LÞA keg|on 9

C||mate Change
Adaptat|on
Imp|ementat|on Þ|an





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u8Al1 Þage 2 of 46

D|sc|a|mer

1o Lhe exLenL Lhls documenL menLlons or dlscusses sLaLuLory or regulaLory auLhorlLy, lL does so for
lnformaLlonal purposes only. 1hls documenL does noL subsLlLuLe for Lhose sLaLuLes or regulaLlons, and
readers should consulL Lhe sLaLuLes or regulaLlons Lo learn whaL Lhey requlre. nelLher Lhls documenL,
nor any parL of lL, ls lLself a rule or a regulaLlon. 1hus, lL cannoL change or lmpose legally blndlng
requlremenLs on LÞA, SLaLes, Lhe publlc, or Lhe regulaLed communlLy. lurLher, any expressed lnLenLlon,
suggesLlon or recommendaLlon does noL lmpose any legally blndlng requlremenLs on LÞA, SLaLes, Lrlbes,
Lhe publlc, or Lhe regulaLed communlLy. Agency declslon makers remaln free Lo exerclse Lhelr dlscreLlon
ln chooslng Lo lmplemenL Lhe acLlons descrlbed ln Lhls Þlan. Such lmplemenLaLlon ls conLlngenL upon
avallablllLy of resources and ls sub[ecL Lo change.


u8Al1 Þage 3 of 46

Þreface


1he u.S. LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency (LÞA) ls commlLLed Lo ldenLlfylng and respondlng Lo Lhe
challenges LhaL a changlng cllmaLe poses Lo human healLh and Lhe envlronmenL.

SclenLlflc evldence demonsLraLes LhaL Lhe cllmaLe ls changlng aL an lncreaslngly rapld raLe, ouLslde Lhe
range Lo whlch socleLy has adapLed ln Lhe pasL. 1hese changes can pose slgnlflcanL challenges Lo Lhe
LÞA's ablllLy Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon. 1he LÞA musL adapL Lo cllmaLe change lf lL ls Lo conLlnue fulfllllng lLs
sLaLuLory, regulaLory and programmaLlc requlremenLs. 1he Agency ls Lherefore anLlclpaLlng and plannlng
for fuLure changes ln cllmaLe Lo ensure lL conLlnues Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon of proLecLlng human healLh and
Lhe envlronmenL even as Lhe cllmaLe changes.

ln lebruary 2013, Lhe LÞA released lLs drafL cllmote cbooqe AJoptotloo lloo Lo Lhe publlc for revlew and
commenL. 1he plan relles on peer-revlewed sclenLlflc lnformaLlon and experL [udgmenL Lo ldenLlfy
vulnerablllLles Lo LÞA's mlsslon and goals from cllmaLe change. 1he plan also presenLs 10 prlorlLy acLlons
LhaL LÞA wlll Lake Lo ensure LhaL lLs programs, pollcles, rules, and operaLlons wlll remaln effecLlve under
fuLure cllmaLlc condlLlons. 1he prlorlLy placed on malnsLreamlng cllmaLe adapLaLlon wlLhln LÞA
complemenLs efforLs Lo encourage and malnsLream adapLaLlon plannlng across Lhe enLlre federal
governmenL.

lollowlng compleLlon of Lhe drafL cllmote cbooqe AJoptotloo lloo, each LÞA naLlonal LnvlronmenLal
Þrogram Cfflce, all 10 8eglonal Cfflces, and several naLlonal SupporL Cfflces developed a cllmote
AJoptotloo lmplemeototloo lloo Lo provlde more deLall on how lL wlll carry ouL Lhe work called for ln
Lhe agency-wlde plan. Lach lmplemeototloo lloo arLlculaLes how Lhe offlce wlll lnLegraLe cllmaLe
adapLaLlon lnLo lLs plannlng and work ln a manner conslsLenL and compaLlble wlLh lLs goals and
ob[ecLlves.

1aken LogeLher, Lhe lmplemeototloo lloos demonsLraLe how Lhe LÞA wlll aLLaln Lhe 10 agency-wlde
prlorlLles presenLed ln Lhe cllmote cbooqe AJoptotloo lloo. A cenLral elemenL of all of LÞA's plans ls Lo
bulld and sLrengLhen lLs adapLlve capaclLy and work wlLh lLs parLners Lo bulld capaclLy ln sLaLes, Lrlbes,
and local communlLles. LÞA wlll empower lLs sLaff and parLners by lncreaslng Lhelr awareness of ways
LhaL cllmaLe change may affecL Lhelr ablllLy Lo lmplemenL effecLlve programs, and by provldlng Lhem
wlLh Lhe necessary daLa, lnformaLlon, and Lools Lo lnLegraLe cllmaLe adapLaLlon lnLo Lhelr work.

Lach Þrogram and 8eglonal Cfflce's lmplemeototloo lloo conLalns an lnlLlal assessmenL of Lhe
lmpllcaLlons of cllmaLe change for Lhe organlzaLlon's goals and ob[ecLlves. 1hese ºprogram vulnerablllLy
assessmenLs" are llvlng documenLs LhaL wlll be updaLed as needed Lo accounL for new knowledge, daLa,
and sclenLlflc evldence abouL Lhe lmpacLs of cllmaLe change on LÞA's mlsslon. 1he plan Lhen ldenLlfles
speclflc prlorlLy acLlons LhaL Lhe offlce wlll Lake Lo begln addresslng lLs vulnerablllLles and malnsLreamlng
cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo lLs acLlvlLles. CrlLerla for Lhe selecLlon of prlorlLles are dlscussed. An
emphasls ls placed on proLecLlng Lhe mosL vulnerable people and places, on supporLlng Lhe
developmenL of adapLlve capaclLy ln Lhe Lrlbes, and on ldenLlfylng clear sLeps for ongolng collaboraLlon
wlLh Lrlbal governmenLs.

8ecause LÞA's Þrograms and 8eglons and parLners wlll be learnlng by experlence as Lhey malnsLream
cllmaLe adapLaLlon plannlng lnLo Lhelr acLlvlLles, lL wlll be essenLlal Lo evaluaLe Lhelr efforLs ln order Lo
undersLand how well dlfferenL approaches work and how Lhey can be lmproved. Lach lmplemeototloo

u8Al1 Þage 4 of 46

lloo Lherefore lncludes a dlscusslon of how Lhe organlzaLlon wlll regularly evaluaLe Lhe effecLlveness of
lLs adapLaLlon efforLs and make ad[usLmenLs where necessary.

1he seL of lmplemeototloo lloos are a slgn of LÞA's leadershlp and commlLmenL Lo help bulld Lhe
naLlon's adapLlve capaclLy LhaL ls so vlLal Lo Lhe goal of proLecLlng human healLh and Lhe envlronmenL.
Worklng wlLh lLs parLners, Lhe Agency wlll help promoLe a healLhy and prosperous naLlon LhaL ls reslllenL
Lo a changlng cllmaLe.


8ob Þerclasepe
uepuLy AdmlnlsLraLor
SepLember 2013



u8Al1 Þage S of 46

34% $)5678 9
:;6,<+) :=<85) %><*+<+678 ?,*;),)8+<+678 4;<8


?@ 4A.*7B)

1hls CllmaLe Change AdapLaLlon lmplemenLaLlon Þlan (Þlan) ouLllnes acLlons Lhe unlLed SLaLes
LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency (LÞA) 8eglon 9 wlll Lake Lo become more reslllenL Lo our changlng
cllmaLe.

LÞA lssued a Þollcy SLaLemenL on CllmaLe-Change AdapLaLlon ln !une, 2011
1
. 1he Þollcy SLaLemenL
recognlzes LhaL cllmaLe change can pose slgnlflcanL challenges Lo LÞA's ablllLy Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon and
calls for Lhe Agency Lo anLlclpaLe changes ln cllmaLe and lncorporaLe conslderaLlons of cllmaLe change
lnLo lLs acLlvlLles. ln accordance wlLh Lhe Þollcy SLaLemenL, LÞA lssued an Agency-wlde urafL CllmaLe
Change AdapLaLlon lmplemenLaLlon Þlan
2
on lebruary 8, 2013, descrlblng how Lhe agency lnLends Lo
adapL Lo cllmaLe change and asslsL lLs parLners ln dolng Lhe same. SubsequenLly, each of Lhe LÞA's
naLlonal program offlces, and lLs Len reglonal offlces, developed CllmaLe Change AdapLaLlon
lmplemenLaLlon Þlans, speclflc Lo Lhelr programs and reglons. Many programs LhroughouL LÞA have
already begun Lo address Lhe lmpllcaLlons of cllmaLe change.

8eglon 9 lnLends Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon by bulldlng a more reslllenL and cllmaLe-responslve program. We
wlll asslsL our parLners ln meeLlng Lhe challenges of cllmaLe change Lhrough flnanclal and Lechnlcal
asslsLance, effecLlve coordlnaLlon and declslon-supporL Lo lncrease Lhelr reslllence.





















V|s|on of the Iuture LÞA (from u.S. LÞA CllmaLe Change AdapLaLlon Þlan, 2013)
We llve ln a world ln whlch Lhe cllmaLe ls changlng. Changes ln cllmaLe have occurred slnce Lhe
formaLlon of Lhe planeL. 8uL humans are now lnfluenclng LarLh's cllmaLe and causlng lL Lo change ln
unprecedenLed ways.
lL ls ln Lhls rapldly changlng world LhaL LÞA ls worklng Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon Lo proLecL human healLh and
Lhe envlronmenL. Many of Lhe ouLcomes LÞA ls worklng Lo aLLaln (e.g., clean alr, safe drlnklng waLer)
are senslLlve Lo changes ln weaLher and cllmaLe. unLll now, LÞA has been able Lo assume LhaL cllmaLe
ls relaLlvely sLable and fuLure cllmaLe wlll mlrror pasL cllmaLe. Powever, wlLh cllmaLe changlng more
rapldly Lhan socleLy has experlenced ln Lhe pasL, Lhe pasL ls no longer a good predlcLor of Lhe fuLure.
CllmaLe change ls poslng new challenges Lo LÞA's ablllLy Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon.
lL ls essenLlal LhaL LÞA adapL Lo anLlclpaLe and plan for fuLure changes ln cllmaLe. lL musL lnLegraLe, or
malnsLream, conslderaLlons of cllmaLe change lnLo lLs programs, pollcles, rules and operaLlons Lo
ensure Lhey are effecLlve under fuLure cllmaLlc condlLlons. 1hrough cllmaLe adapLaLlon plannlng, LÞA
wlll conLlnue Lo proLecL human healLh and Lhe envlronmenL, buL ln a way LhaL accounLs for Lhe effecLs
of cllmaLe change.


u8Al1 Þage 6 of 46

??@ ?,*<C+B D.7, :;6,<+) :=<85) 68 34% $)5678 9

Around Lhe world, a cascade of effecLs ls expecLed Lo resulL from cllmaLe change. MosL of Lhese changes
wlll be felL somewhere ln 8eglon 9. 1hose changes wlll vary from Lhe arld souLhwesL deserLs Lo Lhe
Þaclflc lslands Lo Lhe norLhern Callfornla coasLal foresLs. Some changes are more cerLaln Lhan oLhers.
Changes may be local, or cover Lhe whole reglon. 8elow are some examples of cllmaLe change lmpacLs
LhaL are llkely Lo occur ln 8eglon 9.

- Alr LemperaLures wlll lncrease,
- ÞreclplLaLlon may decrease ln some areas,
- SLorm evenLs may be more severe,
- Cceans wlll become more acldlc and warm, and
- Sea level wlll rlse.

llgure 1 lllusLraLes Lhe lmpacLs LhaL are llkely Lo resulL from each of Lhese cllmaLlc changes.
________________________________________________________________________________

llgure 1: Adverse Impacts of C||mate Change




1ropospherlc
ozone
lncrease
PeaL evenL
lncrease
Snow fall and
pack decrease
8unoff season
change
Wlldflre
lncrease
WaLer
LemperaLure
lncrease
Specles
changes




WaLer supply
change
lreshwaLer
flow decrease
Wlldflre
lncrease
Soll molsLure
decrease
Specles
changes











lloodlng
uamage Lo
communlLles
and
lnfrasLrucLure
(lnland and
on coasL)
uamage Lo
hablLaLs
(lnland and
on coasL)
Lroslon
lncrease
(lnland and
on coasL)





Coral reef
decllne
AquaculLure
decllne
Specles
changes














SalL waLer
lnLruslon Lo
groundwaLer
CoasLal
eroslon
uamage Lo
communlLles
and
lnfrasLrucLure
uamage Lo
hablLaL








CllmaLe
Change could
lead Lo.
Alr
1emperaLure
lncrease
ÞreclplLaLlon
uecrease
SLorm
lnLenslLy
lncrease
Ccean
AcldlflcaLlon
and Warmlng
Sea Level 8lse
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47*A;<+678BF G<-6+<+BF <8> 4.75.<,B

1he Lerm ºvulnerablllLy" refers Lo Lhe degree Lo whlch a communlLy or hablLaL ls suscepLlble Lo, or
unable Lo cope wlLh, Lhe adverse effecLs of cllmaLe change. 1hls secLlon dlscusses Lhe communlLles,
populaLlons, and hablLaLs ln 8eglon 9 LhaL are mosL vulnerable Lo cllmaLe change, and where LÞA's
mlsslon lnLersecLs wlLh Lhe challenges LhaL Lhese vulnerable communlLles and hablLaLs face. 1hls secLlon
also ldenLlfles where LÞA's ablllLy Lo meeL lLs own mlsslon and goals ls aL rlsk from cllmaLe change.

CerLaln parLs of Lhe populaLlon, such as chlldren, Lhe elderly, mlnorlLles, Lhe poor, persons wlLh
underlylng medlcal condlLlons or dlsablllLles, Lhose wlLh llmlLed access Lo lnformaLlon, and Lrlbal and
lndlgenous populaLlons, can be especlally vulnerable Lo Lhe lmpacLs of cllmaLe change. Also, cerLaln
geographlc locaLlons and communlLles are parLlcularly vulnerable, such as Lhose locaLed ln low-lylng
coasLal areas. Cne of Lhe prlnclples guldlng LÞA's efforLs Lo lnLegraLe cllmaLe adapLaLlon lnLo lLs
programs, pollcles, and rules calls for lLs adapLaLlon plans Lo prlorlLlze helplng people, places and
lnfrasLrucLure LhaL are mosL vulnerable Lo cllmaLe lmpacLs, and Lo be deslgned and lmplemenLed wlLh
meanlngful lnvolvemenL from all parLs of socleLy.
1hls Þlan ldenLlfles key programmaLlc vulnerablllLles and Lhe prlorlLy acLlons LhaL wlll be Laken Lo
address Lhose vulnerablllLles over Llme. As Lhe work called for ln Lhls Þlan ls conducLed, Lhe communlLles
and demographlc groups mosL vulnerable Lo Lhe lmpacLs of cllmaLe change wlll be ldenLlfled. 1he
Agency wlll Lhen work ln parLnershlp wlLh Lhese communlLles Lo lncrease Lhelr adapLlve capaclLy and
reslllence Lo cllmaLe change lmpacLs. 1hese efforLs wlll be lnformed by experlences wlLh prevlous
exLreme weaLher evenLs (e.g., Purrlcane kaLrlna and SupersLorm Sandy) and Lhe subsequenL recovery
efforLs.
1he LÞA has noL conducLed a quanLlLaLlve assessmenL of vulnerablllLles wlLhln 8eglon 9. 8aLher, we
have drawn on Lhe besL avallable sclence, Lhe deLalled assessmenLs of oLhers, and our own besL
professlonal [udgmenL. Summarles of selecLed wrlLlngs are provlded ln Appendlx 8.

