viscous and Inviscid Flows
Inviscid flow: neglect , which simplifies analysis but
( = 0) must decide when this is a good
approximation (D Alembert paradox
body in steady motion C
D
= 0!)
Viscous flow: retain , i.e., Real-Flow Theory more
( 0) complex analysis, but often no choice

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
27
5. Rotational vs. Irrotational Flow
= V 0 rotational flow

= 0 irrotational flow

Generation of vorticity usually is the result of viscosity
viscous flows are always rotational, whereas inviscid flows
are usually irrotational. Inviscid, irrotational,
incompressible flow is referred to as ideal-flow theory.

6. Laminar vs. Turbulent Viscous Flows
Laminar flow = smooth orderly motion composed of
thin sheets (i.e., laminas) gliding smoothly over each
other

Turbulent flow = disorderly high frequency fluctuations
superimposed on main motion. Fluctuations are visible
as eddies which continuously mix, i.e., combine and
disintegrate (average size is referred to as the scale of
turbulence).
Re - decomposition
) t ( u u u +

mean turbulent fluctuation
motion

usually u
(.01-.1)u, but influence is as if increased
by 100-10,000 or more.

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
28
Example: Pipe Flow (Chapter 10 = Flow in Conduits)
Laminar flow:

,
_

dx
dp
4
r R
) r ( u
2 2

u(y),velocity profile in a paraboloid

Turbulent flow: fuller profile due to turbulent mixing
extremely complex fluid motion that defies closed form
analysis.

Turbulent flow is the most important area of motion fluid
dynamics research.

The most important nondimensional number for describing
fluid motion is the Reynolds number (Chapter 8)

Re =

VD VD V = characteristic velocity
D = characteristic length
57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
29
For pipe flow
V = V = average velocity
D = pipe diameter

Re < 2000 laminar flow
Re > 2000 turbulent flow

Also depends on roughness, free-stream turbulence, etc.

7. Internal vs. External Flows
Internal flows = completely wall bounded;
usually requires viscous analysis, except near entrance
(Chapter 10)

External flows = unbounded; i.e., at some distance from
body or wall flow is uniform (Chapter 9, Surface
Resistance)

External Flow exhibits flow-field regions such that both
inviscid and viscous analysis can be used depending on
the body shape and Re.

57:020 Mechanics of Fluids and Transport Processes Chapter 4
Professor Fred Stern Typed by Stephanie Schrader Fall 1999
30
Flow Field Regions (high Re flows)

Important features:
1) low Re viscous effects important throughout entire
fluid domain: creeping motion
2) high Re flow about streamlined body viscous effects
confined to narrow region: boundary layer and wake
3) high Re flow about bluff bodies: in regions of adverse
pressure gradient flow is susceptible to separation and
viscous-inviscid interaction is important

8. Separated vs. Unseparated Flow

Flow remains attached
Streamlined body w/o separation

Bluff body Flow separates and creates
the region of reverse
flow, i.e. separation

force viscous
force inertia Vc
Re