# Chapter 9.

Impulse and Momentum
Explosions and collisions obey some surprisingly simple laws that make problem solving easier when comparing the situation before and after an interaction. Chapter Goal: To introduce the ideas of impulse and momentum and to learn a new problem-solving strategy based on conservation laws.

Chapter 9. Impulse and Momentum
Topics: • Momentum and Impulse • Solving Impulse and Momentum Problems • Conservation of Momentum • Inelastic Collisions • Explosions • Momentum in Two Dimensions

Momentum
10 m/s A After the collision A B

B v u

What is the velocity of ball A after the collision? ball B? What is conserved during the collision? MOMENTUM

r r p = mv
3

The total momentum is the sum of momentum of ball A and momentum of ball B.

It has the same direction as corresponding velocity.i = m Av + m B u The total momentum of the system is conserved during the collision: A 10 m/s B A v B u • Momentum is a vector.Momentum r r p = mv m Av A. • General expression for the momentum conservation: the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision 4 .

f r vB.i A r v A.Momentum r r p = mv • General expression for the momentum conservation: the total momentum before the collision is equal to the total momentum after the collision A r v A. f + m B v B . f B B r r r r m Av A.i r v B .i = m Av A.i + m B v B . 5 . f Usually this equation is written in terms of components.

i kg ⋅ m = 10 s p f = ( m A + m B )v = 5v pi = p f 6 10 = 5v v = 2m / s . What is their velocity? A B v Momentum before the collision: Momentum after the collision: Conservation of momentum: pi = m Av A .Example: A 10 m/s B m A = 1kg m B = 4kg After the collision the balls are moving together (have the same velocity).

The impulse of the force is equal to the change of the momentum of r r the object. r r J = ∫ Fnet dt t1 t2 It is called IMPULSE.Why do we have conservation of total momentum? Newton’s second law: Acceleration: Then r Fnet r r Fnet = ma r r dv a= dt r r r dv d ( mv ) dp =m = = dt dt dt t2 momentum After integration r r ∆p = ∫ Fnet dt t1 The area under r Fnet ( t ) curve. J. 7 ∆p = J .

pi = mvix p f = mv fx < 0 J x = p f − pi < 0 8 .

2 − m2 vix .1 − m1vix .1on 2 = − Fx .2 = ∫ Fx .2 on1dt t1 t2 m2 v fx .1on 2 dt t1 t1 t2 t2 Newton’s third law: Fx .1 − m1vix .1 ( ) 9 .2 on1 Then ∫F t1 t2 x .1 on 2 dt = − ∫ Fx .2 on1dt m2 v fx .2 − m2 vix .2 = − m1v fx .m1v fx .1 = ∫ Fx .

m2 v fx .1 m1vix .1 − m1vix .2 = p fx .1 + p fx .total The law of conservation of momentum ( ) 10 .2 = m1v fx .1 + pix .2 = − m1v fx .total = p fx .2 pix .2 − m2 vix .2 pix .1 + m2 v fx .1 + m2 vix .

f r vB.i + m B v B .i = m Av A.i r v B .i A r v A. Interactions within system do not change the system’s total momentum isolated system A r v A. f B B r r r r m Av A. f + m B v B .Momentum The law of conservation of momentum: r r p = mv The total momentum of an isolated system (no external forces) does not change. f 11 .

Momentum The ball is dropped onto a hard floor: r r p = mv The ball is not an isolated system (interaction with the floor) no conservation of momentum for the ball Initial momentum is r r pi = mvi Final momentum (after collision) is r r p f = mv f The ball+ the floor is an isolated system The total momentum (ball+floor) is conserved r vf r vi 12 .

B + mC v2 x .C = m B v1 x . B + mC v1 x .total 100v 2 x = 300 v 2 x = 3m / s 13 . B = 75 ⋅ 4 = 300 Momentum after the “collision”: kg ⋅ m s p f .Example: Find v2 x Isolated system Motion with constant acceleration: Momentum before the “collision”: ( v1 x . B )2 = 2a x x1 = 16 v1 x .total = pi .C = ( m B + mC )v 2 x = 100v 2 x Conservation of momentum: p f . B = 4m / s pi .total = m B v1 x .total = m B v 2 x .

2 = ( m1 + m2 )v fx vix . pi .1 + m2 v ix .1 = − ⋅ 0.2 p f .5 − = −2.2  m1  m1 3 3 = vix .total = m1vix .1 + m2 vix .total = ( m1 + m2 )v fx m1vix .25m / s + 1  v fx − m2 2 2  m2  14 .Perfectly inelastic collision: A collision in which the two objects stick together and move with a common final velocity.

Chapter 9. Summary Slides .

General Principles .

General Principles .

Important Concepts .

Important Concepts .

Applications .

Applications .

Chapter 9. Questions .

D. B. 30 kg m/s.–20 kg m/s. E. 10 kg m/s.–10 kg m/s.The cart’s change of momentum is A.–30 kg m/s. . C.

10 kg m/s.–30 kg m/s. C. B.–20 kg m/s. E.–10 kg m/s. . D. 30 kg m/s.The cart’s change of momentum is A.

The rubber ball bounces. They exert equal impulses because they have equal momenta. C. . D. B. Which ball exerts a larger impulse on the wall? A. Neither exerts an impulse on the wall because the wall doesn’t move. The rubber ball exerts a larger impulse because it bounces.A 10 g rubber ball and a 10 g clay ball are thrown at a wall with equal speeds. The clay ball exerts a larger impulse because it sticks. the clay ball sticks.

B.A 10 g rubber ball and a 10 g clay ball are thrown at a wall with equal speeds. Which ball exerts a larger impulse on the wall? A. The clay ball exerts a larger impulse because it sticks. The rubber ball bounces. C. Neither exerts an impulse on the wall because the wall doesn’t move. D. They exert equal impulses because they have equal momenta. . the clay ball sticks. The rubber ball exerts a larger impulse because it bounces.

the ball ends up at rest. or less than vC? A. vA < vC C. the ball rebounds to the left. Is vA greater than. Compare the velocities of A and C after the collisions. equal to. with different “springiness. When ball B is thrown with the same speed and collides with object C. vA = vC .Objects A and C are made of different materials.” but they have the same mass and are initially at rest. vA > vC B. When ball B collides with object A.

” but they have the same mass and are initially at rest. the ball rebounds to the left.Objects A and C are made of different materials. Is vA greater than. the ball ends up at rest. with different “springiness. or less than vC? A. vA > vC B. When ball B is thrown with the same speed and collides with object C. equal to. vA < vC C. Compare the velocities of A and C after the collisions. vA = vC . When ball B collides with object A.

vf = v2. C. vf is less than v2. Particle 1 catches up with particle 2 and collides with it. The particles stick together and continue on with velocity vf. D. B. Which of these statements is true? A. vf is greater than v2. vf = v1. E. . vf is greater than v1.The two particles are both moving to the right. but less than v1.

The two particles are both moving to the right. C. . Particle 1 catches up with particle 2 and collides with it. Which of these statements is true? A. but less than v1. vf is greater than v1. vf is less than v2. vf is greater than v2. E. vf = v1. D. B. vf = v2. The particles stick together and continue on with velocity vf.

From which end does the third piece emerge? A. A 4 g piece comes out the left end with twice the speed of the 6 g piece. Right end B.An explosion in a rigid pipe shoots out three pieces. A 6 g piece comes out the right end. Left end .

Right end B. Left end .An explosion in a rigid pipe shoots out three pieces. A 4 g piece comes out the left end with twice the speed of the 6 g piece. From which end does the third piece emerge? A. A 6 g piece comes out the right end.