A. Def|n|t|ons

vulnerable communlLles lnclude Lhose whlch are ln Lhe paLh of poLenLlally large cllmaLe-relaLed lmpacLs
and have llmlLed ablllLy or lnLeresL ln re-locaLlng. lor example, LradlLlonal communlLles may have
lmporLanL cusLoms Lled Lo speclflc locaLlons. 1hls lncludes some naLlve Amerlcan 1rlbal communlLles on
Lhe maln land and Þaclflc lsland communlLles on lslands or aLolls. A communlLy's LradlLlons may also
lnclude speclflc vulnerable planL or anlmal specles only found ln cerLaln areas. Ma[or cllmaLe change
lmpacLs (l.e., sea level rlse, coasLal eroslon, flre, or flood) could physlcally desLroy an enLlre communlLy
or Lhe mosL vulnerable segmenLs. Some communlLles (lndlgenous or noL) LhaL are ln Lhe paLh of cllmaLe
change lmpacLs may noL have flnanclal resources Lo adequaLely prepare or Lo relocaLe.

vulnerable populaLlons lnclude lndlvlduals who are aL rlsk because of exlsLlng healLh lssues. 1he
populaLlons mosL vulnerable Lo cllmaLe change ofLen lnclude, buL are noL llmlLed Lo, Lhe communlLles
LhaL are Lhe focus of LÞA's envlronmenLal [usLlce program. Chlldren, Lhe elderly, Lhe poor, Lhe lnflrm,
and Lrlbal and lndlgenous populaLlons are among Lhe mosL vulnerable. lor example, Lhe elderly Lend Lo

u8Al1 Þage 8 of 46

be more suscepLlble Lo heaL sLroke due Lo Lhelr bodles' decreased ablllLy Lo cool down and
compllcaLlons wlLh exlsLlng chronlc allmenLs (e.g., dlabeLes).
3
. ln addlLlon, people on flxed lncomes have
llmlLed flnanclal resources Lo proLecL Lhelr healLh (e.g., lncurrlng elecLrlc blll charges for runnlng an alr
condlLloner durlng an exLreme heaL evenL). lndlvlduals wlLh asLhma are more suscepLlble Lo Lhe lmpacLs
of lncreased ozone and parLlculaLe maLLer ln Lhe alr
4
.

vulnerable hablLaLs are aL rlsk when Lhe resources and condlLlons Lhey depend on change or are
ellmlnaLed. lor example, a weL monLane meadow dependenL on snowmelL runoff all summer may noL
survlve lf mounLaln snows dry up before summer's end. A coral reef may noL survlve lf sLorms wash
sedlmenL from Lhe land and Lhe coral ls smoLhered. A proLecLlve mangrove foresL may be flooded and
desLroyed by sLorm wave over wash and sea level rlse
3
, allowlng sLorms Lo erode a newly exposed
coasLllne and formerly proLecLed communlLles.

1he effecLlveness of LÞA programs wlll be aL rlsk lf Lhey cannoL meeL Lhe LÞA mlsslon and goals ln Lhe
face of cllmaLe change. LÞA musL conslder cllmaLe change lmpacLs and vulnerablllLles ln Lhe regular
course of work (e.g., revlewlng granL appllcaLlons, permlL appllcaLlons and nLÞA documenLs, plannlng
for emergency response, conslderlng alr polluLlon lmpacLs Lo communlLles). Þubllc healLh could be puL
aL rlsk lf drlnklng waLer supply plpes are washed away ln a sLorm. 1he blologlcal lnLegrlLy of a resLored
coasLal weLland sysLem could be losL due Lo sea level rlse. Wlldflres and dusL sLorms could puL more
parLlculaLe maLLer lnLo Lhe aLmosphere whlch could reduce alr quallLy and negaLlvely lmpacL human
healLh. LÞA's emergency response capablllLles may be called on more frequenLly as exLreme weaLher
evenLs lncrease. LÞA owned or renLed faclllLles may be dlrecLly lmpacLed (e.g., due Lo sea level rlse) or
lndlrecLly lmpacLed (e.g., power llne fallures) by cllmaLe change. uurlng and followlng exLreme weaLher
evenLs, Lhe ablllLy of LÞA personnel Lo access communlcaLlon sysLems, or respond ln person, may be
lmpeded by sLorm damage and floodlng.

8. Vu|nerab|||t|es |n keg|on 9

CllmaLe change exacerbaLes our exlsLlng envlronmenLal problems, and makes lL more challenglng for
LÞA Lo fulflll lLs mlsslon Lo proLecL publlc healLh and Lhe envlronmenL AnLlclpaLed cllmaLe change
lmpacLs, Lhelr llkellhood of occurrence, and Lhelr effecLs on LÞA programs are descrlbed ln Appendlx A,
ºChallenges LhaL CllmaLe Change Þoses Lo LÞA 8eglon 9 Þrogram LffecLlveness".

ln order Lo undersLand Lhe challenges LhaL LÞA programs wlll face, lL ls lmporLanL Lo undersLand Lhe
vulnerablllLles LhaL Lhe 8eglon 9 communlLles, populaLlons and hablLaLs wlll face. CllmaLe change
vulnerablllLy varles from one geographlc area Lo anoLher wlLhln 8eglon 9, due Lo Lhe varlaLlon ln
lnLeracLlons of Lhe ocean, Lhe landscape and Lhe aLmosphere. 1he cllmaLe change challenges LhaL
lederally-recognlzed 1rlbes wlLhln 8eglon 9 face are of parLlcular concern Lo LÞA. 1hls secLlon provldes
background on vulnerablllLles wlLhln 8eglon 9 geographlc zones, and ln lndlan CounLry.

8. 1. Vu|nerab|||t|es |n Geograph|c keg|ons of keg|on 9

8eglon 9 lles wlLhln 3 of Lhe 8 geographlc reglons deflned by Lhe Notloool wotet ltoqtom 2012 5ttoteqy.
kespoose to cllmote cbooqe
6
- Lhe SouLhwesL, Lhe MonLane, and Lhe u.S. Þaclflc lslands and 1errlLorles.
1hese reglonal deslgnaLlons are based largely on Lhose deflned by Lhe uS Clobal Change 8esearch
Þrogram.
3


u8Al1 Þage 9 of 46

8.1.a. 1he Southwest keg|on: Much of Lhe souLhwesL ls arld wlLh relaLlvely hlgh alr LemperaLures.
Several mounLaln ranges, as well as Lhe Þaclflc Ccean, lnfluence cllmaLe and waLer resources ln cerLaln
parLs of Lhe 8eglon. WaLer ls sLored as snowpack durlng Lhe wlnLer and released Lo sLreams ln Lhe
sprlng and early summer, helplng Lo meeL lncreaslng waLer demands. 1here are Lhree ma[or rlver
sysLems: Lhe SacramenLo-San !oaquln, Lhe Colorado, and Lhe 8lo Crande. Several huge waLer sLorage
and conveyance pro[ecLs dlverL waLer from rlvers for more wldespread use by agrlculLure and growlng
clLles. 1he lack of ralnfall and Lhe prospecL of fuLure droughLs becomlng more severe ls a slgnlflcanL
concern, especlally because Lhe SouLhwesL conLlnues Lo lead Lhe naLlon ln populaLlon growLh.
Warmer LemperaLures wlll reduce mounLaln snow packs, and peak sprlng runoff from snow melL
wlll shlfL Lo earller ln Lhe season, leadlng Lo and lncreaslng Lhe shorLage of fresh waLer durlng Lhe
summer. A longer and hoLLer warm season wlll llkely resulL ln longer perlods of exLremely low
flow and lower mlnlmum flows ln laLe summer. WaLer supply sysLems LhaL have no sLorage or
llmlLed sLorage (e.g., small munlclpal reservolrs) may suffer seasonal shorLages ln summer,
1he magnlLude of pro[ecLed LemperaLure lncreases for Lhe SouLhwesL, parLlcularly when comblned
wlLh urban heaL lsland effecLs for ma[or clLles such as Þhoenlx, Albuquerque, Las vegas, and many
Callfornla clLles, represenLs slgnlflcanL sLresses Lo healLh, energy, and waLer supply ln a reglon LhaL
already experlences very hlgh summer LemperaLures,
8educed ground waLer supply due Lo a lack of recharge wlll be of concern,
Warmer ocean LemperaLures may decrease producLlvlLy by sLopplng enLralnmenL of deep supplles
of nuLrlenLs. 1he resulLlng reducLlons ln commerclal specles wlll need Lo be addressed Lo supporL
conLlnued producLlon of flsherles and aquaLlc llfe,
lncreased frequency and alLered Llmlng of floodlng wlll lncrease rlsks Lo people, ecosysLems, and
lnfrasLrucLure. lncreased flood rlsk ls llkely Lo resulL from a comblnaLlon of decreased snow cover
on Lhe lower slopes of hlgh mounLalns, and an lncreased percenLage of wlnLer preclplLaLlon falllng
as raln and Lherefore runnlng off more rapldly,
Sea levels are rlslng and conLrlbuLlng Lo Lhe loss of weLlands and lnfrasLrucLure locaLed along
coasLal corrldors, and
1he magnlLude and frequency of wlldflres have lncreased over Lhe lasL 30 years whlch severely
lmpacLs waLer quallLy ln sLreams, creeks, rlvers, lakes, and esLuarles.
8.1.b. 1he Montane keg|on: 1he MonLane reglon wlLhln LÞA 8eglon 9 lncludes Lhe glaclaLed mounLaln
Lops and down-slope waLersheds of Lhe Slerra nevada and Cascades. 1hese areas are unlque ln LhaL
Lhey rely on wlnLer snow accumulaLlon for Lhelr waLer supply. SenslLlve ecologlcal communlLles lnclude
bogs and fens. MonLane glaclers and snowflelds are reservolrs of waLer for Lhe human populaLlons and
ecologlcal communlLles aL lower elevaLlons.

MosL ecosysLems ln Lhe norLh Amerlcan MonLane 8eglon are predlcLed Lo slowly mlgraLe and shlfL Lhelr
dlsLrlbuLlon Lowards Lhe norLh ln response Lo warmlng LemperaLures. Powever, Lhe alplne areas are
ofLen dlsLrlbuLed as small, lsolaLed reglons surrounded by oLher hablLaLs. 1hese areas can be
dlsconnecLed from each oLher by wlde sLreLches of land used for Llmber producLlon, ranchlng, or oLher
uses. lnsLead of shlfLs ln laLlLude, alplne vegeLaLlon and anlmals wlll be llmlLed Lo shlfLs ln alLlLude,
unless connecLlons beLween sulLable hablLaLs can be made.
7


u8Al1 Þage 10 of 46

A warmer cllmaLe wlll cause lower-elevaLlon hablLaLs Lo move lnLo hlgher zones, encroachlng on
alplne and sub-alplne hablLaLs,
Plgh-elevaLlon planLs and anlmals wlll lose hablLaL area as Lhey move hlgher wlLh some
ºdlsappearlng off Lhe Lops of mounLalns,"
8lslng LemperaLures wlll lncrease Lhe lmporLance of connecLlons beLween mounLaln areas,
8lslng LemperaLures may cause mounLaln snow Lo melL earller and fasLer ln sprlng, shlfLlng Lhe
Llmlng and dlsLrlbuLlon of runoff. 1hls ln Lurn affecLs Lhe avallablllLy of freshwaLer for naLural
sysLems and for human uses. Larller melLlng leads Lo drler condlLlons for Lhe balance of Lhe waLer
year, wlLh lncreased flre frequency and lnLenslLy,
WaLer supplles wlll become lncreaslngly scarce, calllng for Lrade-offs among compeLlng uses, and
leadlng Lo confllcL,
lncreased frequency and alLered Llmlng of floodlng wlll lncrease rlsks Lo people, ecosysLems, and
lnfrasLrucLure,
Þro[ecLed lncreases ln LemperaLure, evaporaLlon, and droughL frequency add Lo concerns abouL
Lhe reglon's decllnlng waLer resources, and
CllmaLe change ls llkely Lo affecL naLlve planL and anlmal specles by alLerlng key hablLaLs such as
Lhe weLland ecosysLems known as monLane fens or playa lakes.
8.1.c. 1he Þac|f|c Is|ands keg|on: 1he Þaclflc lslands reglon ln LÞA 8eglon 9 encompasses Lhe Pawallan
lslands, as well as Lhe unlLed SLaLes afflllaLed Þaclflc lslands, lncludlng Lhe LerrlLorles of Amerlcan Samoa,
Lhe CommonwealLh of Lhe norLhern Marlana lslands (CnMl), and Cuam. 1he Þaclflc lslands are more
vulnerable Lo cllmaLe change Lhan nearly any oLher reglon ln Lhe unlLed SLaLes. key vulnerablllLles
lnclude avallablllLy of freshwaLer, adverse lmpacLs Lo coasLal and marlne ecosysLems, and exposure Lo
hazards lncludlng sea level rlse and lnundaLlon.

8lslng sea levels, hlgher sea LemperaLures, and ocean acldlflcaLlon assoclaLed wlLh cllmaLe change
are furLher degradlng coral reefs already sLressed by overflshlng and polluLlon. 1helr loss
dlmlnlshes ecologlcal herlLage, shorellne proLecLlon, food supply from Lhe sea, and resulLs ln a
decllne ln lncome from ecoLourlsm ln Lhe Þaclflc lsland communlLles where Lourlsm ls one of Lhe
largesL lndusLrles,
ÞoLenLlal for exLended droughL, due Lo a change ln raln-dellverlng weaLher sysLems. uue Lo Lhe
geographlc lsolaLlon of Lhe Þaclflc lslands and Lhe challenges of dellverlng freshwaLer from oLher
reglons, a droughL could have ma[or lmpacLs on freshwaLer supply. A severe droughL would
lmpacL waLer supplles for drlnklng waLer, agrlculLure lrrlgaLlon, and lndusLry. key freshwaLer and
bracklsh hablLaLs would llkely be lmpacLed
8
. 1he wesLern Þaclflc already experlences Lhe hlghesL
raLe of CaLegory 4 and 3 sLorms. CllmaLe change may brlng more frequenL and hlgher energy
sLorms resulLlng ln poLenLlally caLasLrophlc damage Lo lsland lnfrasLrucLure. 1hls degree of
damage could crlpple Lhe economles of Þaclflc lsland communlLles for slgnlflcanL perlods of Llme,
noL only lmpalrlng economlc developmenL buL also Lhe ablllLy of local governmenLs Lo ensure
dellvery of baslc waLer and sewer and oLher publlc healLh servlces, and



u8Al1 Þage 11 of 46

Sea level rlse has mulLlple lmpllcaLlons for Þaclflc lsland communlLles:
o lor Lhe low-lylng aLolls, enLlre lslands may be submerged wlLhln a generaLlon and may resulL
ln envlronmenLal refugees seeklng new homes,
o lor some low-lylng lslands, sea level rlse can resulL ln ºwash over," ln whlch lslands, or
porLlons of lslands, are submerged by waves durlng large sLorm evenLs. 1hls resulLs ln salL
waLer conLamlnaLlon of agrlculLural lands, slgnlflcanLly decreaslng Lhe producLlvlLy of Lhose
lands. 1hls loss of agrlculLural producLlvlLy has an acuLe lmpacL on Lhe largely subslsLence-
based economles of Lhese communlLles,
o lor many of Lhe lslands, sea level rlse has an lmmedlaLe, and acceleraLed lmpacL on coasLal
eroslon, whlch affecLs waLer quallLy, coral reef healLh, coasLal lnfrasLrucLure, avallable land,
and culLurally slgnlflcanL slLes, and
o Sea level rlse lncreases Lhe poLenLlal for salL waLer lnLruslon lnLo Lhe sole source aqulfers
upon whlch many Þaclflc lslands rely for drlnklng waLer. 1here are few or no readlly
accesslble alLernaLlve drlnklng waLer opLlons when a communlLy ls confronLed wlLh Lhe loss
of producLlvlLy of a sole source aqulfer.
Appendlx 8 provldes summarles of selecLed sLudles conducLed on cllmaLe change vulnerablllLles ln Lhe
geographlc areas of 8eglon 9.
8.2. Vu|nerab|||t|es on 1r|ba| |ands |n keg|on 9

1he uS LÞA urafL CllmaLe Change AdapLaLlon lmplemenLaLlon Þlan
2
, lssued

on lebruary 8, 2013, lncludes
a dlscusslon of Lhe lmporLance of LÞA worklng wlLh Lhe 1rlbes Lo asslsL Lhem ln successfully adapLlng Lo
cllmaLe change:

ºlndlgenous people are among Lhe mosL vulnerable communlLles ln norLh Amerlca.
9
1rlbes are more
vulnerable Lo cllmaLe change lmpacLs because of Lhelr dependence upon a speclflc geographlc area for
Lhelr llvellhoods, Lhe degree Lo whlch Lhose geographlc areas embody cllmaLe-senslLlve envlronmenLs,
and Lhelr unlque culLural, economlc, or pollLlcal characLerlsLlcs and conLexLs. Also, Lrlbes generally have
fewer resources Lo prepare for, respond Lo, and recover from naLural hazards, lncludlng Lhose relaLed Lo
cllmaLe change.
10
1he dlsproporLlonaLe vulnerablllLy of Lrlbes Lo cllmaLe change affecLs LÞA's mlsslon Lo
proLecL human healLh and Lhe envlronmenL ln lndlan counLry."

