K.Eugine Raj Assistant Professor/ECE SCAD Engg College

Memory less modulation methods

• The digital pass band transmission has two types of modulation technique. 1. Memory less modulation eg: ASK, PSK, QPSK. 2. Memory modulation eg: MSK, DPSK All the Receiver uses either Coherent on non Coherent method.

Amplitude shift keying(ASK) • ASK is also called as on-off keying. . • It is a memory less modulation method. • Binary ‘1’ represents a pulse and Binary ’0’ represents no pulse.

• Am=(2m-1-M)(d/2) • d--> distance between adjacent signal. .…M.Representation of signal • The ASK waveform can be represented by.2. • gm(t)=Re(Amf(t)ej2πfct) • gm(t)=Am f(t) cos(2πfct). m=1.

• N=1. M Number of message points.Dimension.Signal space diagram • For ASK signal. • So it has one basic function.(M=2. Ψ(t). • Minimum distance between these two point is given by.4 &8). dmin= .

Spectral characteristics • The PSD of the complex envelope of ASK is. • The complex envelope of an ASK modulated waveform is .

Generation of ASK • Here the input binary signal is given to an unipolar NRZ encoder which is the multiplied with the carrier signal. .

Phase shift keying(PSK) • Here phase of the career is shifted between two binary input value. .

Representation of signal • For symbol-1. S2(t)= • S(t)=f(t) cos 2 • The modulated signal is given by. • Sm= . S1(t)= • For symbol-0. + cos(2 cos(2 ) + ) • The energy present in the wave form is.

• So it consist of two basic function. • The Euclidean distance is given by. Ψ1(t) & Ψ2(t).Signal space diagram • For a Binary PSK it consist of N=2 dimensional. dmin= (1 − cos ) .

.Generation of PSK • Here the input binary signal is given to an Polar NRZ encoder which is the multiplied with the carrier signal.

• In QAM the amplitude and phase of the signal is varied.Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) • If the amplitude and phase of the signal is varied the noise immunity can be increased. • It is otherwise called as Quadrature ASK. .

Cos2πfct & Sin2πfct. • gm(t)=Vmf(t)cos(2πfct+Ѳm) • Vm= + • Ѳm=tan-1(Ams/Amc) • Where. Ams & Amc are the amplitude of quadrature carrier. .Representation of signal • It has two quadrature carrier as. • QAM wave is represented as.

Signal space diagram .

Signal space diagram .

• One symbol represented in two bits in which successive bits are taken.Quadrature phase shift keying(QPSK) • By grouping bits in symbol. . the transmission bandwidth can be reduced. hence BW. • This reduce bit rate.

• Si(t)= 0.Representation of signal • Binary PSK and ASK signal combined to produce a signal constellation. • M=M1M2=4 • Log2(4)=2 bit symbol • Advantage of QPSK is its BW conservation.0 ≤ ≤ . • QPSK transmit ‘N’ bits for NTs/2 seconds 2 + 2 −1 .

• Therefore it has two basic function Ψ1(t) & Ψ2(t).Signal Space Diagram • Here M=4 and N=2 dimensional. • The Euclidean distance between adjacent point is.Sm=[Sm1 Sm2] • Sm= −1 −1 . • dmin= • Basic coefficient are.


.Frequency shift keying(FSK) • In binary FSK system symbol ‘1 and 0’ are distinguished from each other by transmitting two sinusoidal wave that have different frequency.

.Representation of signal • gm(t)= 2 +2 ∆ • The band pass wave form gm(t) can be represented in term of their complex envelope as.

Signal Space Diagram .

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