ºuroughL ls perhaps Lhe mosL pervaslve cllmaLe-lnduced weaLher lmpacL on Lrlbes. WaLer ls aL Lhe hearL
of many Lrlbal culLures and Lhe foundaLlon of Lhelr llvellhoods, economles, subslsLence, and LreaLy
rlghLs. WaLer ls essenLlal Lo Lhe susLalnablllLy of Lhe flsh, wlldllfe, and planLs on whlch Lrlbes rely. 1he
recenL Lrend Loward more severe and frequenL droughLs, especlally ln Lhe Amerlcan SouLhwesL,
LhreaLens Lhe very underplnnlngs of Lrlbal communlLles. 1he SouLhwesL ls already ln Lhe mldsL of a 10-13
year droughL, and cllmaLe pro[ecLlons suggesL Lhe SouLhwesL may LranslLlon Lo a more arld cllmaLe on a
permanenL basls over Lhe nexL cenLury and beyond.
11
ln facL, cllmaLe observaLlons lndlcaLe LhaL Lhls
LranslLlon may have already begun.
12
"




u8Al1 Þage 12 of 46

?E@ 4.67.6+H %C+678B

LÞA 8eglon 9 ls already addresslng cllmaLe change adapLaLlon ln several program areas. We wlll
conLlnue Lo pursue Lhe besL opporLunlLles for lnLegraLlng cllmaLe change lnLo our exlsLlng programs, and
ldenLlfy new cllmaLe change adapLaLlon needs where LÞA's lnvolvemenL ls crlLlcal.

As LÞA 8eglon 9 cannoL lmmedlaLely address all cllmaLe change adapLaLlon needs, we have adopLed
crlLerla Lo screen poLenLlal acLlons. LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll LargeL lLs cllmaLe change adapLaLlon work, based
on Lhe followlng crlLerla:

uoes Lhe acLlon LargeL one of Lhe mosL severe and lmmedlaLe vulnerablllLles?
uoes Lhe acLlon focus on one of Lhe mosL vulnerable populaLlons and/or geographlc areas?
uoes LÞA 8eglon 9 have Lhe capaclLy (personnel and fundlng resources) and ablllLy (knowledge,
skllls, and auLhorlLy) Lo Lake Lhe acLlon and conLrlbuLe Lo a soluLlon?
ls Lhls a prlorlLy acLlon for our parLners (federal/sLaLe/LerrlLory/Lrlbal/local governmenL and non-
governmenL) and are Lhey able Lo work wlLh us Lowards a soluLlon?
uoes Lhe acLlon supporL and allgn wlLh oLher LÞA 8eglon 9 prlorlLles and acLlons?

ln SecLlons A and 8 below, we descrlbe a subsLanLlal number of prlorlLy acLlons LhaL LÞA 8eglon 9 plans
Lo lmplemenL as cllmaLe change adapLaLlon measures. We lnclude boLh reglon-wlde adapLaLlon acLlons
and program-speclflc acLlons. ln addlLlon, below are flve speclflc adapLaLlon acLlons LhaL reflecL LÞA
8eglon 9's sLrong commlLmenL Lo cllmaLe change adapLaLlon. 1he reglon lnLends Lo provlde parLlcular
emphasls and focus on Lhese adapLaLlon acLlons over Lhe nexL year.

* lloollze o keqloo 9 cotol keef 5ttoteqy ooJ pteseot lt ot tbe loclflc lslooJs coofeteoce (Iooe, 201J),
lmplemeot tbe sttoteqy ooJ ptovlJe leoJetsblp to teJoce locol pollotloo ooJ locteose cotol teef cllmote
cbooqe tesllleocy.

* nolJ ot leost ooe toooJtoble Jlscossloo sessloo wltb feJetol ooJ stote oqeocles, ooJ otbet key cllmote
cbooqe oJoptotloo stokebolJets, to Jlscoss cllmote cbooqe voloetobllltles ooJ cootJloote effotts to bollJ
cllmote cbooqe tesllleocy (e.q., o sessloo focoseJ oo 8oy Ateo oltpotts).

* 5oppott ooJ ptomote keqloo 9 ttlbes´ pottlclpotloo wltb ílA´s Oku lo tbe Notloool 1tlbol 5cleoce
cooocll cllmote cbooqe Jlscossloos. ltovlJe o key veooe ot keqloo 9 1tlbol Opetotloo commlttee (k1Oc)
meetloqs to lJeotlfy key ttlbol cllmote cbooqe oJoptotloo lssoes ooJ soccess stotles, os well os tecbolcol
ooJ floooclol tesootces to bollJ tesllleocy.

* 5oppott ílA´s stote coootetpotts lo Atlzooo, collfotolo, nowoll, ooJ NevoJo lo cllmote oJoptotloo
effotts, poteotlolly locloJloq Jeveloploq oo oooool sommoty of tbelt cllmote cbooqe oJoptotloo
soccesses, sommotlzloq teqloool blqbllqbts fot bollJloq cllmote cbooqe tesllleocy, ot ptomotloq soccess
stotles oo cllmote cbooqe oJoptotloo.

u8Al1 Þage 13 of 46


* ltovlJe ttololoq to tbe ílA keqloo 9 wotkfotce oo cllmote cbooqe lmpocts ooJ oJoptotloo
oppottooltles, wltb o focos oo tbe 8oy Ateo. ltovlJe ttololoq oo locotpototloq cllmote cbooqe loto tbe
keqloo´s ptoqtommotlc opetotloos.

A. keg|on-W|de 1hemes for C||mate Change Adaptat|on

1. Ma|nstream C||mate Change |nto LÞA's Work.

CrlLlcal Lo carrylng ouL Lhe LÞA mlsslon ls our ablllLy Lo lnLegraLe cllmaLe change conslderaLlons lnLo our
everyday work. LÞA 8eglon 9 has been acLlve ln Lhls area slnce developlng our íoetqy ooJ cllmote
cbooqe 5ttoteqy ln 2007. 1hls SLraLegy led Lo Lhe formaLlon of our Clean Lnergy & CllmaLe Change
Cfflce, whlch serves Lhe enLlre 8eglon, and Lhe esLabllshmenL of a cross-dlvlslonal Clean Lnergy and
CllmaLe Change 1eam (L1eam). urawlng upon Lhe foundaLlon lald ln Lhe LÞA Cfflce of WaLer CllmaLe
Change SLraLegy and Lhe CCA Þlans whlch oLher LÞA reglons and PeadquarLers offlces are preparlng,
LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll conLlnue Lo lnLegraLe cllmaLe adapLaLlon lnLo exlsLlng programs and acLlvlLles Lo
maxlmlze Lhelr effecLlveness. 1hls wlll lnclude Lhe followlng sLeps and acLlvlLles:

a. Strengthen adapt|ve capac|ty for LÞA keg|on 9 and our partners. LÞA 8eglon 9's L1eam and
8eglonal Sclence Councll have worked LogeLher Lo offer a serles of cllmaLe change Lralnlng sesslons Lo all
8eglon 9 sLaff. ln order Lo conLlnue Lo lnLegraLe cllmaLe change lnLo LÞA 8eglon 9's exlsLlng programs
effecLlvely, LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll conLlnue Lo Lraln our sLaff, and bulld our capaclLy for adapLaLlon acLlons.
We anLlclpaLe LhaL fuLure Lralnlng sesslons wlll focus wlLhln Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 offlce, buL wlll also llkely
exLend Lo our federal, sLaLe, Lrlbal and local parLners.

1o asslsL our parLners ln Laklng acLlons mosL relevanL Lo Lhelr parLlcular cllmaLe change vulnerablllLles,
LÞA ls lnvesLed ln supporLlng Lhe parLners' own declslon-maklng. 1he Lerm ºdeclslon-supporL Lools" ls
used Lo descrlbe documenLs or programs LhaL help organlzaLlons undersLand whaL quesLlons Lo ask, or
whaL daLa Lo gaLher, so Lhey can declde whaL acLlons Lo Lake Lo lncrease Lhelr cllmaLe change reslllence.

Þrovlde Lralnlng opporLunlLles Lo our sLaff Lo lncrease Lhelr undersLandlng of cllmaLe change
vulnerablllLles ln our 8eglon, and how Lo besL lncorporaLe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo our
work. As needs and experLlse vary beLween LÞA 8eglon 9 programs and beLween lndlvlduals,
ask sLaff whaL Lhelr speclflc prlorlLy cllmaLe change adapLaLlon Lralnlng needs and preferences
are. Þrovlde Lralnlng LhaL ls Lhe mosL urgenL or wlll flll Lhe blggesL lnformaLlon gaps.
Work wlLh LÞA 8eglon 9 Sclence Councll, LÞA naLlonal Þrogram Cfflces, Lhe LÞA-wlde Lralnlng
program ln Lhe Cfflce of Puman 8esources, and ouLslde parLners, Lo provlde access Lo on-llne
and ln-person Lralnlng opporLunlLles. 1hls lncludes access Lo a llbrary of weblnars and
recordlngs of classes LhaL make Lhe besL use of currenL Lechnology. [Work wlLh LÞA
PeadquarLers]

u8Al1 Þage 14 of 46

Lncourage our parLners Lo lnLegraLe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon effecLlvely lnLo Lhelr work.
Share exlsLlng declslon-supporL Lools and Lralnlng opporLunlLles on cllmaLe change adapLaLlon,
especlally where Lralnlng ls local or avallable on-llne.
Where resources allow, and our experLlse exlsLs, provlde declslon-supporL Lool lnformaLlon
dlrecLly Lo parLners (e.g., LargeLed Lralnlng sesslons). Look for opporLunlLles Lo coordlnaLe wlLh
parLners (federal, sLaLe, LerrlLory, and Lrlbal agencles, and non-governmenL organlzaLlons) on
cllmaLe change adapLaLlon Lralnlng sesslons.
Cn a regular basls, updaLe cllmaLe change conLenL on LÞA 8eglon 9 webslLes - for boLh cllmaLe-
relaLed and programmaLlc web pages. Lncourage oLher organlzaLlons Lo llnk Lo our cllmaLe
change web pages. lnclude llnks Lo LÞA cllmaLe change web pages ln communlcaLlons Lo
parLners abouL relaLed lssues.

b. Integrate C||mate Change Adaptat|on |nto Iund|ng Mechan|sms. lncorporaLlng cllmaLe change
conslderaLlon lnLo fundlng acLlons wlll help bulld Lhe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon capaclLy of our
parLners, and make lL less llkely LhaL funds wlll be spenL on pro[ecLs LhaL wlll be damaged or desLroyed
by sea level rlse or exLreme sLorm evenLs, or oLher cllmaLe change lmpacLs.

ConLlnue Lo lncorporaLe Lhe conslderaLlon of cllmaLe change lmpacLs and adapLaLlon measures
lnLo flnanclal mechanlsms, such as granLs and conLracLs. 1he number of LÞA 8eglon 9 fundlng
mechanlsms LhaL are now conslderlng cllmaLe change adapLaLlon conLlnues Lo grow. LxlsLlng
funds lnclude Ceneral AsslsLance Þrogram granLs Lo Lrlbes, San lranclsco 8ay WaLer CuallLy
lmprovemenL lund (Sl8WCll) granLs and WeLland Þrogram uevelopmenL CranLs. CLher granL
funds LhaL could lnclude cllmaLe change adapLaLlon conslderaLlon are Lhe Clean WaLer AcL
SecLlon 319 (nonpolnL source conLrol) and SecLlon 106 (waLer quallLy monlLorlng), 8rownflelds,
and Lhe SLrong ClLles-SLrong CommunlLles (SC2).
Lncourage SLaLes Lo requlre cllmaLe change adapLaLlon conslderaLlon ln Lhelr SLaLe 8evolvlng
lund loan programs. [Work wlLh oLher 8eglons and LÞA PeadquarLers]
lmplemenL LÞA 8eglon 9's Creenlng CranLs Þollcy, encouraglng granLees Lo noL only reduce
Lhelr carbon fooLprlnL, buL also lmplemenL susLalnable measures whlch are lmporLanL Lo
successful cllmaLe change adapLaLlon (e.g., waLer and energy conservaLlon).
2. Iocus on severe vu|nerab|||t|es.

1hree severe poLenLlal lmpacLs ln LÞA 8eglon 9, relaLlve Lo LÞA's mlsslon, are:
1) decreased waLer avallablllLy due Lo droughL and loss of snow pack,
2) floodlng due Lo more exLreme weaLher evenLs and sea level rlse, and
3) degradaLlon of coral reefs due Lo ocean acldlflcaLlon and bleachlng.

ln focuslng on Lhese parLlcular vulnerablllLles, LÞA wlll conslder where lL can besL conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe work
of federal, sLaLe, Lrlbal, and local agencles, and non-governmenLal organlzaLlons. Whlle many of Lhe
speclflc acLlons LargeLlng Lhese vulnerablllLles are descrlbed ln Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 program-speclflc
secLlon, below, some of Lhe general areas of adapLaLlon we wlll pursue are descrlbed here.


u8Al1 Þage 1S of 46

a. Decreased water ava||ab|||ty due to drought and |oss of snow pack. LÞA 8eglon 9 waLer resources
are already llmlLed on Lhe malnland and on Lhe Þaclflc lslands.
ÞromoLe waLer use efflclency, conservaLlon, and recycllng.
ÞromoLe Lhe proLecLlon and resLoraLlon of weLlands and rlparlan areas ln order Lo proLecL Lhe
quallLy and quanLlLy of surface and groundwaLer supplles.
ÞromoLe Lhe use of Creen lnfrasLrucLure for more susLalnable sLormwaLer managemenL (e.g.,
reduclng polluLed runoff Lo surface waLers, provldlng flood mlLlgaLlon, enhanclng drlnklng waLer
supplles).
Work wlLh our sLaLes, Lrlbes, and local parLners Lo prepare for poLenLlal waLer shorLages.
Þrovlde waLer resource managers and uLlllLles wlLh access and Lralnlng for exlsLlng declslon-
supporL Lools, collaboraLe on new Lool developmenL and Lralnlng, and use LÞA funds and
resources Lo leverage oLher waLer resource and lnfrasLrucLure funds for cllmaLe change
adapLaLlon.

b. I|ood|ng as a resu|t of more extreme weather events and sea |eve| r|se. 1he areas of LÞA 8eglon 9
mosL suscepLlble Lo sea level rlse are Pawall, Lhe Þaclflc lsland LerrlLorles, and coasLal Callfornla -
lncludlng Lhe San lranclsco 8ay/SacramenLo-San !oaquln uelLa LsLuary (8ay uelLa LsLuary).
WlLh parLlcular focus on Lhese coasLal areas, LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll use lLs Ceographlc lnformaLlon SysLem
(ClS) mapplng capablllLles, and avallable Lools from governmenL and non-governmenL parLners, Lo
beLLer LargeL adapLaLlon acLlons. 8eglon 9 wlll conslder lmproved mapplng of hazardous wasLe slLes and
Superfund slLes Lo lllusLraLe cllmaLe change vulnerablllLles of Lhese locaLlons (e.g., sea level rlse, sLorm
evenL floodlng), especlally around vulnerable communlLles and ecosysLems. 1hls lnformaLlon can be
used Lo help prlorlLlze LÞA 8eglon 9's adapLaLlon acLlons and help our parLners prlorlLlze Lhelr own
work.

c. Degradat|on of cora| reefs due to ocean ac|d|f|cat|on and b|each|ng. CllmaLe change and relaLed
lncreased aLmospherlc carbon dloxlde levels are Lrlggerlng ocean warmlng, acldlflcaLlon, sea level rlse,
and lncreased sLorm lnLenslLy, all of whlch pose ma[or LhreaLs Lo Lhe fuLure of coral reefs.

LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll develop a coral reef sLraLegy Lo proLecL and help lncrease Lhe reslllence of
Lhese fraglle ecosysLems ln Lhe face of cllmaLe change.
LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll use Lhe Clean WaLer AcL and oLher auLhorlLles Lo lmprove proLecLlon of coral
reefs ln Pawall, Lhe u.S. LerrlLorles, and oLher u.S.-afflllaLed Þaclflc lslands, especlally by
conLrolllng land-based sources of polluLlon whlch lmpacL coral reefs.






u8Al1 Þage 16 of 46

3. Iocus on the most vu|nerab|e popu|at|ons and geograph|c areas.
a. 1r|bes. 1rlbes ln LÞA 8eglon 9 are lncreaslngly concerned abouL Lhe effecLs of a changlng cllmaLe on
Lhelr communlLles, resources and LradlLlonal culLural pracLlces. 1rlbes ln LÞA 8eglon 9 already
experlence LemperaLure exLremes and droughLs, whlch have negaLlvely affecLed Lhelr lands. Some
1rlbes are drawlng on Lhelr oral hlsLorles and Lhelr 1radlLlonal Lcologlcal knowledge (1Lk) Lo documenL
pasL and currenL condlLlons, assess changes, and plan for adapLaLlon.

LÞA values lLs unlque governmenL-Lo-governmenL relaLlonshlp wlLh lndlan Lrlbes ln plannlng and
declslon maklng. 1hls LrusL responslblllLy has been esLabllshed over Llme and ls furLher expressed ln Lhe
1984 LÞA Þollcy for Lhe AdmlnlsLraLlon of LnvlronmenLal Þrograms on lndlan 8eservaLlons and Lhe 2011
Þollcy on ConsulLaLlon and CoordlnaLlon wlLh lndlan 1rlbes. 1hese pollcles recognlze and supporL Lhe
soverelgn declslon-maklng auLhorlLy of Lrlbal governmenLs.

SupporLlng Lhe developmenL of adapLlve capaclLy among Lrlbes ls a prlorlLy for Lhe LÞA. 1rlbes are
parLlcularly vulnerable Lo Lhe lmpacLs of cllmaLe change due Lo Lhe lnLegral naLure of Lhe envlronmenL
wlLhln Lhelr LradlLlonal llfeways and culLure. 1here ls a sLrong need Lo develop adapLaLlon sLraLegles LhaL
promoLe susLalnablllLy and reduce Lhe lmpacL of cllmaLe change on lndlan Lrlbes.

LÞA engaged Lrlbes Lhrough a formal consulLaLlon process ln Lhe developmenL of Lhe Agency's CllmaLe
Change AdapLaLlon Þlan. 1rlbes ldenLlfled some of Lhe mosL presslng lssues as eroslon, LemperaLure
change, droughL and varlous changes ln access Lo and quallLy of waLer. 1rlbes recommended a number
of Lools and sLraLegles Lo address Lhese lssues, lncludlng lmprovlng access Lo daLa and lnformaLlon,
supporLlng basellne research Lo beLLer Lrack Lhe effecLs of cllmaLe change, developlng communlLy-level
educaLlon and awareness maLerlals, and provldlng flnanclal and Lechnlcal supporL. AL Lhe same Llme,
Lrlbes challenged LÞA Lo coordlnaLe cllmaLe change acLlvlLles among federal agencles so LhaL resources
are beLLer leveraged and admlnlsLraLlve burdens are reduced.

1hls Þlan ldenLlfles speclflc sLeps LhaL wlll be Laken Lo parLner wlLh Lrlbal governmenLs, on an ongolng
basls, Lo lncrease Lhelr adapLlve capaclLy and address Lhelr adapLaLlon-relaLed prlorlLles. 1hese
collaboraLlve efforLs wlll beneflL from Lhe experLlse provlded by our Lrlbal parLners and Lhe 1Lk Lhey
possess. 1Lk ls a valuable body of knowledge ln assesslng Lhe currenL and fuLure lmpacLs of cllmaLe
change and has been used by Lrlbes for mlllennla as a valuable Lool Lo adapL Lo changlng surroundlngs.
ConslsLenL wlLh Lhe prlnclples ln Lhe 1984 lndlan Þollcy, 1Lk ls vlewed as a complemenLary resource LhaL
can lnform plannlng and declslon-maklng.

neLworks and parLnershlps already ln place wlll be used Lo asslsL Lrlbes wlLh cllmaLe change lssues,
lncludlng 8eglonal 1rlbal CperaLlons CommlLLees, Lhe lnsLlLuLe for 1rlbal LnvlronmenLal Þrofesslonals
and Lhe lndlan Ceneral AsslsLance Þrogram (lCAÞ). AddlLlonally, 8eglon 9 wlll pursue effecLlve
coordlnaLlon among LÞA 8eglonal and Þrogram Cfflces, slnce cllmaLe change has many lmpacLs LhaL
Lranscend program and reglonal boundarles. 1ransparency and lnformaLlon sharlng wlll conLlnue, ln
order Lo leverage acLlvlLles already Laklng place wlLhln LÞA Cfflces and Lrlbal governmenLs.

SupporL and encourage Lhe use of Ceneral AsslsLance Þrogram (CAÞ) granLs, and oLher avallable
funds for cllmaLe change adapLaLlon, as parLlcular funds allow (e.g., educaLlon of sLaff and
members, assesslng Lhelr communlLy and envlronmenL, developlng cllmaLe change adapLaLlon
plans).

u8Al1 Þage 17 of 46

ConLlnue Lo provlde fundlng for susLalnable waLer lnfrasLrucLure on Lrlbal lands, ln coordlnaLlon
wlLh Lhe lndlan PealLh Servlce.
use Lhe 8eglonal 1rlbal CperaLlons CommlLLee as a forum for cllmaLe change adapLaLlon
lnformaLlon sharlng, Lralnlng, and capaclLy bulldlng.
Lxchange lnformaLlon wlLh Lhe naLlonal 1rlbal Sclence Councll on naLlonal Lrlbal cllmaLe change
adapLaLlon needs and dlrecLlons, as approprlaLe. [Work wlLh LÞA PeadquarLers]
CoordlnaLe wlLh oLher federal agencles who work dlrecLly wlLh Lrlbes Lo deLermlne Lhe besL way
Lo collaboraLe on cllmaLe change adapLaLlon supporL.
ConsulL wlLh Lrlbes on ma[or proposed LÞA cllmaLe change acLlons, ln accordance wlLh our
esLabllshed Lrlbal consulLaLlon pollcles.

b. Is|ands. Pawall and Lhe unlLed SLaLes Þaclflc lsland LerrlLorles of Amerlcan Samoa, CommonwealLh
of Lhe norLhern Marlana lslands (CnMl), and Cuam are among Lhe mosL vulnerable areas on Lhe planeL
for cllmaLe change lmpacLs. WlLhln decades, lL may noL be vlable Lo llve on some currenLly-populaLed
Þaclflc lslands. Sea level rlse, coasLal eroslon, exLreme droughL, an lncrease of severe sLorms, and a
reducLlon of food supply, all LhreaLen susLalnable human hablLaL on some lslands. 1he LÞA 8eglon 9
Þaclflc lslands Cfflce and Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 program offlces wlll work wlLh lsland governmenLs, and oLher
parLners, Lo address crlLlcal cllmaLe change adapLaLlon vulnerablllLles (e.g., shorLage of freshwaLer
supplles, lmpacLs Lo coasLal and marlne ecosysLems lncludlng coral reefs, and hazards assoclaLed wlLh
rlslng sea levels and sLorm evenLs lncludlng damage Lo wasLewaLer and sLormwaLer lnfrasLrucLure, crop
damage, salLwaLer lnLruslon lnLo aqulfers, and lnundaLlon of low-lylng lslands).
SupporL and encourage Lhe use of granLs Lo local envlronmenLal agencles and oLher enLlLles for
cllmaLe change adapLaLlon.
ConLlnue Lhe use of waLer and wasLewaLer consLrucLlon funds Lo supporL susLalnable waLer
lnfrasLrucLure ln Lhe Þaclflc lslands ln llghL of anLlclpaLed cllmaLe change lmpacLs.
use Lhe Lools aL LÞA's dlsposal, lncludlng fundlng, Lechnlcal asslsLance, and enforcemenL Lo
proLecL coral reefs from land-based sources of polluLlon.
lacLor cllmaLe change lmpacLs and cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo emergency preparedness and
emergency response ln Lhe Þaclflc lslands.
CoordlnaLe wlLh, and parLlclpaLe ln, local Þaclflc lsland cllmaLe change and renewable energy
worklng groups and Lask forces.
CoordlnaLe wlLh oLher federal agencles who work wlLh Lhe Þaclflc lslands on cllmaLe change
adapLaLlon.

c. Ca||forn|a Coast (|nc|ud|ng the 8ay De|ta Lstuary). 1he Callfornla coasL and Lhe 8ay uelLa LsLuary
are aL rlsk from cllmaLe change. SLorm evenLs and sea level rlse are expecLed Lo lmpacL coasLal
waLersheds, Lldal weLlands, and low-elevaLlon lnfrasLrucLure. Callfornla sLaLe and local agencles, federal
agencles, and non-governmenL organlzaLlons are already worklng LogeLher Lo begln Lo address cllmaLe
change lmpacLs. LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll conLlnue work wlLh Lhese parLners Lo deLermlne where our ablllLles
and resources can be besL applled Lo faclllLaLe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon.


u8Al1 Þage 18 of 46

8. Þrogram-Spec|f|c C||mate Change Adaptat|on Act|ons
Lach LÞA 8eglon 9 program offlce wlll conLlnue Lo work wlLh lLs counLerparL offlce aL LÞA PeadquarLers,
and wlLh oLher parLners, Lo deLermlne how Lo besL lnLegraLe key cllmaLe change acLlons lnLo currenL
work. LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll conLlnue Lo ldenLlfy new prlorlLy acLlons LhaL are crlLlcal Lo bulldlng cllmaLe
change reslllence. LxlsLlng and poLenLlal LÞA 8eglon 9 prlorlLy acLlons for cllmaLe change adapLaLlon are
ldenLlfled below. LÞA 8eglon 9 lnLends Lo conLlnue Lo pursue currenL acLlons and Lake on new prlorlLles,
as resources allow.
1. A|r Þrogram

LÞA 8eglon 9's Alr ulvlslon ls pursulng work LhaL has beneflLs for cllmaLe change adapLaLlon. lL ls
anLlclpaLed LhaL lncreased LemperaLures due Lo cllmaLe change have Lhe poLenLlal Lo lncrease Lhe
formaLlon of phoLochemlcal smog. 1hus, Alr ulvlslon wlll need Lo adapL Lo Lhls reallLy and wlll focus on
reduclng alr quallLy lmpacLs of cllmaLe change Lhrough efforLs Lo reduce nCx and oLher smog and
ÞM2.3-formlng polluLanLs. 1he LÞA 8eglon 9 Alr ulvlslon anLlclpaLes Lhe followlng acLlons ln 2013/14.
locus on reducLlon of Lropospherlc phoLo-chemlcal smog, or ozone, as cllmaLe change
ls anLlclpaLed Lo lncrease Lhe poLenLlal for ozone formaLlon.
o AsslsL oLher 8eglons and PC alr program managers Lo develop a sLraLegy, ln conLexL Lo
oLher programmaLlc prlorlLles, on how Lo lncorporaLe cllmaLe adapLaLlon lnLo alr quallLy
programs (e.g., SlÞ permlLs).
o Work wlLh Callfornla's Alr 8esources 8oard (A88) as Lhey furLher ºvlslon 2030" Lo
address lncreases ln ozone formaLlon as LemperaLures lncrease.
o Þrovlde leadershlp and admlnlsLer Clean Alr 1echnology lnlLlaLlve granLs ln SouLh CoasL
and San !oaquln valley Alr ulsLrlcLs.
o Leverage addlLlonal publlc and prlvaLe resources for zero and low-emlsslon Lechnology
deploymenL.
o Work wlLh local alr polluLlon conLrol agencles LhaL are preparlng mulLl-polluLanL clean
alr plans LhaL anLlclpaLe lncreased LemperaLures due Lo cllmaLe change (e.g., 8ay Area
Alr CuallLy ManagemenL ulsLrlcL).
o ln anLlclpaLlon of addlLlonal alr quallLy challenges, evaluaLe addlLlonal sLaff needs Lo
handle Lhe larger workload.
use C8lA-generaLed messages and local resources Lo educaLe Lhe publlc regardlng mold and
oLher lndoor alr quallLy lssues. Work wlLh local alr polluLlon conLrol agencles Lo assure
conslsLenL messaglng.
o Þubllc lnqulrles may lncrease due Lo exLreme weaLher evenLs. AddlLlonal reglonal sLaff
Llme may be needed Lo answer calls from Lhe publlc.




u8Al1 Þage 19 of 46

2. Water Þrogram
Much of Lhe work of Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 WaLer Þrogram - Lo proLecL and lmprove waLer quallLy and
enhance aquaLlc resources - also conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe reslllence of waLersheds. ln facL, many of Lhe Lools
and approaches used Loday (e.g., weLlands and floodplaln resLoraLlon, waLershed managemenL, green
lnfrasLrucLure lmplemenLaLlon, and waLer conservaLlon) wlll be even more crlLlcal under changlng
cllmaLlc condlLlons. Pence, Lhe WaLer Þrogram's prlorlLy for cllmaLe change adapLaLlon ls Lo acceleraLe
Lhese exlsLlng efforLs. We wlll focus noL only on resLorlng lmpalred waLersheds, buL also proLecLlng
hlgher quallLy waLersheds Lo lncrease Lhelr reslllence Lo cllmaLe change lmpacLs.
1he near-Lerm LÞA 8eglon 9 WaLer Þrogram prlorlLy acLlons are descrlbed below, arranged under Lhe 4
maln waLer programmaLlc elemenLs ldenLlfled ln Lhe ºNotloool wotet ltoqtom 2012 5ttoteqy. kespoose
to cllmote cbooqe" - lnfrasLrucLure, WaLersheds and WeLlands, CoasLal and Ccean WaLers, and WaLer
CuallLy.

a. Infrastructure
8each ouL Lo uLlllLles and provlde weblnars Lo lnform Lhem abouL and encourage use of CllmaLe
8eady WaLer uLlllLles (C8Wu) Lools, lncludlng Lhe CllmaLe 8eslllence LvaluaLlon and Awareness
1ool (C8LA1), vulnerablllLy assessmenLs, Lralnlng workshops, and oLher Lools.
Work wlLh Lhe sLaLes Lo supporL use of urlnklng WaLer SLaLe 8evolvlng lund (uWS8l) monles Lo
Lraln waLer uLlllLles on Amerlcan WaLer Works AssoclaLlon (AWWA's) WaLer AudlL SofLware (lf
approprlaLe permlsslon ls obLalned) Lo ldenLlfy cusLomlzed and cosL-effecLlve waLer savlngs
opporLunlLles, and conLlnue Lo promoLe use of S8l for leak deLecLlon or repalr. LÞA wlll conslder
conducLlng a weblnar(s) on Lhe AWWA sofLware as well.
Lncourage waLer uLlllLles (and oLhers, lncludlng schools) Lo become LÞA WaLerSense parLners.
Work Lhrough Lhe lnLeragency parLnershlps coordlnaLed by our SusLalnable lnfrasLrucLure
program, as well Lhe Callfornla llnanclng CoordlnaLlng CommlLLee, Lo leverage fundlng Lo
supporL susLalnable waLer lnfrasLrucLure and waLer use efflclency pro[ecLs.
Lncourage Lhe reuse of waLer Lhrough collaboraLlon wlLh sLaLe and Lrlbal governmenLs, uLlllLles
and non-governmenL parLners.
CommunlcaLe Lhe advanLages and successes of green lnfrasLrucLure Lhrough Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9
webslLe and ouLreach opporLunlLles, assemble case sLudles of uLlllLles LhaL have successfully
lmplemenLed adapLaLlon plannlng. Lncourage lmplemenLaLlon of green lnfrasLrucLure Lhrough
numerous LÞA fundlng programs, lncludlng S8l, Sl8WCll, naLlonal LsLuary Þrogram, Clean
WaLer AcL SecLlon 319 nonpolnL Source, and uS-Mexlco 8order lnfrasLrucLure.
uevelop model language for naLlonal ÞolluLanL ulscharge LllmlnaLlon SysLem (nÞuLS) permlLs Lo
requlre asseL managemenL plannlng LhaL accounLs for exlsLlng faclllLy replacemenL and
malnLenance, as well as poLenLlal upgrades needed Lo deal wlLh sea level rlse and lncreased
flood rlsk, where approprlaLe. [Work wlLh LÞA PeadquarLers]
ÞromoLe susLalnable asseL managemenL Lhrough enforcemenL orders and consenL decrees, as
approprlaLe.

u8Al1 Þage 20 of 46


b. Watersheds and Wet|ands
Lnhance LÞA 8eglon 9's efforLs Lo resLore lmpalred waLers and lmprove aquaLlc ecosysLems, ln
order Lo lncrease waLershed reslllence Lo cllmaLe change. AcLlons lnclude LargeLed pro[ecL
lmplemenLaLlon ln prlorlLy waLersheds, based on 1oLal Maxlmum ually Load (1MuL)
deLermlnaLlons and waLershed plans, and collaboraLlon ln Lhese waLersheds wlLh federal, sLaLe,
LerrlLory, Lrlbal and local agency parLners Lo leverage addlLlonal resources and experLlse Lo
achleve meanlngful resulLs.
Work wlLh Lhe SLaLe of Callfornla and Lhe Callfornla WaLer CuallLy MonlLorlng Councll Lo ldenLlfy
healLhy waLersheds Lhrough an lnLegraLed assessmenL, and Lo supporL Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
Callfornla's PealLhy SLreams ÞarLnershlp (reporL expecLed ln uecember, 2013).
ConLlnue Lo dellver ouLreach on Lhe CllmaLe Change Pandbook (LÞA's efforL wlLh CuW8 and
CCL for lnLegraLed 8eglonal WaLer ManagemenL Þlannlng) Lo asslsL waLer planners ln
lnLegraLlng cllmaLe change conslderaLlons lnLo Lhelr waLer resource plans, parLlcularly ouLslde
Callfornla.
uevelop model language for commenLlng on Clean WaLer AcL SecLlon 404 permlLs (lmpacLs Lo
weLlands) Lo requesL LhaL pro[ecL alLernaLlves conslder sea level rlse and flood rlsk, as well as
decreaslng sLressors on weLlands (and oLher waLers of Lhe uS) senslLlve Lo cllmaLe change (e.g.,
coral reefs, alplne fens). uevelop model cllmaLe change adapLaLlon language for SecLlon 404
permlL-relaLed weLland mlLlgaLlon banks. lncorporaLe green lnfrasLrucLure provlslons, for
managemenL and use of runoff, lnLo approprlaLe weLland permlLs and CWA SecLlon 401
cerLlflcaLlons for waLer quallLy. [Work wlLh LÞA PeadquarLers]
lncorporaLe Lhe conslderaLlon of cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo waLershed-relaLed LÞA granL
requesLs for proposal (8lÞs) and oLher fundlng mechanlsms. Lncourage, or requlre, appllcanLs
Lo proLecL and resLore aquaLlc landscapes Lo make exlsLlng communlLles more cllmaLe-ready
(e.g., more robusL rlparlan hablLaL and weLlands, more groundwaLer recharge areas, less runoff
of polluLlon dlrecLly lnLo waLer ways).
Lncourage sLaLes and Lrlbes Lo conducL waLer quallLy monlLorlng under Clean WaLer AcL secLlon
106, Lo gaLher waLer quallLy lnformaLlon LhaL can also be used Lo Lrack poLenLlal changes Lo
waLer quallLy from cllmaLe change.
lor Lhe San lranclsco 8ay, seek opporLunlLles Lo supporL and work wlLh cllmaLe change
adapLaLlon efforLs underway, Lhrough our parLlclpaLlon on Lhe 8ay ConservaLlon and
uevelopmenL Commlsslon, Lhe PablLaL Coals Þro[ecL, and oLher San lranclsco 8ay lorums.
CollaboraLe wlLh nongovernmenL parLners and key agencles [l.e., Callfornla ueparLmenL of
WaLer 8esources (CuW8), uS 8ureau of 8eclamaLlon (uS88), Lhe uS Army Corps of Lnglneers
(ACCL), and Lhe uS naLural 8esource ConservaLlon Servlce (n8CS)] Lo lmplemenL Lhe CenLral
valley llood ÞroLecLlon Þlan, by:
- seLLlng back levees Lo reconnecL creeks and rlvers wlLh floodplalns (Lhereby lncreaslng capaclLy
for flood reLenLlon and groundwaLer recharge),
- resLorlng rlparlan foresL Lo Lhe floodplalns Lo recover flsh and wlldllfe populaLlons and lmprove
waLer quallLy, and

u8Al1 Þage 21 of 46

- provldlng landowners wlLh lncenLlves for levee seLbacks and revenue for resulLlng ecosysLem
servlces, ln collaboraLlon wlLh Lhe agrlculLural communlLy.

c. Coasta| and Ccean Waters
Work wlLh Lhe Lhree LÞA 8eglon 9 naLlonal LsLuary Þrograms (San lranclsco LsLuary
ÞarLnershlp, Morro 8ay LsLuary Þrogram and SanLa Monlca 8ay ÞarLnershlp) Lo faclllLaLe sharlng
of cllmaLe change lnformaLlon and Lools, lncludlng Lhose developed under Lhe CllmaLe 8eady
LsLuarles Þrogram (e.g., Lechnlcal guldance, LoolklLs, reporLs, and sLudles).
ConLlnue approprlaLe lnvolvemenL ln Lhe WesL CoasL Covernor's Alllance on Ccean PealLh.
ConLlnue parLlclpaLlon ln updaLlng Lhe San lranclsco 8ay WeLlands Coals 8eporL, whlch wlll
lncorporaLe an lmproved undersLandlng of Lhe lmpacL of cllmaLe change on bay hablLaLs.
Lngage ln oLher cllmaLe change adapLaLlon efforLs wlLh parLners ln Lhe 8ay uelLa LsLuary, as
approprlaLe.
uevelop and lmplemenL key elemenLs of Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 Coral 8eef SLraLegy Lo reduce local
sLress on coral reefs sysLems (l.e., land-based polluLlon from polnL and non-polnL sources) whlch
compounds Lhe vulnerablllLy of coral reefs Lo ocean acldlflcaLlon and rlslng sea-surface
LemperaLures. use avallable LÞA resources Lo ldenLlfy effecLlve adapLaLlon meLhods and reduce
local sLress on coral reefs, and faclllLaLe lnformaLlon exchange wlLh our parLners.
Þaclflc lslands Cfflce and WaLer ulvlslon wlll coordlnaLe wlLh Lhe Þaclflc lslands, sLaLe, LerrlLory
and local agencles, oLher federal agency offlces, and oLher parLners Lo ldenLlfy Lhe mosL crlLlcal
vulnerablllLles. LÞA 8eglon 9 wlll conLlnue Lo Lake lnLo conslderaLlon Lhe dlfferences among
lndlvldual lslands. Lncourage Lhe use of LÞA funds Lo leverage caplLal funds for lnfrasLrucLure
lmprovemenLs, and conducL ouLreach and Lralnlng for Þaclflc lsland sLaff and oLher sLakeholders
abouL Laklng cllmaLe change lnLo conslderaLlon and bulldlng reslllence. CurrenL prlorlLles
lnclude long-Lerm proLecLlon of drlnklng waLer supplles and lmprovlng wasLewaLer
managemenL.

d. Water Çua||ty
Lnsure LhaL nÞuLS sLormwaLer permlLs conslder cllmaLe change lmpacLs and requlre Lhe use of
sLormwaLer reLenLlon and lnfllLraLlon approaches (and oLher approprlaLe green lnfrasLrucLure
provlslons) for new developmenL and redevelopmenL.
Share lnformaLlon wlLh oLher sLaLes, Lrlbes, and LÞA reglons abouL Callfornla's laws and pollcles
whlch encourage and seL goals for waLer recycllng. 1hls could lnclude lndlrecL poLable waLer
reuse, gray waLer reuse, and ralnwaLer harvesLlng.
ConslsLenL wlLh Lhe 8ay uelLa AcLlon Þlan:
- CollaboraLe wlLh Lhe Callfornla SLaLe WaLer 8esources ConLrol 8oard Lo seL waLer quallLy
sLandards LhaL facLor ln expecLed changes ln preclplLaLlon and snowpack.





u8Al1 Þage 22 of 46

3. Nat|ona| Lnv|ronmenta| Þo||cy Act kev|ew Þrogram.
LÞA 8eglon 9 drafLed a naLlonal LnvlronmenLal Þollcy Þro[ecL 8evlew - 8esL ÞracLlces Culde (for lnLernal
LÞA 8eglon 9 use) for revlewlng and commenLlng on LÞA and oLher federal agency nLÞA documenLs.
1he gulde wlll help sLaff ensure LhaL cllmaLe change-relaLed envlronmenLal effecLs of federal pro[ecLs
have been fully analyzed.

4. Þest|c|des Þrogram.

1he LÞA 8eglon 9 ÞesLlcldes Cfflce wlll provlde lnformaLlon speclflc Lo LÞA 8eglon 9 Lo Lhe naLlonal
program offlce for pesLlclde reglsLraLlons and reglsLraLlon revlews, and wlll help Lo ensure LhaL cllmaLe
change lmpacLs ln LÞA 8eglon 9 are Laken lnLo accounL. 1he ÞesLlcldes Cfflce wlll ldenLlfy how lL wlll
besL lncorporaLe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo lLs program operaLlons. 1he reglonal program wlll also
deLermlne how Lo besL work wlLh parLners and sLakeholders (e.g., sLaLe, Lrlbe and Þaclflc lsland
regulaLory parLners, pesLlclde appllcaLors, growers, farmworkers, eLc.) Lo help Lhem beLLer prepare Lo
adapL Lo cllmaLe change and Lo lncorporaLe susLalnable pesL conLrol pracLlces as condlLlons and specles
shlfL. uependlng on Lhe avallablllLy of sufflclenL fundlng and resources, Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 ÞesLlcldes
Cfflce proposes Lo lncorporaLe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo lLs program as follows:
ÞesLlclde 8egulaLlon
Þrovlde relevanL cllmaLe-relaLed lnformaLlon Lo LÞA PeadquarLers Cfflce of ÞesLlcldes Þrograms
for pesLlclde reglsLraLlon revlews,
AsslsL sLaLe, Lrlbe and Þaclflc lsland parLners wlLh respondlng Lo poLenLlal lncreased need for
compllance monlLorlng Lo ensure LhaL cllmaLe change lmpacLs do noL resulL ln pesLlclde mlsuse,
noLe LhaL LÞA PeadquarLers Cfflce of ÞesLlclde Þrograms wlll:
o respond Lo lncreased requesLs for emergency exempLlons for unreglsLered pesLlcldes,
speclal need reglsLraLlons from sLaLe and local governmenLs, as well as requesLs Lo
approve addlLlonal or new uses of reglsLered producLs,
o revlse pesLlclde rlsk assessmenLs Lo accounL for anLlclpaLed LemperaLure and
preclplLaLlon changes,
o respond (Lhrough changes ln reglsLraLlon) Lo changes ln quanLlLy, amounL, classlflcaLlon,
and formulaLlon of pesLlcldes LhaL may be needed Lo combaL pesLs ln response Lo
changes ln lmpacLs Lo crops and humans, as approprlaLe.

ÞesLlclde CuLreach and LducaLlon
Work wlLh sLaLe, Lrlbe, and Þaclflc lsland parLners Lo provlde Lralnlng and resources Lo, e.g.,
Lhe unlverslLy of Callfornla lÞM Þrogram, pesLlclde appllcaLors, growers, schools, and Lhe
general publlc on lnLegraLed ÞesL ManagemenL and oLher susLalnable pracLlces, as
requesLed, for agrlculLural and non-agrlculLural pesL conLrol,
Work wlLh approprlaLe sLakeholders (e.g., regulaLory parLners, agrlculLure) Lo deLermlne
whlch specles Lo manage wlLh pesLlcldes and whlch Lo noL manage, as specles shlfL ln
response Lo cllmaLe change. [Work wlLh LÞA PeadquarLers]



u8Al1 Þage 23 of 46

S. Waste Þrogram:

1he LÞA 8eglon 9 WasLe Þrogram wlll evaluaLe how Lo lncorporaLe cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo lLs
exlsLlng acLlvlLles, and examlne where lL may be mosL lmporLanL Lo conslder cllmaLe change adapLaLlon.
1he program wlll conslder lmproved mapplng of hazardous wasLe slLes LhaL accounLs for cllmaLe change
vulnerablllLles (e.g., sea level rlse, sLorm evenL floodlng, lncreased wlldflre rlsk, hlgh heaL evenLs, and
droughLs), especlally around vulnerable communlLles and ecosysLems. Any effecLlve declslon-supporL
Lools ldenLlfled wlll be shared wlLh sLaLes, LerrlLorles, Lrlbes, and oLher LÞA reglons and PeadquarLers
Þrogram Cfflces.

6. Superfund Þrogram:

1he 8eglon 9 Superfund Þrogram wlll conLlnue Lo ldenLlfy opporLunlLles Lo conslder cllmaLe change
adapLaLlon ln our remedlal declslon-maklng, and ln Lhe deslgn, operaLlon and effecLlveness evaluaLlon of
our remedles. An lmporLanL parL of Lhls efforL wlll be conLlnulng sLaff educaLlon on Lhe effecLs of a
changlng cllmaLe on Lhe envlronmenL and on effecLlve means of accounLlng for Lhls change ln our
declslon-maklng and long Lerm plannlng (removal and remedlal cleanups, 8L-Þowerlng Amerlca,
8rownflelds granLs, 8eglonal SupporL Corps emergency response).

1he 8eglon 9 Superfund Þrogram wlll conslder lmproved mapplng of Superfund slLes LhaL accounLs for
cllmaLe change vulnerablllLles (e.g. sea level rlse, sLorm evenL floodlng, lncreased wlldflre rlsk, hlgh heaL
evenLs and droughLs), especlally around vulnerable communlLles and ecosysLems. 1he program wlll also
conslder opporLunlLles Lo share effecLlve declslon-supporL Lools wlLh oLher LÞA reglons and
PeadquarLers Þrogram Cfflces. CllmaLe change may lead Lo cllmaLe-relaLed evenLs LhaL resulL ln an
lncreased need for emergency response supporL. ConsequenLly, Lhe LÞA 8eglon 9 Superfund Þrogram
wlll conLlnue Lo focus on provldlng sufflclenL sLafflng for emergency response, lncludlng supporL from
Lhe LÞA 89 8esponse SupporL Corps.


u8Al1 Þage 24 of 46

E@ I)<BA.685 <8> 3J<;A<+685 4).D7.,<8C)

A crlLlcal elemenL of our cllmaLe change adapLaLlon sLraLegy ls Lhe measuremenL and evaluaLlon of our
reglonal efforLs. We wlll evaluaLe our cllmaLe change adapLaLlon acLlons on an ongolng basls Lo assess
our progress Loward malnsLreamlng cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo Lhe 8eglon's programs, pollcles,
rules, and operaLlons. LvaluaLlng progress of our adapLaLlon acLlons ls parLlcularly lmporLanL because so
much of whaL we are dolng wlLh cllmaLe change adapLaLlon ls new and Lhere wlll be a loL of ºlearnlng by
dolng." 8ased on Lhe lessons we learn, and lessons drawn from Lhe efforLs of our naLlonal programs,
reglonal counLerparLs, and oLher key parLners and sLakeholders, we can make ad[usLmenLs Lo Lhe way
adapLaLlon ls lnLegraLed lnLo our acLlvlLles.

1he 8eglon wlll conducL an annual evaluaLlon of our progress and performance under Lhls
lmplemenLaLlon plan, wlLh a parLlcular focus on Lhe prlorlLy acLlons ln SecLlon lv. 1he lnlLlal focus of our
evaluaLlon wlll be a narraLlve assessmenL of our successes and accompllshmenLs, whaL efforLs and
sLraLegles are worklng well - and why - as well as an ldenLlflcaLlon of Lhose acLlvlLles LhaL are noL
provlng successful, Lhe reasons, and any recommendaLlons for new or dlfferenL approaches LhaL would
yleld beLLer resulLs and ouLcomes. 1hls Lype of evaluaLlon wlll besL allow Lhe 8eglon Lo hlghllghL our
progress, and learn from our efforLs ln order Lo conLlnually lmprove Lhe effecLlveness of our cllmaLe
change adapLaLlon malnsLreamlng efforLs.

AlLhough Lhe 8eglon ls noL ldenLlfylng any speclflc ºperformance measures" for our cllmaLe change
adapLaLlon work aL Lhls Llme, we anLlclpaLe LhaL such measures could be developed ln fuLure years as
we more fully lnLegraLe cllmaLe change efforLs lnLo our reglonal programs. ln addlLlon, Lhe 8eglon wlll
conLlnue Lo coordlnaLe wlLh our PeadquarLers counLerparLs Lo provlde lnpuL for Lhe exlsLlng Agency-
wlde sLraLeglc performance measures from Lhe l? 2011-2013 LÞA SLraLeglc Þlan, as well as any annual
performance measures belng esLabllshed by Lhe naLlonal program managers. 1hese naLlonal measures,
whlch focus on lnLegraLlng cllmaLe change adapLaLlon lnLo Lhe Agency's rulemaklng processes,
dlsLrlbuLlon of flnanclal and Lechnlcal resources, and developmenL of lnformaLlon Lools, represenL a
framework wlLhln whlch we anLlclpaLe developlng fuLure performance measures for our reglonal cllmaLe
change adapLaLlon malnsLreamlng efforLs.

________________________
&77+87+)B

1
unlLed SLaLes LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency, Þollcy SLaLemenL. (!une 2, 2011). lollcy 5totemeot oo
cllmote cbooqe AJoptotloo. hLLp://www.epa.gov/cllmaLechange/uownloads/lmpacLs-
adapLaLlon/adapLaLlon-sLaLemenL.pdf

2
unlLed SLaLes LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency. (lebtooty 8, 201J). urafL cllmote cbooqe AJoptotloo
lloo. hLLp://www.epa.gov/cllmaLechange/pdfs/LÞA-cllmaLe-change-adapLaLlon-plan-flnal-for-publlc-
commenL-2-7-13.pdf

u8Al1 Þage 2S of 46



3
unlLed SLaLes Clobal Change 8esearch Þrogram (2009). Clobol cllmote cbooqe lmpocts lo tbe uolteJ
5totes . karl, 1.8., !.M. Mellllo, and 1.C. ÞeLerson (eds.). unlLed SLaLes Clobal Change 8esearch Þrogram.
Cambrldge unlverslLy Þress, new ?ork, n?, uSA. hLLp://globalchange.gov/whaL-we-
do/assessmenL/prevlous-assessmenLs/global-cllmaLe-change-lmpacLs-ln-Lhe-us-2009
4
unlLed SLaLes LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency. (2009). loteqtoteJ 5cleoce Assessmeot fot lottlcolote
Mottet. llool kepott. hLLp://www.epa.gov/LLn/naaqs/sLandards/pm/s_pm_2007_lsa.hLml
S
keener, v. W., Marra, !.!., llnucane, M. L., Spooner, u., & SmlLh, M. P. (Lds.). (2012). cllmote
cbooqe ooJ loclflc lslooJs. loJlcotots ooJ lmpocts. kepott fot tbe 2012 loclflc lslooJs keqloool cllmote
Assessmeot (Þl8CA). WashlngLon, uC: lsland Þress. hLLp://www.paclflcrlsa.org/pro[ecLs/plrca/

6
unlLed SLaLes LnvlronmenLal ÞroLecLlon Agency. (2012). Notloool wotet ltoqtom 2012 5ttoteqy.
kespoose to cllmote cbooqe. hLLp://www.epa.gov/waLer/cllmaLechange

7
!ackson, S. (2006). vegeLaLlon, envlronmenL, and Llme: Lhe orlglnaLlon and LermlnaLlon of ecosysLems.
!ournal of vegeLaLlon Sclence 17:349-337. Avallable aL hLLp://www.bloone.org/dol/abs/10.1638/1100-
9233(2006)17°38349:vLA110°3u2.0.CC°382

8
lleLcher, C. (2010). Pawal'l's Changlng CllmaLe. 8rleflng SheeL.
hLLp://lcap.seagranL.soesL.hawall.edu/slLes/seagranL.soesL.hawall.edu/flles/publlcaLlons/CllmaLe8rlefln
g__web.pdf

9
Þarry, M.L., C.l. Canzlanl, !.Þ. ÞaluLlkof, Þ.!. van der Llnden and C.L. Panson (eds.). (2007). ConLrlbuLlon
of Worklng Croup ll Lo Lhe lourLh AssessmenL 8eporL of Lhe lnLergovernmenLal Þanel on CllmaLe
Change, 2007. ºcllmote cbooqe 2007. wotkloq Ctoop ll. lmpocts, AJoptotloo ooJ voloetoblllty."
Cambrldge unlverslLy Þress, Cambrldge, unlLed klngdom and new ?ork, n?, uSA, 2007.

10
CuLLer, S.L. and C. llnch. (2008). º1emporal and spaLlal changes ln soclal vulnerablllLy Lo naLural
hazards." ltoceeJloqs of tbe Notloool AcoJemy of 5cleoces 103(7): 2301-2306.

11
Solomon, S., C-k ÞlaLLner, 8. knuLLl, and Þ. lrledllngsLeln. (2009). lrreverslble cllmaLe change due Lo
carbon dloxlde emlsslons. ltoceeJloqs of tbe Notloool AcoJemy of 5cleoces, 106(6): 1,704-1,709. uCl:
10.1073/pnas.0812721106, !ohanson, C.M., and C. lu, 2009: Padley Cell Wldenlng: Model SlmulaLlons
versus CbservaLlons. !ournal of CllmaLe, 22:2,713-2,723.

12
Seager, 8., eL al. (2007). Model Þro[ecLlons of an lmmlnenL 1ranslLlon Lo a More Arld CllmaLe ln
SouLhwesLern norLh Amerlca. 5cleoce, 316: 1,181-1,184.





u8Al1 Þage 26 of 46

%**)8>6K %L :=<;;)85)B +=<+ :;6,<+) :=<85) 47B)B +7
34% $)5678 9 4.75.<, 3DD)C+6J)8)BB

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
y
p
e

o
f


C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

d

L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

o
f

C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

Þ
r
o
g
r
a
m

w
|
|
|

b
e

A
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

b
y

I
m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
C
o
a
l

1
:


1
a
k
l
n
g

A
c
L
l
o
n

o
n

C
l
l
m
a
L
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

a
n
d

l
m
p
r
o
v
l
n
g

A
l
r

C
u
a
l
l
L
y

lncreased
Lropospherlc
ozone
polluLlon ln
cerLaln
reglons

Llkely
1
ÞroLecLlng publlc
healLh and Lhe
envlronmenL by
approvlng
sLaLe
programs
Lo meeL
Lhe
naLlonal
AmblenL
Alr CuallLy
SLandards
(nAACS),
and
lmplemen
Llng
programs
ln lndlan
CounLry.
Plgh Could become more dlfflculL Lo
aLLaln nAACS for ozone ln many
areas wlLh exlsLlng ozone
problems.

u8Al1 Þage 27 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
y
p
e

o
f


C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

d

L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

o
f

C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

Þ
r
o
g
r
a
m

w
|
|
|

b
e

A
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

b
y

I
m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres
Llkely
2
ÞroLecLlng publlc
healLh and Lhe
envlronmenL by
approvlng
sLaLe
programs
Lo meeL
Lhe
naLlonal
AmblenL
Alr CuallLy
SLandards
(nAACS),
and
lmplemen
Llng
programs
ln lndlan
CounLry.
Plgh Could compllcaLe Agency efforLs
Lo proLecL publlc healLh and Lhe
envlronmenL from rlsks posed by
parLlculaLe maLLer (ÞM) polluLlon
ln areas affecLed by more
frequenL wlldflres.
lncreaslng
exLreme
LemperaLures
lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs

very
Llkely
3



Llkely
3,6





ÞroLecL publlc
healLh by
promoLlng
healLhy lndoor
envlronmenLs
Lhrough
volunLary
programs and
guldance.
Med. Could lncrease publlc healLh rlsks
ln lndoor envlronmenLs, lncludlng
rlsks for Lhe young, Lhe elderly,
Lhe chronlcally lll, and
socloeconomlcally dlsadvanLaged
populaLlons.

u8Al1 Þage 28 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
y
p
e

o
f


C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

d

L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

o
f

C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

Þ
r
o
g
r
a
m

w
|
|
|

b
e

A
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

b
y

I
m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
LffecLs on Lhe
sLraLospherlc
ozone layer
Llkely
4
8esLorlng Lhe
sLraLospherlc
ozone layer,
ÞrevenLlng uv-
relaLed dlsease,
and
Þrovldlng a
smooLh
LranslLlon Lo
safer energy
alLernaLlves.
Low unable Lo resLore ozone
concenLraLlons Lo benchmark
levels as qulckly, aL some
laLlLudes.


LffecLs on
response of
ecosysLems
Lo
aLmospherlc
deposlLlon of
sulfur,
nlLrogen, and
mercury.

Llkely
3
Agency
emlsslons
reducLlon
programs
provlde some
ecosysLem
proLecLlon.
Low Could have consequences for Lhe
effecLlveness of ecosysLem
proLecLlons under cerLaln
programs.


u8Al1 Þage 29 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
y
p
e

o
f


C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

d

L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

o
f

C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

Þ
r
o
g
r
a
m

w
|
|
|

b
e

A
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

b
y

I
m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted

lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
lncreaslng
lnLenslLy of
hurrlcanes
and Lyphoons
uecreaslng
preclplLaLlon
days and
lncreaslng
droughL
lnLenslLy
Sea-level rlse
Ccean
acldlflcaLlon



(conLlnued
below)
Llkely
3,6



Llkely
3




Llkely
6




very
llkely
7

CerLaln
8


8esLorlng and
proLecLlng
waLersheds,
aquaLlc
ecosysLems and
weLlands.

(conLlnued
below)
Plgh lncreased heavy preclplLaLlon and
sLorm evenLs lncrease number of
sewer overflows and wasLewaLer
bypasses, lncreased coasLal and
lnland eroslon, as well as
lncreased polluLanL loads ln
runoff, and may comblne Lo
damage waLerway channels,
coasLllnes and lnfrasLrucLure,
decrease waLer quallLy, and
LhreaLen publlc healLh.
Sea level rlse would flood coasLal
weLlands and ellmlnaLe Lhem lf
Lhey cannoL mlgraLe up slope and
lnland.
Ccean acldlflcaLlon wlll lncrease
sLress on shellflsherles and
conLlnued sLress on coral reefs.



(conLlnued below)

u8Al1 Þage 30 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
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f


C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

d

L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

o
f

C
|
|
m
a
t
e

C
h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

Þ
r
o
g
r
a
m

w
|
|
|

b
e

A
f
f
e
c
t
e
d

b
y

I
m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
C
o
a
l

2
:


Þ
r
o
L
e
c
L
l
n
g

A
m
e
r
l
c
a
'
s

W
a
L
e
r
s

lncreased
waLer
LemperaLures
Larller Llmlng
of sprlng
snowmelL
evenLs
8educLlon ln
snowpack
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres

very
Llkely
9


very
Llkely
10



very
llkely
11

Llkely
2


(ConLlnued)
8esLorlng and
proLecLlng
waLersheds,
aquaLlc
ecosysLems and
weLlands.
Plgh lncreased sLresses Lo waLer bodles
and waLer quallLy would make lL
more challenglng Lo proLecL and
resLore Lhe chemlcal, blologlcal,
and physlcal lnLegrlLy of WaLers of
Lhe u.S, and waLer quallLy
sLandards.
SnowmelL runoff shlfL Lo earller ln
Lhe sprlng, could resulL ln
lncreased floods ln sprlng and
reduced sLream flow laLer ln
summer, alLerlng aquaLlc
envlronmenLs and lncreaslng
lmpalrmenLs.
Ceographlc shlfLs ln aquaLlc
hablLaL and specles may LhreaLen
waLer quallLy and Lhe economlc
and culLural pracLlces of Lrlbal,
and oLher lndlgenous,
communlLles.
lncreased LemperaLures, droughL,
wlldflres, and lnvaslve specles may
acceleraLe landscape change and
make cerLaln aquaLlc ecosysLems
(e.g., mounLaln weL meadows,
vernal pools, deserL sprlngs, and
playa lakes) more vulnerable Lo
loss.

u8Al1 Þage 31 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

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k
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b
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m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
lncreaslng
lnLenslLy of
hurrlcanes
and Lyphoons
Sea-level rlse

lncreaslng
flood rlsk
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres
Larller Llmlng
of sprlng
snowmelL
evenLs
uecreaslng
preclplLaLlon
days and
lncreaslng
droughL
lnLenslLy
Llkely
3,6




Llkely
3




very
llkely
7

Llkely
6


Llkely
2




very
Llkely
10



Llkely
6




urlnklng waLer,
wasLewaLer and
sLormwaLer
lnfrasLrucLure
Plgh lncrease ln lnland preclplLaLlon ,
sLorm lnLenslLy and snowmelL
floodlng could overwhelm or
damage waLer lnfrasLrucLure (l.e.,
lnLakes, ouLfalls, LreaLmenL planLs,
and assoclaLed plpes and pumps)
resulLlng ln an lncrease ln
paLhogens and an lncreased
lncldence of waLerborne dlseases
Sea level rlse ln comblnaLlon wlLh
lnLenslfylng coasLal sLorms and
floodlng would lmpacL coasLal and
Llde-waLer lnfrasLrucLure, whlch
could resulL ln an lncrease ln
paLhogens, an lncreased lncldence
of waLerborne dlseases, and
reduced access Lo freshwaLer
ln addlLlon Lo earLhquake
response plans and oLher hazard
response plans, drlnklng waLer
and wasLewaLer uLlllLles wlll need
Lo conslder exLreme weaLher,
wlldflre, and sea level evenLs ln
Lhelr emergency response plans,
as approprlaLe (an ºall hazards"
approach)
Þroblems of safeLy as well as
access Lo clean and safe drlnklng
waLer wlll be exacerbaLed for
vulnerable and economlcally
deprlved communlLles.

u8Al1 Þage 32 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
y
p
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f


C
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a
t
e

C
h
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e

I
m
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c
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d

L
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e
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|
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o
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f

C
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m
a
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h
a
n
g
e

I
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p
a
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t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
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h
o
o
d

k
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g
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o
n

9

Þ
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g
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w
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|

b
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A
f
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d

b
y

I
m
p
a
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t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
lncreased
waLer
LemperaLures
lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
uecreaslng
preclplLaLlon
days and
lncreaslng
droughL
lnLenslLy
8educLlon ln
snowpack
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres
Larller Llmlng
of sprlng
snowmelL
evenLs
Sea Level 8lse
very
llkely
8


Llkely
3




Llkely
6






very
llkely
10

Llkely
2




very
Llkely
10



very
Llkely
7

1he quallLy and
avallablllLy of
safe drlnklng
waLer
Plgh Plgh waLer LemperaLures and
lncreased sLorm-waLer runoff may
lncrease Lhe need for drlnklng
waLer LreaLmenL, ralslng drlnklng
waLer sysLem cosLs and cosLs for
cusLomers.
uecrease ln preclplLaLlon or
changes ln preclplLaLlon seasons
could lmpacL waLer avallablllLy,
forclng communlLles Lo seek
alLernaLlve sources.
Changes ln preclplLaLlon or an
lncreased need for waLer supplles
may lncrease pressure Lo use
oLher waLer supplles (e.g., surface
reservolrs, or naLurally occurrlng
or ln[ecLed groundwaLer requlrlng
LÞA Lo ensure safeLy.
Þroblems of access Lo clean and
safe drlnklng waLer wlll be
exacerbaLed for vulnerable and
economlcally deprlved
communlLles.
Sea Level 8lse could lead Lo salL
waLer lnundaLlon or lnLruslon lnLo
coasLal freshwaLer groundwaLer
sources.

u8Al1 Þage 33 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

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p
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d

L
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h
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d

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C
|
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m
a
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e

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h
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e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
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h
o
o
d

k
e
g
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o
n

9

Þ
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|

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p
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t

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Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
C
o
a
l

3
:


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l
e
a
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l
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g

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s

C
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&

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L
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l
e

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e
v
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l
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p
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e
n
L

lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
lncreaslng
rlsk of floods
Sea level rlse

Changes ln
LemperaLure
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres
Llkely
3,6




Llkely
6


very
llkely
7

very
llkely
3

Llkely
2

Cleanlng up
ConLamlnaLed
SlLes and WasLe
ManagemenL
Med. lncreaslngly frequenL or lnLense
lnland and coasLal floodlng, as
well as lncreaslngly frequenL or
lnLense wlldflres, could lncrease
Lhe rlsk of conLamlnanL releases
from LÞA hazardous wasLe slLes
LÞA may need Lo alLer selecLed
remedles Lo ensure proLecLlon.


lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
lncreaslng
lnLenslLy of
hurrlcanes
and Lyphoons
lncreaslng
rlsk of floods
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres
Llkely
3,6




Llkely
3




Llkely
6


Llkely
2



Lmergency
8esponse
Plgh
for
lslands
and
Med.
for
maln-
land.
lncrease ln frequency and/or
lnLenslLy of coasLal and lnland
flood evenLs, sLorm evenLs and
wlldflres could lncrease Lhe rlsk of
conLamlnanL releases from
regulaLed slLes and non-regulaLed
slLes, whlch would lncrease Lhe
need for emergency response.
A rapld lncrease ln level and
frequency of emergency evenLs
could overwhelm LÞA's
emergency response resources
and llmlL our ablllLy Lo respond
qulckly and effecLlvely, whlch
could resulL ln more rlsk Lo
communlLles and Lhe
envlronmenL.


u8Al1 Þage 34 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
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Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
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k
e
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k
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Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
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C
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a
l

4
:



L
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s
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a
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&

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l
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Þ
o
l
l
u
L
l
o
n

uecreaslng
preclplLaLlon
days and
lncreaslng
droughL
lnLenslLy
lncreaslng
exLreme
LemperaLures
lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
Larller Llmlng
of sprlng
evenLs
lncrease ln,
and a
changlng mlx
of, pesLs*
(* lncludes
weeds, lnsecLs,
molds, fungl,
and dlseases)

Llkely
6






very
llkely
3



Llkely
3,6



very
llkely
10

very
llkely
12


ÞroLecLlng
human healLh
and ecosysLems
from chemlcal
rlsks
Med. Changes ln planLlng Llmlng or
locaLlon may affecL Lhe volume
and Llmlng of agrlculLural chemlcal
use, whlch could lmpacL waLer
quallLy and pesLlclde exposures Lo
people and Lhe envlronmenL.
Many weeds, dlseases, and lnsecL
pesLs would beneflL from
warmlng, and many weeds would
also beneflL from a hlgher carbon
dloxlde concenLraLlon, lncreaslng
sLress on crop planLs and requlrlng
more aLLenLlon Lo pesL and weed
conLrol.
Lmergency exempLlons for
unreglsLered pesLlcldes,
sLaLe/local speclal need
reglsLraLlons, as well as requesLs
Lo approve addlLlonal or new end
uses of reglsLered producLs, may
lncrease.

u8Al1 Þage 3S of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

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e

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L
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|
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C
|
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h
a
n
g
e

I
m
p
a
c
t

e

Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

Þ
r
o
g
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a
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|

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d

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p
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c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
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C
o
a
l

3
:


L
n
f
o
r
c
l
n
g

L
n
v
l
r
o
n
m
e
n
L
a
l

L
a
w
s

Larller Llmlng
of sprlng
evenLs
lncreaslng
rlsk of floods
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflres
lncreaslng
heavy
preclplLaLlon
evenLs
lncreased
waLer
LemperaLures
very
Llkely
10

Llkely
6


Llkely
2




Llkely
3,6




very
llkely
7


ConducLlng
envlronmenLal
sampllng of
waLer, alr and
solls and of
maLerlals Lo
deLermlne
exposure and
rlsk
Med. lncrease ln frequency and/or
lnLenslLy of coasLal and lnland
flood evenLs, sLorm evenLs and
wlldflres, as well as sea level rlse,
may requlre a change ln sampllng
meLhods and sLraLegles for LÞA
and lLs parLners.
lncrease ln frequency or lnLenslLy
of flood evenLs, sLorm evenLs and
wlldflres, as well as sea level rlse
may lmpacL LÞA's and parLners'
long-Lerm sampllng locaLlons,
whlch may requlre LÞA and
parLners Lo seL up new sampllng
slLes and analyze daLa from
dlfferenL slLes over Lhe long Lerm.
l
a
c
l
l
l
L
l
e
s

a
n
d

C
p
e
r
a
L
l
o
n
s

uecreaslng
preclplLaLlon
days and
lncreaslng
droughL
lnLenslLy
lncreaslng
exLreme
LemperaLures
Llkely
6






very
llkely
3


WaLer and
energy usage aL
LÞA faclllLles
Low 8eglon 9 faclllLles are ln areas LhaL
could experlence waLer shorLages,
requlrlng even more waLer
conservaLlon.
8eglon 9 faclllLles are ln locaLlons
LhaL could experlence exLreme
heaL evenLs, requlrlng even more
energy conservaLlon, and ln cases
of resulLlng reglon-wlde power
fallure, could requlre addlLlonal
accommodaLlons.



u8Al1 Þage 36 of 46

Coal
a
CLlMA1L CPAnCL lMÞAC1S
b
LÞA 8LClCn 9 Þ8CC8AMMA1lC lMÞAC1S
c

1
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Iocus of
Assoc|ated
keg|on 9 Þrogram
L
|
k
e
|
|
h
o
o
d

k
e
g
|
o
n

9

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r
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g
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a
m

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|
|
|

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f
f
e
c
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d

b
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I
m
p
a
c
t

f

Lxamp|e of k|sks to Þub||c nea|th
and Lnv|ronment |f
keg|on 9 Þrogram were Impacted
lncreaslng
rlsk of floods
lncreaslng
lnLenslLy of
hurrlcanes
and Lyphoons
Sea level rlse

lncreaslng
exLreme
LemperaLures
lncreased
frequency
and lnLenslLy
of wlldflre
Llkely
6


Llkely
3




very
llkely
7

very
llkely
3


Llkely
2



CperaLlons of
Agency faclllLles,
personnel safeLy,
physlcal securlLy,
and emergency
communlcaLlons
Lmergency
managemenL
mlsslon supporL
(proLecLlve gear
and acqulslLlon)
Med.

laclllLles ln coasLal or lnland flood-
prone areas may be flooded or
Lhelr access cuL off.
Þersonnel engaged ln fleld work
may be vulnerable Lo exLreme
LemperaLures or weaLher evenLs.
uurlng an emergency exLreme
weaLher, floodlng, or wlldflre
evenL, power may be cuL off,
whlch could lmpacL securlLy,
llghLlng, LemperaLure conLrol, and
communlcaLlon sysLems.
Þersonnel and real properLy LhaL
supporL emergency response and
managemenL may be lmpacLed
dlrecLly or lndlrecLly by flood
evenLs, sLorm evenLs and
wlldflres, and LÞA's ablllLy Lo
respond ln an emergency could be
compromlsed.




u8Al1 Þage 37 of 46

Footnotes for Summary Table of Potential Challenges that Climate Change Poses to the Functioning of
EPA Region 9 Programs

Appendix A Table - Heading Footnotes:

a
This table summarizes vulnerabilities by the five goals in EPA’s Strategic Plan hLLp://www.epa.gov/planandbudgeL/sLraLeglcplan.hLml.
Please note that the table also summarizes vulnerabilities to EPA facilities and operations; this is not part of the EPA Strategic Plan goal
structure but is an important element of EPA’s vulnerability assessment. Please see Section 2 of this document for a fuller discussion of
impacts.

b
Climate Change Impacts are based upon peer-reviewed scientific literature.
c
Programmatic Impacts are based upon EPA best professional judgment at this time.
d
Impacts can vary by season and location.
e

In general, the sources cited in this section use Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) likelihood of outcome terminology
where the term ‘very likely’ means 90-100% probability and the term ‘likely’ means 66-100% probability. For some impacts in the table,
additional discussion on the likelihood term is provided in the associated footnote.
f
High assumes the program will be affected by the impact; Medium assumes the program could be affected under some conditions by
the impact; Low assumes that there is a potential for the program to be impacted or uncertainty currently exists as to the potential nature
and extent of the impact. This assessment is based on best professional judgment within EPA at this time. Please note, this column
does not reflect several important considerations. For example it does not distinguish timeframes (current, near-term, long-term). It does
not account for regional and local variations. And it does not reflect the priority of actions the agency may undertake now or in the future.
Appendix A Table Text Footnotes:
1
Denman, K.L., et al. (2007). Couplings Between Changes in the Climate System and Biogeochemistry. In: Climate Change 2007: The
Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Change [Solomon, S., D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H.L. Miller (eds.)]. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
2
C.B. Field et al., “North America,” Chapter 14 in Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Contribution of Working
Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, ed. M.L. Parry, O.F. Canziani, J.P.
Palutikof, P.J. van der Linden and C.E. Hanson (Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press,
2007).
3
IPCC, 2012: Summary for Policymakers. In: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change
Adaptation [Field, C.B., V. Barros, T.F. Stocker, D. Qin, D.J. Dokken, K.L. Ebi, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, G.-K. Plattner, S.K. Allen,
M. Tignor, and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. A Special Report of Working Groups I and II of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1-19.
4
World Meteorological Organization, Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project—
Report No. 52 (Geneva, Switzerland, 2011). Note: the word “expected” is used in the report to characterize projected climate change
impacts on the stratospheric ozone layer. For purposes of this table the word “likely” has been used as a proxy for “expected.”
S
Burns, D.A., Lynch, J.A., Cosby, B.J., Fenn, M.E., Baron, J.S., US EPA Clean Air Markets Div., 2011,National Acid Precipitation
Assessment Program Report to Congress 2011: An Integrated Assessment, National Science and Technology Council, Washington, DC,
p. 114.
6
USGCRP, 2009: Clobol cllmote cbooqe lmpocts lo tbe uolteJ 5totes. Thomas R. Karl, Jerry M. Melillo, and Thomas C.
Peterson (eds.). United States Global Change Research Program. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY, USA.
7
IPCC, 2012: “it is very likely that mean sea level rise will contribute to upward trends in extreme coastal high water levels in the future.”
8
NRC, 2010: National Research Council of the National Academies, America’s Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of
Climate Change, 2010. p 41. “One of the most certain outcomes from increasing CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere is the
acidification of the world’s oceans.” For purposes of this table, the term “certain” is used.
9
USGCRP, 2009: p. 46. [In the case of freshwater] “Increased air temperatures lead to higher water temperatures, which have already
been detected in many streams, especially during low-flow periods.” For the purposes of this table “very likely” is used.

u8Al1 Þage 38 of 46

10
USGCRP, 2009: p. 45. [In the case of timing of snow melt] “In areas where snowpack dominates, the timing of runoff will continue to
shift to earlier in the spring and flows will be lower in late summer.” Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the
likelihood of this impact was determined to be “very likely.”
Lettenmaier, D., D. Major, L. Poff, and S. Running, 2008: Water Resources. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture,
Land Resources, Water Resources, and Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S. Department of
Agriculture, Washington, DC, p.130. Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was
determined to be “very likely.”
uSCC8Þ, 2009: p. 80. [ln Lhe case of onseL of sprlng and lengLh of Lhe growlng season] ºIn the United States,
spring now arrives an average of 10 days to two weeks earlier than it did 20 years ago. The growing season is lengthening over much of
the continental United States.” Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was determined to
be “very likely.”
11
Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., 2008: Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, p. 130
12
uSCC8Þ, 2009. AgrlculLure: p. 73. [ln Lhe case of weeds, dlseases, and pesLs] ºWeeds, diseases, and insect pests benefit
from warming, and weeds also benefit from a higher carbon dioxide concentration, increasing stress on crop plants and requiring more
attention to pest and weed control.” Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was determined
to be “very likely.”
Hatfield, J., K. Boote, P. Fay, L. Hahn, C. Izaurralde, B.A. Kimball, T. Mader, J. Morgan, D. Ort, W. Polley, A. Thomson,
and D. Wolfe, 2008: Agriculture. In: The Effects of Climate Change on Agriculture, Land Resources, Water Resources, and
Biodiversity in the United States. Synthesis and Assessment Product 4.3. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp. 59-
60. Based upon EPA best professional judgment at the time, the likelihood of this impact was determined to be “very likely.”


















u8Al1 Þage 39 of 46

%**)8>6K M@ (A,,<.6)B 7D ();)C+)> #7CA,)8+B 78
:;6,<+) :=<85) EA;8).<-6;6+6)B 68 34% $)5678 9


:;6,<+) :=<85) EA;8).<-6;6+6)B N O)8).<;;H 68 34% $)5678 9

A reporL by Lhe u.S. Clobal Change 8esearch program enLlLled, ""#$%&# '#()&*+ ',&-.+ /)0&1*2 (- *,+
3-(*+4 5*&*+2"
1
polnLed Lo upcomlng llkely vulnerablllLles ln Lhe SouLhwesL.

o WaLer supplles wlll be sub[ecL Lo more compeLlLlon (beLween communlLles, ecosysLems, agrlculLure
and power generaLlon) as preclplLaLlon decreases and LemperaLures lncrease.
o 1he souLhwesL ecosysLem wlll be more vulnerable Lo large-scale change glven reduced preclplLaLlon,
lncreased LemperaLures and Lhe resulLlng lncrease ln wlldflres.

ln a naLlonal Þark Servlce 2010 reporL enLlLled, "3-4+62*&-4(-. *,+ 51(+-1+ 7$6 '#()&*+ ',&-.+8 9&#:(-.
;$(-*2 < /)0&1*2 *$ =6(4 >&-42"
2
, vulnerablllLles are ldenLlfled:

o under currenL condlLlons and lf no changes ln Colorado 8lver allocaLlons are made, Lhere ls a 30°
chance LhaL llve sLorage reservolr levels wlll be zero by 2021 and a 30° chance LhaL mlnlmum power
pool levels wlll be reached ln 2017.
o 8lver and rlparlan hablLaLs wlll suffer from decreased flows and lncreased waLer removal.
o uecreased laLe dry season runoff wlll llkely reduce waLer quallLy Lhrough concenLraLlon of polluLanLs
ln shrlnklng waLer bodles and decrease ln dlssolved oxygen.
o lncreases ln wlldflres, due Lo lncreased LemperaLures and changes ln preclplLaLlon, wlll seL up a self-
relnforclng lncrease ln flre frequencles, due Lo prollferaLlon of exoLlc flre-prone grasses. 1he CreaL
8asln flre season could lncrease by 2 or more weeks.
o lncreased waLer demands and a decreased waLer supply wlll resulL ln over-allocaLlon of waLer
resources LhaL are already oversubscrlbed ln many areas.

:;6,<+) :=<85) EA;8).<-6;6+6)B 68 +=) (7A+=P)B+

CllmaLe change lssues for Lhe SouLhwesL are descrlbed ln Lhe 2013 documenL enLlLled, ºAssessmenL of
CllmaLe Change ln Lhe SouLhwesL unlLed SLaLes. A 8eporL Þrepared for Lhe naLlonal CllmaLe
AssessmenL"
3
. 1he reporL covers Arlzona, Callfornla, Colorado, nevada, new Mexlco, and uLah, as well
as SouLhwesL naLlve naLlons lands and Lhe unlLed SLaLes-Mexlco border reglon.

1he reporL lncludes a dlscusslon of vulnerablllLles for communlLles and hablLaLs, for example:

o SLaLlonarlLy (assumpLlon LhaL fuLure cllmaLe varlaLlons wlll be Lhe same as pasL cllmaLe varlaLlons)
no longer holds ln Lhe SouLhwesL. lL ls llkely LhaL LemperaLures wlll lncrease subsLanLlally ln some
parLs of Lhe SouLhwesL, leadlng Lo even more arld condlLlons.
o 1rlbal communlLles are llkely Lo be affecLed more Lhan non-Lrlbal communlLles, due Lo llmlLed waLer
supplles and waLer rlghLs, and lmpacLs on llvellhood and LradlLlonal llfeways.
o ulsadvanLaged populaLlons are llkely Lo be mosL aL rlsk for healLh lssues from heaL and parLlculaLe
maLLer lncreases and oLher cllmaLe change effecLs.

u8Al1 Þage 40 of 46

o An lncrease ln LemperaLures wlll lncrease healLh effecLs due Lo heaL-relaLed lllness, and are llkely Lo
cause an lncrease ln alr-borne parLlculaLes (from wlldflres and dusL sLorms), and assoclaLed
lllnesses.
o Changes ln specles llfe cycles and dlsLrlbuLlon may lmpacL publlc healLh (e.g., Llmlng of vegeLaLlon
blooms and assoclaLed allerglc reacLlons, presence of mosqulLoes and rodenLs carrylng paLhogens).
o Changes ln land cover wlll be slgnlflcanL, and ls relaLed Lo an lncrease ln wlldflres and pesL
ouLbreaks.
o CoasLal eroslon, floodlng and sLorm surges are llkely Lo lncrease. 1he lnLenslLy of coasLal sLorms may
lncrease. Sea-level rlse ls occurrlng. 1hese comblne Lo puL coasLal communlLles and hablLaLs aL
more rlsk.
o SLreamflow reducLlon ls expecLed across Lhe reglon, whlch would llmlL waLer avallablllLy for
communlLles and hablLaLs.
o Surface waLer quallLy ls expecLed Lo be reduced ln some parLs of Lhe SouLhwesL due Lo reduced
sLreamflows, lncreased evaporaLlon, and lncreased nonpolnL source polluLlon from more lnLense
sLorm evenLs and wlldflre evenLs.
o Lnergy supplles may become less rellable as demand for coollng and waLer pumplng lncreases and
Lransmlsslon llnes are lmpacLed by hlgh LemperaLures or wlldflres.
:;6,<+) :=<85) EA;8).<-6;6+6)B 68 :<;6D7.86<

1he SLaLe of Callfornla lssued, "Cur Chang|ng C||mate 2012: Vu|nerab|||ty & Adaptat|on to the
Increas|ng k|sks from C||mate Change |n Ca||forn|a. A Summary keport on the 1h|rd Assessment form
the Ca||forn|a C||mate Change Center"
4
. 1he reporL dlscussed Callfornla cllmaLe change vulnerablllLles.

o 8lslng LemperaLures wlll be more noLlceable ln sprlng Lhan ln oLher seasons.
o PeaL evenLs wlll lncrease ln lnLenslLy, lengLh and frequency, whlch wlll lead Lo lncreased lmpacLs Lo
publlc healLh (especlally for low lncome populaLlons) and ecosysLems.
o ÞreclplLaLlon may decrease and LemperaLures are llkely Lo grow warmer whlch wlll make condlLlons
dryer, especlally ln SouLhern Callfornla. 1hls would also make Lhe sprlng snowpack melL sooner ln
Lhe year.
o lncreased LemperaLures wlll lead Lo an lncreased demand for waLer supplles.
o Soll molsLure levels are llkely Lo decllne durlng longer dryer summer condlLlons.
o uryer and hoLLer condlLlons wlll lead Lo a hlgher rlsk of wlldflre.
o lncreased wlldflres wlll lncrease parLlculaLe maLLer and ozone levels, leadlng Lo decreased publlc
healLh.
o Sea level rlse, comblned wlLh hlgh waves and sLrong wlnds wlll lmpacL coasLal communlLles (and
Lhelr lnfrasLrucLure), hablLaLs and coasLllnes.
o Sea level rlse and more lnLense sLorm evenLs wlll puL added pressure on aglng 8ay uelLa levees


1he !uly 2012 reporL, º'#()&*+ ',&-.+ &-4 ?&*+6 5@00#A 5+1@6(*A8 B+1$-7(.@6(-. "6$@-4C&*+6
D&-&.+)+-* *$ B+4@1+ E6$@.,* F@#-+6&%(#(*A"
S
was prepared by Lhe unlverslLy of Callfornla aL SanLa
Cruz for Lhe Callfornla Lnergy Commlsslon. 1hls reporL ldenLlfled key communlLy vulnerablllLles:

o CommunlLles ln Callfornla LhaL already experlence waLer shorLages durlng droughLs are llkely Lo
have more waLer supply vulnerablllLy.

u8Al1 Þage 41 of 46

o CoasLal communlLles LhaL do noL have an lnLer-Lle Lo larger waLer pro[ecLs and LhaL rely on local
groundwaLer supplles and sLorage sysLems are aL slgnlflcanL rlsk for waLer supply shorLages.
o CommunlLles LhaL sub[ecL Lhelr groundwaLer baslns Lo overdrafL can permanenLly lose groundwaLer
sLorage capaclLy and puL Lhelr communlLy aL greaLer rlsk for waLer shorLages.
o lncreaslng recharge of groundwaLer baslns wlLh LreaLed waLer requlres more care Lo noL lnLroduce
polluLanLs lnLo Lhe basln and malnLaln groundwaLer quallLy.
o lncrease ln large sLorm evenLs wlll puL communlLles and Lhelr lnfrasLrucLure aL greaLer rlsk.
o CommunlLles ln Lhe souLhwesL aL Lhe urban-foresL border wlll be more vulnerable Lo damage by
wlldflre as LemperaLures lncrease and preclplLaLlon decreases.

1he reporL, º9,+ G@*@6+ (2 H$C8 =- 304&*+ $- '#()&*+ ',&-.+ 51(+-1+ /)0&1*2 &-4 B+20$-2+ I0*($-2
7$6 '&#(7$6-(&"
6
, prepared for Lhe Callfornla Lnergy Commlsslon ln May 2009, found LhaL:

o 1he Amerlcan WesL ls heaLlng fasLer Lhan Lhe unlLed SLaLes as a whole.
o Warmlng and preclplLaLlon changes are noL occurrlng unlformly LhroughouL Lhe sLaLe. 1wo examples
relaLlng Lo LemperaLure are Lhe effecL of lnLenslve crop lrrlgaLlon ln Lhe CenLral valley, whlch has
hlsLorlcally decreased Lhe amounL of warmlng ln Lhls reglon, and Lhe lncreased warmlng effecL
observed ln urban areas. Changes ln snowpack and Lhe Llmlng of sprlng runoff have already been
observed ln Lhe Slerra nevada MounLalns over Lhe pasL cenLury.
o AgrlculLural producLlvlLy, foresL composlLlon, Llmlng of ecologlcal evenLs (for example, mlgraLlon),
and wlldflre frequency have all experlenced measurable changes resulLlng from a changlng cllmaLe.
o lacLors LhaL can aggravaLe problems caused by cllmaLe change lnclude populaLlon growLh, Lhe
presence of poor or vulnerable soclal groups, and selsmlc rlsks ln Lhe SacramenLo-San !oaquln uelLa.
ln addlLlon, some cllmaLe change lmpacLs wlll overlap and comblne ln challenglng ways.



º;6+0&6(-. 7$6 '#()&*+ ',&-.+8 = ;+620+1*(J+ 76$) >$1&# ;@%#(1 K+&#*, I77(1+62 (- '&#(7$6-(&"
7
, by
Loulse 8edsworLh of Lhe Þubllc Þollcy lnsLlLuLe of Callfornla (Þubllshed ln íovltoomeotol neoltb
letspectlves, Aprll 2009) summarlzed cllmaLe change lmpacLs on alr polluLlon:

o CllmaLe change ls llkely Lo lead Lo an lncrease ln Lhe severlLy and duraLlon of alr polluLlon
eplsodes.
8, 9

o Alr polluLlon levels can be affecLed by a number of dlrecL and lndlrecL effecLs of cllmaLe change.
1hese lnclude lncreased LemperaLure, changes ln blogenlc emlsslons (e.g., emlsslons from
vegeLaLlon), changes ln chemlcal reacLlon raLes, changes ln aLmospherlc condlLlons LhaL affecL
polluLanL mlxlng, and changes ln Lhe aLmospherlc flows LhaL affecL polluLanL LransporL.
10

o 8ehavloral responses Lo cllmaLe change could resulL ln an lncrease ln emlsslons, such as Lhrough Lhe
lncreased energy demand wlLh hlgher LemperaLures.
11, 12

o 1here ls feedback beLween local alr polluLlon and cllmaLe change, because some local alr polluLanLs
also have an effecL on Lhe cllmaLe.







u8Al1 Þage 42 of 46

:;6,<+) :=<85) EA;8).<-6;6+6)B 68 Q)J<><

1he nevada CllmaLe Change Advlsory CommlLLee, under Lhen-Covernor !lm Clbbons, lssued Lhe
LH+J&4& '#()&*+ ',&-.+ =4J(2$6A '$))(**++ G(-&# B+0$6*M ln 2008
17
. noLe LhaL Lhls ls noL a peer-
revlewed documenL. 1he reporL hlghllghLed Lhe followlng poLenLlal cllmaLe change lmpacLs:

o lncreases ln ozone polluLlon, alr-borne parLlculaLe maLLer and alr LemperaLures could lmpacL publlc
healLh.
o lf more of Lhe Slerra nevada preclplLaLlon falls as raln, raLher Lhan as snow, Lhen
lloodlng may lncrease ln Lhe 1ruckee, Walker and Carson 8lver waLersheds ln Lhe wlnLer
and sprlng, and
Less waLer may be avallable ln Lhe summer for waLer supplles, hablLaL and recreaLlon.
o lf Colorado 8lver 8asln preclplLaLlon decreases, Lhen Lhe Las vegas valley may see more pressure on
lLs waLer supplles.
o uecreased preclplLaLlon could reduce summer waLer supplles, lncrease wlld land flres (and
developed land flre rlsk), reduce naLlve planL specles cover and lncrease ln lnvaslve planL specles
cover.

:;6,<+) :=<85) EA;8).<-6;6+6)B 68 G<P<66 <8> 7+=). 4<C6D6C ?B;<8>
:7,,A86+6)B

CllmaLe change lssues for Lhe Pawall and Lhe uS-AfflllaLed Þaclflc lslands are descrlbed ln Lhe documenL
enLlLled, º'#()&*+ ',&-.+ &-4 ;&1(7(1 /2#&-428 /-4(1&*$62 &-4 /)0&1*2. B+0$6* 7$6 *,+ NOPN ;&1(7(1
/2#&-42 B+.($-&# '#()&*+ =22+22)+-*"
14
. 1he reporL covers Lhe SLaLe of Pawal'l, Lhe LerrlLorles of
Amerlcan Samoa and Cuam, Lhe CommonwealLh of Lhe norLhern Marlana lslands, as well as oLher uS-
AfflllaLed Þaclflc lslands. 1he reporL lncludes dlscusslons on lsland communlLy and hablLaL
vulnerablllLles:

o lreshwaLer supplles, parLlcularly on low-elevaLlon lslands, may decrease lf LemperaLures lncrease
and preclplLaLlon decreases. Alr LemperaLures on Pawallan lslands have lncreased over 100 years
wlLh a more marked lncrease over Lhe mosL recenL 30 years. luLure Lrends ln preclplLaLlon are
dlfflculL Lo predlcL for Lhe Þaclflc lslands. Low-elevaLlon freshwaLer aqulfers are vulnerable Lo
lnundaLlon from sea level rlse comblned wlLh sLorms or oLher blg wave evenLs. A reducLlon ln
freshwaLer supplles could ralse concerns for lsland food securlLy.
o Sea level rlse wlll make lslands' coasLal lnfrasLrucLure more vulnerable Lo Lhe floodlng and eroslon
from sLorm evenLs. Low-elevaLlon lslands are especlally vulnerable as Lhelr enLlre lnfrasLrucLure,
communlLles and hablLaLs are close Lo Lhe presenL-day sea level, and are more sub[ecL Lo wave over
wash.
o Coral reefs are vulnerable Lo sea-surface LemperaLure rlse (whlch can cause coral bleachlng) and
ocean waLer acldlflcaLlon (whlch can lmpacL Lhe coral-formlng process). An lncrease ln sLorm evenLs
could cause more sedlmenL deposlLlon on coral reefs whlch harms Lhe coral.
o CoasLal weLlands (e.g., mangrove foresLs, sea grass beds) are vulnerable Lo dlrecL lmpacL from
lncreased wave evenLs and Lroplcal cyclone sLrengLh, as well as lncreased sedlmenL polluLlon from
erodlng waLersheds.




u8Al1 Þage 43 of 46

%**)8>6K M &77+87+)B:
1
uSCC8Þ (2009). Clobol cllmote cbooqe lmpocts lo tbe uolteJ 5totes . karl, 1.8., !.M. Mellllo, and 1.C.
ÞeLerson (eds.). unlLed SLaLes Clobal Change 8esearch Þrogram. Cambrldge unlverslLy Þress, new ?ork,
n?, uSA. hLLp://globalchange.gov/whaL-we-do/assessmenL/prevlous-assessmenLs/global-cllmaLe-
change-lmpacLs-ln-Lhe-us-2009
2
Loehman, 8. 2010. uoJetstooJloq tbe scleoce of cllmote cbooqe. tolkloq polots - lmpocts to AtlJ looJs.
naLural 8esource 8eporL nÞS/n8ÞC/n88-2010/209. naLlonal Þark Servlce, lorL Colllns, Colorado.
hLLp://www.fs.fed.us/rm/pubs_oLher/rmrs_2010_loehman_r002.pdf

3
Carfln, C., A. !ardlne, 8. MerldeLh, M. 8lack, and S. Le8oy, eds. 2013. Assessmeot of cllmote cbooqe lo
tbe 5ootbwest uolteJ 5totes. A kepott ltepoteJ fot tbe Notloool cllmote Assessmeot. A reporL by Lhe
SouLhwesL CllmaLe Alllance. WashlngLon, uC: lsland Þress. hLLp://swccar.org/slLes/all/Lhemes/flles/SW-
nCA-color-llnALweb.pdf

!
Moser, S., LksLrom, !., and lranco, C. ºOot cbooqloq cllmote 2012. voloetoblllty & AJoptotloo to tbe
locteosloq klsks ftom cllmote cbooqe lo collfotolo. A 5ommoty kepott oo tbe 1bltJ Assessmeot fotm tbe
collfotolo cllmote cbooqe ceotet". (2012). Callfornla Lnergy Commlsslon (CLC-300-2012-007).
hLLp://www.energy.ca.gov/2012publlcaLlons/CLC-300-2012-007/CLC-300-2012-007.pdf

3
Langrldge, 8uLh, Andrew llsher, Andrew 8acz, 8ruce uanlels, klrsLen 8udesLam, and 8lake Plhara.
2012. cllmote cbooqe ooJ wotet 5opply 5ecotlty. kecooflqotloq CtoooJwotet Moooqemeot to keJoce
utooqbt voloetoblllty. Callfornla Lnergy Commlsslon. ÞubllcaLlon number: CLC-300-2012-017.
hLLp://www.energy.ca.gov/2012publlcaLlons/CLC-300-2012-017/CLC-300-2012-017.pdf

6
Moser, Susle, Culdo lranco, Sarah ÞlLLlgllo, Wendy Chou, uan Cayan. 2009. 1be lotote ls Now. Ao
upJote oo cllmote cbooqe 5cleoce lmpocts ooJ kespoose Optloos fot collfotolo. Callfornla Lnergy
Commlsslon, ÞlL8 Lnergy-8elaLed LnvlronmenLal 8esearch Þrogram. CLC-300-2008-071.
hLLp://www.energy.ca.gov/2008publlcaLlons/CLC-300-2008-071/CLC-300-2008-071.Þul

7
8edsworLh L. ltepotloq fot cllmote cbooqe. o petspectlve fotm locol pobllc beoltb offlcets lo collfotolo.
Lnvlron PealLh ÞerspecLlves. 2009 Apr, 117(4):617-23. dol: 10.1289/ehp.0800114. Lpub 2008 uec 8.

8
Mlckley L!. A fotote sbott of bteotb? losslble effects of cllmote cbooqe oo smoq. LnvlronmenL. 2007,
49(6):34-43.

9
Mlckley L!, !acob u!, lleld 8u, 8lnd u. íffects of fotote cllmote cbooqe oo teqloool olt pollotloo eplsoJes
lo tbe uolteJ 5totes. Ceophys 8es LeLL. 2004, 31(24):L24103. dol: 10.1029/2004CL02126.

10
Pogrefe C, Lynn 8, Clverolo k, ku !?, 8osenLhal !, 8osenzwelg C, eL al. ! Ceophys 8es ALmos. vol. 109.
2004. 5lmolotloq cbooqes lo teqloool olt pollotloo ovet tbe eosteto uolteJ 5totes Joe to cbooqes lo
qlobol ooJ teqloool cllmote ooJ emlssloos, p. u22301.

11
lranco C, SansLad AP. cllmote cbooqe ooJ electtlclty JemooJ lo collfotolo. Cllm Change. 2008,
87:S139-S131


u8Al1 Þage 44 of 46

12
Mlller nL, Payhoe k, !ln !, Auffhammer M. cllmote, extteme beot, ooJ electtlclty JemooJ lo collfotolo.
! Appl MeLeorol CllmaLol. 2008, 47(!une):1834-1844.
13
Clbbons, !. ºCovetoot Ilm Clbboos´ NevoJo cllmote cbooqe AJvlsoty commlttee llool kepott". (2008).
www.epa.sLaLelocalcllmaLe/documenLs/pdf/nevada_flnal_reporL.pdf

14
keener, v. W., Marra, !.!., llnucane, M. L., Spooner, u., & SmlLh, M. P. (Lds.). (2012). cllmote
cbooqe ooJ loclflc lslooJs. loJlcotots ooJ lmpocts. kepott fot tbe 2012 loclflc lslooJs keqloool cllmote
Assessmeot (Þl8CA). WashlngLon, uC: lsland Þress. hLLp://www.paclflcrlsa.org/pro[ecLs/plrca/




u8Al1 Þage 4S of 46

%**)8>6K :L %CR87P;)>5),)8+B

"#$% &'$()*+ &#),-+ ./)0*)*$1, 2(0'+(+,*)*$1, 3'), 4)% 05+0)5+/ 67 *#+ 83. 3)9$:$9 ;1<*#4+%*
&'$()*+ &#),-+ =15>-51<0? =+ 4$%# *1 -5)*+:<''7 )9>,14'+/-+ *#+ :1''14$,- $,/$@$/<)'% :15 *#+$5
)%%$%*),9+ $, /+@+'10$,- ),/ 5+@$+4$,- *#+ 3'),?

!"# %"&"'"()
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